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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
December 9, 2016
Document Release Date: 
December 1, 2000
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Publication Date: 
March 24, 1980
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PDF icon CIA-RDP91-00901R000500150058-7.pdf345.9 KB
STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP91- rll7'I l1 E ;~''P kED ON PAGE __ SS a - - . FOR 1T E 21. ?LARCH 1980 STATINTL Over the past decade, American corpo- rations have been discovering one suppos- edly rich foreign market after another -only to have their hopes clashed or diminished by unexpected political chang- es or upheavals. But it remained for the rev- olution in Iran, which exposed U.S. companies to potential losses totaling $1 billion, to drive home the lesson in global survival. Now even the most seasoned multinationals are looking for. better means to assess-and manage-their po- litical risks. As Stephen Blank, a political scientist with the Conference Board (the leading nonprofit research group for busi- ness), says: "Many chief executives got clobbered by winging into Iran withoutact- equately understanding the country, and they've gone into China the same way. Now a. lot of thorn want to irnprove their grasp of the world." Like the U.S. government, the nation's businessmen confront greater turbulence abroad and wield less power than in the past. The once-favored stratagems to sh ape or even topple a foreign regime-in the brash tradition of United Fruit in Central America-are no longer acceptable corpo- rate practices. In lands where payoffs to gain leverage or win contracts are custom- ary, Americans are bound-or at least in- hibited-by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. As one executive remarks, "The time has passed when we could buy or rent governments." STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP91-009 . Jt T I CIE A 'i c. J i) O,N PA;_ . By Nat Hentoff The citizens of Chile clearly were too irresponsible to be left free. Why, Salvador Allende was about to come to power as the result of a democratic election. God knows the CIA had tried -terribly hard to save these people from themselves. The Agency had secretly funded-.with your tax dollars -huge propaganda campaigns in Chilean newspapers. It had paid workers to stay out on strike to further "destabilize" the situation, and it had spread bountiful anti-Allende bribes around. Nonetheless, the natives had insisted on making up their own minds. And so, on September 15, 1970, CIA Director Richard Helms attended a me e - ing with -President Richard Nixon, At torney General John Mitchell, and Na- tional Security Advisor Henry Kissinger. The sole item on the agenda was "Track II"-the mounting of a military coup in Chile. (Not Afghanistan. Chile.) When he left, Helms quickly wrote down . the es sence of the Star Chamber resolution: I in 10 chances perhaps, but save, Chile! worth spending not concerned risks involved no involvement of embassy $10,000,000. available, more if necessary, full-time job--best men we have game plan - `:make the economy scream 48 hours for plan of action. It didn't work then `Three years later, it did. Largely because of the CIA, Ameri- can :.banks, and multinational corpo- rations, Allende was killed, and the child- ishly. free-thinking, citizens of Chile were placed under the protectorate of, a dic- tatorship.. Many had tobe murdered _be-. THE VILLAGE VOICE 17 March 1980 cause of their incurable. addiction to liber-- ty, but what the hell, Chile had been: saved. Fa This Helms document-both the hand written original and a typewritten copy- can be found in the recently ' published' DOCUILILNTS:A shocking collection of` memoranda, letters, and telexes from the secret- files of the American intelligence' community- Christy Macy._ and Susan Kaplan assembled and . annotated the documents, and the publisher of this in -baluable outsize paperback is Penguin. The book could not have been pub- lished without the Freedom of Information "Act which, as Macy and Kaplan say, "is responsible for much of what we now known about the clandestine world of the na- tional security apparatus." Also in Documents is a draft of the anonymous (actually, FBI) letter, to Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1964 urging that he commit suicide to forfend the, release of tapes made from bugs planted by the FBI. in his hotel rooms: "There is but one way out-for,you. You better take it before your filthy, abnormal fraudulent self is bared to the nation." ' That's an. FBI document,, but the CIA also spied on King. Not only overseas, but here. As George Lardner, Jr., has pointed out in the Washington Post, not a trace of the CIA's surveillance of.King appeared "in the extensive congressional or ex- ecutive branch investigations of the agen- cy conducted in recent years." But, when Harold Weisberg, a writer from Frederick, Maryland, filed a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit to get the CIA documents on King, they finally made their way-much' to the discomfiture of the, Agency-into the light. There is a long list of crucially instruc CIA Direetor"Stansfield Turned,:, . Only the Shadow knows. tive books that could not have beet writ- ten without the FOIA. One is William Shawcross's Sideshow. Another is John Marks's The Search for the Manchurian Candidate': The CIA and Mind Control, just reissued in a McGraw-Hill paperback. In. 1975, Marks noticed two sentences- ini the Rockefeller Commission report on the CIA. They had to do with a "CIA pkogram to study possible means -for con rolling. human behavior" and said that some of the studies had "explored the effects of radiation, electric-shock, psychology, psy- chiatry, sociology, and harassmet)t sub-: i. stances." Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500150058-ZO)),m Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R00050015 y~c THE WASHINGTON MONTHLY ON PAG> March 1980 STATINTL The problem of choosing wars wisely by Thomas N. Bethell Cold wars have a way of making people very nervous. "While we are sleeping," Dean Rusk once wrote, "two thirds of the world is plotting to do us in." For nearly 30 years-from the end of the second global war in 1945 until the first murmurings of detente in the early 1970s-Rusk and the other political householders of Washing- ton slept fitfully, hearing burglars when- ever the wind shifted, padding downstairs at all hours to check the locks, going out on the porch and peering anxiously into the darkness, listening for wolves and jumping when the cat rubbed up against their legs. Dean Rusk's counterparts on the other side of the world slept the same way, afflicted with the same fears. When the chill night slipped silently across the steppes, it was assumed in Moscow that the fading light and the drifting snow were somehow engineered in Washington. Paranoia is the natural bedfellow of in- somnia; together they became the basis for formulating foreign policy on both sides of the global community. In such a place the streetsare not safe. You never know when someone in a flapping bathrobe might come lunging off a porch, mistaking you for a bear or a bird of prey and filling you with nuclear buck- shot. The cold war was a hard time for innocent bystanders living in a community Thomas N. I3ethell is an editor of The Washington Monthly. where, in due course, nobody could get a good night's rest-a place where irritable neighbors snarled at each other's children and heaved bricks through each other's windows. Many people would have moved out if they could have, but there was nowhere to go; the zoning laws were very strict. Nobody could figure out a way to make the principal householders resolve their differences. In the absence of communica- tion, the adversaries took extraordinary precautions to protect themselves from the real and imagined terrors of the night. At vast expense, they maintained forces equipped with the latest tanks, planes, bombs, missiles and ships. They also surrounded their porches with plain- clothesmen who went abroad under cover of darkness to do unmentionable deeds. These people were called KGB on one side and CIA on the other. The initials stood for different words and, in theory, for different philosophies, but sometimes the distinctions tended to blur. Richard Helms was one of the plainclothesmen on our side, and Thomas Powers has written a remarkable book about Helms and the C1A* which goes a long way toward clarifying the blur. Flashes of insight flicker through the book, *The Man Who Kept The Secrets: Richard Helms and The CIA. Thomas Powers. Knopf ($12.95). STATINTL 0 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500150058-7'