Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 14, 2016
Document Release Date: 
November 30, 2000
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
March 27, 1986
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP91-00901R000500230015-5.pdf620.88 KB
STATINTL Emb.s security proposal ? y y pruposai criticized R By Warren Strobel E WASHINGTON TIMES Critics of an administration plan to spend $4.4 billion to upgrade secu- rity at U.S. embassies say the pro- gram is unmanageable and will still " leave American installations abroad vulnerable to terrorist attacks. "They [the State Department] don't know how to spend what they've got now," said one Reagan administration official. "The folks don't handle money like you would at home" "Ali of a sudden they're going to be spending twice as much money as they're used to," said an official with American Foreign Service Associ. ation, a union for foreign service of- ficers. "What does that say to you? That's a lot of money coming down the pike." Both critics spoke on condition that they not be identified. But David Fields, an assistant sec- retary of state, told the Senate Anti- terrorism Caucus yesterday that the Senate should approve the program swiftly because several U.S. embas- sies located on busy streets in world capitals are "sitting ducks" for fa- natical suicide terrorists. Libya's official radio yesterday called for Arab suicide squads to at- tack U.S. embassies worldwide fol- lowing armed clashes between U.S. and Libyan forces in the Gulf of Sidra. The construction program, al- ready on the State Department drawing board, is among several recommendations made last June by a special panel appointed by Secre- tary of State George .Shultz and headed by retired Adm. Bobby Ray Inman, a former CIA deputy direc- tor. Mr. Inman, a former director of the National Security Agency, said yesterday that State Department of- ficials who advocate upgrading se- curity abroad in a piece-meal fash- ion aren't fully focused on the problem. "Doing things the way they were done in the past will not adequately protect this country," Mn Inman said. The largest overseas peacetime ON PAGE IA- ARTICLE r For Release 2003/04/02 : Cl QFWr8iQ99i1 00500230015- 27 March 1986 construction project in U.S. history, the embassy security upgrade pro- gram calls for the construction of 70 new embassies and other facilities, the relocation or renovation of 23 and the rehabilitation of eight more. "I don't know whether they [em- bassies] have to be hardened or not, but I do know that won't solve the problem," said the administration critic. "If I was looking at this program, it would be as a go-slow kind of thing," the administration official said. "Protect only the places that have to be protected" Peter Smeallie, director of a Na- tional Academy of Sciences panel that studied how to build more se- cure embassies, said, "There was a lot of concern that the embassies that are being selected for relocation or reinforcement are not the best ones." Mr. Smeallie noted that one of the three criteria developed by a special commission to relocate an embassy or other facility was the condition that it not have a 100-foot setback from the road. "Basically you're not going to do anything at the London embassy; it's a landmark," Mr. Smeallie said. "They're not going to move out of there because they don't have a 100-foot setback. They don't have 5 feet." "London is a big question mark. I'll be the first to admit that," Rep. Dan Mica, a Florida Democrat who is the chief House advocate of the funding hike, said. "We don't know what we're going to do there. We ( the buildingsl are essentially hanging out on the street there on three or four sides." Mr. Mica conceded the State De partment has had problems managing construction efforts using the recent construction of an embassy in Egypt as "a textbook case of disaster. Everything that could go wrong went wrong." But, Mr. Mica said, "We went to extraordinary lengths to write this [setback! condition [into the secu- rity upgrade plan], because of our concern over their past track record. "Because we have these concerns doesn't mean we shouldn't try to ad- dress these very critical - life- saving if you will - needs that have been identified;' he said. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5 Approved or Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R0005002300115-5 ON WASHINGTON TIMES STATINTL 17 March 1986 Artificial intelligence: Scientists try to create a thinking machine By J.H. Doyle THE WASHINGTON TIMES AUSTIN, Texas - Inside a gleaming office complex, some of the nation's brightest computer sci- entists, linguists and psychologists are trying to tutor a very dumb stu- dent. What children pick up easily, the most powerful computer fumbles: Human language and common sense are still the biggest stumbling blocks in creating a new generation of "thinking" machines. Undeterred, a 24-member Artifi- cial Intelligence team is spoon- feeding a computer program with thousands of scraps of knowledge, as well as giving it grammar and vocabulary lessons. Their goal is to cram the machine - a mindless array of thumbnail- size silicon chips - with enough facts, rules-of-thumb and human language skills that it may begin to think and learn on its own. Here, at the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corp. (MCC), a joint research and development venture backed by America's corpo- rate giants, the future is being built. MCC is "pushing back the fron- tiers of science," said its chairman, retired Navy Adm. Bobby R. Inman, who previously served as deputy di- rector of the Central Intelligence Agency. Article by article, the team of re- searchers is dissecting an en- cyclopedia, then encoding its con- tents into the computer's memory bank. For example, all the facts pre- sented in an article on "flight" are encoded, plus the underlying knowledge about the world needed to understand the article. They are feeding the machine thousands of bits and pieces of com- mon sense: If you're out in the rain, you get wet. If you drop something, it falls to the ground. An object can't be in two places at once. Each person lives for a single interval of time. They also are teaching the com- puter about itself. "It has to under- stand that it is a program;' said a scientist. "It needs to know that a human being is watching it." Approved MCC, which began its high-stakes research in January 1984, is owned by 21 U.S companies, including Rockwell International, Honeywell Inc., and Bethesda-based Martin Marietta Corp. MCC's goal is to create a variety of new computer technologies for the 1990s and beyond - passing along the fruits of its research to its shareholder companies to give them a head start over foreign competi- tors in designing new products and services. The $65-million-a-year project has resulted in a remarkably high degree of cooperation between oth- erwise archrivals. At its Austin headquarters, one-third of MCC's 410 employees are on loan from the various firms. MCC is one of the new heavy- weights of artificial intelligence - the discipline that has already taught computers, among other things, to play chess and to help per- form medical diagnoses. Researchers at MCC and a hand- ful of laboratories are trying to build a "fifth generation" computer capa- ble of reasoning its way through tasks in the home, at the workplace and on the battlefield. But when asked to explain what makes machines "intelligent," a computer scientist is likely to talk in circles. " `Artificial intelligence' is trying to do things we don't know how to do yet;' said Marvin Minksy, an AI pio- neer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "But that's a working definition. It changes every year. "Twenty years ago, having a ma- chine recognize a picture or play chess or understand simple lan- guage would have been out of reach," he said. "It's sort of a moving hori- zon." Even before the first generation of vacuum-powered computers, men dreamed of building machines that mimic human thought. But efforts over the past 30 years to make a flexible computer have fallen short. Powerful, number-crunching computers can analyze vast amounts of data, spit out amazing mathematical solutions and guide an unmanned probe to the outer reaches of the solar system. Yet these machines have no inkling of human goals and beliefs, no sense of Jonathan Slocum, MCC's director of "natural language processing," believes that words provide a key to machine intelligence. His reasoning is simple: A child's ability to learn about the world is closely tied to his use of words as symbols. Digital computers have no grasp of the meaning of words or what lies beyond them. And these machines will forever lack common sense until they are able to commu- nicate with, and learn from, people. But what might seem like a simple task - teaching English to a com- puter program by cramming it with grammatical rules, words and defi- nitions - has proved to be a monu- mental endeavor. "We would be very happy if these machines were as effective as a 4- year-old child with respect to the grammar," Mr. Slocum said. Home computers can mimic ver- bal skills by using sentences to dis- play a problem's solution. But faced with interpreting sentences, ad- vanced computers - which rely on limited vocabularies of narrowly de- fined words - break down. Simple conversation, as it turns out, takes an enormous amount of information processing at in- credibly high speeds. "We rarely perceive ambiguity in something someone says;' Mr. Slo- cum said. "[But] almost any sen- tence you hear a human being utter will be ambiguous" Depending on its context, the word "ball" in a sentence could mean a dance, a round object used in sports or a good time. Similarly, a simple sentence might contain 10 words with an average of three defi- nitions each. "We don't consciously review all the interpretations. Human beings select one and go with it almost all the time," Mr. Slocum said. "If your confidence [in your first interpreta- tion] is high, you're not going to stop the speaker. "If your confidence is low," he said, "you may stop the speaker and ask whether he meant this or that" Mr.. Slocum is writing a computer program in which his "linguist's in- tuition" is encoded in plausibility For Release?r2$ar3t/e 1UZ-: C:PA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5 scores: the matheAptjar6 b&tdr Release 209 14 ut'IA 919'19 901 R000500230015-5 ities for the likelihood that a state- examine a problem - or example, ment is true. a battlefield situation - and decide Dissecting a sentence, his com- what problem-solving strategy to puter program assigns plausibility employ, "introspect" to see if it's scores for the possible meaning of making progress and take another each word, and then applies "rules tack if needed. for combining plausibility factors" "That kind of behavior leads to as it examines each element. something that appears very much Future computers will recognize, like consciousness," he said, which is he said, when to accept at face value "largely the ability to introspect on its first interpretation of a sentence, what you're doing... when to ask for clarification and Computer "programs have a form when to say "I'm confused." of consciousness," he said. "They "Four-year-olds are quite good have to be conscious of why they do They know most of the grammar what they do. You can stop it at any that an adult does," he said. "They point and ask,'Why did you do that?' don't know all the grammatical and it will tell you after a fashion." structures that exist in the language, But a new generation of superfast but they know a great majority of computers with huge memory banks them." will be required if machines are to It will take a major scientific learn English and "get smart." Re- breakthrough, he said, for comput- searchers at MCC and a few other ers to use metaphors, idioms and U.S. and Japanese laboratories are similes. After all, how does a literal- developing "parallel processors": minded machine catch the meaning networks of tens, hundreds and even of phrases such as "cry a river of thousands of computer chips - each tears," "kick the bucket" or "she is with a separate memory bank-that like a rose"? work in concert to solve a problem. What Mr. Slocum's computer pro- Others are creating new com- gram lacks in grammar skills, he puter languages for parallel comput- hopes to bolster with a working vo- ers that can correctly divide prob- cabulary of 20,000 words. Future lems into sub-problems - for computerprograms,usfng complete instance, examining different parts of dictionaries of words and multiple a sentence. interpretations, will have "vast pro- "Hopefully, 10 years from now," ficiency, outstripping any human be- said Mr. Lenat, MCC will have taken a giant step toward building a new ing;' he said. generation of machines with some Meanwhile, MCC's artificial intel- degree of common sense. ligence team is bringing up baby - "But until computers are smarter feeding the computer program with than they are now;" he said, "most more facts about humans, the world questions they ask will be stupid." and itself. lbmorrow: Machines that change The computer is a blank slate, said the world? Douglas B. Lenat, an AI project di- rector at MCC. "We're bootstrapping it up to the point where it will be a reasonable student. "The more you know, the more easily you can learn," he said. "If you start out a [computer] program that knows next to nothing, it's hard for it to assimilate new pieces of informa- tion. "But children already know so much about the world;' he said, "that it's very likely that they'll have some- thing they can hook new experience onto and thereby relate." Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5 proved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5 WASHINGTON POST 3 March 1986 Whitworth Spy Trial to Open John Walker's ex-wife, Barbara ,toy Crowley Walker, and his daugh- ter, Laura Walker Snyder, whom John Walker tried to recruit to spy when she was an Army communi- Defendant Last of Four in Walker Ring 5 By Ruth Marcus Washington Post Staff Writer SAN FRANCISCO-The trial of iar with the technology said, the Soviets would have been able to listen freely to some sensitive Navy communications. The Whitworth trial is expected to disclose what channels of communications may have been compromised and how sensitive they were. The star witness at Whitworth's trial, which is expected to last eight to 10 weeks, will be his Navy col- league and close friend Walker, 48, a retired Navy chief warrant officer and Norfolk private detective. Walker masterminded the espi- onage ring that ipcluded his broth- er, retired Navy Lt. Cmdr. Arthur James Walker, 51, and John Walk- er's son, Navy Seaman Michael Lance Walker, 23. John Walker's agreement to testify against Whit- worth provided a crucial link in the prosecution's case, which until then was largely circumstantial. John Walker pleaded guilty in federal court in Baltimore Oct. 28 to conspiring to commit espionage with the two other Walkers and Whitworth. Under the plea agree- ment, he is to be sentenced to life in prison. He promised to testify against Whitworth in return for a reduced sentence for his son, who also pleaded guilty and will be sen- tenced to 25 years. Arthur Walker was convicted Aug. 9 of giving John Walker two reports marked "confidential," the lowest category of classified infor- mation, from VSE Corp., a Ches- apeake, Va., firm where Arthur Walker worked as an engineer. If U.S. District Judge John P. Vu- kasin Jr. permits it. Arthur Walker and Michael Walker are also ex- pected to be called on by prosecu- tors to corroborate Jbhn Walker's story-marking the first time ei- ther will have detailed publicly his espionage activities. According to court documents, John Walker urged his brother to "operate like Jerry, who was making big bucks" photographing classified documents for John Walker. retired Navy communications ex- pert Jerry Alfred Whitworth is to start in federal court here this week in a case that should provide the fullest public picture yet of the dam- age allegedly caused by the Walker spy ring and an unprecedented glimpse into the arcane, superse- cret world of military communica- tions and codes. Whitworth. 46, the last of four Navy men charged in the Walker espionage ring to appear in court, is charged with 13 counts of espio- niaie, conspiracy and e erc Tin- come tax viol pons The government alleges that, from 1974 until John Anthony Walker Jr.'s arrest May 20, 1985, Whitworth conspired with Walker to pass classified defense docu- ments and information. He received more than $332,000, according to the government. A senior chief radioman when he retired from the Navy in 1983 after a 21-year career, Whitworth "re- ceived training in virtually all as- pects of Navy communications and served both at sea and at Navy bases ashore in positions that per- mitted him access to a broad soec- trum of sensitive military commu- nications," according to a federal indictment. The most sensitive of the infor- mation allegedly funneled to the Soviets was "cryptographic keylists and key cards," the daily-changing codes that are used to encrypt and read classified messages, along with technical manuals and design plans for the coding machines them- selves. With the "logic diagrams" contained in the manuals, prosecu- tors said in court papers filed last month, "a sophisticated adversary having modern computer capabil- ities" would have been able "to re- create the encryption machine." Armed with both pieces of the cryptographic puzzle, sources famil- cations specialist, are also on the government's list of potential wit- nesses, as is Pamela K. Carroll, a former girlfriend of John Walker. In addition to the first public statements by Walker about the origins and operation of the spy ring, the trial will feature testimony by Earl Clark, the former deputy chief of communications security at the National Security Agency, who is to discuss the importance of se- cure military communications and explain to the jurors how the coding machines and cards work. Clark is expected to bring one of the coding machines into court to demonstrate its operation. The overnment's witness list inclu es o v v aman. former director of the National Security k Agency ormer deputy director of the CIA; Vice Adm. Robert E. Kit sey, t e director of the Navy division that handles cryptography and communications; Rear Adm. Lawrence Layman, head of naval communications, and Gerald Rich- ard, an FBI expert in Soviet spy methods, or "tradecraft." On June,12, nine days after Whit- worth's arrest and at the height of public attention to the Walker case, Chief of Naval Operations Adm. James D. Watkins provided the first official assessment of the potential damage done by the ring. He said that the loss appeared to be "very serious" but "not catastrophic," and that the biggest damage was in the area of communications. Whitworth's trial will offer the first public damage assessment since then-other than testimony at Ar- thur Walker's trial, which was lim- ited to the two reports he passed to the Soviets-and the first since Walker agreed to provide details about the operations of the spy net- work. The defense case will focus pri- marily on attacking Walker, accord- ing to defense lawyer James Lar- son. "We think the central issue in Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5 Approved For Release 200th 4N2rPi@lA RIa d"WAJP,0005.,Q US S Nimitz, where Michael Walker the case really is the credibility of the defense will attempt to under- mine Walker's story by "going into what he says very thoroughly and very carefully." Larson said he planned to call some defense witnesses, unlike law- yers for Arthur Walker, who rested their case without presenting a de- fense. But, Larson said, "A lot of our defense will consist of cross-ex- amination of their witnesses, not necessarily presenting alternative" witnesses: One potential defense witness is Whitworth himself., In papers filed Feb. 7, defense lawyers argued that the case against Whitworth should be split in two, with the espionage charges tried separately from the tax counts. Although they did not explain why, defense lawyers Lar- son and Tony Tamburello said Whitworth "wishes to testify con- cerning the espionage charges but not the tax and fraud allegations." The motion to sever the charges is pending. Vukasin is to hear arguments today on a renewed bid by Assistant U.S. Attorneys William Farmer Jr. and Leida B. Schoggen to introduce a series of letters to the FBI from "RUS" offering to expose a "signif- icant espionage system." Prosecu- tors contend that Whitworth wrote the letters, but Vukasin has ruled against their introduction. Jury selection, which is expected to begin tomorrow, is expected to consume a week because of the publicity the Walker cases have generated. Whitworth was sitting at the per- sonal computer in his Davis, Calif., mobile home on the morning of May 20, 1985, writing a letter to John Walker, when two FBI agents rang the doorbell. Walker, they informed him, had! been arrested and charged with es- pionage. "I was dumbfounded and didn't respond immediately," Whit- worth wrote in an affidavit .... "I don't exactly recall my response, but I think it was something like, 'I don't know what to think.' " Hours earlier, FBI agents had arrested Walker in a hallway of the Rockville Ramada Inn. Agents trail- ing Walker had seen him near a se- cluded site in Poolesville, in west- ern Montgomery County, where they later found a bag disguised as trash and filled with classified doc- Approved e of cl aa.~aaa .V u11VrnIaLWn and ' ~- 6 For Release 2003/04/02: CIA-RDP91- 901R M6mb5 Also contained in the bag were two "Dear Friend" letters from Walker to his Soviet handler. " 'D' continues to be a puzzle," Walker wrote. "He is not happy, but is still not ready to continue our 'cooper. ation' . . My guess ... he is go- ing to flop in the stockbroker field and can probably make a modest living in computer sales." Walker included two "Dear Johnny" letters from "D" himself, which discussed, among other things, "news about Brenda's job prospects." Whitworth's wife is Brenda. Reis; Whitworth, who had retired from the Navy in October 1983, was studying to be a stockbroker, hav- ing decided to abandon. the idea of computer sales. FBI agents had already been alerted to Whitworth's possible in- volvement by two "confidential in- formants" later identified as Barba- ra Walker and Laura Walker Sny- der, who told them of West Coast man named "Jerry Wentworth" who was allegedly part of the spy ring. In a search of Walker's Norfolk house, agents found-among other things-papers that identified "D" as "Jer," and handwritten notes that dealt with secure Navy communi- cations systems and that contained one of Whitworth's fingerprints, according to court papers. Two weeks after they first knocked on his door, the FBI issued an arrest warrant for Whitworth, who turned himself in at the FBI's San Francisco office. As portrayed in the indictment, the espionage conspiracy between Whitworth and Walker started in 1974 at a meeting in Boom Tren- chard's Flare Path restaurant and bar in San Diego. JERRY ALFRED WHITWORTH .. ,espionage trial begins this week worth would be responsible for ob- taining such information, the profits from the enterprise to be split equally between them." The indictment details a series of more than 20 meetings, in Califor- nia, Norfolk, Hong Kong and the Philippines, at which Whitworth allegedly passed classified informa- tion to Walker. The meetings were often followed shortly by meetings betwen Walker and his Soviet con- tact, according to the indictment. In addition to the charge that he conspired with Walker to commit espionage, Whitworth faces eight counts of espionage for allegedly passing Walker classified information from the aircraft carrier USS Con- stellation, the USS Niagara Falls, the Naval Telecommunications Center at Alameda, Calif., and the nuclear air- craft carrier USS Enterprise. At those postings Whitworth held in- creasingly responsible jobs in com- munications, with access to intelli- gence messages and coding material. The Navy colleagues had met a Whitworth, a balding, bearded, few years earlier when Whitworth studious-looking man who has been was a communications instructor at held without bond since his arrest, the Service School Command in San grew up on a 600-acre wheat and Diego and Walker was assistant di- soybean farm in Muldrow, Okla., rector of the Radioman "A" school near the Arkansas border. He was there. Walker had been spying for voted "class clown" at Muldrow High the Soviets since 1968, but by and left home at age 17. He joined 1974-two years before his retire- the Navy in 1962, and he specialized ment from the Navy-he had appar- in communications in a career that ently decided to expand his opera- took him across the globe. tions. Whitworth's uncle, Willard At Boom Trenchard's, the indict- Owens, said Whitworth "sounds ment alleges, the two men "formed great" despite nine months in jail an espionage partnership whereby and remains optimistic about his Walker would eventually be respon- chances for acquittal. "He believes s ible for the transportation and sale that h 's going to come free of the Approved For Release 2003/04/02 CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5 His twice-weekly conversations with Whitworth, he said, touch on the monotony of the jail food and the newspapers and magazines Whit- worth has been reading, but they mostly focus on life in Muldrow. .We talk about things here at home mostly," he 'said, "about the farm and the way it used to be and the way it will be when he comes out." Prosecutor: `The Best Job a Lawyer Can Have' William S. Farmer Jr., the chief prosecutor in the Whitworth case, believes that being a federal prosecu- tor "is the best job a lawyer can have." A banker's son who grew up in the South but fell in love with San Francisco "after having taken one cable car ride," Farmer, who is known as "Buck," started in the San Francisco office of the Justice Department's antitrust division, working on oil mergers and timber bid-rigging cases. He switched to the U.S. attorney's office in 1979 in order to get more trial experience, but he still likes to handle complex cases. "The quick case, the routine stuff is not so much a challenge because ... one person's dope case is going to look like another person's dope case," said Farmer, a graduate of Princeton University and the University of Texas Law School. Farmer, 44, who is being assisted at the trial by As- sistant U.S. Attorney Leida B. Schoggen, worked on the espionage case against James Harper, an electron- ics engineer who helped his wife sell stolen documents from a Palo Alto, Calif., defense contractor to Polish intelligence agents. Harper pleaded guilty in 1984 and was sentenced to life in prison. But the most memorable of the cases handled by the U.S. attorney's office during Farmer's six years there was one that involved hinr a bit too personally. Farmer was sitting in his office one day in 1982, he recalled, when "just on a whim" he chose to accept a collect telephone call from an inmate at Lompoc Prison. Farmer had successfully prosecuted a Colombian co- caine dealer, Jose Robert Gomez-Soto, who was serving time at Lompoc. The inmate caller, Leon (Magic) Colburn, told Farm- er that Gomez-Soto was plotting to assassinate Farmer, the federal judge who had sentenced him, several wit- nesses and federal agents. "Magic" was supposed to be the hit man, and the FBI arranged to have him cooperate, but there were some nerve-racking days, Farmer recalled, "when I was wor- ried to death that 'Magic' wouldn't be taken out of pris- on and Gomez-Soto would go through some other line of communication [to arrange the hit] and we wouldn't know anything about it." The plot was foiled, and Gomez-Soto and his son were eventually convicted of conspiracy to murder, but "it was a harrowing experience," Farmer said. "At the time I didn't appreciate the fact that I was scared." - Ruth Marcus Larson Takes on `Most Challenging' Case Jerry Whitworth's chief defense lawyer, James Lar- son, is no stranger to defending underdogs. A graduate of Stanford University and UCLA law school, Larson said he was active in "the movement" during the 1960s and ended up representing "draft re- sisters, black liberation groups, prisoners and alleged lefties." The most celebrated was Wendy Yoshimura, a Symbionese Liberation Army member captured with heiress Patricia Hearst in San Francisco in 1975. Yo- shimura was convicted of illegal possession of weapons and explosives in connection with terrorist activity in Berkeley, Calif., in the early 1970s. "Philosophically and politically I am always concerned with the abuse of power by the government, and I think there are a lot of interesting intellectual and moral is- sues involved in criminal law," Larson, 42, said in a re- cent interview. The Whitworth case is Larson's first espionage trial, and "it's definitely the most challenging of all," he said. "Particularly in this case, you've got the full weight and power of the government coming down on an individual, and the drama basically takes place on the front page of the newspaper. It really calls upon every resource that you've got to defend him." Larson has been working full time on the Whitworth case for about six months. His cocounsel is Tony Tam- burello, who has simultaneously been preparing to han- dle the retrial of Larry Layton, former People's Temple member charged with conspiracy in the 1978 slaying of a California Democratic congressman Leo J. Ryan at Jonestown, Guyana. Tamburello's fees are being paid by the government because-although the federal death penalty for spying has been invalidated-espionage under the law is still technically a capital crime that entitles a defendant to a second lawyer. "I'm certainly looking forward to a resolution of the case," Larson said. "I think it's going to be a very inter- esting trial." - Ruth Marcus Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500230015-5