Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 4, 2016
Document Release Date: 
November 5, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
April 3, 1976
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0.pdf2.47 MB
Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 science ^news APRIL 3, 1976 VOL. 109, NO. 14, 209-224 Approved For Release 2001/03/26: CIA-RDP96-007878000200080040-9 S BEYOND ECONOMIC MAN: A New Founda.- TEX i tion for Microeconomics-Harvey Leiben- BASIC FOOD CHEMISTRY-Frank A. Lee--- stein-Harvard U Pr, 1976, 310 p., diagrams, AVI Pub. Co, 1975, 430 p., diagrams, tables, $15. The author introduces modern psycho- $24 paper, $12. Undergraduate text, covers BOOKS is an editorial service for readers informa- tion. To order any book listed or any U.S. book in print please remit retail price, plus 250 handling charge for each book to BOOK ORDER SERVICE, Science News, 1719 N Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. All books sent postpaid. ADVANCES IN SLEEP RESEARCH, Vol. 2-Elliot D. Weitzman, M.D.-Spectrum (Halsted Pr), 1976, 236 p., illus., $20. Critical reviews of multidisciplinary research, ranging from discussion of neurophysiological sub- strates of the changes in respiration during sleep, to "dream detector" and comparison of laboratory and home dreams collected by REMP-awakening technique. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF NORTH AMERICA-Dean Snow-Viking Pr, '1976, 272 p., color plates, 175 photographs by Werner Forman, maps, chronologies, $18.95. Explores the cultural traditions, artifacts and sites of the various archaic and historical cul- tures that once inhabited the country, from Paleo-Indians of the Great Plains to Aleuts and Eskimos in the Arctic. Book Publishing Manuscripts invited for prompt review and terms of publication. All subjects. Professional editing, design, production and marketing since 1920. Send inquiry or manuscript, or call (215) 473-5250. Ask for free Author's Guide 111/. DORRANCE & COMPANY 35 ('rickei Terrace, Ardmore, Pa. 19003 logical concepts to microtheory by using fndf- the field from discussion of photosynthesis, viduals instead of groups as his basic units carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes and lipids of study, adding an innovative central variable, to rf;Ttural colors, browning reactions, fermen- effort as the X factor providing the most sig- tati('n and specific food products. nificant results. GAMES FOR RAINS, PLANES AND TRAINS-Gyles Brandeth-Greene, 1976, 126 p., illus., $7.95; paper, $4.25. Family games and brainteasers to keep young minds alert and occupied. SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS-Harriet Wynter.and Anthony Turner-Scribner, 1976, 9x12, 240 p., 300 color and b&w photographs, $27.50. Provides illustrations and brief de- scriptions of antique instruments employed in astronomy, navigation, surveying and optics. THE STRESS OF LIFE-Hans Selye, M.D.- McGraw, 1976, rev. ed., 542 p., illus., $8.95. The author's original work on his research findings of the body's nonspecific response to stress, called general adaptation syndrome (G.A.S.), expanded and updated with new re- search findings, glossary and annotated ref- erences. ENZYMES: Basic Biology Course, Book 7- Michael Tribe, Michael E. Eraut and Roger K. Snook-Cambridge U Pr, 1976, 8x12, 112 p., diagrams, $15.95; paper, $5.95. Individ- ual learning text on enzymes. INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY-Francis Leukel-Mosby, 1970, 3rd ed., 526 p., diagrams, $14.75. Un- dergraduate text for psychology majors, in- tended to develop understanding of physio- logical concepts in other specialized fields, deals with the internal organization of life, integrating and response systems, the senses, will adaptive behavior. THE MAMMALIAN ALIMENTARY SYSTEM: A I unctional Approach-David S. Madge- ArridId (Crane-Russak), 1976, 206 p., pho- torlraphs, diagrams, $22.50; paper, $12.75. Tf v( summarizes the process of extracellular dirtfstion and outlines progress made in un- dfristanding intracellular digestion and transfer of food and water molecules in the sni ill intestine. AUTHORS WANTED BY NEW YORK PUBLISHER leading book publisher seeks manuscripts of all types: fiction, non-fiction, poetry, scholarly and juvenile works, etc. New authors welcomed. For courplete information, send for free booklet I h' Vantage Press, 516 W. 34 St., New York 10001 Electronic Digital Introductory Price Breakthrough Stopwatch Quartz Controlled Accuracy- Pocket Sized Convenience Siliconix, makers of the world's finest electronic stopwatches, has teamed up with Contemporary Marketing to introduce their newest and most exciting stopwatch model, the ET105. Quality designed to be priced far below other units, this precision tim- ing instrument features a bright red electronic LED (calculator- style) display and it accurately ticks off the time in precise 1/10 second increments. Use it anywhere (it's battery powered) for any purpose, Use It whether your timing needs be for sports, science, business, in- For Two Weeks - dustrial applications, or just for fun. For prompt delivery, please No Obli ation! g order quickly from the coupon below or call our toll tree number Some of the Many Uses and Applications: please send ET105 Elerlronic Digital Stopwatch(es) (a) and Rallies ? Timing Phone Calls (for billing or control purposes) ? Jogging/Running ? Timing Sequences in Broadcasting (Radio or TV) ? Horse Racing/Training ? Radio-Controlled Model Airplanes. Boats, Co. ? Pilots in General and Commercial Aviation Professional Features of the ET105: ? Bright LED Display with Intensity Control ? Special Bezel Design to Enhance Readability Under All Ambient Light Conditions ? Timing to 59 minutes, 59.9 seconds with Automatic Recycle ? Fail-Safe Design - cannot be automatically reset ? Solid-State ElectronicsSpace Age Reliability ? Quartz Crystal Controlled Accuracy ' 20 parts per million ? lime in 1/10 Second Increments ? Simple One Hand Operation ? Wnigirt 6 e, Size 41/2'x 21/2' x Ph" ? Operating temperature: 12" F to 132'F ? 1 Year Manufacturer's Warranty pans & labor ? Neck Strap and Long-Life Batteries Included Call Toll Free immediately: 800-323-2408 (111. call: 312-595-0461) $49.95 (plus $3 shipping and insurance) each. If not completely satis- tied I can return everything within two weeks loran Immediate refund Instead, send the Rechargeable 11100 (also with split action time which permits freezing partial event limes, while continuing to measure total elapsed time) CiT $79.95 (plus $3 shipping)_ ^ Check or M.O. Enclosed (ill residents add 5% sales tax) ^ Charge my Credit Card checked below- ^ Arnerican Express ^ BankAmericard ^ Carte ^ Diners Club ^ Master Cl Blanche Credit Card Master Charge Bank d_ - Expiration Date Address- City State- Zlp Signature to Contenipoioiry Marketing, Inc. 790 Maple Lane, Bensenville, 111.60106 MATHEMATICS, THE MAN-MADE UNI- VERSE: An Introduction to the Spirit of Math- eitiatics-Sherman K. Stein-W H Freeman, 111:0, 3rd ed., 588 p., illus., $12.50. Rewritten alit modernized text includes new chapter on pit'bability and chance phenomena. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-Norman L. Allinger ei' fl-Worth, 1976, 2nd ed., 1024 p., illus., $ i's.95. Tested and improved text, begins with fill structure of the main kinds of organic rnr,lecules, their physical properties, electron dit,tribution and spectra, examines the reac- ti'. iS these molecules undergo, covers or- g nic synthesis and natural products. PATTERNS IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY: An Introduction to Numerical Methods-David M. Saliith--Crane-Russak Co, 1976, 373 p., dia- gt:lms, tables, $12. Addressed to the intro- (fLU3ory-level student and non-academic rir.lder, demonstrates through illustration a wife range of commonly used numerical tot hniques. PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Basic Biology Course, tlriok 6-Michael A. Tribe, Michael R. Eraut tend Roger K. Snook-Cambridge U Pr, 1976, L.aa 12, 85 p., micrographs, diagrams, $13.95; p;u>er, $4.95. Deals with the capture of light criitorgy from the sun by green plants, and the tr.-nsformation of this into chemical energy. PI ANT CELL BIOLOGY: An Ultrastructural Al) proach-Brian E. S. Gunning and Martin W. faeer-Crane Russak, 1975, 8x12, 108 p., ^n0 micrographs, diagrams, paper, $8.95. Ex- ca jlent collection of fully captioned illustrations depicting the ultrastructure of plant cells, use- fid for classroom displays illustrating cell bio- liirlical topics. S t"RESS TRANSIENTS IN SOLIDS--John S fiinehart-HyperDynamics, 1975, 230 p., dia- grams, paper, $8.95. Text introduces the prin- ciriles of propagation and interaction of stresses generated by impacts and explo ,;ions. UNDERSTANDING GENETICS-Norman V rgrlthwell-Williams & Wilkins, 1976, 500 p., photographs, drawings, diagrams, tables, 'I; ".4.95. Introductory text gives a solid foun- t.ttion in the basics of molecular genetics. pproved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 210 SCIENCE NEWS, VOL. 109 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 SCWN E rB ? A Science Service Publication Vol. 109/April 3, 1976/No. 14 Incorporating Science News Letter OF THE WEEK Brand X laser fusion 212 Soviet electron-beam fusion 212 Enzyme fly shrinker 213 Silent quake energy 213 Washington's new Metro 214 NSF gains in Congress 215 Criticizing the uncritical 215 Ergotism, ergo, witch hunts 215 RESEARCH NOTES Technology 216 Space Sciences 217 ARTICLES Brain hemisphere functions 218 DEPARTMENTS Books 210 Letters 211 Off the Beat: Toxin panic 221 COVER: The right hemisphere of the human brain is thought to play an important role in creativity, intuition, art, music, spatial abilities and a number of other things. These findings are supported by various lines of research, including a study of the nuit Eskimos and their art. See story p. 218. (Col- lage: Dale Appleman) Publisher E. G. Sherburne Jr. Editor Kendrick Frazier Senior Editor and Physical Sciences Dietrick E. Thomsen Senior Editor and Behavioral Sciences Robert J. Trotter Biomedical Sciences Joan Arehart-Treichel Biology/Chemistry Janet L. Hopson Science and Society John H. Douglas Space Sciences Jonathan Eberhart Contributing Editor/ Mathematics Lynn Arthur Steen Copy Editor Michelle Galler Riegel Art Director Dale Appleman Assistant to the Editor Susan Strasburger Books Margit Friedrich Advertising Scherago Associates, Inc. 11 W. 42nd St. New York, N.Y. 10036 Fred W. Dieffenbach Sales Director LEffERS Moon rocks at school I would like to add my comments to Jonathan Fberharl's article "Moon Rocks Go to School" (SN: 4/26/75, p. 276), since I have just completed participation in this program. I congratulate NASA on this pro- gram to make available lunar materials for study at the public level. The use of these thin sections provided my students the op portunity to compare lunar mineralogy with that found in terrestrial rocks. The compari- sons were striking, and the overall interest generated in my students cannot be dupli- cated by the best of color slides. By making these specimens available for public study. NASA has truly brought the moon home to the people. Paul P. Sipiera Department of Geology Aurora College Aurora, Ill. Acronymania The term "Acronymania" (SN: 1/31/76, p. 67) most appropriately describes the affliction, common among management oriented personnel in government, private industry, and civic organizations, that is responsible for the disturbing proliferation of acronym production. Something ought to be done to curb this distressing malady. Perhaps thought should be given to forming a National Association to Undertake the Systematic taimination of Acronymania. S. O. Nelson I.ineoln, Neb. Ongoing debate John Douglas's articles on "'The Great Nuclear Power Debate" will unquestionably he recorded by history as one of the finest, fairest attempts to gel at the l acts in this emotionally warped technological issue. The hysterical allegations condemning nuclear energy cannot he borne out by care- fully analyzed fact and stem from our basic societal problem today fear of the un- known coupled with a distorted distrust of government and industry. The Riley and Cohen comments of Feb. 14 are but an example of this pervading problem. This phenomenon of our times is triggered by naive recognition of and childish disallu- sionmcnt with organization, institution and establishment containing elements of human trailly. These frailties have always been present and probably always will be. As increasingly wider segments of the popula- tion spectrum seek more than superficial undcrstandii ' of the complexities of today's society, of :,Inch technology is a significant fraction, Ihc; grapple, like it teenager disco- vering sex --vith the inescapable need for perspective and wisdom necessary for the logical and rational integration of their new found knemr, dge. But the h: man frailties that frighten our intcllectuall .tdolesccnl observers are, un fortunately omnipresent and can he found both in the =mdemner and the condemnce. This is evidenced by Riley's comments where he a,kocates emotional outcry at the expense of n iellectual integrity and C'ohern's inference 11111 data are not important in cru cial decision'.. These oh,,iously intelligent and well- mcaning pc file cannot really mean what they say. A- they not both victims of our y most ancient and prevalent human frailty that the end iustifics the means- that distor- tion and objectivity are "A-OK'' so long as the , satisfy their personal set of values? Shaurc, Shame! This sort A fuzzy thinking on the part of amateur cru.aders in the midst of extremely complicated technology is the very reason we must h.-? Douglas's "honestly dctined and clearly I,resented" fact in the resolution of any tech logically based issue. I'_ I Grindrod, Ph.D., ('h.E., P.L. Madison, Wis. Copyright (c) 1976 by Science Service, Inc., 1719 N St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Republication of any portion of SCIENCE NEWS is prohibited. Editorial and Business Offices 1719 N Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 Subscription Department 231 West Center Street Marion, Ohio 43302 Subscription rate: 1 yr., $10; 2 yrs., $18; 3 yrs., $25. (Add $2 a year for Canada and Mexico, $3 for all other countries.) Change of address: Four to six weeks' notice is required. Please state exactly how magazine is to be addressed. Include zip code. Printed in U.S.A. Second class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Title registered as trademark U.S. and Canadian Patent Offices. Left hand of life The artich ''Physics and the Left Hand of Life" (SI'l 11/29/75, p. 340) is somewhat misleading lamely, a relationship between the "left h.Id of life" and the "left- han-dedness of weak interactions" has been proposed :e. 'arty as 1957 by Vester and Ulbricht. 'I't-ugh they obtained no unequiv- ocal results to prove their hypothesis, quite a few paper- have been published in the past several year.. furnishing evidence that 13 I and (3 pawrIclcs interact differently with 1, and D mole- ales. In order to understand this differential rntcraction, a model has been proposed a,,.-ording to which the orbital electrons in . ptically active molecules have a non-zero :,pin-polarization with respect to their velocit, The contribution of weak in teractions 1 r the binding energy of 1. and 1) molecule has been calculated too ( If) 12 eV). A. AS. Garay C'yclolron Institute '1'exus AA:M University College Station, Tex. Andres romrnunicotions to Editor. Science ''Jews, 1719 N Street, N. W. W, -,hington, 1).(' 2(X)_36 SCIENCE SERVICE Institution for the Popularization of Science founded 1921; a nonprofir corporation Board of Trustees--Nominated by the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE: Deborah P. Wolfe, Queens College of City University of New York; Bowen C. Dees, The Franklin Institute; Athelstan Spilhaus, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Nominated by the NA TIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: Gerald F. Tape, Associated Universities; Allen V. Astin, Bethesda, Md.; Glenn T. Seaborg (President), University of California, Berkeley. Nominated by the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL: Gerald Holton, Harvard University; Joseph W Berg Jr., National Research Council, Aaron Rosenthal, National Academy of Sciences. Nominated by the JOURNALISTIC PROFESSION: Edward Bliss Jr., American University; Julius Duscha, Washington Journalism Center, 0. W. Riegel (Secretary), Washington and Lee University. Nominated by E. W. Scripps Trust: Milton Harris (Treasurer), Washington, D.C.; Edward W. Scripps II (Vice President and Chairman of the Executive Committee), Edward W. Scripps Trust; John Troan, Pittsburgh Press. Published every Saturday by SCIENCE SERVICE, Inc., 1719 N St., N.W, Washington, D.C. 20036. Director: E. G. Sherburne Jr.; Assistant Director: Dorothy Schriver; lSrc:iness Manager: Donald R. Harless; (202-785-2255). Cable SCIENSERV. Telex 64227. Things of Science: Rub Yoshioka. Approved For Release 2001/03/2 :CIA-RDP96-007878000200080040-0 APRIL 3, 1976 211 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 SCIENCE NBAS OF THE WEEK In roughly three years, the idea of laser fusion has grown from a germ of specula- tion, discussed only by a few specialists, to a heavy-weight contender of "big science"-with a proposed budget of just over $100 million for next year and a small army of engineers talking about "milestones" and "systems ap- proaches." Both topics were widely dis- cussed last week at a joint technical sym- posium of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers and the Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, in Reston, Va. Perhaps more important was analysis of the impact a new lasing technique may have on producing a workable fusion system. The "milestones" of laser fusion were set forth by John D. Hunsuck, project director for the Energy Research and De- velopment Administration (F ' RDA). He predicts "scientific breakeven" (fusion energy out equal to laser energy in) by 1981-82 and an operating test system by the late 1980s. A demonstration plant may he completed by the mid-1990s, he said, but the final thrust to such a practical system will be "a long, hard haul." At that point, the main concern may he how to find materials capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux that results from fusion. Before any of the milestones beyond scientific breakeven can be reached, how- ever, a fundamental change must occur away from present experimental sys- tems-the combination of lasers and tar- get pellets being used today cannot simply be scaled up to higher power levels. This realization has led some experts to specu- late on the need for a high-powered "Brand X" laser, probably radiating in the visible spectrum rather than in the infrared as in today's experimental de- vices. This speculation was discussed at the Reston conference by WE. Krupke of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. According to the Brand X theory, the simple spherical target pellets now in common use would have to be compressed by some as yet undiscovered laser that could achieve 10 percent energy effi- ciency at around 0.5 microns (green light). Krupke, however, points to an al- ternative stratagem. He says more com- plex targets might ease the restrictions to allow use of an infrared laser (1.0 to 2.0 microns) with an efficiency as low as I percent. (Long wavelength photons of in- frared light are inherently less energetic and capable of compressing a pellet than the photons of visible light.) Complex pellets, containing multiple layers and heavy elements in addition to f E. L i t 1 1 RGH laser )mirror partial mirror Iodine laser 1 / oartia( mirror / IL bea An RGH laser pumps iodine laser: Similar eombinauons may lead to fusion system. 6/14/75, p. 384). Now, within the last few months, a new type of laser has been developed that may aid the search for Brand X. It is the rare gas-halogen (RGH) laser, which radiates in the ultraviolet and can be used to pump other lasers to pro- duce desired wavelengths in either the visible or infrared spectrum. (Brand X would almost certainly be a flowing gas laser, to remove heat generated.) So-called rare gases (krypton, argon, etc.) do not ordinarily form any chemical compounds, but when their atoms absorb energy they can form loose molecules with the very reactive atoms of the halo- gen gases (fluorine, chlorine, etc.). To create these energetically excited states, the reactants are bombarded with an elec- tron beam in the presence of a third gas, which helps transfer the energy. Once formed, the new molecules (say, KrF) quickly dissociate again, releasing energy (in this case, ultraviolet light of 0.25 mi- crons). The dissociation is so fast that not enough energy can apparently be stored by RG11 lasers for use directly in causing fusion, so the ultraviolet light is used instead to "pump" a laser of some other material. One of the first materials that appeared to have the right combination of properties (to be pumped by an RGH laser and in turn to lase at approximately the right wavelength) was iodine, which emits light in the "near" infrared (1.3 microns). Several laboratories are now exploring this laser combination, but an even more promising set-up appears to be emerging. Calculations show that if an RGH laser can be used to pump the vaporized atoms of certain "rare earth" elements (say, ter- bium), they should lase right in the middle of the visible spectrum (in this case, green). It is still too early to tell whether an just no - in progress- -hut the new tech nique is already opened several new avenue of approach. In an interview, Krupkt said of the RGH lasers: "It looks like they will have a major impact on the laser cismmunity, both in isotope separa- tion and in fusion." He estimated that in perhap,, as little as two years, a decision can hF made on what combination of target., and lasers to use in future power- generating fusion reactors. Meanwhile, in the corridors, talk turned to what the Soviet Union is up to in this field. /'=dministration of the Russian laser fusion program has reportedly shifted from ; pure research institute into the USSR ,-quivalent of r:RuA, and communi- cation in the subject- once quite open - has uddenly grown quiet. Speculated one knowledgeable scientist: "Either they'v, found out how to do it, or they've run inl,r trouble." I 1 Electron beam fusion: Soviets claim advance Alth.)ugh the Soviets are extremely close mouthed (and close with their type- writcrs too) about their progress in con- trolled thermonuclear fusion research, oc- casionally something surfaces that gives a bit ;f an idea of what approaches they are into One ?.uch avenue that they have chosen to tolhiw is a variant offshoot of the laser fusion idea in which beams of ac- celernt:d electrons instead of laser light are used to implode the target pellets. '['his idea was taken up because it seems it might he able to get around some of the difficulties that are beginning to appear in the laser-fusion business. (It seems easier to couple the electron energy into the the fusion reactants, have already ap- RGH-pumped rare earth laser will turn out target,., and the targets can he larger.) parently found increasing use (SN: to be Brand X--the first experiments are Both the United States and the Soviet Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 212 SCIENCE NEWS, VOL. 109 Brand X Laser Fusion: Toward ` ' Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 lion"and at' the samelt eubothnhaveStake l Miniaturizing flies with membrane leaks up electron-beam work. Now, workers at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, where Soviet fusion work of all kinds seems to he concentrated, have claimed an impor- tant advance in electron-beam fusion ex- periments. The report came not in a scientific jour- nal, but in an article in the March 10 Pravda written in connection with the 25th Communist Party Congress. The article dealt mostly with other thermonuclear fu- sion experiments underway at the Kur- chatov Institute (notably tokamaks) but devoted one paragraph to the electron- beam work. The paragraph claimed the achievement of some fusions. It said electron beams had compressed fuel pellets containing deuterium to 100 times their original den- sity. The crushing raised the temperature of the fuel to nearly 11 million degrees K. The reaction gave oil more than a million neutrons, which the Russian physicists claim as evidence that fusions actually took place in the fuel. The number of neutrons, if in fact they do come from fusions, is still a long way from what is necessary for a practical device producing useful energy, but the achievement is a significant step, in the opinion of Gerold Yonas of Sandia La- boratories in Albuquerque, who heads the American program in electron beam work. On receiving the Pravda report, Yonas telephoned the leader of the Soviet group, Leonid 1. Rudakov, to determine whether the report was accurate, to offer his congratulations if so, and to seek fur- ther information. He was assured that the report was correct, offered his congrat- ulations and got no further information. What Yonas was especially interested in was the diagnostic methods used at the Kurchatov Institute to determine what happened in the imploded fuel pellets. ']'here are a number of possible sources of neutrons in such events, and it takes delicate methods to be sure that the neu- trons seen are really those thrown oft as excess when two nuclei fuse, and not the result of sonic other process. Rudakov would not describe the diagnostic methods, but referred Yonas to a forth- coming scientific publication in an unspe- cified journal at an unspecified date. The American program has so far suc- ceeded in crushing dummy pellets but has yet to experiment with targets filled with fuel, which in this case will he a mixture of deuterium and tritium. The American effort, as described by Yonas's colleague M. J. Clauser at a meeting last fall, uses electrons of 100 million electron-volt en- ergy and protons of 10 million electron- volts to irradiate the targets. What the energy of the Soviet electron beams may be is not known, nor have they said whether they are also trying protons or any "Three California biologists have disco- vered an enzyme from bee venom that can cause fruit fly larvae to grow up tiny. The miniaturizing effect is due to the enzyme's action on cell membranes; it causes them to leak. Although this fly "shrinking" phenomenon can carry the imagination oil to science fiction scenarios, the enzyme will he mainly a tool for basic membrane research. Sadly, for those inclined to wonder about such applications, it won't be at all useful for shrinking overweight humans. Cell biologists Peter 11. Lowy, Herschel K. Mitchell and Ursula W. Tracy of Cali- fornia Institute of Technology report the leak phenomenon in the April issue of 'I'oxtcoN. Lowy and Mitchell discovered the miniaturizing enzyme purely by acci- dent five years ago. They were studying a bee venom enzyme that causes biologi- cal molecules to break down. They in- jected a control group of fruit fly larvae with a different venom enzyme. TO their amazement, they found that the injected larvae hatched into perfect, miniature adults that produce a second generation of normal-sized flies. The team has since studied the action of this enzyme, which is called phospholipase A-2, and can now state that it causes permeability changes--leaking. In order to determine the mode of ac- tion, the team immersed human cancer cells (HeLa cells), red blood cells and mitochondria (metabolic organelles) into weak solutions of phospholipase A-2. The enzyme has no apparent eflfect on the red blood cells, but it attaches to HeLa and initochondrial membranes and causes them both to leak. Mitochondria have a double membrane, and the inner layer allows larger than normal molecules to pass through in the presence of phos- pholipase A-2. The HeLa cells accumulate lipid droplets. This is due either to a change in membrane permeability or to a release of lipids within the cell, the team suggests. the miniaturizing effects on fruit fly larvae are probably a result of membrane permeability ch rages, too, Mitchell says. Insect larvae are essentially eating ma- chines, but fruit fly larvae injected with phospholipase A-2 don't eat at all. When they metamorphize, there is just too little larval tissue to create full-sized adults. The insects' lethargy is probably due to muscle and nerve dysfunction resulting from leaky membranes. Phospholipase A-2 in bee venom and its counterpart in cobra and rattlesnake venom seems structurally similar to the phospholipase present in normal cell membranes. This similarity suggests, Mitchell says, that normal cell phos- pholipase may have a permeability regu- lating function. The bee venom enzyme normal membrane regulation. As for miniaturizing overweight humans, N1 ichelI replies to the somewhat facetious restion, "the enzymes would be useless in fact, worse than useless." The enzyi~ ?s will arrest the growth of insects at ='erlain stage of development, but "if ii organism is already big, there is no rcasa)I !o believe it will get smaller.'' Besides. ou just wouldn't want to do this to a p, ,on. The change in his mem- branes mi},t-t cause him to stop eating, but he also n. it stop breathing. Breathing is a mcml,~,ine function, too.? The hidden energy of silent quakes It's aliu rst as though violent earth- quakes, a -,It their rumblings and sudden upheavals ire just diversionary tactics. According to geophysicist Hiroo Kana- mori of ih= California Institute of Tech- nology, i :s'h of the real, large-scale earth-nun=,r; along the faults and trenches surroundi; the Pacific basin seems to reveal itc: only in slow, ponderous ''si- lent earth! makes,'' whose seismic waves don't even ;how up in the measurements used to r;,i~ quakes on the Richter scale. Kanain is research was reported this week at ,r? international symposium con- ducted by - 'olumbia University at Arden House in =?==ow York, in honor of the late Maurice I'? ing, whose name is associated with man- of the great discoveries in marine g.4 physics in the last 30 years. His finctrngs are based on it study of the ''repeat tin,t?"'--the time between periods of heavy - hakes--for the various earth- quake zones around the basin. His find- ings, coo m d with plate-tectonic theory, suggest it. it the major recorded quakes have not I. i-it sufficient to account for all or even mvst of the earth movement that plate-moll-ii studies indicate has been taking pla- Off the --oast of Japan, for example, where tin ('acific crustal plate is said to be thrusti%,a under the Asiatic plate, the repeat tins _ by Kanamori's calculations, is about I f ,r 1 years. (The entire subduction zone broh within the last 25 years, while the previi is sequence of breaks was be- tween 18 , --r and 190).) Lach major quake sequence -re says, involved a relative slip between rf,r plates of 6 to 9 feet, yet the Pacific pl:Ere advances beneath the Asiatic plate about 30 feet every 100 years. The dillerencc Kanarnori concludes, must he due to slippage without the accompanying ground -sIc,king. In other words, the silent quakes. The scr mimic waves of the silent quakes as Kananai}ri defines there are those with - periods - f 300 seconds or more 4>eted. Approved For Release 20101/03/26 t: CIA yP 6 007817R000t200080040- Oper hour APRIL 3, 1976 213 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 and lower. The commonly monitored waves of higher frequencies are usually produced, according to plate tectonics theorists, when the relative plate move- ments somehow stick, releasing the ten- sion in jerky spasms. The smoother movements produce the low-frequency waves. Further evidence in Japan shows up in measurements by Caltech geophysicist Kunihiko Shimazaki, who has found that crustal tilting and lifting in northern Japan can account for only 20 percent of the known plate slip. Somehow, he believes, the Pacific plate is creeping under the Asiatic one without deforming. Oil' the Alaskan coast, the repeat time is not definitely known, although I ,000 years has been suggested, during which time plate subduction amounts to about 120 feet. The Alaskan quake of 1964 involved 30 to 60 feet of displacement, only a fourth to a half of the total if the I ,000-year repeat time is correct. The San Andreas fault in California also shows gradual, non-quake-related creep, but the repeat time for quakes along the fault is not known, says Kanamori, so the "silent quake" theory cannot yet be evaluated. One of the major implications of Kana- inori's work is for predictions of tsunami, or tidal waves. Sometimes, he says, a quake can appear small on the Richter scale, which incorporates only higher- frequency measurements, yet have a total energy that is very large. An 1896 quake at Sanriku, Japan, for example, produced only minor shaking, but it was accom- panied by one of the most devastating tsunami ever to strike the country. Reali- zation of the danger of low-frequency, "silent" quakes, Kanamori says, should be incorporated into tsunami warning sys- tems, which at present are based largely on Richter-type measurements of earth- quake magnitude. I~ closed a task that once took up to 40 minute. (Heavy loads apparently buckle the c: i . just enough to jam the doors.) '['he ,:is have carpeting, plush, two- inch-thick padded seats (though some will have I- he replaced because of potential fire ha ard), year-round air conditioning (whicl,i ilso needs to be tinkered with) and steel vy heels well suspended for a smooth, silent ide (though the brakes must be adjust, I so they don't jam under heavy loads) Most problems had been worked out by Ire time the first paying passengers rode ear Monday, in numbers twice as high as cxp,cted. Uud.'rground stations are built inside long, ontinuous arches, indented like wrap mound waffles for noise suppres- sion. I'latforms are set away from walls to prevent vandalism and have been clearcrt of pillars and hiding places that could invite muggers. The whole effect, in the words of one architecture critic, is "a scu ne kind of beauty." Io pit down noise to surrounding areas, Washington's era of Metro begins track long some segments are supported o ass h b b th ib f n r ra I t Spacious stations, c?otnfortable rides greeted Washington Metro's first passengers. When ground was broken in 1969 for suburbs and high transit ridership. beginning construction on Washington, The initial line--less than five percent D.C.'s, metropolitan rapid transit system, of the projected system will hardly make Metro, then-President Nixon expressed a a dent in the life of the capital, but Metro common hope of planners trying to stem officials hope that its very attractiveness decay of the nation's capital: "More than and success will spur local governments a subway will begin . .. a city will begin to raise the money needed to complete the to renew itself, a metropolitan area to pull rest. Estimated costs have soared from itself together." Thus, with the opening $2.5 billion at the start to $4.67 billion this week of the first 4.6-mile segment of currently. Some suburban governments Metro, one of the boldest urban renewal are considering pulling out of the cooper- experiments ever attempted got underway. alive ellort, construction is limping along The urgent need for something to halt on federal funds left over from highway the spread of squalor has long been ap- projects, and overall progress has been parent. A study of the Metro idea, con- held up by strikes, storms, management ducted by Development Research Asso- problems and lawsuits. ciates, concluded that Washington might Despite inevitable start-up problems, benefit more from such a project than any opening day was generally a success, with other metropolitan area in the United more than 50,0(X) people showing up for States. The report showed the city to he free rides. They were treated to the fastest, "ideally suited for rapid rail transit," with most comfortable journey in town-once p " a so, c y on pay . a ing tic~:ns. Tracks are also welded, so there no "clickity-clack." In particu- larly ?.4 usitive areas, the whole concrete track l !atform is suspended to keep noise from sh,turbing people in buildings above. Inside The subway cars, sound levels are about 'he same as in a good automobile, except for moaning brakes. Ali, Tdy one can begin to see improve- ment in neighborhoods bordering on prosp,,t Live Metro lines, and the system is ev, lually expected to return $3 for every S I invested, including increased property taxes. (In Toronto, a 4.5-mile systcru costing only $67 million sparked a $1() billion building program.) But the overall impact of Metro on the life of the comninnity will depend on how much of ? the p posed system is eventually fin- ished \t present, about half the planned 99.8 riule system is under construction or compl,.-ied, including 42 of 87 proposed stations. Coir,muters can begin to take advantage of th, new rapid transit-supposedly about four times faster than a taxiby drivirrp to the only above-ground station along, the new line. 'T'here a parking lot and "i.iss and ride" area (drop-oil point for c,mimuters) have been provided; later a complete rerouting of bus lines will provi,ti an integrated system of area-wide transly i Cation. The next section of line is scheduled to open next year, which will include service to National Airport. Meanwhile, this summer's expected flood 1A tourists may not find Metro too helpful As they hoard at the Union Sta- tion It centennial Center, the new line can only rake them into a nondescript North- east neighborhood or across to the bustling cotnniE rcial district- bypassing the Mall and popular monuments. Still, come July, Metru may he one of the safest, most a slronApprovedr `'or ei'e se 2tbc0W d s/ cdild CIA-'RD066 `6o 8 / r60` 10o 6db n0 I I Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 NSF faring better in Congress Congressional supporters of the Na- tional Science Foundation were caught by surprise last year by the onslaught of crit- icism that first surfaced as charges of sponsoring "silly" research (SN: 3/15/75, p. 165) and eventually led to passage of the so-called ''Bauman amendment," which would have required prior Congressional approval of all NSF grants (SN: 4/19/75, p. 253). After a long, tedious summer of debate, the amendment was finally defeated (SN: 8/9/75, p. 87), following elimination of some controversial programs. This year, the defenders were better prepared. At the heart of the controversy is dis- satisfaction among some conservatives over the choice of specific projects for funding-especially programs in the so- cial sciences that appear to them to have it liberal bias. Leading the opposition has been Rep. John B. Conlan (R-Ariz.). Last week Conlan offered an amendment cut- ting all funds ($1.4 million) for pre- college curriculum development, testing and evaluation. (No funds had been pro- posed for course implementation, pending further NSF reorganization.) Two ongoing projects would be af- fected by the March 25 proposal: the Individualized Science Instruction System (isis), a set of minicourses on the physical sciences; and the Human Sciences Pro- gram (HSP), a social science series for the middle grades. Conlan charged Isis would give "unfair advantage in the commercial marketplace" to the company chosen to market it. As for HSP, he called it "a sophisticated and lethal assault on Judaic-Christian family values, privacy of students and their families, and the mental health and developments of young ado- lescents." By instructing youngsters to interview family and friends and discuss their attitudes in class, HSP would "turn classrooms into gigantic gossip mills where everyone's personal attitudes and behavior are recorded in school files for open discussion and dissemination." Supporters of the original authoriza- tion argued Isis was being turned over to a private company in accordance with long-established procedure, through com- petitive bidding. They responded to criti- cism of HSP with a detailed analysis of the course objectives and the favorable report of a broadly based review commit- tee. Apparently convinced, the House de- feated Conlan's amendment, 232 to 160. A new amendment by Rep. Robert E. Bauman (R-Md.) was similarly ispatched. Rather than again asking that .very grant he subjected to prior congres- ;ional review, he proposed that individual congressmen should have the authority to demand documentation relating to all tracts" of NSF. Opponents argued that such authority already resides in the ap- pointed oversight committees and that to allow individuals to essentially conduct private investigations of NSF not only would disrupt its operation but also would probably be unconstitutional. The amend- ment was defeated, 257 to 136. The House action left NSF with authori- zation to spend $811 million in fiscal 1977 about $1 million less than the President had requested but still up 11 percent over last year. Some $9 million has been cut from the originally proposed research budget and added to the science education budget. Speaking for the Science and Technology Committee, Chairman Olin E. Teague (D-Tex.) and Rep. James W. Symington (D-Mo.) said the revised budget would still stem the downward trend in support of basic re- search (now some 20 percent below 1967 levels, in terms of purchasing power) and demonstrate the committee's concern over recent indications that Americans are be- coming "illiterate" in technical matters. In the Senate, however, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) is proposing a total NSF budget increase to $851.4 mil- lion. His bill would provide funds for both curriculum development and implementa- tion, new aid to science students and in- tensified efforts to increase women and minorities in science. Thus, NSF has ap- parently weathered its year-long congres- sional crisis and may even be in line for new support as a result of a perceived decline in national science literacy. ^ Quote of the week In the cour. of what may be his last debate on an ^!t appropriations bill (see accompanying article), Rep. Charles A. Mosher (R-Oho)), the retiring ranking minority meml'cr of the House Science and Technoloi2 Committee, rose to reply to media repon-, about "silly" research. A reporter, editor and publisher for 34 years before entering politics, Mosher spoke "an indictment of my own news profession" a:. he condemned uncritical publication of a list of funny sounding grants. "The fact that the news media, hun- dreds of editor throughout the country, picked up tha? list from a propaganda source and pubished it without question- ing the facts hct,ind it is, to me, a supreme example of iiresponsibility and dema- goguery on the ;cart of some lazy newspa- per editors and lazy reporters. . . . Any editor worth hr. salt would at least inves- tigate the validity of that list before he published it." lie defendeo specifically two research projects now .:eking a drubbing in the press: a study I how men get distracted by girl-watchin:? while driving and a proj- ect involving it copulation, which has already gone ern nine years. The first, he noted, is only me small part of a large study of human, aggression; the latter may provide "the I,.isis for the eradication of this scourge of its which has beset human beings now feat centuries." L Witchcraft in Salem: A fungus in the rye The first arrests were made in February, and by June the jails for miles around were crowded with prisoners awaiting trial. By September, 19 men and women had been sent to the gallows, and one man had been pressed to death. This grisly chain of events, generally known as the Salem Witch Trials, shook Massachusetts in 1692. But not until now has there been a comprehensive explanation of what may have caused the witch hunt. According to Linnda R. Caporael of the University of California at Santa Barbara, it was not Satan but ergot, a fungus with t.sD-like properties, that bewitched eight young Salem girls. In December 1691, the eight girls were all afflicted with unknown "distempers." Their behavior was characterized by dis- orderly speech, odd postures and gestures and convulsive fits. Local physicians could find no explanation for the illness, but in February, one doctor finally sug- gested that the girls might be bewitched. Shortly thereafter, explains Caporael in the April 2 SCIENCE, the girls made accu- sations of witchcraft against several women in the village. A flood of accusa- tions followed. ghastly goings rn in Salem have failed. Fraud, politic r. Freudian psychodyna- mics, clinical r, steria and even the exist- ence of witchcraft have all been proposed, but no one explanation has been able to account for all of the facts as well as Caporacl's crpt hypothesis does. Ergot grows. >n rye, a well-established cereal crop in !th-century New England, and ergotism (f )og-term ergot poisoning) was once a c(unmon condition resulting from eating coeitaminated rye bread. The symptoms of .r~~otism include crawling sensations of the skin, tingling in the fingers, vertigt, buzzing in the ears, hal- lucinations anel convulsions. All these symptoms wcr- mentioned in the trials and blamed on witchcraft. Caporael's re- search points pmt that growing conditions were favorable for ergot just prior to the outbreak, and that the girls could easily have eaten cot,taminated bread (with 10 percent the acts ity of tsD). "The utmoc~t caution is necessary in assessing the physical and mental states of people dcao for hundreds of years," Caporacl warm but her physiological ex- planation certamnly answers more ques- tions than doe::. ither demonic possession pr?Approvec~ porekelease 001YM6t`' drA,DF96`-gYkOO0200080040-0 215 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 ~~~GY at night and got its name he cause it was designed for installation in the nose of a a plane. Initial trials demonstrated its importance dramatically: A week aflc, major fires in the Angeles National Forest, last November, a o- t.iRequipped helicopter discovered several areas of glowing aerial that had crossed control lines, From our reporter at the symposium of the Society of Photo- ready to kindle a new conflagration. Optical Instrumentation Engineers and the Society of Pho- Shields says the use of NvG and FUR in land management lographic Scientists and Engineers at Reston, Va. is just beginning. Research into the habits of nocturnal animals is likely to be an early additional application. Already Nvc's State of a burgeoning art have been used to catch people using the cover of darkness Time was when some physics teachers steered their students to poach trees for Christi is. away from optics "because nothing ever happens" in that Help for night blindness venerable field. The coming of the laser began to change all P that. Now there is hardly any field in which new discoveries At a price of over $ I 000, night vision goggles are still follow each other more quickly or more swiftly move from the too expensive to help the timated 100,0(X) to 200,0(X) people laboratory to the commercial production line. And among many in the United States that uffer from retinitis pigmentosa an new subspecialties, none, perhaps, is changing faster than the inherited disease whose lust symptom is night blindness. A field of fiber and integrated optics, which promises to revolu- number of companies ha,, tried to produce cheaper versions: tionize communications (SN: 7/19/75, p. 44 and 7/26/75, p. the latest is a device announced at the Reston meeting by IT'I, 60). Flectro Optical Products I ivision. The so-called Night Vision All the specific elements for integrated optical circuits have Aid was developed by .lai:ics H. Burbo of ITT in conjunction now apparently been demonstrated individually. What remains with the National Retiniti? Pigmentosa Foundation. It sells for is the difficult task of developing new techniques for growing around $3,5(X). the complex "chips" to combine them all, and of finding Light amplification did i, a need to be as great as that required reliable ways of' connecting them to fibers. Specifically, a in the military prototype thus the final product is extremely thin-film laser has apparently been developed to the point that light weight, has a rechar; ,-able battery, fits in the palm of the it is expected to he commercially available soon from a Japanese hand and has the light g ..f.u set at the factory according to the firm. What will he perhaps the first demonstration of a complete doctor's prescription. A r, gall light-emitting diode is attached optical circuit in the United States is expected in 1978-79, when to allow a patient to scat h for keys, and so forth, in total the Navy finishes a billion-bit-per-second data network at its darkness. Electronics Laboratory Center. Because of the relativel, low price, other users are expected Simpler applications of existing optical communications sys- to quickly enter the mat f .et. The Forest Service and some terns are rapidly gaining acceptance. In Japan, a power company security companies have rl=cady begun to show interest- Burbo has reportedly installed two separate optical networks, with told Scrr:ncr News he hole-s the price can come down another fibers that can be strung near high-voltage electrical lines without factor of two as produeti picks up. suffering interference. This July the U.S. Navy is scheduled to demonstrate an aircraft in which 1,890 feet of wire has been Finding fish by the glow replaced by 224 feet of optical fibers weighing only one-four- teenth as much, at a system cost of $60,(X)O less. An experi- One of the most unusu:-.I ipplications of image intensification mental optical telephone system is operating in Atlanta. In devices was described by `, Gilliam Dyer of Baird-Atoinic, Inc. Dorset, England, a police station has been outfitted with an His company was asked l:ti commercial fishermen to develop optical communications system. an instrument that could ,,,,ot schools of fish at night, from an In interviews with SCiENcL News several scientists expressed airplane, by detecting the faint glow of bioluminescent orga- concern over a growing lag in American industry application nisms excited by the pass.i;cc of the fish. of this new technology, which essentially originated in the The problem turned out to be not so much one of sensing United States. As one put it: "Japan is pulling ahead of us the faint glow as discriminating it from extraneous Sources in optical devices the same way they did in transistors." lights on boats, reflections -,u the water, and so forth. Eventually the problems were solved rid the unique instrument was ap- Fighting fire with FLIR parently functioning quite well until a pilot exhausted from hours of flying around look utg for glows destroyed the device's Two major obstacles to more effectively fighting wildfires housing by landing his trlme without remembering to lower have been how to find "hot spots" where no flame is showing the wheels. and how to use aircraft at night, when calmer wind, lower temperature and higher humidity make the going much easier. Next, the mini-.laser Herbert J. Shields of the U.S. Forest Service's Equipment Development Center reported on a successful two-year experi- Solid-state lasers have. until now, presented engineers with meet aimed at adapting sophisticated military avionics equip- a peculiar dilemma-the doped" kind have to he relatively ment to solve the problem. large, to dissipate heat: It?,, semiconductor kind can only be first came the recently declassified night vision goggle (NV(;), very tiny. What has heel, missing is a powerful inexpensive, weighing less than two pounds and worn continuously by a "mini" sized laser. Talk mound the conference centered on helicopter pilot to see well enough to fly with only partial a new breed the rare cat h-pentaphosphate laser-as a likely moonlight. The first successful demonstration of night fire sup- candidate. pression using the NVG occurred on August 28-29, 1974, in In so-called "glass" lases, a tiny amount of optically active San Bernardino National Forest. The project became fully dopant, usually neodymium. is widely dispersed through a gLe,s operational in Southern California in 1975. Several successful matrix, limiting the power tensity. if more than a few peree t search and rescue operations at night were also made possible of neodymium is added, tie glass breaks from thermal sires: . by the goggles. But in the new pentaphosohate medium up to 50 percent I.ate last year, an infrared detector was added, whose output neodymium can apparent[v he used, so that for a given power was displayed on a television screen inside the cockpit and level, the size is greatly Eeduced. So far the new lasers are recorded for later reference. Called Fi.iR-forward looking in- relatively hard to fabricate tint one scientist speculated that they seeki Irared Approved as d Fore Release 2001/03/26: CIA-RDP96-00787R0002t00d'80040-b `leviees -the device 216 SCIENCE NEWS, VOL. 109 ved For Ruse 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 SP collision. There would also I. a slight enrichment in crustal elements such as calcium and aluminum relative to the earth- The titanic tail of Jupiter The Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which flew past Jupiter in De- cember 1973, has apparently flown through the tail of the giant planet's magnetic field 690 million kilometers further from the sun than Jupiter itself, outside even the orbit of Saturn. It hap- pened on March 19, when the spacecraft's solar wind detector dropped to it zero reading for more than 24 hours. Such it reading signifies that the tail's magnetic "envelope" may have shut out the solar wind particles. "1t is just barely con- ceivable that the solar wind could have died completely for a whole day without our being in the tail," says Pioneer project scientist John Wolfe of NASA's Ames Research Center, "and we'll know more when we have complete track- ing data. But we believe we've found that Jupiter has it very stretched-out magnetic envelope, or tail." There was also some speculation that Pioneer 10 might merely he in a "magnetic bubble" broken off from the tail, but Wolfe believes that the long duration of the zero-solar-wind period means that the spacecraft crossed an intact portion of the tail. If so, Jupiter's magnctotail is at least 10,(X)0 Jupiter radii in length, compared with about I ,000 earth radii for earth's magnctotail. Saturn should enter Jupiter's mag- nctotail every 20 years. When that happens-as it will next in April 1981 Saturn's outer radiation belt should be disturbed. Spacecraft may attempt to monitor evidence of that event. In addition, when Pioneer 10 crossed the Jovian magnctotail, it was 6 degrees-about 100 million kilometers at that distance from the sun -above the plane of the ecliptic. Pioneers 10 and I I have both detected enough solar wind turbulence at Jovian distances and beyond to account for the wind's blowing the magnctotail "upward" by that amount. Another origin for the moon No Lunar Science Conference, such as the one at NASA's ,Johnson Space Center in Houston two weeks ago (SN: 3/27/76, p. 196), would be complete without a new theory of the origin of' the moon. A key constraint on such theories, according to A.G.W. Cameron and W.R. Ward of the Center of Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., has to he the ' ' abnormally large" specific angular momentum of the earth moon system compared with the other planets in the solar system. At an early stage, when the moon was close to the earth, most of the angular momentum resided in the earth's spin, a spin, they suggest, presumably imparted to the protoearth by a collision with a major secondary body possibly as massive as Mars. The protoearth and the secondary body, they theorize, both had iron cores and silicate outer layers. The silicates would have vaporized and blown off, while the iron would have fragmented and collapsed hack to the earth (thus accounting for the still-unexplained paucity of metallic iron on the moon), leaving the silicates to condense into a disklike ring similar to that proposed in the past by A.E. Ringwood of the Australian National University. The disk would then condense into the moon. The resulting moon would be deficient in volatile elements (as Apollo data indicate), because most of the fine grains into which the volatiles condensed would have been driven com- pletely out of the system by the rebound energy following the Approved For Release 2001/03/26 APRIL 3, 1976 Cameron estimates about 2 tot which is not inconsistent with recently revised lunar heatllov. measurements. This theory, say the authors ipplies only to a planetary body such as the earth, where the scape velocity is sufficient to vaporize silicates. "If a similar large collision happened in the late stages of' accumulation of '?enus," they report, "the orbit of any satellite formed would have decayed into the planet long ago.'' Safer facility sought for moonrocks With interest in the Apollo Irutar samples still high and with no return visits yet in sight, htnar researchers are seeking an improved curatorial facility to t=rovide safer storage and more workspace for the priceless t- ks. Participants at the Lunar Science Conference in March NN -re signing petitions in support of funding for the facility. Fluids were not approved by the House of Representatives but hoe been endorsed by the Senate space committee. The proposal facility, an addition to the present one at Johnson Space enter, would he designed to resist flooding and other advery environmental characteristics of the area. Five new satellites iii orbit Five separate U.S. space satellites, representing both military and civilian interests, have beci launched into orbit recently, four of them aboard a single it), ket. Two Naval Research Laboratory satellites, SOI.RAD (SOLar RADiation) I I A and I I B, were cnt aloft March 14 to measure the sun's X-ray, ultraviolet and proton emissions as well as solar wind fluxes. Since sot.RAi, I was successfully orbited on June 22, 1960, the ongoing pr,gram has provided reams of data, including such milestone as the passage of SOI.RAD 8 through an eclipse shadow ovc, Greece in 1966. Part of the solar-flare alert network, SOI.RAtt 10 was standing watch during the Apollo lunar missions and Liter during Skylab. The fittest satellites in the series will pros ,,le data to a system that uses solar X-ray 11ux to help predict the duration and intensity of fadeouts in shortwave radio con,ntunications. The same Titan IIIC rocket fiat carried the SOLRAD probes also lofted a pair of Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Satellites, LES 8 and 9, built at the mrr I;t.-ility for the U.S. Air Force. Powered by nuclear generators rather than conventional batteries or solar cells, the devices are hE'lping to evaluate techniques of ''satellite survival and depet.dability in a hostile environ- ment," using such aids as signal processing circuits designed to resist electronic jamming. In the private sector, the secon;t of RCA Corp.'s commercial, domestic communications satclbmc s, Satcom 11, was launched March 26 to provide voice, teL vision and data relay for the contiguous United States and Alaska. Satcom 1, launched Dec. 12, is now in synchronous or1.1 over the equator at about 119?W, due south of Los Angrlcs. Satcom II was aimed at about 135?W, south of .Juneau, ,laska. Last man on the moon to retire Irony. It was on the first clay ,f this year's Lunar Science Conference that NASA announced the July I retirement of veteran astronaut Eugene A. Cernan -the last man on the moon. Cer- nan, who walked in space during lemini 9 and flew the Apollo 10 lunar module to within 10 rides of the moon's surface, followed astronaut Harrison II. :-hmitt up the I,M ladder as they prepared to return to earth aboard Apollo 17 from the moon's Sea of Serenity. Of the 12 men who have walk 'd on the moon, only three, after Cernan, will still he with N. ,SA: Alan Bean (Apollo 12), David Scott (Apollo 15) and John Young (Apollo 16), and only Bean and Young remain on flight .-sstatus. CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 ewgllliak Wadding Galleries , , Of all the frontiers science has yet to conquer, of all the mysteries it has yet to unravel, one of the most exciting and possibly the most important is the still uncharted human brain. Rising to meet this challenge are thousands of researchers in a number of diverse fields, each coming at the brain from a slightly different angle. Neuroscientists, brain anatomists, elec- trophysiologists, biochemists and other specialists in the physical sciences are all probing the brain in attempts to under- stand what it is and how it works. But investigations of the brain itself do not give the whole picture. Mapping the brain from an entirely different but equally valid perspective are the behavioral scientists who hope to get a better understanding of the human brain by examining not what it is but what it produces human behav- ior. Along these lines, an investigation was conducted last summer among the Inuit or Eskimo people of Baffin Island in northeastern Canada. The project, directed by anthropologist Solomon H. Katz of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, dealt specifi- cally with one of the most fascinating and fastest growing areas of brain research, cerebral asymmetry or hemispheric dom- inance. The researchers (including an- The right h Hemisphere of the human ht'ain has special quali- ties. B I?ain specialists, anthropologists and other researchers pool their evidence to delineate them. Inuit soapsto,:' carving: "Wrr=uan, a psychiatrist) studied the environment, the k it hemisphere can impair speech or lifestyle, socialization processes, art ob- produce aphasia. Damage exclusively to jccts, eye movements and hand use of the the i ,ht hemisphere does not usually Inuits and found what appear to be im- disrupt linguistic abilities but can lower portant correlations between all of these pcrfo~mance in spatial tasks, simple inu- and the activity of the brain's right hemi- sical bilitics, recognition of familiar oh- sphere. jcct, nd faces and bodily self awareness. To the naked eye, the halves of the Sitrce these discoveries were made, human brain look almost like mirror and specially in the past 20 years, the images of each other, but for more than whop- field of research into the differing 100 years it has been known that the right lunch Ins of the hemispheres has blos- and left hemispheres function differently. somcd. It was in 1953 that Roger W. In 1861, Pierre Paul Broca, physical an- Spenv began his far-reaching "split- thropologist and a founder of modern brain research. Working with Ronald E. brain surgery, localized the center of ar- Meycis at the California Institute of ticulate speech in an area of the left frontal Technology, Sperry performed split-brain cortex now known as Broca's area. In operci ons on cats. The corpus callosurn, 1874, Carl Wernicke discovered a sensory the handle of nerve fibers that connects speech center in the left hemisphere. It the li cinispheres, was surgically severed, is concerned with the comprehension of and the sensory inputs from the eyes were language and is now known as Wernicke's rearranged so that each eye fed informa- area. Lesions in these two portions of the tion tee only one hemisphere (instead of left hemisphere were found to cause to N,ih as is normally the case). After various types of aphasia, the loss or im- rcco':. ry from surgery, the animals were pairment of the ability to use words as taught to solve various visual problems symbols or ideas. with me eye (and hemisphere) or the Speech is only one ability that the othe? With the left eye blindfolded, the hemispheres do not have in common. cat learned with its right eye and hemi- People who have suffered neural damage sphere only. When retested with the to one or the other hemisphere show a blindfold switched to the other eye, the number of behavioral differences that have cat ,howed no signs of having learned. helped researchers delineate functional After the corpus callosurn was severed, other anthropologist, a sycholo ist and r a am a t o v d now what the Approved Fpor Release 2'~jd1 : C~a-DP OW-461 218 SCIENCE NEWS, VOL. 109 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 cer. etbwafivm Clinical and experimental evidence along with anthropological data are outlining the separate ,rr+nctions of the hem' right was learning and vice versa. stance, is communicated to the opposite Because nn,,st people are ded (left These split-brain experiments showed side of the brain (and then hack and forth brained), rod bec.nuse " .,ech centers that the hemispheres of the brain can and hack and forth), making the seizure are almo::: always; iocL ted in the left function independently when surgically much more severe. In some of the worst hemisphcss,, that hemisphere has usually separated. Once this was demonstrated, it of these cases, the split-brain operation been con.rdcred "dominant" while the became possible to use the split-brain has been used to contain the epileptic right hemio.phere has been called "minor" technique to investigate various aspects of activity to only one hemisphere. or "quiet. (Approximately 10 percent of cerebral organization. But cats don't talk, It is these split-brain patients who have all people ire left handed. About half of and true cerebral asymmetry is not thought added greatly to our growing knowledge these arc Thought to he truly biologically to exist in animals (though recent evidence of the specific functions of the hemi- left hande,i That is, their speech centers suggests the possibility of hemispheric spheres. Sperry and others have reported are locat(kT in the right hemisphere.) specialization in some monkeys and that the left hemisphere is involved in But the I, It hemisphere does not always songbirds). It was not until the split-brain logical, analytical, linear and sequential control, arrd there appear to be degrees procedure was used on humans that it (especially time-bound) thought processes of donin,rduce. The amount of right hemi- became possible to be more exact in de- and specifically mathematical and Iinguis- sphere activation seems to vary from in- scriptions of the differing functions of the tic abilities. The right hemisphere is in- dividual . individual. This is where lat- right and left hemispheres of the human volved in spatial relations, musical (tonal oral eye m+wement (rt:M) comes in. When brain. qualities), artistic, simultaneous (not con- asked a gw.?stion, people will often glance In the intact brain, constant communi- strained by time) and holistic thought slightly t1: the right or to the left before cation must be maintained between the processes. answeriw, The direction of this initial hemispheres because each side controls Brain damage and surgical techniques gaze is u,rrught to he an indication of only one half of the body, the opposite have been important in snapping the brain, hemisphenc activity. Investigators have half. If the left hemisphere decides to take but there are more subtle approaches. found th,o right i.t:M's (left hemisphere) it walk, this decision must be signaled not Handedness and eye movements have are usually associated with verbal and only to the right side of the body but to been found to be fairly reliable signs of sequential processes while left i.i:M's the right hemisphere-which in turn acti- hemispheric activation. Since the brain (right hemisphere) are usually related to vates the left side of the body and pro- seems to have two "minds" that can spatial t,e ks. Recent research has also duces coordinated walking. The connec- operate independently and differently, it linked ih, right hemisphere with emo- tion between the hemispheres is made has been assumed that one hemisphere tional pro, cases (SN: 10/18/75, p. 244), through the corpus callosum, but this ar- most be dominant. Depending on the ac- and there are indications that the right rangement does not always work to the tivity involved, one hemisphere or the hemisphere may be involved in such brain's advantage. An epileptic seizure other must take the lead and maintain things as -reativity and intuition. Medita- originatingApproveins or F elease 2001/03/26~~ :eCIA-RDP9t6 tion, livimosis and drug (alcohol, 219 APRIL 3, 1976 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787ROO0200080040-0 Katz uses vi- Iik, the Arctic, which demands a high deotape to degree of visuospatial ability for survival. record the eye In short, says Katz, it would appear that movements thee:: right hemisphere functions would he and hand use mule highly developed in Eskimos than of Inuit in modern urban populations. carvers at I Pre Eskimo language also reflects it work. Left high degree of spatial, right hemispheric hand (right orientation. Linguistic studies rate it as hemisphere) being, the most synthetic of languages. positions Ann-rican English is at the other end of sculpture while the same scale and is rated as the most detailed work analytic (left hemisphere). is done with l lie Inuit people arc also known for right hand. their soapstone and whalebone sculptures, marijuana and cocaine) have also been mentioned in association with right hemi- sphere activity. It has been suggested, for instance, that some types of drug use may be related to attempts to temporarily free the right hemisphere from the left's dom- inance in order to produce states of consciousness associated with the right hemisphere. "Spaced out" is a term that applies. And in typical right hemisphere fashion, it offers an integrated impression rather than an analytical description of a state of mind. It seems likely, says Katz, "that, depending on the activity, normally the brain selectively uses one or the other hemisphere more or less during the per- formance of various motor activities. In a sense, while we are carrying out one activity, we may be selectively screening out another perhaps as a child who when spoken to in the midst of daydreaming hears the words but does not know what has been said. Perhaps only in unusual circumstances do we break through to use both hemispherical modes in focused, co- ordinated fashion, as in a flash of insight, as when Archimedes said 'Eureka!' When this occurs, there is certainly a great deal of exhilaration, a new kind of high point an `epiphany,' as James Joyce once called it." Another line of evidence (still some- what circumstantial) has to do with pat- terns of human cognition as seen in dif- ferent societies. It may be possible, says Katz, to carry out cross-cultural studies of practices that reflect upon the theme of asymmetries in cerebral function. All we have to do, he explains, is determine if various societies have information in their belief systems about the kinds of behav- iors expected to he associated with left and right hemispheric functions. Katz has drawn up a list of such behaviors based on the anthropological literature (see /,vcoN, vol. 10, no. 1, 1975, a publica- tion of the University of Chicago). In general, he found the left hand and side of the body (right hemisphere) to he asso- ciated with the symbolic, ritualistic, mys- ...11.11-1-1 ,,...... potent, tare- my he nighty aua nrvc in an environment c it f( on page 223 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : lA-RDP96-OO787ROOO2OOO8Sd45-(~ wocab.I cuts, lithographs and tapestries. '['fit!, artwork has been described as ''vo- luptuous, symbiotic and timeless in char acte1.'' Figures on tapestries and in lith- ognrphs are often seen floating helter- skelter without apparent linear or three dimensional analytic orientation. 't'his art (especially the sculpture) not only pro- vide-" additional evidence for the limit's spatial abilities but also affords re searchers a unique opportunity to observe people carrying out work that demands tremendous spatial skills. "Hence," says Kat . "by observing and recording Ivi- dcotapingi how the stone carvers use their hands and eyes in carrying out their work, we,. rn determine if the special spatial and syntactic abilities resident in the right hem sphere are playing an important role in the creativity expressed in their carv- ingr, ' Vile the researchers have not finished anatvcing all of their records, several clear u. findings have emerged that are highly sug;"-stive of a specific role for the right scendcntal, supernatural, evil, profane, henu'.phere. Among the Inuit carvers (all foreign and alien. The right hand is typi- of whom were right handed), the left hand cally associated with social order, politics, cradles the work, moves it into new posi- organization, social system, morality, tionr. and feels its progress while the right goodness, sacred, explicitly verbal, math- hand lrrecisely carves the details and holds erratical and ordered. the ..rrious carving tools. liven when a Katz admits that such a Iist of behaviors tool ould he placed clown, the left hand related to one hemisphere or the other is carried out the repositioning of the stone only intuitive at present but suggests that in sp.rce. Also, as predicted, there was it anthropological studies will at least pro- strik ug preponderance of holding the duce hypotheses for testing by neuropsy- stoma in the left visual field (right hemi- chologists. And with that as background, spher, ). he and his colleagues set out to study "1'h, se observations suggest hemispheric cerebral asymmetry among the Inuits in synrrrrctry or at least a high degree of Frobisher Bay and Lake Harbor. (The cooperation between the hemispheres- research was supported by William and Kati finds an "almost perfect relationship Jane Hitchcock of New York.) bete:.,-it the right hand doing the detailed, 11' variations in cognitive style empha- anal tical kinds of activities and the left sizing one kind of thinking over another hand doing all the spatial and touch activ- are possible, says Katz, one of the most ides. The Inuit artists produce some likely groups manifesting orientation to phcnamenal representations, he says, with right hemispheric functions would he the the left hand doing some remarkable Inuit Eskimos. They are known for their thinpr. unusual gestalt (integrated) abilities, such Specific conclusions from these obser- as drawing accurate maps of their tern- vatiorrs are hard to reach at present, but torics. They seem to have a sort of sym- there, ire some interesting implications. biotic feeling of oneness with their cnvi- The huuit environment, language and cer- ronment and have traditionally depended taro ocial behaviors (such as their em- on their well-documented ability to find phasic, on teaching by demonstration their way out of the most incredible cir- rather than by verbal instruction) all cumstances. Such abilities would proba- scannrgly combine to foster right hemi 220 SCIENCE NEWS, VOL. 109 Approved For Release 2001/03/26 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200080040-0 Off TPE sEM Don't Let Toxic Chemicals Go To Your Head Day after day scientific labs churn out more devastating information about the toxic potential of the 50,000 drugs, 36,- 000 pesticides, 7,000 food additives and hundreds of thousands of other chemicals in the American environment. Vinyl chloride, heptachlor, chlordane, DDT, menopausal estrogens, Red No. 2 cause cancer; sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and photooxidants trigger asthma and heart attacks; birth control pills induce stroke; cigarettes lead to emphysema and lung cancer--ad nauseam. If you're con- cerned about what all these chemicals are doing to you, take heart; this disseminator of the bad news worries, too. In fact, her head is reeling from a toxic chemicals overload! If you think I'm kidding, consider some of the anxieties that have run through my head in the course of a day. First oil', I crawl out of bed, my thoughts turning to the aroma and taste of freshly ground and brewed coffee. Yum. Then I think-uh, oh-not more than two cups. Otherwise I might be courting bladder cancer, peptic ulcers and heart disease. As I make my way to my little kitchenette, a cockroach invariably greets me. I reach for my trusty pesticide can and let him have it, wonder- ing what chronic pesticide exposure is doing to my brain and nervous system. In the bathroom I down some vitamin C pills to ward oil a cold I'm getting and to counter the extra stress I expect that day. Then I recall that I took some aspirin earlier and that the vitamin C might keep the aspirin from being eliminated from my hody. Now it's oil to work. As I pass the District of Columbia Lung Association building, a sign in the window reminds me that the air pollution index is dan- gerously high. Now 1 wish I'd taken a vitamin E pill to counter the smog. Comes lunchtime-must make sure that I cat enough protein, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fats to prime my liver enzymes so that they rid my body of dangerous foreign chemicals. And enough raw vegetables and whole grain products to expedite waste products through my body and avoid rectal cancer. After work I hold my breath as a bus expels toxic fumes in my face. Back in my apartment I reach for a cocktail. Too late I remember that I just took an antihistamine, and that it enhances the depressive effects of alco- hol, causing drowsiness, mental dullness ' t that the Its.h contained dangerously high levels of polychlorinated hiphenyls (t'CR's). ?cry young and old persons do not have lie same liverenzyme defenses against I is chemicals that the general population does. Some persons were horn with ,enciically defective liver enzymes. Improper diet can also impair the liver enzymes 1 do advocate taking reasonable precautions against toxic chemicals: eat- ing a 'n. holesomc diet, e.g. natural, whole giam cereals instead of those lar- ded with sugar and additives; telling the cigar smoker in the no-smoking section of the Mcvroliner where to get oil; riding a hike insicad of driving. (I once was the only per