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August 17, 1959
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Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 (Not printed at Government expense) United States of America .&I&J 4 a- I Ord 0 R9 r L1,*&JJ 6 10 Hh" A"kc PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 86th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION Meeting Our Nation's Resource Needs SPEECH OF HON. JAMES E. MURRAY OF MONTANA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Monday, August 17, 1959 Mr. MURRAY, Mr. President, I am today introducing a bill designated as the -Resources and Conservation Act of 1960. It is gratifying that so many Senators have already joined as cosponsors. Be- cause I have received additional ex- pressions of interest from Senators who have not had time to examine the bill, I ask that it lie on the desk for 3 days to permit additional Senators to join as cosponsors. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill will be received and appropriately re- ferred; and, without objection, the bill will lie on the desk for 3 days, as re- quested by the Senator from Montana. The bill (S. 2549) to declare a national policy on conservation, development, and utilization of natural resources, and for other purposes, introduced by Mr. MUR RAY (for himself and Senators BARTLETT, BIBLE, BYRD of West Virginia, CANNON, CARROLL, CHURCH, CLARK, DODD, DOUGLAS, ENGLE, GRUENING, HART, HENNINGS, HUMPHREY, JOHNSON of Texas, LANGER, MAGNUSON, MANSFIELD, MCCARTHY, MC- GEE, MORSE, Moss, NEUBERGER, RANDOLPH, SPARKMAN, SYMINGTON, YARBOROUGH, and YOUNG of North Dakota) was received, read twice-by its title, and referred to the Committee on Interior and Insular Af- fairs. Mr. MURRAY. Mr. President, this proposed legislation is directed to keep- ing development and conservation of na- tural resources at a level commensurate with the needs of the Nation. There is urgent need for such legislation because all aspects of natural resource programs lag far behind the requirements for them. With respect to some resources, our con- dition is critical, and underdevelopment of virtually all resources threatens the national security and the welfare and prosperity of the Nation. This critical condition exists not be- cause of a lack of resources, but because of a lack of attention and action. In the United States, even after the drain of two World Wars, we still are blessed with abundance of virtually all of the basic raw materials we need. Within 523592-72187 our borders, there are still forests and rangelands, fertile farms, minerals, fuels, and the waters of our rivers and lakes. Properly developed and wisely conserved, these natural resources can be adequate for a growing population and for an expanded economy. The present problem and the impend- ing crisis are due not to scarcity but to neglect, underdevelopment, and de- spoilment. For too many years we have avoided resource problems and denied our responsibility as steward of the na- tional resources wealth. For the past 7 years, the administration has been look- ing the other way and living by the rule of "no new starts" no matter how urgently they were needed. While nat- ural resource programs have been sus- pended, natural resources have been dis- sipated. The administration's policy of "no new starts" represents lost income and lost production and, most serious of all, it represents lost time and lost op- portunities that may never be regained. Even a brief review of natural resource programs reveals neglect and deficiency. Take, for example, water resource devel- opment, which everyone recognizes as an indispensable requirement. The De- partment of Commerce recently has re- ported that, in order to keep up with re- quirements, Federal water resource ex- penditures of at least $50 billion are needed in the next 15 years. In contrast with this need, actual Federal expendi- tures for water resources are barely $1 billion a year. Thus, we are doing less than a third of this essential water re- sources job. Current Federal budgets for these activities provide for hardly one- half as much work as was provided in 1950. In that year, the expenditures for water resource activities were 21/2 percent of the total budget, but in 1960 they are only 11/2 percent of the budget. This is the evidence of the neglect that I men- tioned. Let us look briefly at forest resources, especially those within national forests for which there is express Federal re- sponsibility. A recent report of the Sec- retary of Agriculture estimates that na- tional forests need over $11/2 billion of improvement work. This is the cost of facilities for timber management, fire protection, recreation, and like programs to protect the forests and to make them usable. Responsive to congressional urging, a start has been made on the program for the national forests, but it is a saddeningly slow start. This is the lost time and lost opportunities that I mentioned. In the field of soil and moisture' con- servation, 2 million farmers and ranch- ers cooperate in the program, but hardly one-fourth of the needed treatments have been installed to protect the half- billion acres of agricultural land. In addition, there are over 6,000 small watersheds that need conservation treat- ment, but work has been started on only 3 percent of them. Each year sees our streams and rivers increasingly loaded with pollution, the quality of their water degraded below tolerable limits, and their burden of waste materials clogging sanitation plants or washed up on the shores of parks and beaches. Sewage plants are needed to handle the waste discharge of 48 million people, and it will cost $41/2 billion to build them, but the Federal budget for this is only $30 million per year. Municipalities spend 10 times as much as the amount of the Federal con- tribution for pollution control; but, al- though this is a severe burden on local finances, it is far short of keeping up with municipal growth. So we might inventory each of the other natural resources-minerals, hy- droelectric power, recreation, and wild- life. For each of them, the sad story is the same-too little, too late. The neglect and deficiencies of the Federal activities are doubly hurtful be- cause, to a major degree, Federal pro- grams pace the non-Federal activities. When Federal programs are delayed and deficient, State and private activities fall behind. The pollution of the Potomac River at the very steps of the Capitol is an example. With timely and appro- priate Federal assistance, the States, the municipalities, and the industries might have minimized the problem largely by their own efforts. Lacking Federal en- couragement and initiative, control of Potomac River pollution has been so long delayed that its cure may not be possible within the foreseeable future. In conservation and development of most of the natural resources, the Fed- eral Government has participated joint- ly with States and private interests. This has been true for reclamation, rural electrification, soil conservation, and Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 wildlife management almost from their start. The past half century has clearly established thet the Federal responsi- bility to provide for the national se- curity and to promote the general wel- fare includes conservation and develop- ment of natural resources. To this end, the Congress seeks to assist and work in concert with the States and local gov- ernments and private interests. But In meeting this responsibility, how well do we now measure up to the forward- looking stan4a;rds set by the Senate in 1807 when it instituted an inquiry Into the improvement of inland waterways? I fear that we may not measure up very well. On this question, let us again exam- ine water resources: Between now and 1975, about $50 billion will have to be spent for plant and equipment to pro- vide water and sewage services to the growing urban population. The consen- sus is that municipalities do not have the financial resources to raise any such amount of money. We know, for exam- ple, that since 1952, State and local government debt has increased 100 per- cent, and there is very little leeway un- der State constitutions to issue bonds in the amounts needed- for such a huge program. How, then, will the job get done, to whom will they turn, and what sort of assistance might be available? Comparable questions face us for all of the natural resources-how much needs to be done by the Federal, State, local governments, and by private industry? What means do they have for accom- plishing their share of the total job, and what forms of assistance can most effec- tively be provided? In 1945, w]lfn millions of men and women were . released from the Armed Forces and when production of arms and munitiols released more millions of workers, we faced grave and complex problems of how 60 million workers could find joj5, and how the economy could finance such expansion of peace- time production. At that time, it was my privilege, oined by the Senator from Wyoming LMr. O'MAHONEYI, former Senator Wagner, and former Senator Thomas, of Utah, to introduce Senate bill 380 of the 79th Congress, and on February 20, 1946, to see it enacted as the Employment Act of 1946. The measure that I have introduced today, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1960, is comparable in form and structure with the Employment Act, It seeks for natural resources answers to problems comparable with the employ- ment and economic problems dealt with in the 1946 act. Our experience with that act assures that the method is workable. It demonstrates that the combination of the Council of Economic Advisers In the White House and the joint committee in the Congress can be effective ih developing answers for complex prob~ieins of national concern, and that the combination is effective in implementing` the answers with legisla- tive and executive action. Even with the advantage of the 1946 act as a model for this one, it is far from being the final form. Many im- 523592-72187 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD provemerits will be made in the bill as a result of hearings and committee dis- cussions. I hope that there will be full hearings, including field hearings. These should bring to the committee the thinking of all interests concerned in natural resource conservation and de- velopment. What we are striving for, in my view, is to establish a permanent mechanism in Government that will give continuous attention to the entire range of natural resources, and that will pert xlically advise the President and the Congress what is needed and how to attain it. Recent sessions of Congress have gen- erated a :cries of commissions and com- mittees to evaluate and recommend re- garding certain natural resource prob- lems. Outstanding among these special bodies is the Commission on Outdoor Recreational Resources and the Select Committee on National Water Resources. These two bodies are marked by the high caliter of their distinguished mem- bership. Their reports will, I am con- fident, contribute significantly to un- derstanding of the subjects. These recent special bodies unfor- tunately are limited, as were ones that preceded them-the Paley Commission and the Cooke Commission, These two commissions are, in my judgment, out- standing in delineating the problems and In pointing to the solutions for major natural resource problems. They have inaugurated a new era in public policy on natural resources. Unfortunately, the Paley Commission and the Cooke Commission, like the Hoover Commis- sions and other previous and current re- source conurilssions, are transitory. Their reports, containing much sound thinking and meritorious proposals, all too soon became library items rather than charters of action. Our experience with commission reports is that they gen- erate very-little action after the dissolu- tion of the commission that authored them. In contrast, the Council of Economic Advisers and the Joint Economic Com- mittee are continuing arms of Govern- ment. Neither of them administer any programs; they do not issue regulations or operate facilities. They are effective because, in the executive branch and in the Congress, there are continuing expert bodies that appraise, evaluate, and rec- ommend. The importance of this Is exemplified by the valuable contributions and leadeiship provided by the Joint Eco- nomic Committee. Faced with the same kind of grave and complex questions in all of our natural resources, we need similar continuing bodies In the Congress and in the execu- tive branch. It is important for us to recognize that the grave and complex re- source problems facing us now will con- tinue to face us for a long time, This need for continuing appraisal of natural resource conditions and prob- lems was recognized in the reports of the special commissions just mentioned. Mr. William S. Paley has called to my attention the final recommendation of the President's Materials Policy Commis- sion of which he was Chairman: That the National Security Resources Board be directed, and provided with ade- quate funds, to collect in one place the facts, analyses, and program plans of other agencies on materials and energy problems and related technological and special secu- rity problems; to evaluate materials programs and policies in all these fields; to recom- mend appropriate action for the guidance of the President, the Congress, and the execu- tive agencies; and to report annually to the President on the long-term outlook for ma- terials with emphasis on significant new problems that emerge, major changes in out- look, and modifications of policy or pro- gram that appear necessary. Although this recommendation was deficient in provision for congressional participation, its general objectives par- allels closely the purpose of the proposed Resources and Conservation Act. This recommendation carries weight because of the high competence of the Materials Policy Commission and the ac- knowledged excellence of the report. The bill that I have introduced, in many respects, has the same objectives as this commission proposal. These considerations are important now because the United States is on the threshold of enormous population and economic growth. All Senators, I am sure, are familiar with the estimates of a 25-percent increase in population dur- ing the next 15 years, a 60-percent in- crease in gross national product, and a 100-percent increase in the index of manufactures, I shall not elaborate on these forecasts other than to express my belief that they are too conservative, that national growth actually will exceed these estimates. Whatever figures are chosen, it is plain that, in the years ahead, the requirements for resources and the pres- sures on them will continue to amount, that competition for all resources will intensify, and that there will be increas- ing need for examination, appraisal, and recommendations of the Resources and Conservation Council and joint commit- tee. In the face of this increasing require- ment for, and pressure on, natural re- sources, I am not fearful that we shall fail to meet the Nation's needs. Cer- tainly the United States will have the economic and financial ability for the tasks involved, and we have the skills and competence. We have learned, however, that there are two other essential elements. One of these is that our action must be timely-if we overlook or delay needed measures we may greatly increase the problems, or even defeat the possibility of their solution. The continuing ap- praisal and the periodic reports of the joint committee will assure such timely attention. The other essential element is that our actions must be considered ones-in dealing with natural resources, our ac- tions must take account of the close in- terrelations and interdependence of all of the resources. Utilization of timber or water or mineral resources affects many other uses; often recreation and wildlife values may be either enhanced or destroyed depending on how other re- sources are handled. In some cases, a Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 careful appraisal may show that .pre- servation of certain resources yields greater benefits than would their exploi- tation. Recognizing the interrelationships of the various factors, this proposed legis- lation provides that all resources shall be considered in the findings and recom- mendations of the Council and Joint Committee. This becomes increasingly important as requirements increase and as pressures mount. With that certain prospect, it becomes ever more essential that all resources be considered in their relations to each other as well as to the economy as a whole. These very matters are recognized in the 1959 Joint Economic Report. I com- mend the Joint Economic Committee and its distinguished chairman [Mr. DOUGLAS] for the cogent and well- founded comment in the report. Most especially, I commend and endorse the statement of the Joint Economic Com- mittee that it would be fiscally irre- sponsible to refuse, on budget-balancing considerations, to increase Federal out- lays on developing our natural resources. Fn order that this excellent statement on "Developing Resources" may be available to Senators, I ask unanimous consent that it be printed at the conclusion of my remarks. Mr. President, I have touched on many points, but much more consider- ation of them is necessary because of the tremendous importance of natural resources to the welfare and prosperity of the Nation and to the national se- curity. In order that Senators may have ready access to the matter, I ask unanimous consent that the text of the bill and the explanatory statement be printed at the conclusion of my re- marks. There being no objection, the excerpt, text of bill, and explanation were or- dered to be printed in the RECORD, as fol- lows: DEVELOPING RESOURCES (Excerpt from 1959 Joint Economic Report- Report of the Joint Economic Commit- tee, Congress of the United States-S. Rept. 98, 86th Cong., 1st sess.) Federal programs to expand the Nation's natural resource base should be carefully reviewed in the light of the future demands of an expanding economy. As the Subcom- mittee on Fiscal Policy observed in its re- port, "Federal Expenditure Policies for Eco- nomic Growth and Stability": "Such programs long ago were established as appropriate activities of the Federal Gov- ernment where their objective is to eliminate barriers or to provide the stimulus for fuller, more effective resource use and where the means required for realizing these objectives exceed the financial capacity of immediate beneficiaries. Whether any specific project is to be undertaken * * * should be deter- mined by appraisal of measurable economic benefits in comparison with the project's cost." Following this principle precludes, except under extraordinary circumstances, a flat proscription, such as that in the budget for fiscal 1960, of any new starts in this area. What is called for, instead, is the closest possible examination of present and pros- pective programs to determine those prom- ising the greatest net yields. If the results of such a survey call for increasing Federal outlays on developing our natural resources, it would be fiscally irresponsible to refuse 523592-72187 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD 3 their undertaking on the basis of narrow Council shall be composed of three mem- budget-balancing considerations. bers who shall be appointed by the Presi- At the present time, moreover, there are dent, by and with the advice and consent numerous opportunities for expansion of of the Senate, and each of whom shall be economically sound natural resource devel- a person who, as a result of his training, opment and public works projects in areas experience, and attainments,- is exception- of high and persistent unemployment, ally qualified to analyze and interpret na- These projects can serve the dual purpose tural resource policy, to appraise programs of improving the conditions for longrun and activities of the Government in the economic growth and of spurring recovery light of the policy declared in section 2, over the next 18 months. and to formulate and recommend national resource policy to promote conservation, A BILL To DECLARE A NATIONAL POLICY ON development, and utilization of natural re- CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND UTILI- sources. Each member of the Council shall ZATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES, AND FOR receive compensation at the rate of $ OTHER PURPOSES nel' annum 'rho v,..,raa,.,.+ .s...., -._.__,__ of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SHORT TITLE SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "Resources and Conservation Act of 1960." DECLARATION POLICY SEC. 2. The Congress hereby declares that it is the continuing policy and responsibil- ity of the Federal Government with . the assistance and cooperation of industry, ag- riculture, labor, conservationsists, State and local governments, and private property owners, to use all practicable means includ- ing coordination and utilization of all its plans, functions, and facilities, for the pur- pose of creating and maintaining, in a man- ner caculated to foster and promote the general welfare, conditions under which there will be conservation, development, and utilization of the natural resources of the Nation to meet human, economic, and national defense requirements, including recreational, wildlife, scenic, and scientific values and the enhancement of the national heritage for future generations. RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT SEC. 8. (a) The President shall transmit to the Congress not later than January 20 of each year (commencing with the year following enactment of this Act) a con- servation report (hereinafter called the "Resources and Conservation Report") set- ting forth (1) the condition of the soil, water, forest, grazing, wildlife, recreational, and other natural resources with particular reference to attainment of multiple pur- pose use; (2) current and foreseeable trends in management and utilization of the afore- said natural resources; (3) the adequacy of available natural resources for fulfilling human and economic requirements of the Nation; (4) a review of the conservation programs and activities- of the Federal Government, the State and local govern- ments; and nongovernmental entities and individuals with particular reference to their effect on full conservation, develop- ment, and utilization of natural resources; (5) a program for carrying out the policy declared in section 2, together with such recommendations for legislation as he may deem necessary or desirable. (b) The President may transmit from time to time to the Congress reports sup- plementary to the Resources and Conserva- tion Reports, each of which shall include such supplementary or revised recommen- dations as he may deem nece ssary or- de- such representatives of industry, agricul- sirable to achieve the policy declared in sec- ture, labor, conservationists, State and local Lion 2. government, and other groups, as it deems (c) The Resources and Conservation Re- advisable; port, and all supplementary reports trans- (2) the Council shall, to the fullest ex- mitted under subsection (b), shall, when tent possible, utilize the services, facilities, transmitted to Congress, be referred to the and information (including statistical infor- joint committee created by section 5. mation) of other Government agencies as COUNCIL OF RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION AD- well as of private research agencies, in order VISERS TO THE PRESIDENT that duplication of effort and expense may SEC. 4. (a) There is hereby created in the be avoided. Executive Office of the President a Council - (f) To enable the Council to exercise its of Resources and Conservation Advisers powers, functions, and duties under this Act, . (hereinafter called the "Council"). The there are authorized to be appropriated (ex- one or the members of the Council as Chairman and one as Vice Chairman, who shall act as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. (b) The Council is authorized to em- ploy, and fix the compensation of, such specialists and other experts as may be necessary for the carrying out of its func- tions under this Act, without regard to the civil service laws and the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, and is authorized, sub- ject, to the civil service laws, to employ such other officers and employees as may be necessary for carrying out its functions under this Act, and fix their compensation in accordance with the Classification Act of 1923, as amended. (c) It shall be the duty and function of the Council- (1) to assist and advise the President in the preparation of the Resources and Con- servation Report; (2) to gather timely and authoritative information concerning natural resource conservation and development trends, both current and prospective, to analyze and in- terpret such information in the light of the policy declared in section 2 for the purpose of determining whether such development and trends are interfering, or are likely to interfere, with the achievement of such policy, and to compile and submit to the President studies relating to such develop- ment and trends; (3) to appraise the various programs and activities of the Federal Government in the light of the policy declared in section 2 for the purpose of determining the extent to which such programs and activities are contributing, and the extent to which they are not contributing, to the achievement of such policy, and to make recommendations to the President with respect thereto; (4) to develop and recommend to the President national policies to foster and promote conservation, development, and utilization of the natural resources of the .Nation-to meet-human and economic require- ments, including recreational, wildlife, and scenic values. . (5) to make and furnish such studies, re- ports thereon, and recommendations with respect to matters of Federal resource policy and legislation as the President may request. (d) The Council shall make an annual report to the President in December of each year. (e) In exercising its powers, functions, and duties under this Act- (1) the Council may constitute such ad- visory committees and may consult with Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD cept for the salaries of the members and the vide for the common defense and general Section 5: The Joint Committee on Re- salaries of officers and employees of the welfare." Policy is explicitly stated In some sources and Conservation is constituted of Council) such sums as may be necessary. of the many acts dealing with natural re- eight Members of the Senate and eight Mem- For the salaries of the members and the sal- sources, such as the 1935 Soil and Moisture bers of the House of Representatives, with aries of officers and employees of the Coun- Conservation Act, and the 1936 Flood Control party representation proportional to the ma- cil, there is authorized to be appropriated Act. Hundreds of other acts, by their very jority and minority parties in the Senate and not exceeding $ In the aggregate for nature and by their administration over the House of Representatives respectively. each fiscal year, many years, constitute a national policy on This joint committee makes continuing JOINT COMMITTEE ON RESOURCES AND natural resources. This body of policy In Its study of the Resources and Conservation Re- CONSERVATION general application is summarized In section port of the President, and of other means of 2 of the bill. coordinating resources and conservation pro- SEC. 5. (a) There is hereby established a Four Important principles are stated In grams in furtherance of the policies stated Joint Commitlco on Resources and Conser- the policy. One of these Is that there is a In section 2. Annually, the joint committee vatlon, to be cprffposed of eight Members of Federal responsibility and concern in the reports to the Senate and the House of Rep- the Senate, to` be appointed by the Presi- conservation. development, and utill?Rtlon reeentatives its findings on the recommenda- dent of the Senate, and eight Members of of natural resources which are means of tions of the President and on such other re- the House of Representatives, to be appoint- providing for the general welfare and the na- sources and conservation matters as it deems ed by the Speaker of the House of Repre- tional defense. A second principle Is that the advisable. The joint committee may hold sentatives. The party representation on the general program for natural resources will hearings, and It may employ experts, con- joint committee shall as nearly as may be be developed in cooperation with State and sultants, and other staff. feasible to reflect the relative membership of local governments, and citizens, and with in- The joint committee is advisory to the the majority and minority parties in the dustry, agriculture, labor, conservationists, Senate and the House of Representatives. It Senate and House of Representatives. and privat3 property owners. A third princf- has no legislative functions, these remaining (b) It shall be the function of the joint pie Is that the objectives of conservation, de- the responsibilities of the established stand- committee- velopment. and utilization are to meet hu- lag committees. (1) to make a continuing study of matters man, economic, and national defense require- relating to the Resources and Conservation menus, including those for recreational, wild- Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, will the Report; life. scientific, and scenic values, along with Senator yield? (2) to study means of coordinating pro- recognition of our obligations to preserve Mr. MURRAY. I yield, grams in order to further the policy of this the natural resources inheritance for future Act; and generations. A fourth principle Is that the Mr. McGEE. I commend to the atten- (3) as a guide to the several committees Federal concern with natural resources per- tion of my colleagues in the Senate the of the Congress dealing with legislation re- vades its manifold activities and requires Importance of the measure which the lating to the Resources and Conservation their coordination In relation to natural re- senior Senator from Montana is intro- Report, not later than May 1 of each year sources. ducing. (beginning with the year following the en- Section 3: The Resources and Conserva- At a time when we in America are con- actment of the Act) to file a report with the tion Repot of the President will be an an- Senate and the House of Representatives nual appraisal of the condition of natural corned about the economic growth of our containing its findings and recommendations resources, and the progress in their conserva- country, we might well undertake this with respect to each of the main recom- tion, development, and utilization. It will study of the promotion of the conserva- mendations made by the President in the also bring to focus the problems and the tion of all the Nation's resources. I be- Resources and Conservation Report, and needed acaon. with recommendations in the lieve that America outran the rest of the from time to time to make such other reports light of current and foreseeable future trends world about 65 or 70 years ago by reason and recommendations to the Senate and of management and utilization. This annual of our rapid accumulation of surplus cap- House of Representatives as it deems ad- review will take account of the programs Ital. The reason for that surplus of capi- visable. and activities of the Federal Government, (c) Vacancies In the membership of the and also those of the State and local gov- tal, which turned out to be the difference joint committee shall not affect the power ernments and nongovernmental entitles and between our economic growth and that of of the remaining members to execute the individuals. The report deals with all of our competitors around the world, was functions of the joint committee, and shall the natu?ai resources-soil, water, forest, the great abundance of American re- be filled In the same manner as In the case grazing, mineral, wildlife, and recreational sources. These resources were used to of the original selection. The joint com- resources--thus providing an integrated basis the full benefit of the entire Nation. mittee shall select a chairman and a vice for interrelated programs and objectives. I suggest, 117 pursuit of the proposal of chairman from among its members. The Resources and Conservation Report 1s (d) The joint committee, or any duty au- the vehicle by which the President advises the senior Senator from Montana today, thorized subcommittee thereof, is authorized the Congress and the public of the views and that the time has come when our country to hold such hearings as it deems advisable, recommer datlons of the executive branch can turn again to the development of and, within the limitations of its a.ppropria_ on overall resources and conservation mat- our resources as the provider and creator ters. Beleg an annual report, it can reflect tions, the joint committee Is empowered to of a new surplus capital which will en- appoint and fix the compensation of such current and changing conditions and con- experts, cr nts, technicians, and clerl- cents. able us to maintain the pace which the cal and stenographic assistants, to procure In addition, the President may make sup- burdens of world leadership now require. such printing and binding, and to make such plementa- y reports or revised recommenda- We cannot do this with "no new expenditures, as it deems necessary and ad- tions as he deems appropriate. starts," or without an understanding of visable. The cost of stenographic services Section 4: A Council of three resources the slow processes of developing new re- to report hearings of the joint committee, or and conservation advisors will advise and as- sources, We do not bring in new re- sist the President in the development of the twenty-five subcommper ittee thereof, ordshas.l not The jexceed comprehensive overall appraisal of natural sources overnight. We do not bring in hundred wa oint committee is authorized to utilize the serv- resource programs and problems and in. the new resources because of an act of Con- ices, information, and facilities of the de- formulation of his recommendations. The gr'ess. We bring them in only through partments and establishments of the Gov- advisors 8111 be appointed by the President, foresight and careful planning. ernment. and also of private research subject to confirmation by the Senate, and The legislation proposed by the senior agencies, they are required to be qualified by training, Senator from Montana demonstrates experience. and attainments In the field of (e) There is hereby authorized to be ap- natural resources. The Council will be as_ that kind of foresight. I commend it to propriated for each fiscal year, the sum of slated by specialists and experts employed the attention of all our colleagues in the sary, , or so much thereof as may be neces- outside of the civil service, and by other em- Senate. to carry out the provisions of this section, ployees subject to the civil service laws. The Mr. MURRAY. I thank the Senator on disbursed voouchuchers sig gned the by y Seer . the chair- of Council may establish advisory committees the e from Wyoming. Senate be man or vice chairman. and consult with representatives of State and Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, will the local governments, and citizens, and with In- Senator yield? EXPLANATION OF RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION dust.ry. agriculture, labor, conservationists, of 1960 and other groups, and it will utilize, to the Mr. MURRAY. I yield. Section 1: The title of the act, "Resources fullest eitent possible, the facilities and in- Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, I should and Conservation Act of 1960," provides a formation of Government and private re- like to join in commending the distin- ready reference that is fully descriptive of search agencies. guished senior Senator from Montana, the subject matter of the act. The Council of Advisors Is fact finding and tchairman of the Senate Committee Section 2: The declaration of policy states fact analyzing. It has no functions In the the h Interior and Insular Affairs, for have explicitly the policy that has long been in- administration or execution of 'programs, herent in the acts of Congress that give effect these functions remaining the responsibll- Ing taken the leadership in fashioning to its constitutional responsibility "to pro- itles of the regular executive agencies, and introducing this bill. Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 I believe this to be landmark legisla- tion which will be looked upon in future years as of signal importance in promot- ing the wise conservation and develop- ment of the public resources of this coun- try. I submit that in introducing this bill the distinguished senior Senator from Montana demonstrates once again the leadership he has always exhibited in this field, which has always been in the tradition of Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot. I am hopeful that the Senator will be successful in acquiring additional co- sponsors, and that next year we shall see the bill reported favorably by the com- mittee and acted upon favorably by the entire Senate. Mr. MURRAY. I thank the Senator from Idaho for his generous expressions. Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. MURRAY. I yield. Mr. YARBOROUGH. I am happy to have the privilege of being a cosponsor of this bill with the distinguished Sena- tor from Montana. As has been so well said by the junior Senator from Wyoming and the junior Senator from Idaho, this is a landmark bill, looking toward the conservation and development of the resources of the United States for the people of the United States as leaders of the free world. When the Senate comes to consider this measure to establish a Resources Advisory Council, we should consider two other measures, passed within the past 2 years, which may have a pro- found influence on the way of life of all our people. One of these measures was the weather modification bill of 1958. That bill was based upon scientific testimony that within the foreseeable future we shall be able to do something about modifying the weather in certain areas of the globe. The other measure to which I refer, which has been passed, provides for the establishment of stations to study meth- ods of taking salt out of sea water and salt water from underground wells. We are far along in that type of advance. We may soon see fresh water taken from the sea and from underground salt water supplies, at a cost whicl. will make it practical for agricultural uses. So with these two measures, the weather modification measure and the desalination measure, already written into law, we see clearly pointed out the need for developing all the resources of the Nation. I commend the Senator from Montana for his leadership in this important field. Mr. MURRAY. I sincerely thank the Senator from Texas, Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. MURRAY. I yield. Mr. MORSE. I congratulate the dis- tinguished senior Senator from Montana for another great act of statesmanship in the field of natural resources develop- ment. I have checked his bill, and I consider it an honor to join with him as a cosponsor. We are going through a rather inter- esting period in the Congress in con- 523592-72187 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD nection with the development of natural resources. If we check back on the legis- lative history of natural resource de- velopment, we discover that it swings somewhat as a pendulum swings. Last year, and again this year, Congress has not lived up to its responsibilities in re- gard to natural resource development, with respect to protecting the interests of future generations. We are trustees of the natural re- sources of this country, and we need to do a better job than Congress did last year, or has done thus far this year, in developing a natural resources program. I believe that the objectives of the bill of the Senator from Montana will be very helpful in making the Congress more cognizant of its trusteeship obligations in regard to our natural resources. Mr. MURRAY. I thank the Senator for his very kind and cogent remarks. I am very grateful to him for his ex- pressions. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. MURRAY. I yield. Mr. MANSFIELD. I wish to join in what the distinguished senior Senator from Oregon and other colleagues in the Senate have said about the consistent leadership shown by the senior Senator from Montana, who has indicated on so many occasions that his thinking is not merely abreast of the times, but is ahead of the times. The facts have borne out his foresight over the years. It is interesting to note that this sub- ject was discussed at the conference of western Senators a week or so ago, at which there were present 23 western Senators. The proposal was unani- mously approved by that conference, in- cluding Senators from Texas, Oklahoma, and Alaska. This is another indication of the leadership which the senior Senator from Montana has consistently shown. I hope we shall be able to have action shortly on this important measure. Mr. MURRAY. I thank my colleague very much. Mr. HART. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. MURRAY. I yield. Mr. HART: Mr. President, as a fresh man Senator, I welcome this opportunity to offer my appreciation to the senior Senator from Montana for his many years of great leadership in this body. Unfailingly and consistently he has rec- ognized in advance the needs of this Nation and its people; he has offered imaginative, far-reaching measures de- signed to meet those needs. It is my privilege to join today with Senator MURRAY in sponsoring the Re- sources and Conservation Act of 1960. On July 9 I stated on the Senate floor in connection with the TVA financing bill that it would be my policy to sup- port measures for the economic growth of the Nation as a whole. The Resources and Conservation Act of 1960 is such a bill. I stated further that it would be my purpose to help obtain for the north central and northeastern areas of the country the water-resources programs so badly needed in these sections. The Re- sources and Conservation Act of 1960 provides just such opportunity. The coordinating feature of this bill may well turn out to be its greatest con- tribution. It would enable the executive branch and the Congress to examine our resource and conservation needs, nation- wide, as a whole; and it would enable us to plan to meet those needs in a coordi- nated fashion. The sewage, water sup- ply, and recreational needs of the East would be considered alongside the recla- mation and irrigation needs of the West. We would have presented to us for study and action the total picture in one piece. Consider the present battery of Federal control centers: In the executive branch, there are 16 agencies spread around 6 Departments - Defense; Agriculture; Health, Education, and Welfare; State; Commerce; Interior-one independent .corporation-TVA-and , two interna- tional commissions - International Boundary. and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, and the In- ternational Joint Commission, United States and Canada-charged with carry- ing out various Federal water policies, and this excludes power and some spe- cialized interests in water. In addition, of course, the Bureau of the Budget exer- cises its own particular authority in this field. The Senate too has four standing committees with major interest in re- sources and conservation. Clearly, we would all benefit from the overall look which this bill would provide. Mr. President, every area of the coun- try has its own particular needs in terms of resources and conservation. I wel- come this evidence that the needs of the north central and northeastern sections will be considered together with the needs of the West and the South. And I particularly applaud the determina- tion evidenced by this bill to wrap the Nation's development program into one package to which we can all address our- selves. Again, I salute the senior Senator from Montana for this typical demonstration of concern for America and Americans in years ahead. Mr. MURRAY. I thank the Senator from Michigan. A National Policy on Conservation Devel- opment Is Desirable and Necessary SPEECH OF HON. JENNINGS RANDOLPH OF WEST VIRGINIA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Monday, August 17, 1959 Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President, more than a quarter of a century ago I had the privilege of meeting the senior Sen- ator from Montana [Mr. MURRAY.I. Dur- ing the years my admiration for him has been strengthened. It is a privilege to join as a cosponsor of the legislation, which is now under discussion. It is characteristic of Senator MURRAY's de- votion to the national welfare that he Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 would sponsor this program which looks to the benefit of generations yet unborn. In its essence, Mr. President, this bill addresses the fundamental issue of whether we will adopt long-range plan- ning as a means, of sustaining our level of civilization. , The American people have been singularly blessed with a con- tinent rich in natural resources. For al- most 300 years, with a growing but still relatively small population, we could afford to squander our resources. But that time has long since passed. With the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt we first became aware as a natipn of the need for the conservation of our resources. Since his death in 1919, more of the earth's min- eral resources have been consumed than during man's entire previous existence, This is the measure of the problem we face. It is estimated that, on the basis of present trends, by 1980 the United States will consume 50 percent more raw materials, 85 percent more nonferrous minerals, 97 percent more mineral fuels, and 133 percent; more nonmetallic min- erals. These figures are representative of our estimated consumption of all nat- ural resources; only two decades from now. Our resources are not infinite. Nor is our national a )petite. But the time is rapidly approaching, Mr. President, when our need$ mill outrun our resources if we fail to ettablish long-range plan- ning for their wise utilization and devel- opment. I hope, therefore, that the re- sources and conservation bill introduced by Senator MURRAY will receive prompt consideration and passage. No Member of this body has been more creative and more courageous in carrying forward the purposes of conservation and devel- opment of natural resources than Sen- ator MURRAY. It is a genuine privilege to join in this effort. Mr. MURRAY. I thank the Senator from West Virginia. I yield the floor. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD consequent destruction of agricultural lands has ben a national calamity. Our water supply, once considered un- limited, is now proving inadequate in widespread sections of the country. It is estimated that an expenditure of $50 billions will be required during the next 15 years if we are to provide adequate water and sewage facilities to our mush- rooming uroan communities. Once a large exporter of raw mate- rials, we are now a large importer and are at leiu;t partially dependent upon foreign sources for almost every basic metal. Our consumption of minerals is six times what it was in 1900, and our pres- ent rate of consumption will double by 1980. Unless ae embark upon an urgent, comprehensive national program for husbanding our natural resources and developing new sources of supply, we will be unable to meet the needs of the next generi.tion and our national stand- ard of living as well as our military and political sti ength will begin a steady and irreversible deterioration. In my remarks of last May, I urged the President to appoint a new commis- sion, simil?r to the Paley Commission, execept that it would be charged with the responsibility for specific legislative recommendations. There has been no action from the White House. But now the Senate, un- der the leadership of the Senator from Montana [Mr. MURRAY] is taking the initiative. I am pleased to have the opportunity to join the Senator from Montana [Mr. MURRAY] and 28 other Senators in co- sponsoring S. 2549. This bill would provide for two important continuing groups to make annual studies and re- ports on the complete natural resource picture. It provides for a White House Council of Advisers and a Joint Con- gressional Committee on Resources and Conservation. It envisions a continu- ing, coordinated attack on all the com- plex and related problems involved in resource conservation and development. SPEECH OF HON. THOMAS J. DODD OF CONNECTICUT IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Tuesday, August 18,1959 Mr. DODD. Mr. President, yesterday the distinguished and able Chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs [Mr. MURRAY] introduced a bill which I hope and believe will be an his- toric landmark. in the long struggle for an adequate national policy of develop- ment and conservation of our natural resources. On May 22, in a speech on the Senate floor, I cataloged the critical problems facing our Ntion in one natural re- source field after another. We have cut 90 percent of our virgin timber stand in the commercial forest area. The erosion of our soil and the 523592-72187 hope that we will have congressional ac- tion on it at the earliest possible mo- ment so that we can make this new and important advance in the long struggle to preserve the foundation of our na- tional strength and well being, our natural resources. Senator Murray's Natural Resources and Conservation Bill SPEECH OF HON. RICHARD L. NEUBERGER OF OREGON IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Monday, August 24, 1959 Mr. NEUBERGER, Mr. President, I rise to commend the distinguished senior Senator from Montana (Mr. MURRAY] for the outstanding leadership that he has again manifested in his bill (S. 2549), the proposed Natural Resources and Conservation Act of 1960. I am privileged to be one of the original co- sponsors of this bill which, I am confi- dent, will become a keystone of national policy. In the formulation of this pro- posal, Senator MURRAY evidences the forward-looking confidence in the fu- ture of this Nation that he voiced in his remarks at the time he introduced the measure on August 17, 1959. In dis- cussing the vastly increased require- ments for natural resources that will be an inevitable consequence of population growth and rising living standards, Senator MURRAY-said: In the face of this increasing require- ment for, and pressure on, natural resources, I am not fearful that we shall fail to meet, the Nation's needs. Certainly the United States will have the economic and financial ability for the tasks involved, and we have the skills and competence. I share Senator MURRAY's confidence in the ability of this Nation to meet its obligations to its citizens, and also to the people of the free world who rely on use until their own economy matures. I agree, too, with Senator MURRAY'S far- sighted reminder that success in fulfill- ing these purposes requires actions that are both timely and well considered. The proposed Natural Resources and Conservation Act effectively implements the views and recommendations of rec- ognized authorities in this area of na- tional policy. A few quotations will demonstrate how well the bill accords with the best thinking on the subject. Dr. John Kenneth Galbraith, professor of economics at Harvard University, in a recent address, has provided us with a condensation of the Paley Commission findings regarding the "gargantuan and growing appetite" for natural resources. Dr. Galbraith said: Conservationists are unquestionably use- ful people. And among the many useful services that they have recently rendered has been that of dramatizing the vast appetite which the United States has developed for materials of all kinds. This increase in re- quirements we now recognize to be expo- nential. It is the product of a rapidly in- creasing population and a high and (nor- mally) a rapidly increasing living standard. The one multiplied by the other gives the huge totals with which our minds must contend. The President's Materials Policy Commission emphasized the point by observ- ing that our consumption of raw materials comes to about half that of the non-Com- munist lands although we have but 10 per- cent of the population, and that since World War I our consumption of most materials has exceeded that of all mankind throughout all history before the conflict. This quotation bears out Senator MUR- RAY'S appraisal of the need for timely action, and the following quotation from testimony before the Finance Committee of the Senate bears out the confidence that the United States has financial ability to meet conservation needs. On April 18, 1958, Dr. Sumner H. Slichter of Harvard University said: The United States is a growing country, with its population rising by about 3 million a year. and with its output growing at a normal rate of about $14 billion a year or Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9 more. Such a growing economy needs more and better schools, roads, recreation areas, and projects for the development of its re- sources. If the economy were to succeed in achieving full capacity operation by the early fall of 1959, the gross national product should be around $470 billion a year, or about $45 billion above the present (1958) rate. Certainly a substantial part of this increase of $45 billion in the gross national product should go for much-needed public works of various sorts. The United States has, in fact, at- tained and surpassed the $470 billion rate of gross national product foretold by Dr. Slichter. Regrettably, however, no part of the increase in gross national product is being invested in the much- needed public works. Failure to make this investment in America is the blight cf the administration policy of no new starts. Sterilizing effects of this blight are evident today, and they will mar the Nation's countryside for decades to come. Prof. Gilbert F. White, of the Univer- sity of Chicago, distinguished as a scientist, educator, and natural re- sources planner, has pointed out that, in the long run, one of the basic deficiencies in natural resources and conservation activies is "lack of understanding of na- tional aims and, consequently, of na- tional means as well. Professor White continues: So long as this is diffuse, we cannot ex- pect any amount of organizational legerde- main or budgetary management to more 523592-72187 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD than palliate the difficulties. If we seem confused in the field of defense where there at least seems no doubt that we wish to protect and preserve the United States, how much more complex is the case of natural resources where we are not certain as to what we are to conserve? We are not certain that we want to develop all of our waterpower or to save all of our soil, or how much oil, if any, we should keep underground, or whether we should curb our appetite for lead in gas, and iron in tail fins. Having al- ready and of necessity modified the web of nature, we do not know how far is too far in directing our changes in it. In recent years we have had a generous review of both policies and administration. Raw materials situations have been assessed; water policy has been proposed; a new attack has been made upon problems of recreation. An important element which has been lack- ing is a general examination of national aims within the range of politically possible means of achieving them, and of the probable im- pacts of each possible program. Professor White's conclusion is di- rected straight at the provisions of S. 2549, the natural resources and conserva- tion bill. Professor White said: Of the numerous organizational changes that may be in order, none seem more prom- ising of benefits to the whole process of preserving or reforming the American land- scape than those which promote a continu- ing appraisal of the probable results of fol- lowing the choices which are open. This is the essence of Senator Mur- ray's proposal for a Council of Resources and Conservation Advisers to prepare annually the Resources and Conserva- tion Report of the President, and the joint committee of the Congress that would give continuing attention to re- source development, utilization, and conservation. In conclusion I desire to say that I think it is particularly appropriate that I should be given permission very cour- teously to make these remarks about conservation by the distinguished jun- ior Senator from Pennsylvania. If I am not mistaken, one of the greatest conservationists in the history of this country came from the State of Penn- sylvania and was given to the Nation by the State of Pennsylvania. I refer to the illustrious ex-Governor of Penn- sylvania, a man who was the first Chief Forester of the United States, Gifford Pinchot, and I believe and feel that if Gifford Pinchot were with us today, he would support Senator MuRRAY'S Na- tional Resources and Conservation Act. I thank the Senator from Pennsyl- vania. Mr. SCOTT. I am delighted to yield and am much pleased that the Senator has brought in the name of a very fa- mous Governor of our State, a great for- ester and a famous conservationist. Mr. NEUBERGER. We are very proud in the Pacific Northwest, that one of the most beautiful national forests in the Cascade Mountains carries the name of Gifford Pinchot and is known as the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Approved For Release 2006/10/18: CIA-RDP91-00965R000200040041-9