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November 5, 1960
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Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN HEARINGS SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY UNITED STATES SENATE EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS PART III TESTIMONY OF GEN. C. P. CABELL, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE, AGENCY Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1900 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman ESTES KEFATJVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas KENNETH B. KEATING, New York JOSEPH 0. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming SAM J. ERVIN, Ja., North Carolina JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut PHILIP A. HART, Michigan SUBCOMMITTEE To INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut, Vice Chairman OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina KENNETH B. KEATING, New York J. G. Sou wi rE, Chief Connect BENIAMIN MANDEL, Director of Research Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Resolved by the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Com- mittee on the Judiciary, That the testimony of Gen. C. P. C'abell given in executive session on November 5, 1959, with the consent of the witness, be printed and made public. DEcEMSER 14, 1959. JAMES O. EASTLAND. THOMAS J. DODD. JOHN L. MCCLELLAN. OLIN D. JOHNSTON. EVERETT M. DIRI{SEN. ROMAN HRUSKA. SAM J. ERVIN, Jr. K. B. KEATINO. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 1959 U.S. SENATE, SUBCOMMITTEE To INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTi-noi INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS, OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, TVasliington, D.C. The subcommittee met., pursuant to call, at 10: 30 a.m., in room 2300, New Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chair- man.) presiding. Present : Senators Eastland, Olin D. Johnston, and Roman L. IIruska. Also present : J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel ; Benjamin Mandel, di- rector of research; and Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. The CHAIRMAN. You may proceed, sir. STATEMENT OF GEN. C. P. CABELL, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY General CABELL. Mr. Chairman, I appreciate very much this op- portunity to appear before your committee. My subject today is, of course, communism in Latin America. Boris N. Ponomarev, a key member of the central committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet, Union, wrote the following regarding Latin America in the October 1958, issue of Kommunist, the most important official Communist Party, Soviet Union, theoretical inaga- zine, and I quote : Latin America is a seething volcano. As in one country, so in another * * *. The CHAIRMAN. Have you got another copy of this? I do not have that one. I would, like to follow you. General CABELL. I have made a few changes, Senator, but I do not have another copy. This is the only copy that I have. [Reading:] Latin America is a seething volcano. As in one country, so in another, out- bursts are taking place which are sweeping away reactionary regimes and loosen- ing the nooses which U.S. monopolies have thrown on their economy. The Com- munist Parties of Latin America ever more closely coordinate their activities in the struggle against the common enemy-U.S. Imperialism. The revolutionary movement is of a universal nature. Its main support is the socialist camp. Collaboration with and infiltration of popular movements, for ex- ample that of the Batista in the thirties, and of Castro in the fifties- has been communism's most effective weapon in Latin America. The Communists base their present strategy on what they call the national liberation struggle. 141 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 142 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN The CII UIItir. _ When he said its main support. is the Socialist camp, he meant the Communist camp General CAnr?..L. That is their innocuous term or polite term for the Communist camp, Senator. The CnaraauN. Yes. General CABL .I.. The so-called national liberation strategy seeks to offset Communist numerical and political weakness through inter- national organizational support and clandestine techniques of infil- tration and coordination. The immediate objective of the strategy is to provoke political or revolutionary action by sympathetic non-Communists, but politically influential elements, for the purpose of establishing an environment within which th, Communist Party is free to organize and expand. The Commun sts hope for the establishment of governments which are, at least, ne-itral in the East-West struggle, if not actively pro- Soviet, and which will guarantee them political opportunity equal to that enjoyed by genuine political parties. It is within such a framework that the Communists then hope to achieve the so-ailed peaceful transition to socialism, which will find a tell l,orary alliau,ce with the national bourgeoisie within it, govern- ment of national units' gradually replaced by it Communist-controlled "people's democracy.' The program of communism in Latin America is designed to de- velop unity of a.?tion around popular issues such as antipathy to dic- tatorships, inflation, a desire popular greater industrialization, zatiorn of resources, and wider and more stable markets. It particularly strives to develop international and national labor unity in support of Communist objectives. The program seeks to promote neutralism through exploiting the fear of wars, nn-lear dangers, unpopular treaty obligations, and ter- ritorial sovereignty issues. It encourages Opposition to U.S. participation in regional programs affecting Latin . merica. The program also involves expansion of the Communist propa- ganda ap paratus to include a network of news correspondents who will develop support for the "national liberation" strategy, while discrediting free world news agencies as agencies of imperialist propaganda. The technique:' of Communist action are both overt and clandestine, legal and illegal, national and international. techniques are carried out by the national Cpnnnunist Parties and their fronts, with support from the "fraternal" Communist Parties abroad, and the international Communist f ronts. All of these operate through known Communist Party members and secret party members in nominally non-Communist organizations. The actions of these national Communist Parties are supported or paralleled by actions taken by the Soviet and satellite diplomatic and commercial missions and their agents. The Communist Party enjoys legal status or de facto legality in nine Latin American countries. However it is able to operate with relatively little opposition in a number of other countries, and it is organized and active on a clandestine basis in virtually all countries. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 143 Where it operates legally or semilegally, as in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, Uruguay, Mexico, and Ecuador, it strives to expand its membership and its propaganda organs. It uses such countries as operational bases for the support of activ- ities in countries where the party is proscribed. Thus, activities in Paraguay are supported from Argentina and Uruguay. Activities in Central America and the Caribbean from Cuba and Venezuela. The clandestine organization of the Latin American Communist Parties is being improved with the help of training by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and of China. Where necessary, international and national communication is by encoded letters sent through accommodation addresses or by couriers, who may travel under falss names and with fa]se documentation. Communist literature may be imported under false inventories; financing is accomplished through a great variety of channels which conceal the extent and origin of funds. Mass recruiting, as attempted several years ago, has in some cases been deemphasized, while emphasis has been given to selective recruit- ing of key individuals and secret members. More effective use is being made of opportunities to engage in legal activities, despite illegal status, such as the development of publica- tions defending all points of view. Many parties are developing secret directive bodies paralleling the overt organizations. The actions of the Soviet-bloc governments support the "national liberation" strategy, thereby complementing the activities of the national Communist Parties and fronts in Latin America. These actions involve propaganda support, the expansion of official representation, the broadening of cultural contacts, and development of commercial relations. Official bloc propaganda and news services applaud the role of nationalists in revolutions, strikes, and demonstrations to show that the masses are in revolt against "North American monopoly capitalism and its allies." They denounce cooperative actions to defend Latin America against communism, or to strengthen national economies without Communist participation or Soviet aid. Bloc propaganda dissemination is being improved through expan- sion of book stores, cultural and friendship societies, and other outlets. China, for example, has recently established a press outlet in Latin America, and has given more radio time to Latin American broadcasts. . In addition, Communist propaganda prepared in Western Europe, Africa, and Asia, based upon and supported by Soviet-bloc efforts, also supports the "national liberation" struggle in Latin America. The Communist-bloc countries are also seeking greater official rep- resentation and wider official contacts. At present, the Soviet Union has diplomatic missions in only three Latin American countries, Argentina, Uruguay, and Mexico. Missions of satellite countries of a diplomatic, consular, or commer- cial nature are located in these countries, as well as Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia. Communist China, North Korea, and North Vietnam have no rep- resentation. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 144 COMMJNIST 'THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN In this effort t.lro Communist governments are using every oppor- tunity and charnel to urge an expansion of official diplomatic and nondiplomatic representation, dangling the bait of profitable trade with the bloc be1'ore both governments and private interests. I, or example, n 1058 the holding of the meeting of the Interparlia- mentary Union in Rio do Janeiro gave bloc delegations it chance to campaign for tl exchange of diplomatic missions and to hint at great trade possibilities. The cooperation of influential legislators or other officials is en- listed through general campaigns and discreet efforts by visiting groups from the bloc or by local friendship societies. The CIrAIrrlr:t:c, Could I ask you a question there? General CAnut.r,. Certainly. The Cimin-.i .t:c. What do you think of the possibilities of trade be- tween Latin Anu?rica. and the Soviet Union? General C.tnrMeaning do we think that there is a large market in Latin nieric ,? The Clr:tritlr:\ .. Yes, sir; for Soviet goods. General ('anEI L. I tlrinlc there is a market there, Mr. Chairman, be- cause they are p??oducers of many raw materials. The Soviet Union is expanding its _ndustrial base. It would like to get more foreign ex- change. It would lilac to use their trade opportunities as a cover for other and more sinister operations. do I think that they would seek to force the pace of trade with Latin ~ltnerien, it aright not be completely economically sound otherwise. The Cii,trmr.t:, In outer words, you think they would take com- ruodit ies that. are needed in the Soviet Union by the Soviet people and trade with Latin America in order to further political ends of the Soviet Goverrnnt at in Latin America? General ('anr:JJ,. Yes. 1 anm sure of that. That is their aim. The ('ir.tiaM.ty-. Yes. Senator IUu 5r__t. General, do you have any knowledge of any offer reportedly made recently by representatives of the Russian Govern- nient of :a $200 million credit. to be expended in Russia. in the acquisi- tion of any type of Russian industrial products? A second part to that question would be whether or not that related in any way to the suna.r business in Cuba. General Cmmr t? We are not aware of a $200 million offer. We have heard rccer thy of several offers which, altogether, might total around $300 million. It. is not unlikely that such a large offer might be made for prol.:rgancla purposes and that. the implementation might bo in terms of smaller credits arranged through Communist "cover" firans of Soviet. b:oc. commercial representatives in Western countries. These might be a rranged directly with some autonomous agency of the Cuban Goveriunent, such as the Agrarian reform Institute. We seek to be alert to such reports and attempt to confirm them and establish the principals involved. We are also aware of the possi- bility that the Cuban Government. may turn to the Soviet bloc for purchases of jet aircraft or other nrilit.a.ry equipment. Offers, or rumors, of extremely large Soviet credits could not help but be related to sugar, Cuba's cllief source of income. The Com- munists have long advocated less dependence on the U.S. market and Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 145 have. propagandized the advantages of trade with the Soviet bloc. The Soviets certainly have an interest in supporting the Cuban Com- munist Party program. On the other hand, it is true that anti- Communists have an interest in rumors which will increase our alarm over Communist influence in Cuba. Shall I continue, Mr. Chairman? The CHAIRMAN. Yes. senator, JoHNsToN. Are they having an trouble in disposing of their sugar in Cuba, all that they produce General CABELL. Yes; they have to sell. They cannot possibly dis- pose of the Cuban The CHAIRMAN. Would you speak a little louder, please, sir? Senator JOHNSTON. What I have reference to is: have they sold or are they able to sell all of the sugar? General CABBLL. About a month ago the Cuban Sugar Stabilization Institute stated that the holdover this year would be between 1 mil- lion and 1.2 million tons. This will be large compared to last year's holdover of some 600,000 tons. The CHAIRMAN. That sold to us is at a price level that is roughly a hundred percent above the world price. General CABBLL. I am not knowledgeable on that. The CHAIRMAN. Yes, sir. Senator JOHNSTON. That is about what it amounts to. General CABFILL. To continue, Mr. Chairman The CHAIRMAN. Yes. General CABELL. Nearly all the bloc governments have been active in the promotion of cultural contacts. They have used these con- tacts to discredit the charges against Communists and derogatory de- scriptions of the Communist countries, as a means of cultivating and converting carefully selected non-Communists, and as a means of establishing a precedent for the development of official contacts. The development of a campaign for increased trade with the Soviet bloc is presented as a means of freeing the Latin American countries from their dependence on the U. S. marlet. This campaign is designed primarily to appeal to bourgeois elements in official and business circles, but is also used to appeal to worker groups, to whom it is described as the solution to wage and living standard problems. This trade campaign has, as yet, had little real impact in Latin America. The major role of the bloc diplomatic establishments is to comple- ment, rather than direct, the activities of the local Communists, through implementation of overt Soviet foreign policy. The bloc establishments concentrate on usual objectives, that is, cultural interchange, the development of commercial relations, and the presentation of Soviet positions on international issues, as a means of improving the climate for the growth of the local Communist organizations and increasing their prestige. Through binational centers, such as the Mexican-Russian Cultural Exchange Institute, they distribute Marxist literature and propa- ganda films, and arrange for the exchange of visits by the various individuals and groups. Under the cover of the binational centers, the diplomatic establish- ments are able to maintain close contact with key Communists or Communist sympathizers. 43354-60 Pt. 3-2 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 146 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN However, the n:ain purpose of these contacts is to develop sympathy for the Soviet Union among non-Communist elements rather than to direct local Coma unitt Party activities. The direction cf the various local Communist Parties and the vari- ous national affiliates of the international fronts is achieved primarily through international meetings held in conjunction with a Communist Party congress or Plenum, or at. an international front meeting, or bi- latoral meetings of Communist Party representatives in Moscow. There is good evidence, however, that certain diplomatic officials are also Communist Party of the Soviet Union representatives, who have the responsibility for monitoring the activities of national Commu- nist Parties and tieir leaders, and for reporting on these developments to Moscow. These representatives also maintain clandestine contact with various Communist Part ,.r leaders for the purpose of clarifying the Moscow line, advising on its application, approving the travel or training of party members it the Soviet Union, and attending to minor financial details. There is also evidence that certain officials are engaged in espionage. Soviet and satellite subsidization of national Communist Parties through diplomatic missions is known to occur. In Latin America, however, such direct subsidization appears less significant than financing through any of a number of indirect channels. The origin of Funds is concealed. Promises of financial aid made by the Soviet or ';hinese Communist officials to party leaders are in- tentionally vagu(, and implementation is apt to be achieved through a variety of devices, such as payment through the translation of books, the awarding of a "peace prize' to a local sympathizer, the negotiating of it lucrative coitract with a local sympathizer, gifts attributed to popular collection campaigns and fraternal fronts abroad, or the inter- national solidarity fund of the World Federation of Trade Unions,. the awarding of cholai hips or tours on an expense-paid basis. On the other hind, the diplomatic establishments do purchase serv- ices which may bnefit individual Communists, or may negotiate con- tracts through which local Communists or sympathizers are enabled to realize sonic inancial gain or which may indirectly benefit the party. There are cases, however, where Soviet officials have been reported to have made lane direct payments to local Communists in an effort to promote strike activity or other types of unrest. The adoption of the `national liberation struggle" with its concen- tration on unity )f action with the. non-Coniinnist nationalist bour- geoisie has been paralleled by an intensive campaign to strengthen the internal organization of the national Communist Parties in Latin America, and to train the party leaders, as well as the membership, in basic Marxist-[.eninist theory, and its application. The training rf Latin American Communist Party leaders at the higher party school of the Conununist Party of the Soviet Union has been going on continuously since 1953, with an increase noted since 1956. The usual curriculum is based on a 2- or 3-year course of training, and the students arc active party leaders and functionaries who have Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 147 been selected by their parties and approved by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It is probable that most of the Latin American Communist Parties now have a number of leaders who have received this special training. Beginning in 1956, the Communist Party of China also undertook to give training to Latin American Communist Party leaders. They emphasize, among other subjects, the special contributions of the Chinese party in the field of clandestine work, agrarian reform and peasant affairs, guerrilla warfare, and the manipulation of the bourgeoisie and other elements in the "anti-imperialist struggle." Since 1956, there is evidence that the organization of such training has been improved, and that the Chinese Communist Party is now giving regular courses specifically for Latin American Communist students, thereby paralleling the Soviet effort. In addition to the training offered by the Soviet- Senator JOHNSTON. Is that in all the South American countries or some place General CABELL. Pretty much so. Their aim is to make it in all of the Latin American countries. Senator JOHNSTON. I see. General CABELL. In addition to the training offered by the Soviet and Chinese Communist Parties, the better organized and stronger Communist Parties have, in accordance with recommendations, from Moscow, offered training to Communist Party members from the smaller and weaker Communist Parties. Thus, the Communist Party of Argentina, in 1958, accepted stu- dents from a number of other Latin American countries, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama, and Columbia, into its cadre school, which was raided by the Argentine police in October of 1958. . It has been reported that other Communist Parties, such as those of Chile and Cuba, have also undertaken to train Communists from other countries. This is in further answer to your question, Senator. Mr. SoURwINE. Mr. Chairman, might I ask a question? The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Mr. SoURwINE. General, there has been some training of Com- munists from Latin America in Warsaw, too, has there not? General CABELL. The training of Latin Americans is centered in the U.S.S.R., China, and (to, a lesser extent) in East Germany. There is no evidence of a Polish program in this regard, and there are no inter- national front headquarters in Warsaw which might offer on-the- job training. However, we are aware of cases where the Interna- tional Union of Students (IUS) has given scholarships to Latin American students for study in Poland. Mr. SouRwiNE~,,. When they go to Europe they go to Moscow? General CABELL. Generally, they want to. Mr. SOURWINE. When they go to. red China, wheere do they go, Peiping Genera$l CABELL. They go to Peiping, via Moscow, usually. Mr. SOURWINE. Thank you, sir. General CABELL. There is more prestige connected with going to Moscow or Peiping than going to any of the satellites. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 The C,`IL1IRiar. Is the=re tiny training of Communist students, Latin American Communist students, in the United States? General CABEI,L. We would not be the repository of that informa- tion, Mr. Chainian. That would be the FBI. The CHAIR3i.tN. I wanted to know whether you had that information. General CABEI L. No, sir; I do not have it. at niy fingertips. The above tralung is carried on by schools conducted by the Com- intulist. Parties themselves. However, the intensified training program is also being undertaken by the Communist fronts. The World Federation of Trade Unions held a training :school for Latin American labor leaders in Budapest from 1953 to 191.5, and subsidized a Central American training school in Costa Rica in x958. The World Ft:deration of Democratic Youth, and the International Union of Students have provided on-tlie-job training for Latin Americans at. tl eir international headquarters, as has the Wronien's International Dtmocrat.ic Federal ion. Marxist training centers, such as the Workers' University in Mex- ico City, are bengr expanded in an effort to broaden the appeal of Marxism, and tostiniulat i nationalism. Efforts to inti-crate the educational field have been intensified in an effort to gaiii rvspectability and recognition for Marxist thought-, a drive which has achieved success in several countries. A notable ex- ample is the Brazilian Institute for Advanced Studies. In addition, nonpolitical scholarships are offered by the Soviet Union and satellite countries for training in the arts and sciences. Thus,, the international Communist training effort is com rehensive, ranging from ti e political indoctrination of the militlint. Communist nucleus to the provision of opportunities to non-Communists which will orient their towards the Communist bloc in their future profes- sional careers. The coordinat ion of Latin :American Communist action is planned through international, regional, and national meetings of Communist Parties or front,)rganiz:_ttions. This is done at. bilateral meetings between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the La-(-in Aniericmui Communist. Party leaders, through diet cxcltaimge of publications, through t the, travel of party lead- ers, and through continuous training and indoctrination of party mcin- hers. The fundamental line is established in discussions with Communist Party of the Soviet Union officials, and an authoritative---or in au- tltoritat.ive jourtials such as Problems of Peace and Socialism (the World Marxist Review) which is published in 19 languages, and the various party theoretical organs. Fundamental Marxist, texts, both current and classic, are available in Spanish; son e are translated and published in Latin America, to provide a standardized basis for internal Party training and for in- doctrination of -ion-Communists. Spanish tran'.lations of Chinese Communist works are increasingly used in the efIott. to apply Chinese tactical lessons in Latin America. Latin Aineri an delegates to Soviet Communist Party congresses have also attended Chinese Communist Party meetings or have met with Chinese leaders. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 149 The general strategy for Communist activity in Latin America in 1958 was outlined at the Moscow meeting of November 1957. Activities in 1959, in continuation of the 1958 program, are believed to have been discussed at meetings between Latin America and Soviet Communist Party representatives held in Moscow at the time of the 21st Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress, and at meetings between the Latin American and Chinese Communists shortly after- ward, in Peiping. Mr. SouxwiNE. That was in January of this year? General CABELL. Late January and early February. Mr. SoUnwINB. All right. General CABBLL. The current program involves the exploitation of the Cuban Revolution as an example of a successful "liberation strug- gle," which should be emulated by "anti-imperialist" elements in other Latin American countries. A significant element of the Communist program for 1959 appears to be the support of a "People's Congress," ostensibly sponsored by non-Communist patriots and liberals, but oriented by Communist or pro-Communist delegates so as to pass anti-U.S. resolutions. The Cuban Communist newspaper IIoy recently quoted Raul Castro, Chief of the Cuban Armed Forces, as giving his support to such a congress. The CIIAI aMAN. These congresses, while they are composed of lib- erals who are not members of the Communist Party, yet the congress and its membership are manipulated by the Communists; is that correct? General CABELL. That is the purpose of them and the fact of them. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. General CABBLL. Mr. Chairman, this type of approach, the exploita- tion of non-Communists and the infiltration of crypto-Communists, or secret Communist Party members into progressive movements, is an old technique, but one which has been particularly emphasized by the Chinese. It is believed that all Latin American Parties are now tinder orders to recruit new members on a "secret" basis, so that they may remain in or be infiltrated into non-Communist groups. In 1958 and 1959 there has been increasing emphasis on the need for communism to adapt its tactics to the regional and national situa- tion in which it works. In Latin America where the "national liberation" strategy is aimed at influencing non-Communist liberals, nationalists and intellectuals, Communist-front activity and subversion of non-Communist organi- zations has been increasingly emphasized. The international Communist-front organizations, such as the World Federation of Trade Unions, the International Union of Stu- dents, the World Federation of Democratic Youth, the Women's Inter- national Democratic Federation, and so forth, have tried in their pro- grams aimed at Latin America, to pay more attention to national questions and peculiarities, and thus to deemphasize Soviet direction, while developing the basis for unity of action. Mr. SOURWINE. General Mr. Chairman, may I inquire-- The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 150 COMN171NIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN Mr. SounwINX. General, is it true that the increasing emphasis of which you spent: in adaptation to national situations is a tactic; it is not a trend towt.rd a development of true so-called national Commu- nist parties? That is, it, is not a Communist schism; it is simply a tactic which thesingle world conspiracy is using? General CABE-.L. That is correct. Their emphasis is on that ap- proach; that is, of developing these front organizations, rather than the more direct cne of open Communist parties themselves. They are not in any way_diny ing these Communist parties, but they are Nutting their effort in this indirect approach because they think it will bring them a better return. Mr. SoURwiNi;. And within the Communist parties themselves of these various American countries, Moscow still clamps down on any deviation. They still have to follow orders from Moscow; is that right? General CtBEu L. Yes. Senator I[IWSJA. What you have described here is the very essence of the "national liberation" movement, is it not ? General CABELI,. Yes. Senator IIRUs iA. In gross, isn't that exactly what that "national liberation" move rent is? General CanErJ.. That is right. to surround its own Communist ef- forts by this aura of nationalism. Senator ILrusKA. And then it breaks down into different segments, in schools, labor unions, and what not ? General CRUEL. That is right. Senator JOHNSTON. They use all kinds of popular movements to join them in order to further their cause. General C:IBEn . Any movement that they can possibly grasp, Sen- ator, whether the:_t popular movement has been in existence or whether they attempt to create a popular movement for the purpose. They use both kinds. Senator Jorixs'cox. If they cannot get into a country one way, then they will come in b say ng, "We want to put down the dictatorship." General LABEL',. That is right. Shall f continua', -Mr. C hairman ? 'l'ife Ci tinlt.tX'. Proceed. General. General ('AIIEti.. In Cie Held of labor increased efforts have been rondo to regain :lie influence lost during the postwar decade. The World Federatio!e of Trr:de ITnions leas a regional liaison bureau called the Latin Amer Clan Confederation of Labor, or Confederacion de Trabajadores de America Latina. to give time Spanish name. Discussions arc underway to strengthen and reorganize it, and so to iuake it a more effective organization. A number of instances of international Communist financing of Latin American t jade unions also has been noted by its. Visits of the World Federation of Trade T7hion and bloc trade union officials to Latin American countries have increased, as have invitations to Latin Arieric_an trade unionists to visit Communist China, the Sovict Uiiio'i. and other bloc countries. These efforts are designed to increase Communist influence and strength in the trade union movement, and are an integral part of the Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 151 Communist strategy which, to be successful, is essentially depend- ent upon mass support. The tasks of the trade unions in the "national liberation struggle" were set forth by the vice president of the World Federation of .Trade Unions, who is the Indian Communist, S. A. Dange, at the Fourth Congress of the World Federation of Trade Unions in 1957. These tasks constitute a blueprint for Communist labor action. Trade unions are called upon to support measures taken by the national bourgeoisie if these measures are directed against imperi- alism and are intended to strengthen the country's independence, and develop its economy. The unions are advised to oppose military pacts, to support the peace movement, to promote nationalization of foreign enterprises, and to link economic demands with political actions. They are to seek alliances, particularly with the peasantry, as well as trade union "unity." Finally, those trade unions with a record of success in the "na- tional liberation struggle" should advise less experienced unions, and the World Federation of Trade Unions promised to strengthen its own role in the international exchange of tactical experience. Close adherence to these directives is seen in the Communist propa- ganda and organizational work in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and other Latin American countries. Aid and support from the World Federation of Trade Unions and its trade departments the Trade Unions Internationals, as well as from trade unions of bloc countries, is apparent. Representatives of the Trade Unions Internationals of the World Federation of Trade Unions have been particularly active in Latin America. Giacomo Adduci, Italian labor leader, and Secretary General of the Metal and Engineering Workers of the World Federation of Trade Unions, attended the 1958 May Day celebration in Brazil. He promised increased World Federation of Trade Unions aid to the Brazilian labor movement. Adduci again visited Brazil in April of 1959 to attend a National Metal Workers Congress, also attended by fraternal delegates from neighboring South American countries. Paolo Scarponi, a representative of the Trade Unions Interna- tional of Textile and Clothing Workers, visited Rio de Janiero, Mon- tevideo, Buenos Aires, and Santiago, Chile, in March and April of 1958. Paul Delanoue, secretary general of the Communist-controlled World Federation of Teachers' Unions, visited Chile in May 1959 to "attend the 12th National Convention of the Chilean Teachers Union. That is the Union de Profesores de Chile. Maurice Boye, a member of the secretariat of the Trade Unions International of Public and Allied Workers, was reported to be vis- iting in Chile in June 1959 at the invitation of the National Associa- tion of Semi-Public Employees, the Asociacion National de Empleados Semi-Fiscales. . ` The CI3AIR1AN. General, have American Communists attended meetings in Latin America? General CABELL. Yes. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 152 COMMJNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN The CnAiw%m-,, Could you tell us which Communists, what meet- ings they attended? General CABF=a.. Elbe Magil was CPUSA representative at the Twelfth CP-Me:aco Congress, in September 1954. But as a mat `er of fact, the attendance has not been notable at these congresses' mainl} because they wished to avoid attention. Senator I Iizus c. By "notable" do you mean heavy in numbers? General CABETL. Either that or frequent. It has been neither heavy in numbers nor f ?equent. Senator Iinus:IA. General, you have given the names of several in- ternational associations and so on, down in Latin America, like the teachers, time public workers, and the inetalworkers. Where do these nien come from? General C:lrirr L. These men come front various countries and they are oflicials in various of the unions, and particularly the World Federation of Trade Unions and its subsidiary organizations. Senator Ilitu.i k. Where are the headquarters for the interna- tional-the Wo:?ld Federation of Trade Unions that you just mentioned? General (nvi i,. Prague. Prague. is a big center for these various unions. Senator IlitusnA. So that many of these leaders come from Europe? General CABEL`,. Yes, sir. Senator IIirusiA. from either Poland, Czechoslovakia, or Russia? General CABEI.r,. Yes. Many are from Western Europe. Senator IIrrt'SXA. You have not named, so far, any Chinese. Are you conning to tht m? General CABELI,. I do not believe I named any Chinese. They are not as well knowi to us as the European ones. Senator IIRusiLA. 'T'hey are relatively recent arrivals on the scene then? General Yes. I would like to say, as I have said, they simply have not t raveled in the same or similar capacities as the others. They are not heavily represented, you see, in the same organizations, like the WFTI' and I1'S. The people who travel for the WFTU and other front organizations are, in the main, WW'esterners, by culture and background, and people who have some linguisti(: connection with the West. The Chinese started their intensified drive in Latin America only since 1956, and then only by stages. Just- a handful of correspondents carne out. They are dependent wholly upon the local Communist Party and the network of correspondents which I have mentioned. Senator II zuss.k. The tempo of their activity has steadily increased ? General CABELF.. That is correct. Senator Ilitusii.A. When I say they, I mean those people from China. Isn't that true? General CAnrrL. Chinese activity, both in drawing Latin Amer- icans into China for training and consultation, and now coming out for the first time, .ipart from a few cultural acrobatic and ballet troupes and things like that; but they are now sending out Red Chinese news- ppaper correspondents to actually set up headquarters, for example, at Ilavana; that is true. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST. THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 153 Senator IIRUSKA. To what extent is that done to avoid the appear- ance of direct Russian interference in the Western Hemisphere? General CABELL. Well, actually the Chinese are operating very strongly on their own. They have their concept of their rights within the movement, and they send out their representatives as a sovereign power within the movement. Senator HRUSKA. Do you think a part of their increased activity is due to a desire to not counteract, but to-but in recognition of our policy in Formosa, for example, and Quemoy? Do you think that is involved? General CABELL. I would suggest that is a small part of it. I think the basic reason for it is that they are feeling their oats. Senator HRUSKA. They want to go into business on their own? General CABELL. They want to go into business on their own, and they want to establish themselves and be recognized as Communist ideologists on their own hook. Senator JOHNSTON. In other words, it is a religion with them? General CABELL. That is right. Senator JOHNSTON. It is almost like the churches sending out the missionaries? General CABELL. Yes. In organizing Latin American Youth, the International Communist movement works through the World Federation of Democratic Youth, and the International Union of Students. At their fifth, congress in Pieping in September of 1958, they gave greatly increased importance to Latin America, adopting seven reso- lutions of solidarity with students in nine Latin American countries or colonies. These are British Honduras, which they described as Guatemalan territory, Brazil, Cuba, Guadalupe, Guiana, Martinique, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela. They also adopted a separate two- page resolution on Latin America as a whole. Young Latin American leaders are working at the World Federa- tion of Democratic Youth, and International Union of Students head- quarters in Budapest and Prague. For example, the Brazilian Communist youth leader, Orlando Fun- cia Gomez, headed the important Latin American commission at World Federation of Democratic Youth headquarters, and then he returned to Brazil. He was replaced by Ruben Guedes, also from Brazil. Another Latin American World Federation of Democratic Youth official, Otto Cesar Vargas Girete, helped organize Latin American participation after the Seventh World Youth Festival held in Vienna on the 26th of July to the 4th of August of this year. Latin American Communists known to have worked at Interna- tional Union of Students headquarters include individuals from Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela. The important International Union of Students secretariat includes an Ecuadoran, Jorge Galarza, who replaced a fellow Ecuadoran, Efrain Alvarez Paredes. Cesar Alonso Alvarado, a Colombian, has been working at Interna- tional Students headquarters in Prague as the Spanish editor of the union's monthly organ, World Student News, since January of 1959, 43354-60-pt. 3-3 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 when he replaced Antonio Miassip, a Cuban. Massip quickly returned to Cuba after the Fall of the Batista regime. The CHAIRMAN. Do you know what he is doing there now? General CAn .=,. Our most recent information indicates that An- tonio 11assip is -=ngaged in propaganda work for the army at La Cabana Fortress n Havana. Some of the Latin American Communists who have worked with the World Federation of Democratic Youth or the International Union of Students headquarters--worked at those headquarters- have also received training in party schools in the Soviet Union, and on returning to Latin America have been made responsible for clan- destine propaganda distribution, and for the organization of strikes and demonstratic us. In the appeal to non-Communist. youth, probably the most impor- tant of all World Federation of Democratic Youth and International Union of Students tactics, are the world youth festivals held every other year. Since the natio:ial liberation strategy was initiated about 1954, over 3,300 young people from Latin America and the European Caribbean dependencies ha.v attended these festivals. Relatively, Latin '1merican attendance increased sharply at the 1959 festival in Vienna. The festivals are primarily propaganda efforts, but serve to strengthen the 'World Federation of Democratic Youth and the In- ternational Unio_z of Students organizationally through the experi- ence received b~ those working on the various preparatory com- mittees. We believe that close to $1 million was expended for Latin ineri- can delegates' travel to the Sixth Youth Festival in 1957, of which less than $100,000 was contributed from Latin America.. That, is $1 million cost, but the Latin Americans contributed $100,000 of it. I n 1958, the bl .'c expended about $500,000 in order to subsidize the travel of Latin American Communists and sympathizers to the bloc. This was not at youth festivals, but just travel to the bloc. The Youn C(mmuni;t, youth and student leaders associated with and trained by t ie World Federation of Democratic Youth, and the International Ur ion of Students, are instrumental in the coordination of the liberation struggle. In 1958 the tswwO) organizations sought to emphasize the, participation of the students in the anti-Batista struggle in Cuba, and in their publications called for international support and solidarity with the Cuban students. In the antipathy to existing dictatorships in Latin America, this Communists have found a popular issue which allows them to infil- trate, or work closely with non-Communist youth and student groups. W` herever posssible, they have sought to provide the initiative and, With the aid of Communists abroad, to develop international sup- port and coordii ation. For example, ?t mmnber of meetings of youth and student lenders were held in Cu',a earlier this year, some, under Communist sponsor- ship or with Coipimunist participation. At these meetings, international coordination of antidictatorial ac- tion was discussed, including plans for an antidictator congress to be held in Havana. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE. CARIBBEAN 155 Similar meetings have been held in other countries, such as that held in April by the Uruguayan Communist Youth: Some government officials The CHAIRMAN. General, right about there, what about the Cuban Government, has it encouraged those Communist meetings? General CABELL. I think the Cuban Government gives them every facility for those meetings, and any number of Cuban officials give them encouragement. But I think it would be improper to say that the Cuban Government, as such, gives them the encouragement. It is not necessary for the Cuban Government, as such, to give them The CHAIRMAN. No; but the officials in a private capacity do? General CABELL. Or the officials in the Government capacity, but it might not be the Government official's. responsibility for a certain thing that gives these Communists such encouragement, because the Government is so disorganized that there is continual crossing. of lines by one official of the Government into other departments. So I would not want to give the impression that it is governmentally organized en- couragement that is taking place. It is rather the encouragement of officials and elements within the Government. The CHAIRMAN. I do not see the difference. General CABELL. Well, there is just a legal difference; that is all. The CHAIRMAN. That is right. Senator JOHNSTON. In other words, the Government is doing noth- ing to prevent it? General CABE, LL. That is right. The CHAIRMAN. No ; they are encouraging it. General CABELL. I would say even more than that. The CHAIRMAN. They take affirmative action, the officials of the Government take affirmative action in promoting it. General CABELL. I just did not want to give you the impression that the Government has officially organized that kind of action. Senator JOHNSTON. They encourage it as long as it helps them to stay popular. General CABELL. Oh, yes. Senator HRUSKA. Well, of course, in Cuba, since Castro took over, the Popular Socialist Party, for example, which had previously been banned, was allowed to come out in the open. Of course, that is not official, that does not make them officially Communists, but it cer- tainly is along the same line; is it not? General CABELL. And there is no inhibition or prohibition of such movement whatsoever. Some Government officials may be providing the Communists with readymade opportunities for expanding their propaganda. Senator JOIINSTON. When anybody tries to oppose it they meet it by saying, "Oh, we agree; we give everybody freedom." General CABELL. That is right. They oppose it on "freedom" grounds. For example, Raul Castro, who supported the People's Congress in a recent speech,. as previously mentioned, also supported the idea of holding a Latin American Youth and Student Congress in Havana, in the name of defending the Cuban Revolution. He did not publicly use the earlier antidictatorship theme, pre- sumably to minimize the international aspects of the meeting. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 156 COMMI KIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN It remains to he seen wh ther this congress, when held, will reveal Communist hanc;iwork through violent attacks on the United States in an effort to apply (lie theme of "national liberation" to other countries. The CIIAMIAA What; it is is a Communist meeting; is it not? General CAnEr.r,. It is a Communist-influenced meeting, Mr. Chair- man. The CIIAmx rAl . Yes. Cuba has a Br'`'at many Chinese and other Do you have any information t.ha.t ]led China has attempted to mobilize them or to General CABEir,. Mr. Chairman, I have got a little piece on that, if you don't mind, which I will come to a little later. The CIrAMNrA-c. Yes, sir. Proceed, General. General CABELr.. The Communist. journalists in Latin America have, particularly since 1956, been encouraged and assisted in broadening their influence ly the Communist-front International Organization of Journalists. Since that tirre, Communists and their supporters have sought to bring national press associations closer to the International Organiza- tion of Journalists, and to sponsor a Latin American Congress of Journalists at w`riclt t1my could exploit Latin American nationalism and regionalism to the detriment of the United States. Important national press associations in Brazil, Peru, and Vene- zuela have given some official recognition to the International Organi- zation of Journalists. In October of 1958, the Venezuelan National Press Congress invited Jaroslav Knobla ?lt. of Czechoslovakia, the International Organization of Journalists' I resident, and Renato Leduc, of Mexico, a vice presi- dent, to speak. Leduc used this forum to attack the Latin American coverage of the ~o-called commercial news agencies, and called for a truly Latin American organization. As if in answer to this, the Prens.a. Latina Agency was organized, with headgnarte?s in Cuba, in early 1959. This agency .denies Communist sponsorship, -while claiming the backing of Mesi'--an industrialists and promoting the ultranationalist line. Prensa Latina now has correspondents, and sells its servicethrough- out Latin Amen i ?a and in the united States. The CHAIRMAN. You think that. is a Communist-controlled news service? General CABS .L. This came, out very quickly after the encourage- ment in the spe-clt by the Communists that such an institution was needed. We also call attention to the fact that its line plays this very ultra- nationalist line, which is the Communist line. Other than tl nt, at. this present moment., I do not think we could testify to you that it is a Communist organization. General CABE'L. It is under intensive investigation along the lines we have indicat'd, and it is just ripe for exploitation because of its intensely nationlilistie character. The CrrAn-rMA X. But, in your judgment., it, is Communist-influenced? General CABE-.L. We do not have the evidence to make such a firm Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-FDP91-I00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 157 conclusion, Mr. Chairman. But we certainly strongly suspect that is the case, and we are watching it like a hawk. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Senator HRUSKA. It has many badges which would indicate that? General CABF.nL. That is right. The Communists undoubtedly en- couraged or even inspired the organization of Prensa Latina, have infiltrated the organization, and have aided it both by providing news and utilizing its services. Its correspondents include some known Communist Party members, a number of cry to-Communists, and a good many ultranationalists. To date, one ofpthe chief customers of Prensa Latina appears to be the Cuban Communist newspaper by. However, because of its access to Communist and nationalist circles, it has also been able to supply material of interest to other newspapers and news services, including non-Communist ones. The Communist-bloc countries have increased their press activities in the area. Tass correspondents are located in. Mexico, Uruguay, and Argen- tina. The Czechoslovakian News Agency has established an office in Argentina. A group of Soviet journalists visited Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Peru, and Panama in April and May of 1958, establishing contact with pro-Communist writers and newsmen. In early 1959, the New China News Agency began building a net- work of correspondents in Latin America, and established a head- quarters in Havana, adjacent to that of the Prensa Latina. In con- nection with this effort, a group of Communist Chinese journalists traveled to various key Latin American countries. Not only have their gains in the field of journalism been significant, but Communists have also increased their propaganda in other fields. Wherever possible, as in Cuba, Communists have quickly exploited opportunities to utilize local radio and television. At the special conference held in Moscow in November 1957, em- phasis was placed on the revival and diversification of the peace move- ment. It was concluded that its main objective in Latin America should be to weaken the "war economy" of the United States. Thus, economic nationalism was established as a major "peace" objective. In accordance with instructions, the Argentine Communists held, a "Congress for International Cooperation, General Disarmament, and National Sovereignty" in May 1958, attended by leaders from through- out the hemisphere. This served to prepare for Latin American participation in the subsequent world meeting in Stockholm and also to coordinate re- gional planning. In accordance with a Soviet goal of several years standing, it resolved to promote a "Congress of the Peoples of Latin America" which would "meet the imperative necessity of integrating the national economies, strengthening the homogeneous elements of Latin American cultures, and organizing joint action to preserve world peace." Originally planned for December 1958, this "People's Congress"- which I mentioned earlier-was postponed, and it now appears that the Communists are capitalizing on the appeal made by Cuba's youth- ful Minister of Education, Dr. Armando Hart, for just such a "Peo- ple's Congress." , Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 This has give:r them the non-Communist sponsorship which they desire, and has alallowed them to develop the "defense"of the Cuban revolution as an additional basis for attracting the support of Latin American nationalists, and anti-U.S. elements. Senator Ilut s Htia. Let me ask, do you know any new date for the meeting of that ingress? General CABEr?L. Luis Carlos Prestes, the secretary general of the Communist Parry of Brazil, said in August that he expected it to come off in the v;;ry near future in Cuba, and that is the last date we have. The national peace, movements have also been active in more con- ventional "peace" activities such as opposition to military pacts, nuclear testing, and activities of U.S. military missions. The current trend, however, suggests that the main purpose of the national peace comnritt&es has become that of coordinating activities in behalf of the "liberation struggle" within a wide variety of organ- izations, particu'arly those of an economic and cultural nature.. Under the he= ding of other front activities, the labor, youth and student, journalistic, and peace-front activities are the most important in Latin America. There are mart' others, however, in which increased organizational activity is also apparent. The Women's International Democratic Federation for example, is seeking to develop a First Latin American Congress o? Women, sched- uled to be held Tn Santiago, Chile, between November 19 and 20 of 1959. Coordination of the activities of the various Soviet friendship societies or binational cultural exchange institutes may have been the purpose behind -he organization of a Soviet Federation for Friend- ship and Cultural Cooperation with Latin America in January 1959. In addition to the world fronts, the Communists have organized or infiltrated nume-ous national or regional organizations to aid in the "national l iberat ion" struggle. For example, he Union of Latin American Friendship, Union de Amistad Latino Americana, recently established with headquarters in Mexico, serves to coordinate and disseminate information from vari- ous countries, :uch as the Dominican republic, Nicaragua, and Honduras. For each of tl ese countries, and for others as well, there is at least one Communist- :?ont rolled front, among the various political opposi- tion groups, whit-h advocates unified action based on a minimal pro- gram for `national liberation." Such a front i., the IIaitian National Liberation Movement, founded by the. Commtmit leader Rene Depestre, but claimed to be "composed of young persona: from all patriotic groups and of all political tenden- cies." The program of this group was recently published in the Cuban Communist newspaper Hoy. To conclude, it. is evident that the Communists have an extremely useful formula in the strategy of the "national liberation struggle." They have difficulties and are still having problems in allaying the distrust of non-Communist elements, which either recognize the true nature of communism and the opportunistic nature of the Communist alliance which hi being offered, or which recognize the beneficial as- Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 159, pects of their national ties with the United States and prefer to nego- tiate political and economic differences rather than to destroy these ties. To counteract this opposition, the local Communists, with the help of the international Communist apparatus and the Soviet Union, are attempting to show, first, that the Communists are sincerely dedicated to democracy and "national liberation" and are willing to fight to achieve these goals; and, second, that the United States needs no longer to be feared, as its influence has been matched by the Soviet Union. Mr. SoURwINE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask one question? The CHAIRMAN. Yes. Mr. SOURWINE. General, the committee has received from a very knowledgeable person, who has been a lifelong student of China, an appraisal from which I would like to read two paragraphs, and ask whether you concur or if there is any comment you can give us on this : Talk of an allegedly "inevitable" Sino-Soviet schism may serve as intellectual aspirin to repress our policy headaches with both Moscow and Peiping. Like aspirin, however, the repressant only postpones coping with the problem ; it does not eliminate it. All the component parts of the Soviet Empire, including Red China, may be compared to the members of a baseball team. Each has a part to play in trying to win the game, although each occupies a different position and is called upon to do a different sort of thing. Moscow is on the team, too, but its position is that of a player-manager, and it flashes the signs. In a given situation, the player-manager may call for all kinds of play-squeeze, sacrifice, and so on. The player asked to play a certain way cannot give any consideration to his own personal record. Mickey Mantle cannot go up to Casey Stengel and say to him that, since he (Mantle) is well on the way to beating Babe Ruth's home-run record, he had better be given the chance to try the long ball rather than bunting for a sacrifice. If the particular situation appears to the manager to call for a bunt, Mickey Mantle must bunt, home-run record or no. home-run. record. The idea is to try to win the game, not to achieve a personal glory. Khrushchev is a better team player than Stalin. Hence his denunciation of the "personality cult." Liu Shao-chi is a better team player than Mao Tze-tung. Hence Mao's displacement. Chou En-lai, with his many faces which so baffle Western ob- servers, is an excellent team player. Western estimate of world communism suffers considerably by paying too much attention to personalities and too little to the team concept. To win the game is the all-important thing, and the Com- munists, whether Russian, Chinese, Polish, or Albanian, mean to win it. We must also be careful to draw the proper line of distinction between "total" and "limited" wars. The Russians, and to a lesser extent the Chinese, under- stand that a "total" war with nuclear weapons may spell the doom of every- body, especially the Communists. I say "especially the Communists" because of the ring of strategic bases around Russia and mainland China. Their propa- ganda has been to induce the United States to give up the bases. Before they succeed in doing that, the Communists are not likely to risk total war. But limited wars are an entirely different thing. They are not hesitant in provoking them here and there as long as they are sure they will not explode into a total war. Russia at present has very little room to stage limited wars. The moment she touches Western Europe, total war is on. On the other hand Red China has plenty of room to risk limited wars. Surely no total war will break out on account of Sikkim or Bhutan for the Indian border. So, on the surface, Russia may appear to be pursuing one line and Red China another. To return to the baseball analogy, one player may be bunting and the other swinging for the fences. The thing to remember is that all are on the same team, putting on obviously different plays under different circumstances, but the ultimate objec- tive is to win the game. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 160 C0147MiJNIST 9M EAT TIhROUGII THE CARIBBEAN General CABE`.L. Mr. Sourwine, I cannot comment on the whole piece. But I will make some comment on it. In the first pla,e, I think the aspirin analogy is not a bad one. As I pointed cut earlier, I think this is a very comforting thought, this schism betwen the two, but I think it is more potential than actual at the present time. With respect t) the baieball team analogy, I would not be as extreme as that, because I do not believe that the response to discipline or orders is quite as immediate and complete and unquestioning as the ballplayer to the manager. It is true,lowl ver, that the team aspect of international communism is often insufficiently considered. One of the chief objectives of com- munism in the I ist few years has been to improve international co- ordination. Both the Soviets and the Chinese have been doing this, with some success This is particularly true in the undeveloped areas where the strengthening of the regional and local Communist move- ments is the immediate goal. I think, as time goes on, the sensibilities of the Chinese will have to be taken more into consideration and the willingness or ability of their team manager to give firm orders and sacrifice, hit instructions, and things like tl at, are;;ping to be somewhat eroded. With respect to the limited war elements of your question, I think it would take up a long time to deal with that aspect, and I would just suggest that we c -ieck on that. b r. SouliwIxE. General, what is the numerical strength of the Com- munist movemen in Latin America? General CABEI T, I would say that, in general the Communist Par- ties have increased their membership. The number of Latin American Communists is estimated now at about 220,000 to 240,000, which is about a 10-pirce at increase over our 1958 estimates. The number of sympathizers is e-,timatcd at about 650,000 to 700,000. It should be cinphasized that the Communist threat continues to be based on the organizational ability and international connections of the Communist Parties and their fronts, and individual leaders, ratlier than numerical strength. The CIIAIRNIA2. That is true all over the world? General CABELT.. Yes; but I would say it is particularly true in. Latin America. The CIIAraMiA'\. Is the Commmnist. drive in Latin America similar to their drive in Africa and the Middle East; is it more intense? General CABEI.L. Yes. sir; but I think it started sooner in Latin America. The CII. nc rAN. You think it is more intense in Latin America? General CAIIELL. Yes, sir. Thief CIIAinM:A-F. It started. sooner there? General CAnELL. Yes, sir. Senator IIIIus1A. how much sooner? General CAnEI.L. I would say in the nature of several years, sir; and I think they. too, realize that the United States is more susceptible to hurt in this area, than elsewhere. The CHAIRMAN. They can weaken us more easily in Latin America. General CAnE?.L. And there is no doubt about who the principal enemy of the So-viet Union is and of the Communist Party. There is no doubt about t?iat whatseoever, and that is the United States. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH TIDE CARIBBEAN 161 Mr. SouuwxE.; In other words, the drive in_ Latin America is pointed at us? General CABELL. More than anything else; yes. Senator HRUSKA. General, you say it is several years; it is a. fact, is it not, that there has been organized Communist activity and move- ment in Latin America for 25 years? General CABELL. Oh, yes; I was talking in terms of a drive. Senator HRUSKA. And the intensification that we now witness? General CABELL. That is right. Mr. SoURwINE. General, would it be possible for your agency to furnish the committee a table showing the estimated strength of the Communist Parties in various countries in Latin America General CABELL. Yes; I can do that. The following table contains approximate figures on Communist Party strengths. These figures are constantly under review, and are subject to changes in response to new and more reliable information. COMMUNIST PARTY MEMBERSHIP Argentina-------------------- 80,000 Haiti------------------------ 15 Bolivia---------------------- 5,000 Honduras -------------------- 700 Brazil----------------------- 40,000 Mexico ---------------------- 2,500 Chile------------------------ 30,000 Nicaragua------------------- 50 Colombia-------------------- 6,000 Panama------------------- 110 Costa Rica ------------------- 300 Paraguay-------------------- 3,000 Cuba------------------------ 17,000 Peru------------------------ 6,000 Dominican Republic ---------- 50 Uruguay --------------------- '3,400 Ecuador--------- _---.-----__ 3, 000 Venezuela -------------------- 40,000 ElSalvador ------------------- 500 Guatemala ------------------- 1,100 Total__________________ 238,725 General CABELL. But again let me point out that this table does not include the Communist-front parties, such as Lombardo Toledano's Popular Party in Mexico. These in the table are the Communist Parties themselves, and not the front parties. Senator JOHNSTON. The front parties are kind of a training party? General CABELL. It is an influence party. Senator JOHNSTON. It kind of breaks them off. The CHAIRMAN. General, are you familiar with a.dooiament purport- ing to be a Castro directive laying the groundwork for the extinction of the Catholic Church in the Dominican Republic,? General CABELL. No ; I am not. Mr. SomiwINE. General, what are your estimates on the scope of the subsidies which the Communist movement in:Latin AmoriCajs.l;eceiv- ing from the bloc? (general CABELL. The truth about. Communist finances is generally known only to a very small number of Communist leaders within each local Communist Party. Even within the apparatus of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and China there are only a few. functionaries who J andle the problem of subsidizing foreign Oommunist Parties. In addition, the transmission of funds from the Soviet Union, as was pointed out earlier, proceeds through a multitude of channels and under a multitude of disguises. It is, therefore, very :difficult to wake an accurate estimate. on hew much money the Soviets or the Chinese spend on Communist subver- sion in Latin America. 43354-00-pt. 3-4 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 162 CODS JNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN In general, it c ppears that the bulk of Soviet subsidies is poured into the promotion cf Communist front activities, rather than into the Communist Parties themselves. This is, of cot rse, only a technicality since Communist fronts and Communist Parties work hand in hand. Nevertheless, t is another indication of how seriously the Soviets intended to create a favorable climate for communism in Latin America. On the basis of similar observations in other areas, it would be fair to state that the Soviets heavily subsidize the Communist Party press in Latin Ameriei. The cost of tr fining Latin American Communists is also borne by the Soviets whc, obviously, desire that the Communist Parties in Latin America b ; strengthened for the long haul. The cost of the Soviets' overall training program for Communists in the free world has been estimated at, conservatively, $500,000 per year. This is in addition to the approximately $500,000 mentioned already as having- been spent for travel expenses alone in 1958. Indications are that the Chinese Communists may complement Soviet subsidies. The Chinese Communist Party bears all expenses for the training of Latin American Communists in China, and has given the impression of having ample funds for the "fraternal" sup- port of foreign Communist Parties. Mr. SOURWINF. General, is the U.S.S.R. or any of its satellites pro- viding military aid to the Communist or pro-Communist forces in Latin America I General CABELL. Not to our current knowledge. The CrIAnu A17. It is said that roughly 750 North Korean and Communist Chinese fought with the Castro forces. These people were not soon in the cities of Cuba, but were kept in the interior of Cuba. Do you hare ary knowledge of that 9 General CABEI L. No, sir; we do not, and we would seriously doubt the authenticity of any such figure. We have no evidence of any participation in the revolution. Nor do we have any knowledge of Chinese Commur ist No. I participation. The CIIArxMAY. All right. What do you have information about? About what Communists fought in Castro's forces? General CABELT... In Cuba? The CHHATRMAr. Yes, sir. General CABELL,. That question is related to the question. Is Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro a Communist 4 Let me develo p that thought for you, sir. Our information shows that the Cuban Communists do not consider him a Communist Party member, or even it pro-Communist. On the other hand they are delighted with the nature of his gov- ernment, which l as allowed the Communists opportunity, free oppor- tunity, to organise, to propagandize, and to infiltrate. We know that the Communists consider Castro as a representative of the bourgeoisie, and were unable to gain public recognition or com- mitnrients from him during the course of the revolution. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE 'CARIBBEAN 163 We know that the Communists were concerned when, at the time of his trip to the United States, he showed evidence of a friendly attitude toward the United States. We know also that it has been the assigned task of the Cuban Com- munist Party to prevent Castro's revolution from going to the right, that is; from establishing friendly relations with the United States, or ending its tolerance of Communist activities. Our conclusion, therefore, is that Fidel Castro is not a Communist; however, lie certainly is not anti-Communist. His extreme policies, including confiscation of private property, lead him to take positions and make statements such as his violent anti-U.S. outbursts which are extremely useful to international communism and are being exploited by the Communists to the maximum extent. He has delegated authority in key areas to persons known to be pro- Communists or who are susceptible to exploitation by Communists. In turn, he appears to be increasingly susceptible to Communist propaganda, which is designed to exploit "evidence" that the United States is an enemy, to discredit charges of Communist influence in Cuba and witch hunting-or as they call it, maccartismo-and to glorify the Cuban revolution, and particularly the agrarian reform as a pattern for the "liberation" of the masses in other Latin American countries. It is questionable whether the Communists desire to recruit Castro into the Communist Party, that they could do so if they wished, or that he would be susceptible to Communist discipline if he joined. As I say that is subject to question. The 6ommunist viewpoint is that he represents leadership of a nationalistic, bourgeoise-democratic revolution which precedes a Com- munist rise to power. The Communist interest is to help further the nationalistic aspects of his regime and to preserve a climate of tolerance which will allow the Communists to organize and build the foundation for their future control. At present, therefore, their primary interest is to influence Castro in favor of an aggressive, "anti-imperialist" nationalism supported by non-Communists, but which will defend the rights of Communists to express their views openly and engage in legal activity. In their attempt to influence Castro, the Communists are known to be utilizing five principal channels. First, they are seeking to influence him through his close associates who are generally known to be pro-Communist. Fidel's brother, Raul, and his close adviser, Ernesto (Che) Guevara, are both strong friends of the Communist Party. Second, the Communists have sought to guide the program and the policies of the Government and of the 26th of July movement. They have been able to exert considerable influence through pro- Communists or sympathizers who have been appointed to key posts and who have virtual autonomy in their fields. Such persons have been appointed by Fidel on the basis of friend- ships, trust, and loyalty established during-the revolution, and he is committed to defend their policies. Third, the Communists and their sympathizers are seeking to im- plant 'elementary Marxist concepts within the political indoctrination Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 courses established by the 26th of July movement, thereby establishing the foundation for a pro-Communist-Marxist political plrilosopli to eventually replace the highly personalistic philosophy represented by Fidel. Fourth, through their overt propaganda organs, radio and television commentary, and selective or false news reporting, the Communists hope to shield File], and the Cuban public, from news favorable to U.S. policies, and to exploit news unfavorable to the United States. Fifth, tlrrfougborganizational activity among the peasants, within the army, and within labor, they hope to gain control of the public demonstrations, iiass meetings, and strikes which Fidel is wont to call in evidence cf the solidarity of the Cuban people with him and his policies. Although it is evident t rat the Communists have- been able to exploit Castro in his movement for their own benefit through these channels, as yet they do not appear to control him or his government. In terms of mass following, they still represent a, minority, though a very well organized one. In certain arex-s, as in organized labor, there are experienced non- Communist len.dirs who form an obstacle to rapid Communist progress. There are student. and professional groups which are also non- Communist although firmly supporting Fidel, and -within the 26th of July movement there is considerable evidence of opposition to communism. As evidenced n the recent demonstrations, however, these groups are prepared to rally to the defense of the regime. Senator Join: Tow. Is it not true that he is more dangerous than if lie would come out and let them know that he was a Communist? General C'= r4Fr r.. I personall , would a ree that Castro would prob- ably lose much, or even most, of his popular support should this occur. However, we beieve that Castro is not a member of the Communist Party, and does not consider himself to be a, Communist. Senator Jou sroN. Ile knows himself that, if he would come out openly for the -,ommunists he- would lose his usefulness. - General CA13F-,r.. That is right. Insofar as lie loses public support, he loses the cannbility to achieve his goals-though he could still be portrayed as vi.stim of counterrevolutionary machinations. The CHAranr?r,*. To say the least, the Communist movement has made very grew` progress in Cuba since Castro took over the Cuban Government; h is it not? General CABI LL.. Th:it is correct; yes, sir, ;tar. SOURS-INE. General, what type. of aid is the U.S.S.Pt. provid- ing to revolutionary elements, such as those in the Caribbean? General CAnr:r... Primarily advice--primarily they are furnishing advice and moral support., propaganda materials and services. Soviet support to revolutionary elements is channeled through the Communist Parties, through the Communist fronts, and through key Communists w thin other organizations. The sending :pf military shipments to Latin American revolut ionary elements or serding Soviet military advisers is not yet evident.. Mr. Sorxwrr-F. To what extent are the Communists responsible for thee, re.volntionsry expeditions which have appeared in the Caribbean area in the part. few years? Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-009658000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 165 General CABELL. The Communists have participated actively in such expeditions, but we, do not believe that they have organized them nor dominated them. Communist participation in such expeditions is demanded by their "national liberation" strategy and tactics. Such participation is also fully in keeping with specific items and encouragement given them by both the Soviet and Chinese Communists in early 1959. Mr. SOURWINE. Can you tell us, General, what is the extent of Chinese Communist penetration in Latin America? General CABELL. I think this is essentially the question that you were driving at, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIR MAN. Yes, sir. General CABELL. Since 1952, the Chinese Communist penetration in Latin America has been increasing. In that year the Chinese Communists invited delegates from the Pacific coast countries to attend a Peace Congress of Asian and Pacific peoples in Peiping. In 1956 the Chinese Communist penetration effort was intensified through the establishment of direct relations. with Latin American Communist Party representatives and the founding of a training school in Peiping for Latin American Communists. Chinese Communist revolutionary instruction is well received by Latin American Communist students who find it practical and well suited to the conditions in which they operate in Latin America. They especially appreciate the fact that the Chinese Communists pay even their travel expenses. In February and March of 1959, Latin. American Communist repre- sentatives received specific advice and guidance from Mao Tze-tung and other leading Chinese Communists concerning international Com- munist policy and effective methods of carrying on clandestine activities. Notably increased "cultural" exchanges and the formation of addi- tional "friendship" societies have contributed to further Chinese Com- munist penetration of Latin America. With the aid of local Communist Parties, the Chinese: Communists have taken effective steps to establish throughout Latin America a network of correspondents for their official New China News Agency. Chinese Communist broadcasts to Latin America have been stepped up to 14 program hours per week. Trade with Latin America is also expanding. Senator HausKA. General, what would you know or what would you care to tell us about any interaction between the so-called China Friendship Societies in Latin America and those here in America, in the United States? Is there, any interaction? General CABELL. I do not think that we have been able to detect any. We have no evidence. The way they do that-they have that inter- action, and certainly it occurs-is that the people from here will go to a meeting in Moscow or Peiping, and the people from there! will go to the meeting in Moscow or Peiping, and then subsequently get together and get their orders and philosophy and all at that point, so that the exchange or the indoctrination does not actually takee place on U.S. soil. But we know that they attend these joint meetings of those various front organizations. Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 166 COMMUT'1ST rn REAT TIIROUGII THE CARIBBEAN Mr. SornwiNE. General, are the Chinese groups resident in Latin America, significant with respect to Communist penetration? General CABET L. There are numerous Chinese colonies in Latin America, mostly located in the principal cities. Many of these Chi- nese are second generation or more. In Peru, where the largest Chinese population exists, the total, in- cluding second generation, is about 50,000. Of these, some 14 000 are Chinese nationals, that is, immigrants retaining Nationalist ahi- neso documentation, and 11,000 are. located in Lima, the capital. In Cuba, the total Chinese population is about 40,000, of which some 20,000 are ir: Havana. In Guayaquil, Ecuador, there are over 5,000; in Sao Paulo, Brazil, there are over 1,0.)0. Mr. Sou-rtwINs. General, may I interrupt at that point, you say of the 50,000 Chine.F.; in Peru approximately 14,000 are Chinese Nationals and 11,000 are. ]seated in Lima. You do not. mean 11,000 out of the 14,000, but 11,000 out of the50,000? General CAnEr.'.. 11,000 out of the 50,000 is correct. Mr. Sourtwrst, Please; go ahead, sir. General C.unFrr,. In general, these Chinese are non-Communist and relatively unimrortant in terms of national politics. Many actively favor the Nation ,lists. There are, of course, some pro-Communist elements, although very few are known to be members of the Communist Party, and the various parties have male no significant effort to expand their membership within the local i_:hinesc communities up to now. However, in s~eking to expand its commercial and propaganda re- lations, the Chi -eese communist. Government is seeking to use these people. One of the p irposes of the recent trip by Chinese journalists to various Latin American countries was to establish contact with friendly members of the local Chinese communities. It is also known that Chinese have used false documentation, ob- tained through members of the resident Chinese communities. as a means of illegally obtaining docuntent Well, there was no office or agency for the investi- gation of Communist Party and international Communist conspira- torial activities. There were investigative agencies, such as the De- partiuent of Investigation, but these were not primarily interested in communism. The CIIA1RMMA2:. What caused Batista to fall ? Just what hap- pened? General CABEI.1.. Well, Mr. Chairman, lie did not have a sound base for his regime. Was CIIATRIrAN. as his army whipped in the field? Was he de posed by his generals? General CABELS? The army disintegrated. Its morale just com- pletely disintegrated in the face of the growing numbers in the Castro movement. It. became helpless. Senator JoHi.Ns ,o.. Did they continue to pay the soldiers? General CABELI.. Essentially; yes. I do not think that it disbanded through lack of p,Ey. That was not it. Their heart, way not in It. They recognized the. Batista regime as being corrupt, an I they were generally impressed by the slogans that the revolutionari(s were putting out., and so they did not have the will to fight or the leaders did not have the courage to attempt to right, so there really was n ) fight. The CIIAIRMAY. We received testinu}ny from [lie President-elect of Cuba, who never took office, that representatives of the American Government in November or December, which was it fir. SOL'RWINE. Sir, I think it was November. The CI1AiRM.' . Called on the generals and stated that our Govern- ment would not r.; cognize the election of the new government in Cuba and that, therefore, the Army lost confidence, and that the Army caused Batista to leave the country and attempted to make it deal with Castro. General CABarr . Are you asking me the question, Mr. Chairman ? The CraAIRMAN. If you have any information about it. General CABrLi.. Mr. Chairman, there was no such approach made by members of CIA. I do not know whether or not any such ap- proach was made by any Government agencies, but my best belief is that it is incorrect. It did not happen. And, as a. matt( r of fact., the lack of an army forced him to run, but not the army. The CIIAni 1AN. Yes, sir. But what I got was just the sense of what he said, as I remember it. I think lie said `he army then caused Batista. to leave. They at- tempted to make a deal with Castro, and each one of those generals was killed. General CABEL-.. As a matter of fact, Mr. Chairman, Batista put in arrest several of his principal army leaders before his flight. Senator IIRUSSA. General, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are pretty much down in that neighborhood where there is a lot of ac- Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 179 tivity. Has anything come to your attention as to any efforts along subversive lines there along the same approach you have described in other countries ? General CABELL. Senator, we are not knowledgeable or expert in that. Senator HRUSKA. If there were not any such activities they would have to start someplace and end there. I just wondered if there was anything that came to your attention in connection with the effort that you make. General CABELL. I do not know of any concerted or organized move- ment against the Virgin Islands or against Puerto Rico or against U.S. interests in those places, based outside the area. Senator JOHNSTON. What was Batista's attitude toward the Com- munists? General CABELL. Batista was opposed to the Communists, but with- out a great depth of feeling. As a matter of fact, it was in Batista's regime that BRAC was estab- lished for the purpose of combating the Communists. Senator HRUSKA. Might it be said that his opposition to them was that he conceived of them as a political enemy of his own? General CABELL. That is right. He was not really interested in- he did not hoist aboard the idea of an international Communist movement. Senator JOHNSTON. Isn't that also true now of Castro? A lot of those were leaders with him against Batista, and he is appointing them in the Government. General CABELL. But I would say in the case of Batista there was just an unawareness of it. But in the case of many of the leaders around Castro they do not seem to care. The CHAIRMAN. They cooperate with them. General CABELL. Yes. Senator HimsKA. In connection with Puerto Rico, particularly, we have heard evidence that there were mailings of Communist literature, emanating from presumably Mexico, made into Puerto Rico on a basis not as large as in some other countries, because it is a smaller area, but we do have evidence on that score. Senator JOHNSTON. We do have evidence that it is coming into the United States, too. General CABELL. Yes. Senator JOHNSTON. In New York, if you go up there, you see a room three times as big as this, covered with such mailings. The CHAIRMAN. Any further questions? Gentlemen, we thank you. General CABELL. It is a pleasure, Mr. Chairman. (Whereupon, at 1:05 p.m., the committee adjourned.) Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 INDEX Nov: aThe Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization in this index. A Page Adduct, Giacomo (Italian labor leader) -------------------------------- 151 Africa ------------------------------------------------------------- 143 Agrarian reform----------------------------------------------------- 163 Agrarian Reform Institute-------------------------------------------- 144 Alvarado, Cesar Alonso---------------------------------------------- 153 Anti-Batista struggle------------------------------------------------- 154 "Anti-imperialist struggle"----------------------------------------- 147,149 "Anti-U.S. Mobs Riot in Panama" (New York Times, November 1959) (by Paul P. Kennedy) --------------------------------------------- 174-176 APLE (Agrupacion per la Libertad de Espana-Group for the Liberty of Spain) ---------------------------------------------------------- 174 ARDE (Accion Republicana. Democratica Espanola) -------------------- 174 Argentina----------------------------------------- 143, 151, 157, 167, 170, 177 Armenians ---------------------------------------------------------- 167 Asia ---------------------------------------------------------------- 143 B Batista---------------------------------------------------- 141,176,178,179 Bayo, Gen Alberto---------------------------------------------------- 174 Betancourt, President------------------------------------------------ 170 Bhutan -------------------------------------------------------------- 159 Bogota ------------------------------------------------------- 169 Bolivia------------------------------------------------ ------ 143,147,171 Boyd, Aquilino (former Foreign Minister of Panama) ------------------ 174 Boye, Mau,rice------------------------------------------------------- 151 BRAC (Bureau of Resistance to Communist Activities) -------------- 177-179 Brazil-------------------------------------------- 143, 151, 153, 156, 167,169 (Sao Paulo) --------------------------------------------- 166 Brazilian Institute for Advanced Studies---------------------------- 148 British Honduras---------------------------------------------------- 153 Buenos Aires------------------------------------------------------ 169, 172 Budapest ---------------------------------------------------------- 148 Buenos Aires-------------------------------------------------------- 151 C Cabell, Gen. C. P. (Deputy Director, VIA), statement of---------------- 141 Canal Zone--------------------------------------------------------- 172,176 Caribbean waters --------------------------------------------------- :_ 176 Castillero, Ernesto, Jr------------------------------------------------ 175 Castro, Fidel------------------------------------ 141, 155, 161, IG3,164,174,179 Castro forces-------------------------------------------------- 162,174,176 Castro government--------------------------------------------------- 173 Castro, Raul (Chief of Cuban Armed Forces) ----------- 149, 155, 163,166, 174 "Che" Guevara-------------------------------------- --------------- 174 Chile --------------------------------------------- 147, 151, 153, 157, 167, 168 Santiago ------------------------------------------------------ 151,158 Chilean-Czechoslovakian Cultural Institute---------------------------- 168 Chilean Socialists ----------------------------------------------------- . 167 Chilean Teachers Union (12th National Convention of) ------------------ 151 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 II INDEX Page China/Chinese------------------------------------- 143, 149, 152, 153, 159, 101 Red China ------------------------------------- 147,150,152, China FriendshpL} Societies------------------------------------------- 145 Chou En-lai --- --------------- --------- ------------- ------------ 159 CIA---------------------------------------------------------- 178 Colombia -------------------------------------------------- 143, 147, 153, 176 Communist Part;,: Argentina--------------------------- --------------------------- 147 Brazil ----------------------------------------------------------- 158 China---------------------------------------------- 143, 147, 148, 162,105 Cuba----------------------------------------------------------- 145, 178 Latin Ameri"n--------------------------------------------- 143,148,149 Mexico 169 Of Soviet Union ----------------------------------- 141, 143,146-149,105 Communist Purta membership in Latin America (table) ----------------- 101 "Congress for Iuternatioiial Cooperation, General Disarmament and Na- tional Suverelgaty----------------------- - - 157 "Congress of the Peoples of Latin America------------------------------ 157 Costa Rica----------------------------- 148 Cuba -------------- 143-145, 147, 151, 153, 15.1, 156, 158, 162, 106, 171, 173, 174, 177 Cuban Governmei.t--------------------------------------------- 144, 155, 176 Havana----------------------------------------------- 152, 166, 167,172 Cuban Sugar Stabilization Institute--. --------------------------------- 145 Cuban Revolution------- ----------------------------------------- 149,155 Cuban waters--------------------------------------------------------- 176 "Cultural" excha iges----------------------- 105 Cultural Institults and Centers (pro-Communist in Chile)--------------- 168 Czechoslovakia - -- ---- ------ --- ------------------------------- 152,150 (Czechs) --------------------------------------------------------- 167 Czechoslovakian News Agency----------------------------------------- 157 Dange, S. A. (Indian Communist)------------------------------------- 151 Darden, Maj. B, t,. (Canal Zone's police chief)_________________________ 175 Delanoue,Paul --------------------------------------------------------- .151 Del Pino, Rafael ----------------------------------------------------- 177 Department of Investigation--------------- ------------------------------------------ 178 Despestre, Rene------------------------------------------------------ 158 Dominican Repullie ------------------------------------------------ 155, 161 Eastland, Senator James 0------------------------------------------ 141 East-West strugglr'--------------------------------------------------- 142 Ecuador------------------------------------------------------ 143, 147, 153 (Guayaquil) ----------------------------------------------------- 166 Editorial Atlnntc---------------------------------------------------- 170 Editorial GrtJalbc (Communist publishing house) ---------------------- 169 Europe------------------------------------------------------------ 147, 152 (Western) ---------------------------------------------------- 147, 152 F FBI - - -- - - ----- ----- -------------------------- 148,108 First Latin Amer[ --an Congress of Women---------------------------- 158 Florida------------------------------------------------- ----------- 176 F'ondo de Cultura Popular, A.C. (Editorial Popular)-------------------- 169 Formosa------------------------------------------------------------- 153 "Friendship" societies---------------------------------------------- 105, 107 Frondizi, President--------------------------------------------------- 170 FUDE (Frente Ufldo Democratico Espanol-United Spanish Democratic Front) ------------------------------------------------------------- 174 Gaiarzn, Jorge------------------------------------------------------- 153 Germany (East)-.----------------------------------------------------- 147 Girete, Otto Cesar t'argas-..------------------------------------------- 153 Gomez, Orlando Funcia (Brazilian Communist youth leader) ------------ 153 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Page Guadalupe----------------------------------------------------------- - 153 Guantanamo Bay-------------------------------------------------- 172, 173 Guatemalan territory------------------------------------------------- 153 Guedes, Ruben------------------------------------------------------- 153 Guevara, Ernesto (Che) ---------------------------------------------- 163 Guiana-------------------------------------------------------------- 153 , "Historical Materialism"--------------------------------------------- 169 Honduras ----------------------------------------------------------- 158 Hoy (Cuban Communist newspaper) ------------------------ 149, 157, 158, 166 Hruska, Senator Roman L-------------------------------------------- 141 Hungarians---------------------------------------------------------- 167 I Imprenta Cosines---------------------------------------------------- 169 Impresiones Modernas------------------------------------------------ 170 Information Bulletin (of Soviet Embassy) ----------------------------- 169 Institute of Mexican-Russian Cultural Exchange----------------------- 169 Intercambio Cultural------------------------------------------------- 169 International Communist movement___________________________________ 153 International Organization of Journalists______________________________ 156 International Union of Students (IUS)---------------------- 147-149 153 154 Interparliamentary Union-----------------------------------------'-- - 144 IUS------------------------------------------------------------------- 152 Jaroslav Knoblock------------------- -- ------ ---- -------------- 156 Johnston, Senator Olin D--------------------------------------------- 141 K Khrushchev------------------------------------------------------- Kommunist (Soviet Communist Party magazine) ----------------------- 141 .Konstantinov-------------------------------------------------------- 169 Korea, North------------------------------------------------------ 143, 162 Kotchergin, Vadim--------------------------------------------------- 171 L La Cabana Fortress (Havana) ---------------------------------------- 154 Lanz, Pedro Diaz---------------------------------------------------- Latin American C f d ti f 176 on e era on o Labor (CTAL) (Confederacion de Trabajadores de America Latina) ---------------------------------- 150,170 Latin America Congress of Journalists_______________________________ 156 Latin American Youth----------------------------------------------- 153 Latin American Youth & Student Congress----------------------------- 155 Leduc, Renato------------------------------------------------------- 156 " Lessons in Reading and Writing" (book).----------------------------- 173 Libreria Nacional---------------------------------------------------- 169 Libreria Navarro---------------------------------------------------- 170 Lithuanians--------------------------------------------------------- 167 Liu Shao-chi-------------------------------------------------------- 159 Lombardo Toledano's Popular Party in Mexico----------------------- 161 M Magil, Abe (CPUSA representative at 12th CP-Mexico Congress) 152 ------- Mandel, Benjamin--------------------------------------------------- 141 Man-Shing-Po (anti-Communist newspaper) ---------------------------- 166 "Manual of Political Economy"--------------------------------------- 169 Mao Tze-tung------------------------------------------------------ 159,165 H Haitian National Liberation Movement-------------------------------- 158 Harrington, Julian P. (U.S. Ambassador) ----------------------------- 175 Hart, Dr. Armando (Minister of Education) --------------------------- 157 172 Havana--------------------------------------------------- 152,166, 167 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Page Martinique ------- --------------------------------------------------- 153 ..Marxist/ism------------------------------------------------------- 145,148 Illnrxist-Leninist theory______________________________________________ 146 3iassip, Antonio ------------------------------------------------------- 154 Mexican-R ussian Cultural Exchange Institute------------------------- 145 Mexican Workers' and Peasnnts' Party -_------------------------------ 169 Mexico----------------------------------- 113, 151, 153, 156-158, 170, 172, 179 Mexico City---------------------------------------------------------- 1139 ML) (Movimiento por In Libertad de Espana-Movement for the Liberty of Spain) --------------------------------------------------------- 174 Montevideo---------------------------------------------------------- 151 +Ioscow---------------------------------------------- 140, 147, 149, 105, 168 N National assembly ----------------------------------------------------- 175 National Associati"n of Send-Public Employees (Asoclaclon Naelonal de Empleados Semi-Fiscales)------------------------------------------- 151 "National lilieration" struggle-------------------------- 143,140,149--151,158 "National liberation" strategy and tactics--------------------------- 165, 170 National Metal Workers Congress------------------------------------- 151 National Universil-v i -------------------------------------------------- 175 New China L>emoc:`atic Alliance_______________________________________ 166 New China News Agency. ------------------------------------- 157, 105, 167 New York----------------------------------------------------------- 179 Nicaragua -------------------------------------------------------- 153, 158 0 1058 May Day celebration------------------------ -------- 151 Othon, Pablo---------------------------------------------------------- 175 P Panama ------------------------------------------------- 147, 157, 172, 174 (Canal) ------------------------------------------------------- 172,173 (Colon) --------------------------------------------------------- 175 Pan American Alr-vays ----------------------------------------------- 175 Paredes, Efrain A-varez---------------------------------------------- 153 Paris ---------------------------------------------------------------- 174 Peace Congress of Asian and Pacific peoples--------------------------- 165 "Peaceful invasior"-------------------------------------------------- 175 "Peace prize"-------------------------------- ---------------------- 140 Peiping ---------- -------------------------------------- 147, 149, 153,159, 165 "People's Congress'--------------------------------------------- 149,155,157 Peru ---------------------------------------------------------- 153,157,166 Poland ------------------------------------------------------------ 147,152 Poles ----------------------------------------------------------- 167 Ponomnrev, Boris \------------------------------------------------- 141 Popular I'arly in iIexico--------------------------------------------- 161 Popular Party of Lombardo Toledano and Workers' University---------- 170 Popular Socialist L'arty----------------------------------------------- 155 Portuguese ---------------------------------------------------------- 169 Portuoudo, Dr. Erulllo Nunez------------------------------------------ 177 Potter, Maj. Gen. William E. (Governor of Canal Zone) --------------175 I'rague_. -------------------------------------------------------- ------------ ------------------------------------------- 152, 108 Presna Latina Agency____-.------------------------------------ 150, 157, 166 Prestos, Luis Carl's--------------------------------------------------- 158 Problems of Peace and Socialism (World .Marxist Review) ------------ 148, 109 Puerto Rico------------------------------------------------------ 178, 179 Q Quemoy-------------------------------------------------------------- 153 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 R Page Rio de Janeiro----------------------------------------------------- 144,151 Rumanians----------------------------------------------------------- 167 Russia------------------------------------------------------- 144, 152, 172 Russian submarines__________________________________________________ 176 S Scarponi, Paolo------------------------------------------------------ 151 Schroeder, Frank W------------------------------------------------- 141 Seventh World Youth Festival---------------------------------------- 153 Sikkim ---------------------------------------------------------------- 159 Sixth Youth Festival----------------------------------- 154 Slav/s: (Communist----------------------------------------------------- 167 (Union) ----------------------------------------------------------- 107 (Canadian) ------------------------------------------------------168 (South American) ------------------------------------------------ 168 Spanish-------------------------------------------------------------- 169 Sourwine, J. G------------------------------------------------------- 141 Soviet Embassy---------------------------------------------------- 169, 172 Soviet Federation for Friendship and Cultural Cooperation-------------- 158 Soviet/s------------------------------------------------------------- 145 Soviet/s foreign policy----------------------------------------------- 145 Soviet Union-------------------------- 143, 144, 146-148, 150, 154, 159-161, 169 Stalin--------------------------------------------------------------- 159 Stockholm------------------------------------------------------------ 157 T Talleres Graficos de Libreria Madero S. A------------------------------ 169 Tass----------------------------------------------------------------- 157 Toledano, Lombardo__________________________________________________ 161 Trade Unions International of Public & Allied Workers----------------- 151 Trade Unions International of Textile & Clothing Workers------------ 151 Trade Unions Internationals----------------------------------------- 151 Twelfth CP-MexicoCongress ------------------------------------------ 152 21st Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress-------------------- 149 U UCE (Union do Combatientes Espanoles-Union of Spanish Combatants) - 174 Union Eslava-------------------------------------------------------- 167 Union of Latin American Friendship (Union do Amistad Latino Ameri- cana) -----------158 Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Relations----------- 167 United Nations, Security Council of------------------------------------ 177 Uruguay-------------------------------------------------- 143, 157, 167, 172 Uruguayan Communist Youth----------------------------------------- 155 Uruguayan-Soviet Cultural Institute---------------------------------- 167 U.S. Embassy-------------------------------------------------------- 175 U.S. Information Service--------------------------------------------- 175 U.S.S.R----------------------------------------------------------- 162, 164 V Venezuela--------------------------------------------- 143,147,153,156,170 Venezuelan National Press Congress----------------------------------- 156 Vienna-------------------------------------------------------------- 153 Vietnam (North) ---------------------------------------------------- 143 Virgin Islands----------------------------------------------------- 178, 179 Voice of the Chinese Colony------------------------------------------ 166 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 rue Warsaw------------------------------------------------------------ 168 Western Hemisphere-------------------------------------------------- 153 WFTU------------------------------------------------------------ 152 Women's Internati. nal Democratic Federation ------------------ 14-8-,-1-49, 168 Workers' University (Mexico City)----------------------------------- 148 World Federation of Democratic Youth------------------------- 149, 153, 164 World Federation cxf Teachers' Unions--------------------------------- 161 World Federation of Trade Unions--------------------- 148, 148-150, 152, 170 (4th Congressof) ----------------------------------------------- 161 (Metal & Engiieering Workers of) ---------------------------- 151 World Student Neff s (monthly organ of International Union of Students) - 153 World Trade Union News-------------------------------------------- 170 Y Yugoslav/s/ia------------------------------------------------- ----__-- 187 Yugoslav Embassy .-------------------------------------------------- 167 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 25X1 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7 Approved For Release 2006/10/17: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200020027-7