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Approved For ilease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787 00100120001-9 SECT CONTROLLED OFFENSIVE BEHAVIOR - USSR (U) JOHN D. LaMOTHE CAPTAIN, MEDICAL SERVICE CORPS ST-CS-01-169-72 DIA TASK NUMBER T72-01-14 DATE OF PUBLICATION July 1972 Information Cut-off Date 31 January 1972 This document contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 1.8, U.S.C., Sections 793 and 794. Its transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. This is a Department of Defense Intelligence Document prepared by the Medical Intelligence Office, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, and approved by the Directorate for Scientific and Technical Intelligence of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Classified by Chief, MIO, OTSG EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFICATION SCHEDULE OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORY 3 DECLASSIFY ON 31 DECEM3ER 1990 CONTROLLED DISSEMINATION NO DISSEMINATION ABROAD NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION DASD i` O. 223906 SECP 1 CY N0q 0 130 C Approved For Release ~3d4/t> )d Y. d - - T b00100120001-9 Approved Fcelease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-0078F000100120001-9 SEC t' ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 (S/NFD) This report summarizes the information available on Soviet research on human vulnerability as it relates to incapacitating individuals or small groups. The information contained in this study is a review and evaluation of Soviet research in the field of revolutionary methods of influencing human behavior and is intended as an aid in the development of countermeasures for the protection of US or allied personnel. Due to the nature of the Soviet research in the area of reorientation or incapacitation of human behavior, this report emphasizes the individual as opposed to groups. (U) It is not within the realm of this report to make an in-depth study of research and utilization of the multitudinous aspects of psychology and psychiatry. It is strongly suggested that these subjects, and the military use thereof, should be established as separate studies. The importance-of basic and applied research in these areas should not be overlooked. (U) The information reported covers the period from 1874-1972 and has been drawn from scientific, medical and military journals, intel- ligence reports, magazines, news items, books, conferences, and other reports as referenced. The information cut-off date for this report was 31 January 1972. (U) The author of this study is Captain John D. LaMothe, Medical Intelligence Office, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington, DC 20314. Constructive criticism, comment and suggested changes are invited from readers. These should be sent to the author through the Defense Intelligence Agency, ATTN: DT-lA, Washington, DC 20301. iii (Reverse Blank) NO FOREIGN DISSE~!INATION SECT, Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Forlrease 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0078710100120001-9 CCANI IDEITIAL ST-CS-01-169-72. July 1972 Page No. Preface iii Summary -------------------------------- - ---- - -- - ------- PART I INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR MANIPULATION ---------- 1 SECTION I Background ----- -- - II - Current Events ----------- ----------_-___-_---__ SECTION Part A Events in Northern Ireland ___-- Part B - Events in the Soviet Union ---------------------- Part C - Soviet Response to Events in the USSR ------------- SECTION III - Soviet Psychology and Psychiatry ---------- -- Part A - A General Review ---------------------------------- 9 Part B - Soviet Military Psychology --------------------- 13 Part C - Soviet Use of Psychology for Behavior Manipulation - 15 SECTION IV - Psychological Phenomena/Psychological Weapons ---- 15 Part A - Temperature ------.------ ---_.------------ --------- - 16 Part B - Atmospheric Conditions --------------------------- 16 Part C - Olfactory Phenomena ----------------------------- 17 Part D - Light -----_-_.----- ___,_-_..,------------- -__- 17 Part E - Sound ----------------------------------------------- 18 Part F - Electromagnetic Energy 18 Part G - Deprivation ------------------ -------------- ------ 19 PART II - PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE SOVIET UNION -------------- --- 21 SECTION I - Background ------------------ ---------------------- 21 SECTION II - Significance of Parapsychology in the USSR ------- 24 SECTION III - The Apport Technique - --- --------------------- 27 SECTION IV - ESP and Psychokinesis -------------------------- 31 ,SECTION V - Summary and Military Implications ----------__--- 39 TTPL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved For 11&ase 2004/ f~2 P96-007870100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Page No. PART III - MENTAL SUGGESTION AND CONTROLLED BEHAVIOR ------------ 41 SECTION I - Hypnosis ----------------------------------------- 41 Part A - The Use of Hypnosis in Medicine - USSR ------------- 41 Part B Hypnosis and Controlled Behavior ------------------- 43 Part C - Artificial Reincarnation Through Hypnosis ---------- 45 Part D Telepathic Hypnosis -------------------------------- 47 SECTION II - Conditioning Through Suggestion ------------------ 49 Part A - Hypnopedia ----------------------------------------- 49 Part B - Subliminal Perception ------------------------------ - 51 Part C - Suggestology ---------------------------------------- 53 PART IV - PROPAGANDA AND MASS MEDIA ----------------------------- - 59 PART V - PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY IN THE USSR ------------------------ 63 SECTION I - General ------------------------------------------- 63 SECTION II - Main Psychotropic Substances - USSR--------------- 64 SECTION III - Psycho-Warfare Agents --------------------------- 66 Part A - Diethylamide Lysergic Acid (LSD) and Psilocybin ---- 66 Part B - Piperidyl Benzilate and Piperidyl Glycolate ------- 69 Part C - Countermeasures ------------------------------------ - 70 SECTION IV - Current Research Interest in Psychopharmacology - USSR --------------------------------------------- - 71 Part A - Bioamine Research ---------------------------------- 71 Part B - Other Areas of Soviet Research in Psychopharmacology 74 PART VI - LIGHT AND COLOR AS A ,LEANS OF ALTERING HUMAN BEHAVIOP. 77 SECTION I - Psycho-Optics --------------------------------- 77 Part A - Background ----------------------------------------- 77 Part B - Soviet Research in Photic-Flicker ------------------ 79 SECTION II - Color and Light ---------------------------------- 82 SECTION III - Concluding Remarks and Countermeasures -- -------- 84 Cfl !FJPINIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved FJelease 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-007 000100120001-9 . CC fFII 11IAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 Page No. PART VII - ODOR AND THE ALTERING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 87 SECTION I - Background -------------y----~ ------- 87 SECTION II - Behavioral Altering Possibilities -------------- 88 PART VIII - SOUND AS A MEANS OF ALTERING BEHAVIOR ----------- - 91 SECTION I - General ------------------------------------------- 91 SECTION. II - Infrasonic Noise ------------------------------ 92 SECTION III - Sonic Noise -------------_--__----------------- 93 SECTION IV - Ultrasonic Noise --------------------------- -- 96 SECTION V - Conclusion --------------------------------------- 99 PART IX SENSORY DEPRIVATION ----------------------------------- 101 PART X - ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS -------------------------------- 107 APPENDIX I - PERSONNEL AND INSTITUTES --------------------------- 113 Current Events -------------------------------------- - 113 Part A - Affiliation Known --------------------------------- 113 Part B - Affilitation Unknown ------------------------------ 114 Part C - Important Institutes - No Personalities Available --- 114 Soviet Psychology and Psychiatry - Research ------------------ 114 Part A - Affiliation Known ---------------------------------- - 114 Part B - Affiliation Unknown -------------------------------- 116 Parapsychology - USSR ----------------------------------------- 116 Part A - Affiliation Known --------------------------------- 116 Part B - Affiliation Unknown (1972) ------------------------- 118 Mental Suggestion and Controlled Behavior 118 Part A - Affiliation Known ---------------------------------- 118 Part B - Affiliation Unknown -------------------------------- 119 Psychopharmacology in the USSR -------------------------------- 119 Affiliation Known ------------------------------------------ 119 FT 3 78000100120001-9 Approved For Release 9g01Q?,i %,Rp Approved For ase 2004/08 FB".96-00787 100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Page No. Lights and Color as a Means of Altering Human Behavior -------- 120 Affiliation Known ------------------------------------------- 120 Odors and the Altering of Human Behavior ---------------------- - 121 Part A - Affiliation Known ----------------------------------- 121 Part B - Affiliation Unknown -------------------------------- 121 Sensory Deprivation (non-aerospace)---------------------------- 121 Electromagnetic Effects --------------------------------------- 121 APPENDIX II - Intelligence Gaps --------------------------------- 123 APPENDIX III - Future Trends ----------------------------------- 125 APPENDIX IV - The. "1961 Directives" - Hospitalization of Mentally Ill -------------------------------------- APPENDIX V ~ APPENDIX VI Milan Ryzl, Biographic Data ------------------------ Bibliography ---------------------------------------------------- Non-Cited Bibliography Data Handling ------------------------------ ---------------------- - 175 Distribution List ------------------------------------------------- 177 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration One - Photograph of Professor L.L. Vasilev ---------- 31 Illustration Two - Photograph of Edward Naumov ------------------- 32 Illustration Three - Photograph of Kirlian Photography ----------- 34 Illustration Four - Photograph of Doctor G.A. Sergeyev ----------- 37 Illustration Five - Photograph of Mrs. N. Kulagina --------------- 37 Illustration Six - Photographic Sequence of the PK Phenomenon ---- 38 viii NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved For*Rrfease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787 40100120001-9 Ci FIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 LIST OF TABLES Page No. Table I - Soviet Instruction Courses - Psychiatric Specialization -------------------------------- - ---- 12 Table II - Soviet Psychiatrists - Comparison 1962 and 1967 ------ 13 Table III - Basic Types of Biocommunication Phenomena ----------- 21 Table IV - Relation of Psychoactive Drugs to Amine Activity ----- 73 ix (Reverse Blank) CC' FIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 SU 1 NARY .`(SENFD) Controlled offensive behavior as defined within the scope of this report includes Soviet research on human vulnerability as it applies to methods of influencing or altering human behavior. There is an ever increasing amount of information emanating from the USSR (samiadat or underground press) that suggests that certain authoritarian institutions in the USSR are engaged in the practice of "mental reorientation" of numerous individuals who are classed as political dissenters. The "mental reorientation" is being accom- plished through various means including confinement, isolation and psych?opharmaceutical administration; This treatment of so-called insane individuals is causing alarm among an international cross sec- tion of psychiatrists. The literature contains sufficient data on human mental manipulation and, therefore, warrants surveillance by interested parties. It appears that the USSR stresses physical and medical "treatment" of its political detainees under the guise of psychiatric-care rehabilitation. (S/NFD) The Soviet union is well aware of the benefits and applications of parapsychology research. The term parapsychology denotes a multi- disciplinary field consisting of the sciences of bionics, biophysics, psychophysics, psychology, physiology and neuropsychiatry. Many scientists, US and Soviet, feel that parapsychology can be harnessed to create conditions where one can alter or manipulate the minds of others. The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the - possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics, and bionics are said to come from the Soviet udlitary and the KGB. Today, it is reported that the USSR has twenty or more centers for the study of parapsychological phenomena, with an annual budget estimated at 21 million dollars. Parapsychological research in the USSR began in the 1920s and has continued to the present. Based on their "head start" and financial support, it could be concluded that Soviet knowledge in this field is superior to that of the US. (S/NFD) Methods for controlling behavior of the human being are numerous. Not all of the possibilities were included in this report, but an attempt was made to elaborate on those areas where there is intensive research by the USSR. The use of sound, light and color, or odors have been determined to be possible means for Soviet exploi- tation in order to alter human behavior. In the area of color and lights, usually in a flickering mode, there have been reports of actual "trials" by the Soviets (Air Force and Navy) on US or allied personnel. The Soviets have shocm an in-depth knowledge in the effects of sound and light on biological systems. It appears that with their xi NO FOREIGN DISS NATIO;d .JLCIR Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Felease 2004/08/02 : X96-00780001001.20001-9 Approved Forease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787RA0100120001-9 SECREt ST--CS-01-169-72 July 1972 knowledge, it would be a rather simple procedure to make the transfor- mation (from scientific research to the applications phase). The area of pheromone research has interested the Soviets; however, their data is sket.-hy and it is conceivable that they are not yet aware of the tremendous potentials that these substances provide for causing human behavioral changes.. It is also a Possibility that the USSR has realized the military benefits and are not publishing or conversing about their research and development efforts concerning pheromone synthesis and uses. xii NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SEC TT Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Fort ease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787AW0100120001-9 SEAT ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 PART I INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR MANIPULATION SECTION I - BACKGROUND 1. (S/NFD) Methods for manipulating or influencing the human mind exist and are being thoroughly researched by members of the Soviet scientific community. For background and introductory information it would be best if some of these methods were briefly mentioned. Techniques studied by the Soviets include biochemicals, sound, light, color, odors, sensory deprivation, sleep, electronic and magnetic fields, hypnosis, autosuggestion, and paranormal phenomena (psycho- kinesis, extrasensory perception, astral projection, dream state, clairvoyance, and precognition). Paranormal phenomena have caused great excitement in recent years in the Soviet Union; so much so, that it has been reported (1) that the Soviets had 20 or more centers in 1967 for the study of this area. It was also reported that the annual budget for 1967 for paranormal research was approximately $20 million. 2. (S/NFD) The purpose of mind altering techniques is to create one or more of several different possible states in the conscious or unconscious area of the brain. The ultimate goal of controlled offensive behavior might well be the total submission of one's will to some outside force. It is more realistic to assume that lesser degrees of mental aberration would be the purpose of Soviet research in this field. Some areas of human mind manipulation that apply to this report are morale lowering, confusion, an:.iety, loss of confidence, loss of self reliance, fatigue, persuasion, disruption of social cohesion, or complete incapacitation. Since the desired end product of this type of research is some change in the human mind, only the non-lethal aspects are discussed in this report. It should be remembered, however, that some techniques have lethal thresholds. 3. (S/NFD) The purpose of this study is to portray the Soviet research in mind manipulation and its possible use on US or allied individuals (e.g. P;.'s) or troops. Controlled offensive behavior, however, has other connotations. Certain methods of altering mental or physical states of ,:,an may have application on one's own individuals. The apport technique and astral projection are examples which will be discussed in this report. These two methods allow the enemy to import certain behavioral characteristics on its own people to the detriment of US or allied personnel or missions. ii i'`vcil. IG1 D tSS~ '~l iyl?_~iON SECT: i Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Forease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-007870100120001-9 SECRET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 SECTION II - CURRENT EVENTS PART A - Events in Northern Ireland 1. (C) The following discussion is based on 1971 and 1972 literature .dealing with the manipulation of human behavior. The events that have been reported to have occurred are not Soviet originated but provide an excellent example of the type of efforts that this report is expressing. 2. (U) Recently there has appeared in the press some discussion elaborating on the techniques and procedures for detaining, treating, and interrogating prisoners in Northern Ireland (2,3). According to the report, once the detainees are in prison, they come under three types of regime which create in men a state of. great confusion, suggestibility, and distress. The first regime contained various methods to produce sensory isolation. The men were made to stand still against a wall with their hands in the air for four to six hours at a time. The total length was 43 1/2 hours. Hoods were placed over the men's heads to further abolish visual input. Sensory input was further decreased by having loud noise generators turned on in order to mask meaningful sounds. The detainees were, therefore, isolated from their sensory world. 3. (U) The second sensory regime has the effect of increasing confusion and disorientation. Some men were rushed out, hooded and doubled up, past barking dogs, loaded into a helicopter, doors closed, engine revved up, then unloaded, then reloaded, with the procedure repeated three times. In another incident, detainees without shoes were made to mive quickly over rough ground by military police. 4. (U) The third type of treatment has the effect of increasing stress and anxiety and reducing resistance to the disorienting effect on the two types described above. It appears that dietary intake was restricted to bread and water at six hour intervals. Maximum weight loss was achieved it appears. One detainee lost eight pounds in seven days. To accompany the diet restrictions, no sleep was allowed the first two or three days. Forty-eight hours sleep deprivation, in certain individuals, has been known to precipitate psychotic-like states. 5. (U) Psychological torture and physical abuse has been used on Catholic detainees in Northern Ireland. High-frequency sound waves (range not given in report) and sensory deprivation - research methods.that have been outlawed for use on humans by the American 2 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET (This page is CONFIDENTIAL) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Forl (ease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-007878, 0100120001-9 C(NFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Psychological Association - were being used to undermine the dignity and destroy the effectiveness of the Catholic minority of Northern Ireland. The case of one 40-year old released prisoner has been reported. Upon release, the man's mental and physical condition suggested senility a condition inconsistent with his health at the time of his internment. The man walks like he is 65, whimpers in the dark and has an attention span so short he cannot carry on a conversation. 6. (U) The Northern Ireland procedure can be expected to greatly increase the pliability of detainees under interrogation since sensory deprivation increases suggestability and lowers intellectual competence. Stress-isolation techniques can reach the extent of eliciting false confessions where both prisoner and interrogator are convinced the statements rendered are true. It is hoped that the above examples impart to the reader a feeling for the type of mind manipulating procedures that will be discussed later in this report. 7. (U) Since it appears that the research behind sensory deprivation has been put to current use on humans, the interested reader might peruse Biderman and Zimmer's 1961 publication entitled "The Manipulation of Human Behavior" (4). The book represents a critical examination of some of the conjectures about the application of scientific knowledge to manipulation of human behavior. The problem is explored within a particular frame of reference: the interrogation of an unwilling subject. Attention has been focused on interrogation because of the central position this topic has had in public discussions of prisoner of war (PW) behavior. PART B - Events in the Soviet Union 1. (C) The use of psychiatric detention to silence political dissenters appears to be a method being utilized by the Soviet Union. There is extensive documention from "samizdat" (self- published) sources in the Soviet Union, notably "A Question of Madness" by Soviet geneticist Zhores Medvedev, excerpts from which were published in the Sunday New York Times Magazine of November 7, 1971 (5). British Sovietologist Peter Reddaway asserts that the number of such political detainees in the USSR has grown sharply in the last two years, perhaps to several hundred (6). Peter Reddaway has published several articles that give brief accounts of several political detainees as well as publishing letters received from the Soviet underground (7,8,9). NO FOREIGN DTSSEMTNATIOAN j. mi 1L-iA 1 AL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved ForWease 2004/08/02 CIA-RDP96-0078710100120001-9 CmFIT NTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 2. (C/NFD) On the surface, the fact that the Soviet Union has been subjecting political dissenters to psychiatric institutions may not appear relevant to this report. However, as one probes into this area, he discovers that the medical and physical treatment of these prisoners borders on the subject of controlled offensive behavior. Since the techniques are reportedly being applied to Soviet citizens, it is simple enough, as the researchers gain knowledge and expertise in this area, to assume that alien personnel could someday be subjected to it as well. 3. (U) From the many reports, some coming from the Soviet Union CA5 underground press, the article that best relates some of theca OA d me ical and physical treatment to political detainees is discussed below (10). The article was written about Vladimir Bukovsky who is frequently quoted in the feature story. Bukovsky has spent ,3 six of his 27 years in Soviet prisons asylums and labor cam s , p .~ (On January 5, 1972, Bukovsky was sentenced to a 12-year confinemente to include prison, hard labor camp, and internal exile.) In 1962, Bukovsky organized an illegal exhibition of paintings by abstract artists not approved by state censors. In May 1963, Bukovsky was arrested by the KGB. He was declared insane by the Serbsky Psychiatric Institute. That December, he was transferred to a prison asylum in Leningrad (name not mentioned) where he spent, in his own words 15 months of hell." "There were about 1,000 men in the asylum, political prisoners and insane murderers," says Bukovsky. "The sick raved, the healthy suffered." Doctors were technically in charge of the inmates, but the real masters were brutal turnkeys and prisoner trustees. "Only the crafty survived, you had to be nice to the guards.... you had to bribe them. Otherwise, they can beat you until you are nearly dead and tell the doctors you mis- behaved. Or they could recommend medical punishment." 4. (U) The worst, according to Bukovsky, was medical punishment. The three methods of medical punishment known to Bukovsky are .described as follows: a. On the recommendation of a trustee or turnkey, doctors would inject a drug (not mentioned) that produced severe stomach cramps, fever, intense pain, and a temperature of 104. The sickness lasted two or three. days and left the inmate very weak. b. Another drug reserved for serious misbehavior induced sleep and dulled the brain. Inmates were punished with ten days of daily injections. They woke up as h unan vegetables. Some regained their senses after two months, others did not. NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CO !FID NTIAI- Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved For ease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-007870100120001-9 I NCL SSIFI? ST-CS-O1-169-72 July 19 72 c. The third punishment was the canvas bandage. An inmate would be tightly swathed in wet canvas from neck to toes while others in his ward were forced to watch. "The canvas shrinks as it dries. It is not a pretty sight. They usually only do it for two or three hours. A nurse is always in attendance, and the bandages are loosened when the pulse grows weak." 5. (U) A thousand-word telegram by Andrei D. Sakhaiov to Colonel Nikolai A. Shchelokov, Minister of the Interior, relates further information on the use of drugs to alter mental behavior (11). Sakhaiov, a physicist and civil-rights champion, charged that a violation of human rights and medical ethics is occurring in the Soviet Union. The contention is that drugs are being administered forcibly to inmates in an effort to have them change their political beliefs. In addition, some prisoners are threatened with the possible use of electrical-shock "therapy." According to Sakhaiov, medicine, one of the most humane of the professions, is thus being turned into a servile handmaiden of the regimes correction agencies. It is further reported that with the help of medicine, an attempt is being made to make people literally lose their minds by chemical and physical means if they refuse to adapt their mind to the standards of the regime. 6.. (U) One of the few references that mention a drug by name is a London Times feature by Richard Preston (12). In several cases, Soviet authorities forced political prisoners to submit to-the use of mind-bending drugs, specifically aminazine and haloperidol. Aminazine is the Soviet brand of a phenothiazine derivative known as chlorpromazine. Haloperidol is a butyrophenone. Both drugs are in the tranquilizer class of therapeutic agents. An excellent discussion on both of these drugs has been prepared by Goodman and Gilman (13). 7. (U) Information on the plight of political prisoners in mental wards and other examples of internal Soviet repression is contained in Issue 18 of "A Chronicle of Current Events." The chronicle has just passed its third anniversary despite the increasing efforts of the KGB to shut down this underground publication. The last issue discusses the case of Vasily I. Chernyshov who was arrested in March of 1970. The chronicle quotes Chernyshov.... "I am terribly afraid of torture. But there is an even worse torture - meddling with my brain with chemical substances. I have now been informed of the decision that I shall be given treatment. Farewell!" Chernyshov's compulsory "treatment" was prescribed after only a five minute interview with the authorities. The concluding statement from the panel of doctors was, "The main thing for us is that you shouldn't think at all." Approved For Release 2004/08/ 2~ RD ia Approved For-ease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-007870100120001-9 TICI_ASSIFIET?. ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 8. (U) A document that contains several case histories of political detainees has been prepared by Abraham Brumberg (14). The article summarizes the procedure that is used in the Soviet Union from arrest to confession. According to the report, the KGB performs the search, arrest, and initial investigation. The medical "experts" cooperate in furnishing bogus diagnoses and the court confirms the findings of the doctors. The victim is then sent off to a prison asylum to languish until "cured" (which in most cases consists of the patient's confession that he is indeed guilty of some form of mental aberration) 9. (U) The legal procedures involved in detaining an "undesirable" have been drastically reduced by the "1961 Directives" (15). V.N. Chalidze (16), in an underground document, explains how the "1961 Directives" allow for the immediate detention of a sane individual who is not a criminal in the legal sense. Chalidze sums up his argument by noting that the viciousness.of the present-day practice, not based on the law, of psychiatric preventive measures is due to the absence of any public means of defense for the patient. The "1961 Directives" are included in this report in Appendix IV. 10. (U) The office that prepared this study has copies of various reports from the Soviet Union that deal with some of the more celebrated political detainees. There are three reports available that illustrate the forensic-psychiatric examinations of I. A. Yakhimovich. Two of these documents list the names of the psy- chiatric teams that carried out the examination (17-19). By reading these reports, one can trace the fate of Yakhimovich up to early 1970. No further reports were available so the ultimate fate of the individual is unknown. 11. (U) A report is available on A. Volpin (20) that was apparently prepared by the individual while in detention. There have been several cases where these documents have been "smuggled" out of the asylum. An outpatient report on V.E. Borosov is available (21). This report condemns Borosov to compulsory psychiatric treatment. Reports are available on the plight of N.E. Gorbanevskava (22,23) as well as several Letters that she wrote while interned (24). An appeal for human rights written by V. Fainberg while he was incarcerated is on file (25) as well as documents relating to the sanity proceedings for General P.G. Grigorenko (26-28). 12. (U) The possible use of drugs by Soviet psychiatrists in order to manipulate behavior can be emphasized by an account from Vladimir Gershuni, a Soviet idealist. The event that follows occurred at the Oryol Hospital which is some 170 miles I'NCUISS I FIFI) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved IWAKase 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-00787100100120001-9 OF I W791 AL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 southwestof Moscow. Mr. a description of the conditions in which mental patients (both genuine and political) are held. "Eight people to a 16 or 17 meter cell. . . . (Comment: This seems large enough for eight people if figure is correct.) There is no room to move. One is allowed to go along the corridor, but only if it's absolutely necessary - to the toilet, or to get some food from the nurse. . . . The toilet is a cesspit: four holes in the ground'and two taps for.54 people. . . From 7 to 8:30 in the evening we're allowed to use the dining room for writing letters, or to play dominoes and chess. The bedlam is indescrib- able." Mr. Gershuni talks about the use of drugs, one of which is aminazine, a powerful substance, administered orally or by intramuscular injections, which causes depressive shock reactions and frequently malignant tumors. Sometimes drugs are given as a form of punishment. "Any phrase spoken incautiously to a doctor or nurse can serve as a pretext for a series of aminazine injections. Sometimes these injections are prescribed without any pretext, simply because of some doctor's whim . without any medical examination. . . This medicine makes me feel more horrible than anything I've ever experienced before; you no sooner lie down than you want to get up, you no sooner take a step than you're longing to sit down, and if you sit down, you want to walk again - and there's nowhere to walk." Mr. Gershuni finishes his account by describing the fate of a young man, once brilliantly "alive and alert," who as a result of repeated doses of aminazine, "and God only knows what else," had been reduced to a va?etable: "his head on one side, his speech languid and indistinct,' ndistinct, his eyes glazed." "He was thus," concludes Mr. Gershuni, "cancelled out for five whole months. Hail to Soviet 'special psychiatry'! I kiss you all." 13. (C) To belabor this subject of political detention is not the intention of this section. However, it is believed to be of sufficient importance that this much material had to be presented. It is difficult to judge the overall validity of much of the ref- erenced material because of its source (primarily samizdat and letters), but if true, it bears watching and possible investigation for future developments. Portions of this material contain sufficient data on human mental manipulation and therefore warrants surveilance by interested agencies. From the information available at this time, it appears that the Soviet Union stresses physical and medical "treatment" of its political detainees under the .. guise of psychiatric-care rehabilitation. No data is available on the use of sound, sights, or hypnosis as methods of obtaining confessions or reorientating the beliefs of these prisoners. For a listing of personnel and institutes involved in political- psychiatric care, see Ap_>endix I. :iny personalities involved 7 Approved For Release 2004/08/02 CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 cr Approved For rase 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0078710100120001-9 CONFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 in the maltreatment of detainees are not listed but can be found in the references listed. An attempt was made to list only the top professional personnel. PART C - Soviet Response to Events in the USSR 1. (U) The Soviet government, quite naturally, has denied the charges made in the USSR and abroad that mentally stable persons were being detained in psychiatric hospitals because of dissident activities. The Soviet authorities had said little about the accusations until an article written by S.P. Pisarev was obtained by Western sources from the Soviet underground (30). Pisarev, 69, member of the Soviet Communist party since 1918 and minor party official, in 1970 directed a letter to the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences protesting the Soviet police practice of sending political prisoners to "psychiatric institutions" such as the infamous Serbsky Institute in Moscow. 2. (U) Disputing the type of charge mentioned by Pisarev, Soviet authorities contended persons remanded by a legal psychiatric commission to special mental institutions were those "who committed socially dangerous acts while not responsible for their actions or became ill during a pretrial investigation, during actual court proceedings or after the passing of sentence." According to the Soviet government, such cases are reviewed every six months and committed persons are released if sufficient improvement is found in their mental health (31). 3. (U) A.V. Snezhnevskiy (32), USSR Academy of Medical Sciences academician and director of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences Psychiatric Institute says: "Yes, I, too, have read these absurd reports that in the USSR healthy people are put into psychiatric hospitals. Like all my colleagues, I cannot express my feelings of profound indignation at this wild fan- tasy. Soviet psychiatrists - a detachment of Soviet medical workers consisting of many thousands - do not, of course, need to be defended from insulting attacks of this sort. In our country and abroad fame and deserved authority are enjoyed by such psychiatrists as A.D. Zurabasvili, V.M. Morozov . . . ." etc. (Snezhnevskiy mentions eight other psychiatrists). S h 714 ARC neznevs y continues his argument by listing the members of a .D,1I TTQ 4 4 h nsson t at toured Soviet psychiatric facilities. The mission says in its conclusion . . . . "It appears that the Soviets are leading." CONE FINIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved For ease 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-007870100120001-9 ONFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 The US guests stressed the high degree of effectiveness of the Soviet psychiatric first aid centers, and the better quality of their staffs compared with US centers. The US delegation did -visit the Serbsky Institute. As for compulsory treatment, the mission stated . . "It is possible that people who need treatment should. be compulsorily hospitalized for their own good." 4. (U) Snezhnevskiy, in another document (33), said that when mentioning "brainwashing" many absurd allegations have been made, such as the talk of injecting a substance which paralyzes a person's will. Snezhnevskiy contends that "brainwashing," from a scientific point of view, is absurd. He further believes that the people dedicated to this sort of propaganda have very few scruples and direct the propaganda to laymen who know nothing about medicine. Interviews with Snezhnevskiy and Lebeden, chief of psychiatry at the Pavlov hospital in Leningrad, were obtained just prior to the Fifth World Psychiatric Congress in Mexico City which was held in early December 1971 (34). 5. (U) The literature from Soviet authorities denying the mal- treatment of detainees or other charges does not mention any of the more celebrated prisoners with the exception of Zhores Medvedev who was released after a very short stay. One can draw some obvious .conjectures based on the avoidance of such personalities as Gershuni, Grigorenko, Bukovsky, Fainberg, and Borisov in the Soviet statements. The issue of inhumane treatment is usually responded to with the use of platitudes and counter-propaganda. If the Soviets have nothing to conceal, then it would seem that one could ei.pect more scientific and concrete responses as to the actual situation in political detention and behavior manipulation with drugs. SECTION III - SOVIET PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY 1. (C/CD/NDA) The past fifteen years have witnessed a definite acceleration of growth .in Soviet psychology (35). It has been observed by some American psychologists that an upward trend in the quality and quantity of Soviet published research began around the middle of the 1950's. Research designs improved, greater experimental controls were employed, and the level of sophistication in laboratory techniques started to rise perceptibly. Many new people are entering into the area of psychology and the increase has been (1966) as much as a factor of 2,3, or. 4 (36). According to this source (36), Soviet 9 CONTROLLED DISSEMINA'1IO61 NO DISS^^:,~MJNA:'IC i ;:0AD I.l "r1L I II L- Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved f4gr Release 200410.8/02 CIA-RDP96-OWR000100120001-9 WHEY IAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 s are considerably behind the US and accept the US as the leader in this field. psychology is in a growth stage which appears to have sprung up coincident to the man-in-space program. Contrary to the reference above (36), this source (36) believes that despite the growth and acceptance by the Soviet scientific community, the Soviets are merely duplicating or extending to some degree the research that is already known. In the opinion of this source, there is definitely a tie-in between the Soviet engineers, psychiatrists and psychologists. It must be remembered that the Soviets are presently in a growth stage and, therefore, are merely making their investments at this time. According to this source, once they have reached the level off period then this coordination of the disciplines will pay off handsomely in returns to the Soviet psychological society. The source believes that in the area of human engineering the Soviets are moving very rapidly and at least in many respects are close to . US~ levels. In behavior studies, the Soviets are stagnant. They lean too heavily on the conditional response approach of Pavlov. In the neurosensory areas, source believes that the Soviet 2. (C/CD/NDA) According to one report, there is apparently classified psychological research work going on in the area of cyber- netics. One area that surveillance would appear fruitful is Soviet research in the area of artificial intelligence. This report contains a substantial number of institutes and personalities which is reflected in Appendix I (37). 3. (U) It is concluded that, in spite of their ideological resistance to theoretical psychology, Soviet behavior scientists share a distinguished experimental tradition and possess the ability to incorporate and combine the principles of biocybernetics, physiology, learning, memory, and transfer under a common group of laws (38). 4. (U) The following brief discussion of Soviet psychiatry is based primarily upon a report by Persic (39). The report contains a brief history of psychiatry in the Soviet Union followed by a section that relates to the scientific and investigative work in psychiatry. Also included is a section on the organization. of psychiatric care including statistics on the number of patients, beds, and medical personnel in the Soviet Union. 5. (U) According to Persic there are 94 medical institutes and a greater number of medical research institutes. The following research institutes in psychiatry exist in Moscow: the Psychiatric Institute at the Academy of Science; the Psychiatric Institute at the Ministry of Health for the Russian Federation, and the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of the. Ministry of Health 10 CONTROLLED DISSEMINATION Approved For Rele' eD2OO44IO&W,r iAt9p1?ffl-00787R000100120001-9 TILE; 1 AL Approved Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0Q R000100120001-9 _171 SSIFIFJi ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 of the USSR (Serbsky Institute). The research institutes are either of a general type or of a specialized type which study certain mental diseases e.g. schizophrenia, epilepsy, or alcoholism. The psychiatric research institutes have similar organizational schemes: clinical departments, laboratories, and methodics departments. The Psychiatric Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow is the post-graduate school for psychiatrists. At the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow (Serbsky) are clinics for schizo- phrenia, psychoorganic disorders, and alcoholism. (Naturally there is no discussion in this report of some of the more infamous areas of the Serbsky Institute.) 6. (U) The task of psychiatric institutes is to deal with the educational matters of students, and physicians specializing in psychiatry. This work is conducted in the form of seminars and in the form of continuous education. The psychiatric research institutes are connected with psychiatric hospitals, departments and. dispensaries in advancing psychiatric work and the organizing of psychiatric service. Great attention is devoted to health education in the USSR. A great network of institutions devoted to health instruction exist. They are affiliated with many groups which dispense health advice. Included in the general health education is also education concerning mental health. There are 360 health institutes in the USSR which are devoted to teaching health. The Central Institute for Health Education`in Moscow is engaged 'in research in the field of health education, education of.experts, training in tie methodology, of health education and drganizing health training. This Institute employs a method of providing health education for schools, students of medicine, for workers in industry and hospitals. There is also cooperation with physicians concerning public health and seminars are held where practical matters are discussed. There is also a functional connection with health agencies so that officials of these agencies cooperate with the Institute and attend seminars. These. health agencies also receive support from the Institute in the form of trained help and 'Literature which the Institute publishes through its own printing outlets. Table I depicts the instructional requirements for psychiatric specialization. These figures were prepared by Persic. Table II illustrates statistics on the number of neurologists and psychiatrists in the USSR in 1962 (Persic) and 1967. The 1967 data was compiled by Fry (40). Fry, in, his report, combined neurologists and psychiatrists into one figure. I l~IC!_nSSIFIFII Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved" r Release 2004108/02: CIA-RDP96-0WR000IO012000"- ST-CS--01-169-72 July 19 72 UNCLASSIFIED TABLE I Plan of Instruction and Stages in Psychiatric Specialization-USSR Subject Hours of theoretical Hours of practical training training, Psychopathology 16 Clinical psychiatry Schizophrenia 16 Manic depressive psychosis 6 Infectional psychosis 16 Toxic psychosis 6 Epilepsy 6 Noninfectional symptomatic 8 psychosis Brain trauma 4 Arteriosclerotic psychosis 6 Brain tumors 2 Presenile psychosis 4 Senile psychosis 4 Oligophrenia 2 Psychopathy 4 Psychogenic reaction 4 Organization of 4 Psychiatric Service Total 108 460 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved f Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0('R000100120001-9 SECPFT ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 TABLE II Comparison of the Number of Psychiatric Specialists in USSR-1962 and 1967 1962 1967 Population 220,000,000 230,000,000 Physicians 400,000 480,000 Psychiatrists 6,140 Combined Psychiatrists and Neurologists total: 24,000 Neurologists 9,850 One physician per 520 people- 480 people One psychiatrist per 35,835 people Combined Psychiatrists and Neurologists total: One neurologist per 22,335 people 20,000 people 7. (U) The figures in Table II, if valid, represent a substantial growth in the number of specialists in mental health care. The number and quality of both psychology and psychiatry research reports is increasing, especially in the behavioral fields. There appears to be an ever increasing link between the psychology and psychiatry fields with the pharmacology, human engineering, bioelectronics, physics, and parapsychology disciplines. Some of the multidiscipline aspects of Soviet research will become evident later in this stu v as it relates to the subject of this report. The above information on psychology and psychiatry was intended to be a review because it is believed that there is a definite relationship between the two disciplines and mental manip- ulation. It is not within the scope of this report to delve into basic psychological research and discuss its military implications. PART B - Soviet Military Psychology 1. (S/NFD) The purpose of this report is to make determinations and report findings on methods of controlling human behavior. One aspect of this subject is the possible use of certain novel techniques to disrupt or confuse combat troops. Based on Soviet literature dealing with military psychology, it appears that the Soviet military authorities might well suspect their potential enemies as already being able to do this. The available Soviet literature on military psychology emphasizes the protection of their troops against such possible attempts e.g. demoralization and confusion. Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 0 I'OREIC N D SSr'. tl;tiAl"ION Approved fat Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-OG R000100120001-9 SECRET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 2. (U) In 1967; a book entitled "Military Psychology" was published in the Soviet Union. The authors, Colonel Dyachenko and Major Fedenko, are Candidates of Pedagogical Sciences (41). This book is primarily intended for commanders and military doctors. The book deals with the various aspects of the personality of the soldier including his cogni- tive, emotional, and volitional processes, his fighting skill, and his psychological readiness for battle. All of the psychic phenomena are based on the service, training, and fighting activity of enlisted and commissioned personnel. One of the more interesting areas is found in Chapter 8 which is entitled "Will Power." The chapter contains infor- mation on will power as a psychic process. The chapter continues by discussing the qualities of will power necessary to a soldier as well as methods of training will power. The discussion on will power appears to be a very important topic because if one's will power is sufficiently developed, the use of techniques to demoralize or confuse could well be nullified. Part one of the book describes the general problems of military psychology, followed by a discussion on psychic processes of the soldier and concluding with the psychological analysis of the activity of Soviet soldiers. 3. (U) The group of people most susceptible to offensive behavior manipulation appear to be rear-zone troops and small patrol groups. The Soviets again seem to recognize the fallibility of such groups. Lieutenant General Tyurnev (42) reports that the moral-psychological training of administrative support troops in operations under conditions of modern war is a quite urgent and complicated problem. .The report suggests training and propaganda methods to increase the morale-psychological condition of rear-zone troops. The training, to include evening seminars, propaganda sessions, political ir,loctrination and field exercises is suggested in Tyurnev's report. The word moral and morale seem to be interchanged frequently in the report. It seems to be a problem in translation, because the author's thoughts are still meaningful. 4. (U) Two further reports from the Soviets have appeared recently. One report (43) discusses the role of medicine and military medical personnel in the psychoprophylaxis in morale-psychological preparation. A 1970 report by Stolyarenko (44) reinforces the thoughts of Tyurnev. From the above discussion and a thorough perusal of the documents referenced in this section, it could be stated: if the Soviets practice what they preach, the psychological training of Soviet troops is as good as or better than US soldiers. This does not include the special training afforded to US pilots on anti-interrogation methods. 14 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET (This page is UNCLASSIFIED) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 ApprovedfiG? Release 2004108/02: CIA-RDP96-O R000100120001-9 SE SG1B ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 SECTION IV - PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA/PSYCHOLOGICAL WEAPONS (S/NFD) One of the purposes of this report is to evaluate research in the field of influencing human behavior in order that the US may be in a position to develop certain countermeasures. Therefore, before beginning specific sections in this report on Soviet research, it is desirable to review some of the more feasible areas of exploitation in the development of a technique that might alter human behavior. Some of these characteristics will be studied in depth in later sections of this study. NiO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved - Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-OOWR000100120001-9 SECRET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 ?PART A - Temperature 1. (U) An increase in body temperature decreases the body water level and creates a salt-water imbalance. With a large intake of water, but little replacement of sodium chloride, painful spasms of the skeletal and abdominal muscles may develop as may also faintness, weakness, nausea, and vomiting. With an internal temperature above 41. degrees C or below 31 degrees C, brain function is usually impaired. Irreversible damage to the skin occurs at about 44-45 degrees C (46,47). 2. (U) The sensitivity and tolerance for temperature changes is different for certain races. Negroes have a greater tolerance for humid heat than Caucasians, and conversely, Negroes are more susceptible to injury from cold stress than Caucasians. 3. (C/NFD) It is believed that the use of temperature manipulation as a technique to influence human behavior is practical. In order to be effective it would seem necessary to apply this technique to individuals or small groups that are already under one's influence such as prisoners of war. The application of utmat-Li-ral temperature in field situations appear to be most difficult. Further, there appears to be very little applicable research in the USSR in this area other than some isolated work in the areospace field. It may be concluded that temperature fluctuations could be used for altering human behavior, but would probably not be as useful as other available methods. PART B Atmospheric Conditions 1. (C/NFD) There has been some work reported on the physiological or psychological effects of atmospheric or geophysical parameters (48-51). The works referenced here are free world but there is little doubt that the Soviet Union has investigated similar effects especially in relation to their space program. The utilization of any of the techniques to alter human behavior by changing atmospheric conditions seems remote for field application. These techniques, like temperature effects, are more suitable for controlled. groups or individuals. 2. (U) An increase of 0.2 percent carbon dioxide doubles the volume of air breathed. Breathing becomes deeper, more rapids and eventually violent. Depletion of oxygen or the increase .of carbon dioxide decreases auditory sensitivity as well as visual sensitivity. Ten percent of oxygen for 15 to 30 minutes sometimes 16 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECPFI (This page is CONFIDENTIAL) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved*11pt Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-0W7R000100120001-9 CQNFIMITIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 results in a hearing deficit for several hours. With severe or prolonged anoxia there may be nausea, vomiting, extreme weakness, and eventually convulsions and cardiac failure (52). Perhaps the applicable symptoms of anoxia to this report are the homeo- static inbalances in the brain: loss of ability to carry on complex activities, restlessness, loquacity, delirium, confusion, and unconsciousness. 3. (U) Intermittent exposures to negatively ionized air produces a sedating effect on humans. There are some researchers who believe that positively ionized air causes irritation and anxiety which is applicable to altering behavior. PAR C Olfactory Phenomena 1. (U) Seven primary odors have been identified; they are campho- raceous, musky, floral, minty, pungent, putrid, and ethereal (53). From the seven primary odors, every known odor can be made by mixing them in certain proportions. 2. .(U) Man expresses pleasure or displeasure to various odors. If the smell is foul or irritating enough, man will attempt to avoid it. If. escape is hindered or if odors are used with surprise they may elicit certain behavioral changes in the individual. Odors are suitable for use in controlled situations and in the field. For these reasons odors will be discussed more fully later in this report. PART D - Light 1. (U) Although it is customary to specify the wavelength range of visible light as lying between 400 and 750 millimicrons (mu), never- theless, with sufficient energy, the eye can be stimulated up to 1050 mp. Also, the fovea (phototopic vision) can be stimulated down to about 320 nip. It is thought that 1150-1200 mu marks the limit at which radiant energy would cease to be seen and would be readily felt as heat (54). 2. (U) Yellow light has maximum effect on the retina and is most effective in eliciting photophobia. Non-rhythmic bright lights can interrupt or prevent sleep. It has been claimed that if sensory stimulation is sufficient, sleep can be prevented even if fatigue is carried to the point of death (52). The physiological NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIL I1IAL (This page is UNCLASSIFIED) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved' Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-O WR000100120001-9 CREDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 and psychological effects of flashing lights (stable) and photic- flicker appear to have raised interests in the Soviet Union. Since lights can be utilized in the field or in controlled situations and do cause certain behavioral changes in man, this. subject will be discussed in detail later in this. report. 1. (U) Sound, from one source or another, has been used to elicit behavioral changes in man in every war ever recorded. It may be a simple bugle call or battle cry or a mechanical siren device; but whatever is used there is normally a psychological response by the receiver. Regardless of the absolute level, sounds of enemy weapons with which one is unfamiliar is frightening provided the sounds are associated with a feared weapon or the unknown. 2. (U) Auditory effects have been and still are researched. Nerve deafness can certainly result from prolonged exposure to loud sounds. For the purpose of this study it is believed that the nonauditory effects are just as important when discussing behavioral alterations. For example, exposure to a siren-generated sound of 20 kilohertz at 1 watt per square centimeter kills a variety of insect life in three to four minutes and larger animals (mice) in about one minute. Human operators, with earplugs, experience "cool sizzling sensations" in the mouth and an unpleasant tingling in the nasal passages when near the siren. 3. (C/NFD) Sound can be used on controlled groups or in the field. Sound can produce behavioral changes and the effects of s:o.nd on humans is being investigated in the Soviet Union. For these reasons, a more detailed discussion can be found later in this report. PART F - Electromagnetic Energy 1. (C/NFD) Super-high frequency electromagnetic oscillations (SHF) may have potential use as a technique for altering human behavior. Soviet Union and other foreign literature sources contain over 500 studies devoted to the biological effect of SHF. Lethal and non-lethal aspects have been shown to exist. In certain non-lethal exposures, definite behavioral changes have occurred. There also appears to be a change in mammals, when exposed to SHF, in the sensitivity to sound, light, and olfactory stimuli (55). NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved` Release 2004/08/02 CIA-RDP96-0 'R000100120001-9 CREDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 2. (C/NFD) Because of the possible behavioral changes and reactions to other important stimuli and the emphasis the Soviet Union has placed on SHF research, a more detailed discussion of this subject appears later in this report. PART G - Deprivation (C/NFD) The behavior effects on man from. the deprivation of food, sleep, and sensory stimuli have been studied by the Soviet Union. As mentioned in Section II of this report, certain forms of depri- vation to humans is in current use. This area is very important in the discussion of controlled offensive behavior and it is clear that the Soviet Union is well aware of this potential. Because one is able to apply deprivation techniques in controlled situations as well as in the field, it will be discussed in detail in a later section of this report. Hahn (56) provides further discussion on the areas mentioned in this section to include fear phenomena, anxiety and stress, and cultural background. These specific areas are not mentioned specifically as separate sections in this report 'because they become interlaced with the other areas of major concern. 19 (Reverse Blank) NO FORCEIGN DISSEMINATION Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approve& r Release 2004/08/O UM PMOQ 7R000100120001-9 PART II ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 SECTION I - BACKGROUND 1. (U) The science of parapsychology includes special sensory bio- physical activities, brain and mind control, telepathic communications or bioinformation transceiving, bioluminescent and bioenergetic emissions, and the effects of altered status of consciousness on the human psyche. The Soviets prefer the term biocommunications instead of the term para- psychology. Other terms that may appear in the Soviet literature that normally mean parapsychology are: psycho-physiology, psychotronics, psychoenergeti.cs,or biophysical effects. The term parapsychology (biocommunications) as used in this report denotes a multi-disciplinary field consisting of the sciences of bionics, biophysics,-psychophysics, psychology, physiology, and neuropsychiatry (57,58). 2. (U) The broad area of biocommunications can be further subdivided into two general classifications: Bioinformation and Bioenergetics. Bioinformation includes paranormal events between living organisms (telepathy, precognition) and events between living organisms and the inorganic world. Bioenergetics denotes those activities such as biological location and indicator techniques, bioenergetic therapy using electromagnetic fields, and psychokinesis, or the influence of mind upon matter. The definitions of the terms Biocommunications, Bioinformation, and Bioenergetics are given in Table III which appeared in the Mankind Unlimited Research report. The basic definitions are based on information provided by Ryzl (59). It should be mentioned that parapsychology was accepted in 1969 as a legitimate field of science and scientific research by the American Association foz the Ldvancement of Science (AAAS). TABLE III BASIC TYPES OF BIOCONNICATION PHENOMENA. (U) General: Biocommunications A new branch of science involved with the human capability of obtaining information from other than the normal sensesx and the ability to respond to or reasonably interpret such information. Bioconm.unications, also synonymous with para- psychology, is, however, distinct from other sciences in that it is primarily concerned with researching the exist- ence of a definite group of natural phenomena controlled by laws which are not based on any known enetgetic influence. 21 l~NCL SSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Wof Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-OOQJR000100120001-9 11NCLASSIFIED ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 TYPE I: BIOINFORMATION (U) Those phenomena associated with the obtaining of information through means other than the normal sensory channels e.g. through extra- sensory perception (ESP). There are several forms of ESP, including: a. Telepathy, transmission or "reading" of thoughts refers to the extrasensory reception of information about the mental processes of others. b. Proscopy or precognition - While the above forms appear to differ only in the nature of the object about which information is received, numerous observations indicate that precognitive ESP involves, under certain circumstances, trespassing the barrier of time to obtain information about future events. c. Paragnosia or clairvoyance refers to the extrasensory reception of information about objective events in the outer world. TYPE II: BIOENERGETICS (U) Those phenomena associated with the production of objectively .detectable effects through means other than the known energetic influences. Seemingly incredible effects have been reported, such as the movement of distant objects without any detectable use of physical force (telekinesis), antigravitational effects, transformations of energy, electromagnetic effects arising without adequate physical cause, and chemical reactions and biological processes occurring through mental concentration. 3. (U) Scientists in pre-revolutionary Russia were studying the area of parapsychology as did later such Soviet scientists as V.M. Bekhterev, A.G. Ivanov-Smolensky and B.B. Kazhinsky in the twenties and thirties (60,61). In 1922, a commission composed of psychologists, medical hypnotists, physiologists, and physicists worked on parapsychology problems at the Institute for Brain Research in Petrograd (Leningrad). Work flourished throughout the thirties with research being reported 22 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Release 2004/08/02 CIA-RDP96-OOR000100120001-9 SFC.t T ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 in the literature in 1934, 1936, and 1937 (62). After 1937 further experiments-in the field of parapsychology were forbidden. During Stalin's time, any attempt to study paranormal phenomena might have been interpreted as a deliberate attempt to undermine the doctrines of materialism. 4. (S/NFD) According to Dodge (63) in 1964, the Aerospace Technology Division of the Library of Congress reviewed the Soviet literature in an unpublished bibliography entitled, "Soviet Parapsychology" (ATD Report U-64-77). At that time, academic opposition to para- psychology in the USSR had reached its zenith which led ATD observers to the reasonable conclusion that official Soviet support or funds for parapsychological research were unlikely and that investigation in this area might be terminated. 5. (U) The above conclusion was.apparently misguided because of events that occurred in 1959 and 1960. In 1959 a book entitled Mysterious Phenomena of the Human Psyche was published in the USSR. Its author was Professor L.L. Vasilev, head of the Department of Physiology of Leningrad University and a corresponding member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (64). A.year later, Professor Vasilev was given state funds to establish at the University appropriately equipped laboratories for the study of telepathy. The published findings from this laboratory attracted attention and began to find repercussions in the columns of the. non-specialized periodical press (65-70). This was followed by a publication in 1962 by Kazhinskiy (71). Following the example of Leningrad, other citiEs, including Moscow, Kiev, Novosibirsk and Kharkov, established similiar laboratories and research centers, at which not only the phenomena described in world literature were examined, but a study was made of parapsychic features displayed by Soviet citizens. The journal Science and Religion (72) has published many articles on Soviet parapsychology, including a discussion of whether it was worth-while continuing research in this field (1965). Affirmative, though extremely cautious,. replies to this question were given by Vice President of the Academy of Sciences, N.N. Seminov, by Academicians M.A. Leontovich, A.L. Mints and G.M. Frank, and by. Professors A.N. Leontev and V.F. Asmus (73). This brief survey brings the study of paranormal phenomena up to the time when studies.of a more pertinent nature to this report have begun. NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SFCRrT Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-O R000100120001 UT CLASSJrJED Jam- ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 Although the US Navy subsequently denied the reports of telepathic testing on atomic submarines, the Soviet hierarchy apparently heeded Doctor Vasilev's advice and gave support, both moral and financial, to his dynamic view that: "The discovery of the energy underlying telepathic communication will be equivalent to the discovery of atomic energy (62). 4. (U) Since 1962, Doctor Vasilev has headed a special laboratory for biocommunications research at the University of Leningrad. Major aspects of the work of this laboratory are to conduct research and to develop machines capable of monitoring, testing and studying telepathic communication (79). 5. (U) In 1963, Doctor Vasilev claimed to have conducted successful long-distance telepathic experiments between Leningrad and Sevastapol, a distance of 1200 miles, with the aid of an ultra-short-wave (UHF) radio transmitter. As a result, Doctor Vasilev was convinced that his experiments, and those he conducted jointly with the Moscow-based Bekhterev Brain Institute, offered scientific proof of telepathic communications. His next goal was to identify the nature of brain energy tLat produces it (59). Theorizing on the above experiments, one Soviet scientist suggested that telepathic impulses are radiated along the lines of bits of information in a cybernetic system. Another scientist is known to be working on the idea of time as energy, speculating that telepathic transmissions may be propagated through a supposed time-energy system, rather than through the electromagnetic field. 6. (U) Soviet research into biocommunications phenomena does not appear to be earth-bound and limited to inner space, but apparently extends to outer space as well. The so-called Father of Soviet Rocketry, K.E. Tsioikovsky, stated that: "In the coming era of space flights, telepathic abilities are necessary. While the space rocket must bring men toward knowledge of the grand secrets in the universe, the study of psychic phenomena can lead us toward knowledge of the myste ms's of the human mind. It is precisely the s+ition of this secret which promises the greatest achievements." (80) There are reports that the Soviets are training their cosmonauts in telepathy to back-up their electronic equipment while in outer space. One of these back-up schemes is known to involve coded 25 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved %@W Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00 R000100120001-9 UNCVjSSIFIEJ) ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 telepathic messages. This method'was previously demonstrated in March 1967, when a coded telepathic message was flashed from Moscow to Leningrad (81). The involvement of astronauts or cosmonauts in telepathy experiments is not necessarily unprecedented. In February 1971, during the Apollo 14 flight to the moon, astronaut Edgar Mitchell made 150 separate attempts to project his thoughts from inside the space capsule back to an individual on earth. The results of the Apollo 14 experiments have been well-documented in detail and are published in the Journal of Parasychology (82.). Further documentation of Mitchell's experiments can be found in the University of California Newsletter (83). 7. (U) There are numerous reports on Soviet applications of clairvoyance, hynotism, dowsing, etc., in military operations. In the case of dowsing, this is also not unprecedented, since US forces have employed dowsing in Vietnam for.locating enemy tunnels and caches. With respect to brain and mind control/ conditioning, a recent report indicates that the Soviet Union has made great strides in emotional training and conditioning. Soldiers are being taught to set their own emotional tone in battle and stress situations. Further, astronauts are being taught through such mental conditioning to distort time and to offset boredom in outer space (84). 8.. (U) Man's sight and hearing are limited to a relatively small range of wavelengths, other living beings often possess much wider perceptive capabilities, both with regard to sharpness cf perception and range of stimuli. For example, dogs hear higher sound frequencies than man; bats and dolphins orient themselves by means of an ultra-sound radar; bees perceive colors even in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum; some snakes perceive minute differences in temperature and orient themselves by means of thermoreceptors. Certain living beings even react to stimuli to which man is absolutely insensitive. Some species of fish and homing pigeons, for instance, react to changes of the electric or magnetic field in their surroundings (59). Tn view of these. perceptive processes, it has been diflicult to differentiate between those sensory processes whlcli are merely sharpened or highly honed and those that: are extra or super-normal. Certain military advantages would come from the application and control of these perceptive proc:esses. For example, such application and control could be used in the detection and identification of animate objects or humans through brainwave interactions, mass hypnosis or mind control through long-distance telepathy, thermal receptors, and sensitivity to changes in magnetic/electrical/ gravitational fields. IJNCLPSS JET ED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved4or Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0W7R000100120001-9 C FIT?1F IAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 9.. (U) According to observations made by Doctor Montague Ullman (M.D.) during a trip to the Soviet bloc countries in the fall of 19701, Soviet biocommunications investigations are effectively combining the use of modern and sophisticated technology with basic pragmatic approaches. This was evident, he states, in their approach to long-distance telepathy experiments where the results were analyzed in physiological (elect roencephalographic data) as well as phycho- logical task performance (transmission of data in Morse Code) (85). Doctor Ullman further observed that the Soviet researchers seemed intent on confirming the existence of a new form of energy, referred to as bioplasma, which they maintain is characteristic of life processes and represents matter in the form of an integrated system of elementary charged particles. Such energy, through interaction with other systems, is thought to provide the basis for biocommuni- cations (86). 10. (C/NFD) The above commentary documents a clear case for research in the Soviet Union in parapsychology. It is significant because of the energy and resources being allotted for this work in the Soviet Union and because of its military implications especially in mind manipulation and controlled offensive behavior. The more sinister aspects of paranormal research appear to be surfacing in the Soviet Union. Why else would Soviet researchers make the statement: "Tell America that the psychic potential of man must be used for good." (75) SECTION III - THE APPORT TECHNIQUE 1. (U) The following discussion on apports and astral projection is not intended to be an endorsement for its scientific verification or even its existence. However, reputable scientists in the USSR and the US are keenly interested in this phenomenon. Areas that appear to have. potential must be discussed, even if only briefly. 2. (FOUO) According to Welk (87), a costly weakness in our intelligence system, to a large extent, is an inability to use effectively the resources of the science of parapsychology (there are some definite indicators that the Soviets realize the potential of "psi" which will be reported later in this section). Whenever parapsychology is mentioned, most people are likely to think of ESP. However, there are other types of parapsychological phenomena which are just as important militarily as ESP. Welk claims, based on many Soviet sources, that the so-called "apport" technique is likely to meet valuable intelligence needs. When 27 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION IFF`ITI/'L Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approvedpr Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0Q77R000100120001-9 CONFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 fully developed, this technique would make possible the abduction of actual objects (including documents) in enemy territory and there transfer to friendly territory. Objects so abducted are known as "apports." They could be returned to the point of origin without the enemy becoming aware of this temporary abduction. 3. (U) Some of the world's most eminent scientists from the late 1800's and early 1900's have claimed to have witnessed apport phenomena. These include Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), British chemist and physicist, discoverer of the element thallium and former i president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (88); Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), British naturalist and co- discoverer, with Charles Darwin, of the theory of evolution (89); Johann K.F. Zoellner (1834-1882), professor of physical astronomy at the University of Leipzig, Germany (90). 4. (U)' In the discussion of such an esoteric subject as apports, it is deemed sufficient to relate only one experience claimed to have occurred to Sir William Crookes. The interested reader can consult the non-cited bibliography for further references. The following account is taken from pp. 87 and 88 of reference 88: "Class IX. The Appearance of Hands, either Self luminous or Visible by Ordinary Light." ......"I (William Crookes) will here give no instances in which the phenomenon has occurred in darkness, but will simply select a few of the numerous instances in which I have seen the hands in the light. .................I have more than once seen, first an object move, then a luminous cloud appear to form about it, and lastly, the cloud condense into shape and become a perfectly formed hand.... It is not always a mere form, but sometimes appears perfectly life-like and graceful, the fingers moving and the flesh apparently as human as that of any in the room. At the wrist, or arm, it becomes hazy, and fades off into a luminous cloud. To the touch, the hand sometimes appears icy cold and dead, at other times warm and life-like, grasping my own with the firm pressure of an old friend. I have retained one of these hands in my own, firmly resolved not to. let it escape. There was no struggle or effort made to get loose, but it gradually seemed to resolve itself into vapor and faded in that manner from my grasp." NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIDE IVIAL (This page is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approvedpr Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-0Q7R000100120001-9 UNCLASSIFIED ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 5. (U) It is a known fact that the Soviet Union takes the appearance of luminous bodies very seriously as evidenced by the Kirlian photography of the human body's aura (91). It appears that the Soviets may be considering that a hand which appears out of nowhere and can grasp, "with the firm pressure of an old friend," another person may have first-rate military possibilities. There has been some discussion recently about the prospects of being able to control the apport technique to a point of sophistication where individuals could control these "luminous clouds." The individuals who have studied these. effects (real or otherwise) have suggested that since these bodies can travel unlimited distances and are able to pass through solid material (walls), they might well be used to produce instant death in military and civilian officials. It is further conjectured that these bodies could disable military equipment or communication nets. 6. (U) If one reads the cases and experiments mentioned here, as well as references two through nine under PART II of the non-cited bibliography, he can make certain deductions.. If any of this highly questionable material is true then it can be inferred that organic matter can be transformed into "ectoplasm," that this can be rendered invisible and impalpable and thus converted into something which, for all practical purposes, amounts to force. If organic matter can be converted into such "force-matter," it seems reasonable to assume that a physical object, if similarly converted, could travel through space. 7. (U) Two things are certain: (1) that parapsychological phenomena are due to the little-known faculties of the subconscious mind; and (2) that the powers of the subconscious mind are vastly superior to those of the normal consciousness. The fantastic memory of the subconscious mind (sometimes referred to as "photographic memory") is a well-established fact. So is its extraordinary mathematical ability, which has baffled trained mathematicians no end. It seems probable that some of these little-understood faculties of the subconscious mind have some- thing to do with its ability to put together again an object which it had previously disintegrated, and to manipulate the forces involved in this process. The only way one can learn more about these little-understood processes is through intensive study and experimentation. The stakes seem high enough. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100.120001-9 Approved*r Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0J7R000100120001-9 MUSSED ST-CS-01-169-72 July 19 72 8. (U) While the process by which matter is converted into "force-matter" (and vice versa) may not be understood, neverthe- less, one is faced with the possibility that the human mind can disintegrate and reintegrate organic matter - a feat which seems far more complex than the disintegration and reintegration of, say, a stone,"a piece of wood, paper, etc. Experiments show that a human body which has lost about half its weight can be reintegrated without loss of normal functions. Since this is possible, it does not seem safe to exclude - without further investigation - the possibility that inorganic matter might undergo a similar disintegration and reintegration. After all, apport phenomena in which physical objects have passed through solid walls have been observed and attested to by some of the world's most eminent scientists as well as by a host of other responsi- ble witnesses. In view of what the human mind has demonstrated it can do with organic matter, and in view of the very real Soviet threat in this sector, the science of parapsychology should be investigated to its fullest potential, perhaps to the benefit of national defense. 9. (U) According to Pullman (92), Director of the Southeast Hypnosis Research Center in Dallas, Texas, before the end of the 1970s, Soviet diplomats will be able to sit in their foreign embassies and use ESP (in this case a form of the apport technique) to steal the secrets of their enemies. (See also reference 91, p. 216) Pullman states that a spy would be hypnotized, then his invisible "spirit" would be ordered to leave his body, travel across barriers of space and time to a foreign government's security facility, and there read top-secret documents and relay back their information. Such "astral projection" already has been accomplished in laboratory settings, Pullman said, adding that the Russians are probably now trying to perfect it. Pullman further states that the Soviets are at least 25 years ahead of the US in psychic research. According to Pullman, the Soviets have realized the immense military advantage of the psychic ability known as astral projection (out-of-the-body travel).. In this reference, details are given for some of Pullman's work in the US with astral projection. Other scientists and mediums interested in this work are professor H.A. Cahn of Northern Arizona University (92), Doctor Charles Tart of the University of Southern California (91,92), and Doctor V. Inyushin of Alma-ata (91). Sybil Leek, noted astrologer and author, states, "there is great danger that within the next ten years the Soviets will be able to steal our top secrets by using out-of-the-body spies." Further reading, although much older, can be found in a book by Muldoon and Carrington (93). Suggested background reading on astral projection can be found in an excellent article by J. Fraser Nicol in P chic (94). 30 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approvedbpr Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-Oji7R000100120001-9 UNCIASSI FIED ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 SECTION IV - ESP AND PSYCHOKINESIS 1. (U) The reader by this time has realized that it is very difficult to speak of one area of psychic phenomenon without overlapping into other areas. There really can be no distinct separation, for example, between apports and certain aspects of telepathy; hypnosis also enters into this area. In an attempt to illustrate the various subjects in parapsychology, however, artificial sections were established. This is the reason for a separate part in apports and ESP. Some aspects of hypnosis, depending on its ultimate use, falls within parapsychology, some areas into medicine; therefore, hypnosis is presented as a separate section outside of this parapsychology discussion. 2. (U) Soviet research in ESP was started in the 1920's at Leningrad University by V.M. Bekhterev. In his early work, Bekhterev collaborated with V.L. Durov to investigate the effects of mental suggestion on a group of performing dogs (62). It was believed that telepathic communication depended on electromagnetic radiation. Doctor L.L. Vasilev (95-97), shown in Illustration I One, at the Bekhterev Brain Institute set out to identify these electromagnetic waves that carry telepathy. By 1937, Vasilev had amassed evidence that known electromagnetic waves do not carry telepathy. Tests were conducted in electrically shielded chambers and over extreme distances denying the passage of electro- magnetic fields (98). Some of the long range telepathy experiments have been published (63,99,100) explaining the various techniques employed including classical tests with Zener cards and more unique tests with strobe lights and codes. i Illustration One - Professor L.L. Vasilev, pioneer Soviet para- psychologist considered the father of Soviet psychical research. Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIAIIkDP96-00787R000100120001-9 UNCASS IFI ED Approved For Release '2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 1NCl.\SSI FIFD ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 3. (U) Professor L. Vasilev died in late 1965 or early 1966 and the task of continuing telepathy research was taken by Doctor I. Kogan. Doctor Kogan is chairman of the Bio-Information Section of the Popov Radio and Technical Institute in Moscow. This individ.-. ual is still trying to wed telepathy to the electromagnetic spectrum (101,102). Discussion as to the existence of telepathy has been bandied about the Soviet Union (103) and elsewhere (104) for some time. For the sake of research the Soviet Union accepts the validity of ESP even though the argument as to the mode of transmission continues. Professor E.K. Naumov (105), Chairman of the Division of Technical Parapsychology at the AS. Popov Institute mentioned above, conducted long range telepathy tests from Moscow to several other cities. Illustration Two is a photograph of Naumov % with associates. Illustration Two - Sender Y. Kamenshi (left), Soviet physicist, and receiver K. Nikolaev, Soviet actor, with para- psychologist Edward K. Naumov (far right). - 'lCIASSIFIJI Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved FRelease 2004/08/0 t WDP96-00000100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 4. (U) In 1967, the Soviet Maritime News reported, "Cosmonauts, when in orbit, seem to be able to communicate telepathically more easily with each other than with people on earth. A psi (short for psychic faculty) training system has been incorporated in the cosmonaut training program," but the News provided no further details. Some informal reports relayed to Ostrander and Schroeder (106) indicate that the Soviets are working on psi systems for space use,.involving not just telepathy, but also precognition. 5. (S/NFD) Kogan's systematic parapsychology research (102) could also be of potential value to the overall Soviet cybernetic research and development program. Efforts being made to optimize sensory inputs in the interest of controlling the quality of. human motor activity are well known, as is the ultimate Soviet goal of achieving a perfect cybernetic man. It is of interest that both conventional psychology and parapsychology programs are headquartered in Moscow, although as depicted in the personnel and institute section the trend is decentralization, is probably no coincidence and supports the view that the latter program should not be taken lightly (63). 6. (U) As mentioned above, the Soviets seem preoccupied with the search for the energy that carries or facilitates telepathy transmission. Is it electromagnetic or not? The search for this unknown energy has led the Soviets to Kirlian photography; named after its inventors Semyon and Valentina Kirlian. The Kirlians developed a technique of photographing with a high frequency electrical field involving a specially constructed high frequency spark generator, tuned up and down between 75,000 to 200,000 electrical oscillations per second. Their first photographs showed turquoise and reddish-yellow patterns of flakes coming out of specific channels within leaves. A magnified picture of a finger showed craters of light and flares (Illustration Three). By the 1960s research on bioluminescence revealed by Kirlian photog- raphy was going on in many Soviet universities. Perfected techniques of photographing the play of high-frequency currents on humans, plants and animals, as well as on inaminate matter have set the Soviets on some striking discoveries about the energetical nature of man. "Bio-plasma" is a tern coined by the Soviets for bio- luminescent phenomenon or energy. Scientists at the Kazakh State University at Alma-ata have found that illnesses tend to show up in advance as a disordered play of flares from the "bio-plasma" long before they manifest in the physical body. According to Ostrander and Schroeder, the Soviets may be attempting to link Kirlian photography with computers, among other things, to instantly analyze the sTectra of colors appearing in the vari-colored flares from the living body. 33 Na FOREIIN DISSEMINATION S[C'T Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Felease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-0072000100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Illustration ; Lys i u I cn, ,, t L' Ri 1.i'::_ i i., c e _ n the open area between them. (Ti: -)a Te is 'lJNCLASSI1fl ED)) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Release 2004/08/02 CMId107,,,UR000100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 7. (C) It is.believed that if there is any positive basis for 'Kirlian photography and the "bio-Plasma" body of humans, the Soviets may be closer than is thought on the controlled use of the apport techniques and possible astral projection phenomenon. 8. (U) Doctor A. Podshibyakin, an electrophysiologist at the Institute of Clinical Physiology in Kiev, has found that by charting acupuncture points a correlation exists between the "bio-plasma" and changes on the surface of the sun. At the exact moment solar flares (sun spots) occur, there are changes in the electrical potential of the skin's acupuncture points. These electrical charges are measured by a tobiscope (probably a simple wheatstone bridge device). In some way, the "bio-plasma" of the body is sensitive to these solar explosions the instant they occur even though it takes about two days for the cosmic particles to reach the earth. 9. (U) The most significant use of Kirlian photography is in the area of psychokinesis or mind over matter (PK). Doctor Genady Sergeyev (75) of the A.A. Uktomskii Military Institute in Leningrad believes Kirlian photography may uncover the mechanism of PK. Sergeyev is a prominent mathematician for the Soviet military who works closely with an electrophysiologist from the University of Leningrad, Doctor L. Pavlova. Sergeyev has devised important mathematical and statistical methods for analyzing the EEG (107) which allowed parapsychologists to follow and depict the actions of telepathy in the brain (108). The type of work reported by Sergeyev in 1967 and 1968 is just now beginning to appear in the US efforts to understand the transmission of telepathy (109,110). Sergeyev has conducted several years of intensive lab research on the outstanding PK psychic in Leningrad, Nina Kulagina (pseudonym Nelya Mikhailova). Illustration Four is a photograph of Doctor G. Sergeyev and Illustration Five is a photograph of Mrs. Kulagina. Sergeyev registered heightened biological lumi- nescence radiating from Kulagina's eyes during the apparent movement of objects by PK. Sergeyev postulates that the "bio-plasma" of the human body must interact with the, environment to produce PK. Sergeyev emphasizes when target objects are placed in a vacuum, Kulagina is unable to move then. Barcus (111) in the United States reports some unusual occurrences during psychic photography especially of the eyes. Reportedly, Kulagina has caused the movement of a wide range of non-magnetic objects: (under strict scientific control) large crystal bowls, clock pendulures, bread, 35 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION c,'4' FILEr,'TIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved W Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00%W000100120001-9 CONFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 matches; etc. In one test, a raw egg was placed in a salt solution inside a sealed aquarium six feet away from her. Researchers report she was able to:use PK to separate the yoke from the white of the egg. Observations by Western scientists of Mrs. Kulagina's PK ability has been reported with verification of her authentic ability (112;113). These same Western scientists have reported that as of February 1971, they have not been able to visit or observe Mrs. Kulagina. A veil of secrecy has been placed on Sergeyev and Mrs. Kulagina for unknown reasons. 10. (U) Rather than simply observing PK, the Soviets typically turned to instrumentation. Mrs. Kulagina was subjected to a number of physiological electronic measuring devices and tested for important body functions during her PK demonstrations. The Soviets found that at the moment an object begins to move, all of Mrs. Kulagina's body processes speed up drastically - heart, breathing, brain activity - and the electromagnetic fields around her body all begin to pulse in rhythm. Soviet researchers postulate that it was these rhythmic "vibrations" that cause objects to be attracted or repelled to her. Illustration Six shows a photographic sequence of Kulagina's PK ability. 11. (C/NFD) Scientists report (113) that Kulagina has been able to stop the beating of a frog's heart in solution and to re-activate it! This is perhaps the most significant PK test done and its military implications in controlled offensive behavior, if true, are extremely important. 12. (U) Space does not permit a discussion on other important parapsychological phenomena such as eyeless sight (75,114-129), which appeared to be more of a fad than anything else. However since the mid 1960s, the "eyeless sight" fad has subsided and serious research has proceeded quietly at the State Pedagogical Institute in Sverdlovsk, off bounds to foreigners (75). Space in this report does not permit a discussion of psychotronic genera- tors, devices which are reported to be able to store human bio-plasmic forces for later use (75). For further reading on ESP, see the non-cited bibliography; Section V, numbers 12-30. NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIIENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved W Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-00%WR000100120001-9. RICLASSI HD Illustration Four - Photograph of G.A. Sergeyev, prominent scientist at A.A. Uktomskii Military Institute, Leningrad with an assistant. Illustration Five - Nina Kulagina, who reportedly moves objects by sheer will (PK) . ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved F%reRelease 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00 000100120001-9 UNCLASSIFIED Illustration Six - This series of photos shows Nina Kulagina moving a metallic cigar tube by PK. Scale in background is in centimeters. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2004/08/02 CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved Release. 2004/0$/0 CI - 6-OO R000100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 1. (U) The following discussion is based on a report by SECTION V SUMMARY AND MILITARY IMPLICATIONS Ostrander and Schroeder (75). The authors ask the question, "Is ESP a weapon of war?" All research on ESP in the USSR is funded by the government. The authors claim that their sources indicate that psi research with military potential is well-financed by the Soviet Army, KGB, and other paramilitary agencies. Soviet scientists doing psi research in nonmilitary areas often have trouble obtaining funds. Doctor Milan Ryz). (131) reports that secret psi research associated with state security and defense is going on in the USSR. Communist state authorities, the military and the KGB display an unusual, disproportionate interest in para- psychology. The Soviets are attempting to apply ESP to both police and military use (See appendix VI for biographic data on Ryzl). According to Ryzl, some years ago a project was begun in the USSR to apply telepathy to indoctrinate and re-educate antisocial elements. It was hoped that suggestion at a distance could induce individuals, without their being aware of it, to adopt the officially desired political and social attitudes. Research in this field of endeavor will hopefully become clearer in the section on hypnosis later in this report. Reports of psi research in Soviet submarines help confirm military involvement in parapsychology. According to Stone (74), there is clandestine psi research going on at the Pavlov Institute of Higher Nervous Activity in Moscow, the Durov Institute, and certain areas in Sibera. Obviously, telepathy and clairvoyance would make ideal additions to a spy arsenal and such undercover groups are constantly said to be supporting ESP research in the USSR. "One conclusion seems justified," says Doctor Ryzl (130). "Parapsychology in Cormiunist countries and especially the USSR occupies a strong position. We can expect it to be developed with determination." According to Ostrander and Schroeder, the USSR is ahead of the US in certain areas of technical psi research. The authors report that the USSR is ahead of the US in discoveries about the physical essence of the human being and how psi functions in and through us. They are ahead of the US in uncovering the basic energy behind psi. They are ahead of the US in attempts to control factors like the influence of magnetic weather on psi tests. They appear to be ahead of the US in seeking out and creating conditions that unlock the psi potential present in every hutnan being. 2. (U) In summary, what is the strategic threat posed by the current "explosion" in Soviet parapsychological research? Soviet efforts in the field of psi research, sooner or later, might enable them to do some of the following: Lt CLASSIk I Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 A Approved I Release 2004/08/02: CIA-RDP96-0010000100120001-9 UNCLASSIFIED of our troops and ships and the location and nature of our military installations. a Know the contents of top secret US documents, the movements b. Mold the thoughts of key US military and civilian leaders, at a distance. c. Cause the instant death of any US official, at a distance. d. Disable, at a distance, US military equipment of all types including space craft. 3. (U) It is generally conceded that. the above four areas sound like science fiction, however, the literature appears to support (b) as being the most possible use of psi phenomena during the time frame of this study. Again from Ostrander and Schroeder who" cite Oliver Caldwell, an expert on Soviet affairs and past-acting commissioner for International Education in HEW, as follows: "I am amazed at the skepticism and sometimes hostility which I encounter when I try to tell Americans about some of the experimentation which is taking place in the USSR in parapsychology and related fields. I find this strange because there is available documentation in translation which substantiates most of the things I saw in the USSR. I am really disturbed, because if the United States does not make a serious effort to move forward on this new frontier, in another ten years it may be too late." 4. (U) In closing this section on parapsychology a quote from astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Jr. is appropriate (131). "Extrasensory perception is not a matter of belief. There is a great deal of serious scientific work being done in it, and it has been established over the last thirty years that it is a matter of proba- bility, and the probabilities have been established beyond chance. I think it is an important work. I happen to be curious about it, and thus have been pur- suing it for many years. This happened to be an opportunity (Apollo 14 lunar mission) to do another little step - a piece in the scientific puzzle of what man's all about." 40 UNCLASS I F 10) Approved For Release 2004/08/02 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000100120001-9 Approved l Release 2004/08/9i,;,,C,~ PP -00 R000100120001-9 ST-CS-01-169-.72 July 1972 .MENTAL SUGGESTION AND CONTROLLED BEHAVIOR SECTION I - HYPNOSIS PART A The Use of Hypnosis in Medicine - USSR 1. (U) In the latter half of the nineteenth century, many French and German researchers began to use hypnosis as a therapeutic aid and to study the way in which it worked. In the Soviet Union, pioneer work in hypnosis was undertaken by V. Danilyevski, A. Tokarski, and V. Bekhterev (see Part II, Section IV). 2. (U) V. Danilyevski discovered that the major characteristics shown by man in a state of hypnosis, such as lower sensitivity, "wax-like" flexibility of muscles and joints, and suppressed movements, were also typical of animals in a similar state. This led him to assert that hypnosis in man was identical in nature to hypnosis in animals. A. Tokarski proved that hypnosis and suggestion, like other psychical phenomena were determined entirely by the influence of the environment on man. He wholeheartedly supported the view that hypnosis was an effective treatment for a wide variety of disorders. V. Bekhterev applied hypnosis widely for treatment. He maintained that verbal suggestion played a big role in developing a state of hypnotic sleep; physical stimuli merely facilitated the achievement of this state. I. Pavlov advanced a scientifically based theory of the nature of hypnosis and its potential use as a method of treatment. In 1935 he described hypnosis as "the standard method in the physiological struggl' against the pathogenic agent." Pavlov's school gave experimental support to the view that hypnosis was a specific variety of sleep, long before that view had been arrived at empirically. This view had already been advanced in the last century by most doctors and scientists who were concerned with the theory of hypnosis and its application to therapeutic practice. On the basis of experiments on animals and later on humans, the phasic suppression theory developed into a firm physiological foundation for under- standing hypnosis and suggestion and the way in which they work. The theory held that hypnotic sleep is a transitional stage between wakefulness and sleep and that there is an active "watch" point in the cerebral cortex of both hemispheres (rapport). 3. (U) The three generally recognized stages of hypnosis are sleepiness, hypotaxia, and somnambulism or, respectively, light, -medium and deep hypnosis. At the first stage of hypnosis, the