Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 4, 2016
Document Release Date: 
June 11, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
March 1, 1976
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7.pdf925.09 KB
Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 Proposal for Research DETECTION OF REMOTE LOW-LEVEL EM SOURCES Part One--Technical Proposal March 1, 1976 Prepared by: Harold Puthoff Russell Targ Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory DRAFT CLIENT PRIVATE Approved: Earle D. Jones, Director Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory Bonnar Cox, Executive Director Information Science and Engineering Division C tlI N ~'~ i kWAT Approved For Release 2000/08/10 CIA-RDP6 00787R000200120002-7 DRAFT Approved For Release 2000/010 : CIA-RDP96-00787R0002001200Q DRAFT CLIENT PRIVATE Proposal for Research SRI No. ISH 76-68 DETECTION OF REMOTE LOW-LEVEL EM SOURCES For the past three years we have had a program in the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory of SRI to investigate human registration and perception of remote signals. Of special interest is the ability of certain individuals to detect remote electromagnetic stimuli which appear to be well shielded against detection. This includes a certain class of apparent coupling between remote electromagnetic (strobelight) stimuli and the human nervous system as detected by the measurement of variations in the subject's electroenceph- alogram (EEG), when overt responses (e.g., verbal reports) provide no evidence of such registration. In this unsolicited proposal SRI proposes to undertake.a one-month EEG research program to investigate the abilities and characteristics, with regard to remote EM source detection, of an individual whose services will be made available by the client. Ct,1V->Si f Y:Al ION DRAFT Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RD 96-00787R.000200120002-7 HS18 App ad t' or Release 200?0/glpO : CIA-RDP96-00787R00020012000 ~ a CLIENT PRIVATE 1 ; II BAC KGROUNI) in a number of laboratories evidence has been obtained indicating the existence of an as-yet-unidentified channel wherein information is observed to couple from remote electromagnetic to the human nervous system as indicated by physiological response, even though overt responses such as verbalizations or key presses provide no evidence for such information transfer. Physiological measures have included plethysmographic responses and EEG activity. 2A3 Kamiya, Lindsley, Pribram, Silverman, Walter, and others have suggested that a whole range of.EEG responses such as evoked potentials'(EPs), spontaneous EEG, and. the contingent negative variation (CNV) might be sensitive indicators of the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by usual sensory 4 processes. A pilot study was therefore undertaken at SRI to determine whether EEG activity could be used as a reliable indicator of information trans- mission between an isolated subject and a remote stimulus. Following the earlier work by others, we assumed that perception could be indicated by such a measure even in the absence of verbal or other overt indicators. With regard to choice of stimulus, it should be noted that Silver- man and Buchsbaum attempted, without success, to detect EP changes in a subject in response to a single stroboscopic flash stimulus observed by another subject .b Kamiya suggested that because of the unknown. tem ,poral characteristics of the information channel, it might be more appropriate to.use repetitive bursts of light to increase the probability of detecting information transfer.6 Therefore, in our study we chose, to use repetitive light bursts as stimuli. The results, described below, have been reported in the open literature under the title "Information Transfer. Under Conditions of Sensory Shielding," by R. Targ and H. Puthof:f, Nature 252, 18 October 1974, and reprinted in the IEEE Communica- tions 13, January, 1975. In the design of the study it was assumed that the application of remote stimuli would result in responses similar to those. obtained under conditions of direct stimulation. For example, when normal subjects are stimulated with a flashing light, their EEG typically shows a decrease in the amplitude of the resting rhythm and a driving of the brain waves at the- fre-quencyof the Clashes. We hypothesized that if we stimulated ' Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 tj LU ;! T' ed For Release 2000/0-0 :,CIA- CLIENT RDP96- PRIVA00787ROOO200120002-7r. one subject in this manner (a putative sender),.the EEG of another subject in a remot:e-'room with no flash present (a receiver), might show changes i.n'alpha (9-11 Hz) activity, and possibly EEG driving similar to that of the sender, either by means of coupling to the sender's EEG, or by coupling directly to the stimulus. We informed our subject that at certain times a light Was to be flashed in a sender's eyes in a distant room, and if the subject perceived that event, consciously or uncon- sciously, it might be evident from changes in his EEG output. The receiver was seated in a visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded double-walled steel room shown in Figure 1. The sender was seated in a room about 7 m from the .receiver. We initially worked with four female and two male volunteer subjects. These were designated "receivers." The senders were either other subjects or the experimenters. We decided beforehand to run one or two sessions of 36 trials each with each subject in this selection procedure,-and to do a more extensive study with any subject whose results were positive. A Grass PS-2 photostimulator.placed-about I m in front of the sender was used to present flash trains of 10 s duration. The receiver's EEG activity from the occipital region (Oz), referenced to-linked mastoids, wis amplified with a Grass 5P-1 preamplifier and associated driver amplifier with a bandpass of 1-120 llz. The EEG data were recorded on magnetic tape with an Ampex SP 300 recorder. On each trial, a tone burst of fixed frequency was presented to both sender and receiver and was followed in one second by either a 10 s train of flashes or a null, flash interval presented to the sender. Thirty-six such trials were given in an experi- mental session, consisting of 12 null trials--no flashes following. the tone--12 trials of flashes at 6 f.p.s. and 12 trials of flashes at 16 f.p.s., all randomly intermixed, determined by entries from a table of random numbers. Each of the trials generated an 11-s EEC epoch. The last 4 s of the epoch Was selected for analysis to minimize the desynchronising action of the warning cue. This 6-s segment was subjected to Fourier analysis on a L]NG.8 computer. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 J nav y_ as v~ ----- -- a ,i,~v . - v~~-rwr-vv tiv-r yr rcvvvwv wvv i7 ~i Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 k' ;a'`' is ~ ;J FIGURE 1 SHIELDED ROOM USED FOR EEG EXPERIMENTS CLIENT PRIVATE t _ I . J jA*.VPr(j i U rur r eIed a UUU1q / Iu . %rIM -r-tu ' Q-uu101 r-%uuucVV Icuuwl Spectrum analyses gave no evidence of EEG driving in any re- ceiver, although in control runs the receivers did exhibit driving when physically stimulatcd"with the flashes. But of the six subjects studied initially, one subject (I-1.H.) showed a consistent alpha blocking effect. We therefore undertook further study with this subject. Data from seven sets of 36 trials each were collected from this subject on. three separate days. This comprises all the data collected to date with this subject under the test conditions described above. The alpha band was identified from average spectra, then scores of average, power and peak power were ob- tained from individual trials and subjected to statistical analysis.. Of our six subjects, 11.11. had by far the most monochromatic EEG spectrum. Figure 2 shows an overlay of the three averaged spectra from one of this subject's 36-trial runs, displaying changes in her alpha activity for the three stimulus conditions. Roan values for the average power and peak power for each of the seven experimental sets are given in Table 1. The ,power measures were less in the 16'f.p.s. case than in the 0 f.p.s. in all seven peak power measures and in OR out of seven average power measures. Note also the reduced effect in the case in which the subject. was informed that no sender was present (Run 3).. It seems that overall alpha production was reduced for this run in conjunction with the subject's ex- pressed apprehension about conducting the experiment without a sender.. This is in contrast to the case (Run 7) in which the subject was not informed. Siegel's two-tailed t approximation to the nonparametric randomi- zation tests was applied to the data from all sets, which in- cluded two sessions in which the sender was removed. Average power on trials associated with the occurrence of 16 f.p.s. was significantly less than when there were no flashes (t = 2.09, d.f. = 118, P < 0.04). The second measure, peak power, was also significantly less in the 16 f.p..s. conditions than in the null condition (t = 2.16, d.f. = 118, P < 0.03). The average response in the 6 f.p.s. condition was in the same direction as that associated with 16 f.p.s., but the effect was not statistically significant. As part of the experimental protocol the subject was asked to indicate conscious assessment for each trial as to Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 ved For Release 2000/10: CIA-RDP96-00787R00020012007 CLIENT PRIVATE 5Hz 10 Hz 15 Hz THREE CASES -,0,,6 and 16 lIz flashes (12 trial averages) FIGURE 2 OCCIPITAL EEG FREQUENCY SPECTRA, 0 TO 20 Hz, OF ONE SUBJECT (H.t-I.) ACTING AS RECEIVER, SHOWING AMPLITUDE CHANGES IN THE 9--11 I-1z BAND AS A FUNCTION OF STROBE FREQUENCY Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 io~ed For Release 2000/0WO CIA-RDP96-00787R00020012000? CO O r V ~,D ? o r r i ~D cr +-n co o- U) c Q CO co co N CO ?~t N a N -4 -4 N ,--1 1 la Q) O N O r- U') O N ~'D 00 0 a) (T .-I U) C7 CO O cr -+ N a) cry r. 1- n CO w N .'~ M -4 .-i 1-+ -A -4 cd N W N r` Lf1 ~h a) N ?-- U) O n O r~ a O u 1 ~ f Lh I'D 00 . CO -4 ,-{ N -4 CO N O V cO O N CO CO CO r1 a N O N Cl N 3 N- ri N -d CO C in 1 0 P-1 L(} N. CO aI rn C) C7~ o O N 110 L~ in L .O N r C CO -' CO ' Ll3 Lf') N. Lr) .t l CO M - N CD CO 0 CO 4f . . \t I--+ U) w rn `o to. rn ?t N Ln v1 m a Ln U ro .G G N -Li 14 o G V N 41 N .U' N co N N ?~ N O T1 - Cn .n C7 ,.C] 4-I 3-+ G r~ H ~ ~l r-a H n N 0 Cn d C .~ 'Tj Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 oved For Release 20001/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 CLIENT PRIVATE MWO which stimulus was generated. The guess was made known to the experimenter via one-way telegraphic communication. An analysis of these guesses has shown; them to be at chance, in- dicating the absence of any suprali& nal cueing, so arousal as evidenced by significant alpha blocking occurred only at the noncogniti:ve level of awareness. Several control procedures were undertaken to, determine if these results were produced by system artifacts or by s"ubtle cueing of the subject. Low level recordings were made from saline of 12 I resistance in place of the subject, with and without the introduction of 10 Hz, 50 pV signals from a battery-operated generator. The standard experi- mental protocol was adhered to and spectral analysis of the results were carried out. There was no evidence in the spectra of activity associated with the flash frequencies, and the 10 llz signal was not. perturbed by the remote occurrence flicker. In another control procedure a five foot pair of leads was draped across _the subject's chair (subject absent). The leads were connected to a Grass P-5 amplifier via its high impedance input probe. The band- width was set 0.1 1[z to 30 KHz with a minimum gain of 200,000. The output of he amplifier was connected to one input of a C.A.T. 400C "averager." Two-second sweeps, triggered at onset of the tone, were taken once every 13.seconds for approximately two hours, for about 550 samples. No difference in noise level between the foreperiod and the onset of flicker was observed. Finally, no sounds associated with flicker could be detected in the receiver's chamber. From these experiments we conclude that A mechanism of extreme human perceptual sensitivity exists whereby the occurrence of remote electromagnetic stimuli can be detected by means of a perceptual. modality not mediated by physical parameters as yet identified. ? .[.'he EEC procedure described appears to be a sensitive technique for detecting the occurrence of such information transfer, even in the absence of overt cognitive response. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 Appr ved For Release 2000/08/10: J Pl9, S7 R000200120002-7 we found evidence for EEG correlates (alpha reduction arousal response) of the detection of remote strobelight sti.Muli. The goal of such repli- cation is the further delineation of: the d,haracteristics of the coupling mechanism under increasingly severe experimental conditions to com- pletely circumscribe potential mundane mecizanisms. To accomplish the proposed research objectives, SRI will furnish the personnel and facilities required for the following efforts. (l) Evidence for detection of remote strobelight stimuli as indicated by EEG correlates shall be investigated as dis- cussed in Section II, with the addition of a. Use.of a self-contained battery-driven lamp with mechanical chopper to eliminate potential: pickup and re- radiation by a.c. power lines; ~. Use of increased distance between source and receiver (up to kilometers); and (2) Independent experimentation and analysis on the part of con- sultant Dr. Robert Ornstein, Langley-Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, has been arranged to provide for intra-program checks and balances on protocols, data gathering, and analysis. (3) Use of alternative stimuli (e.g., audio tones) to follow up previous work which suggests that physiological response to remote stimuli may constitute a class of non-specific arousal behavior in response to general stimuli. 0 (4) The exploratory nature of the program requires that 15 percent. of, the effort will be set aside to explore, with the client's cognizance, additional avenues of research that may surface as high-priorityitems during the course of the program. SRI personnel shall undertake a research program of approximately one-month duration. to investigate the abilities and characteristics of the designated individual to be supplied by the clients. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 Approved For Release 200/10: CIA-RDP96-00787R0002001200 r7 DRAFT D. Reporting Schedule A technical report detailing the tests and their results will be delivered 60 days after the commencement date of the contract. Throughout the effort the investigators plan to remain in close telephone communication with the client. I:ilfL ION Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RD096-00787R000200120002-7 DRAFT Appgyed For Release 200010: CIA-RDP96-00787R0002OO12O0 r7 c: 11 IV QUALIFICATIONS OF SRI - SRI is an independent, nonprofit organization performing a broad spectrum of research under contract to business,".industry, and ?govern- ment. The Institute, which was formerly affiliated with Stanford Uni- versity, was founded in 1946. Its operations include the physical and life sciences, industrial and development economics, management systems, engineering systems, electronics and radio sciences, information science, urban and social systems, and various combinations-of disciplines within these fields. SRI has no endowment; payments by clients under research contracts and grants amount to approximately $80 million annually and are used to cover all operating costs. Such revenue also helps the Institute main- tain the excellence of its research capabilities. SRI's facilities include more than one million square feet of office and laboratory space and incorporate the most advanced scientific equip- ment, including unique instrumentation developed by the staff. The bulk of these facilities and most of the research staff are located at the Institute's headquarters in Menlo Park, California. Regional office locations include Washington, D.C.;?New York City; Chicago; Houston; and Los Angeles. Of SRI's total staff of almost 3000, approximately one-half are in professional and technical categories. Some 450 members of the profes- sional staff have Ph.D. or equivalent degrees; 600.others have their Master's degree. The project leader and other research personnel who would be active in the proposed work are members of the Electronics and B:ioengipeering Laboratory. This group currently occupies 40,000 square feet of labora- tory space, divided into many separate laboratory rooms, technicians' work areas, a machine shop, and a computer room housing a LINC-8 and cckLed terminals and, equipment. In addition, a well-equipped. computation center is available. The G Ioc.troni_cs and Biocngi.neering Laboratory employs a number of technicians and engineering assistants and has available electronics mai.erial. and Lest equipment useful,in the research proposed here. kspeci.dlly suited to this work are a number of shielded rooms with various instrumentation available. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 R 4p pved For Release 20001#x$ 10 .: ;CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 D WOW CLIENT PRIVATE Finally, a backup team of psychologists and statisticians can be .brought into the project on an internal consulting basis. The proposed research will be conducted by SRI staff members within the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory under the management of its director, Mr. Earle Jones. The principal investigator will be Dr. Harold Puthoff. Mr. Russell Targ of the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory will be a co-investigator. Dr. Robert Ornstein of the Langley- Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, will act as consultant to this program. In addition to.the scientific personnel directly engaged in the research aspects of this investigation, Stanford Research Institute has established an internal technical advisory board. This board con- sists of several directors of SRI's operating divisions, together with our legal counsel, all under the chairmanship of the senior vice president for research. It is the function of this advisory board not only to make recommendations and approve or disapprove every new direction taken by the Institute in this research area, but also to monitor related ongoing IF13^TIUN Approved For Release 2000/08/10: ClP-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 DRAFT Approved For Release 200 /10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120q-7 EA:,LE D. JONES, DIRECTOR ELECT ?OIiICS A:iD BIDE",C-ijIEE?I:?G 1 r':BORATO INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DIVISION Specialized professional competence ? Analysis and design of electronic-optical systems, television, fac- simile systems including bandwidth compression techniques, electro-- static printing, bioengineering instrumentation, and ultrasonics Representative research assignments at SRI. (since 1956) ? Director, Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory; responsible for four research programs: ? Optics: laser applications in oceanography, spectroscopy, and re- mote detection ? Ultrasonics: real-time acoustic imaging for medical diagnostics and nondestructive testing ? Electronics: electrostatic printing, television systems, and fac- simile Bioengineering: vision research instrumentation, prosthetic devices, and diagnostic medical instruments ? Manager, Electronics and Optics Group; project leader, Meteorological Satellite Facsimile System, color television cameras Research engineer; character generator design; electrostatic label printer; delay line: scanning; high density photographic recording.of television signals; frequency synthesizers; time domain equalizer; color facsimile;.bandwidth compression Academic backgrowid ? B.S. in electrical engineering (1956), Georgia Institute of Technology; M.S. in electrical engineering (1958), Stanford University; graduate work (1965-68) including statistics, communication theory, Fourier optics, and bioengineering . Publications and patents ? Many papers and reviews in the fields of character generators, cir- cuitry, color television cameras, bandwidth compression, television recording, and. ultrasonic imaging ? Seven issued U.S. patents in character generators, frequency synthe- sizer, and electrostatics ProfessionaZ,associations and honors ? American Physical Society ? Eta Ka: pa EEu; Phi Etta Sigma; Phi 'Kappa Phi; Tau Data P, June 14 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 Approved For Release 2000/q 10 : CIA-RDP96-00787ROO0200120002-7 HAROLD F. PUTLIOFF,.SENIOR RESEARCH ENGINEER ELECTRONICS AND BIOENGINEERING LABORATORY INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DIVISION Specialized professional coorpetence Tunable .laser research and development; quantum electronics; biofeed- back and biomeasurement research; "paranormal" perception Representative research assignments at SRI ? Development of tunable ultraviolet laser source for pollution studies and medical research ? Development of high-power tunable infrared laser source (50-250 mi- crons) for materials research Assessment of potential of fiber optics and lasers for use in optical computers Development. of biofeedback monitors (GSR) for use in educational corn- pul:ers and other man-machine links ? Research and development of biofield measurements ? Investigation of "paranormal" perceptual abilities Other professional experience ? Research associate, Hansen Laboratories of Physics and lecturer, De- partment of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University: teaching, textbook author, and research supervisor of Ph.D. candidates in the area of lasers and nonlinear optics ? Consultant on applications of lasers to industrial and medical prob- lems- and research assistant, Stanford University ? Lieutenant, USNR: in-house research and contract monitoring on DoD (NSA) contracts concerned with the development of ultra high-speed (GHz) Computers.. ? Research engineer, Sperry Electronic Tube Division and Sperry fellow, University of Florida: design and testing of electron beam focusing systems for use in microwave tubes Academic background ? B.E.E...(1958) and M.S.E. (196.0), University of Florida; Ph.D. in elec- trical engineering (1967), Stanford University Publications and patents ? Coauthor of textbook, Fundamentals of Quantum Electronics (Wiley) ; three reference book contributions; twenty-five papers in professional journals; seventeen national symposium papers; numerous technical reports ? Two patents Professional associations and honors ? American Association for the Advancement of Science; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers;,Phi Eta Sigma; Phi Kappa Phi; Sigma Tau; Sigma Xi Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 Approved For Release 2000/8/10.:.CIA-RDP96-00787R0002001200Q22 Pl1';SEL] TARG, SEI1IOp RESEARCH PHYSICIST ELECTRONICS AND BIOENGINEERING LABORATORY I]WORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DIVISION Specialized professional competence Development of new gas lasers; FM laser and supermode laser techniques; laser noise reduction; optical modulation aru] demodulation;. experi- ments in new gaseous laser media;" microwave diagnostic techniques; microwave generation from plasmas Professional experience ? Sylvania Corporation (1962-72); investigation of. techniques for ,development of new gas lasers, making use of his research with corn- pact, self-contained multi-kilowatt C02 lasers ? Technical Research Group (1959-62); experiments in new gaseous laser media ? Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn; assisted in the establishment of the Electron Beam Laboratory ? Sperry Gyroscope Company, Electron Tube Division (1956-59), experi- mental work in microwave generation from plasmas; early work in the technology of ultrahigh-vacuum and ion-pump design Academic background ? B.;. in physics (1954), Queens College, New York;. graduate work in physics (1954-56), Columbia University, New York Publications and inventions Author of "Optical-Heterodyne Detection of Microwave-Modulated Light,' Proc. IEEE (1964); coauthor of numerous articles on lasers and plasma oscillations ? Invention of the tunable plasma oscillator at microwave frequencies Professional associations and honors ? :f.iE1 American Physical Society; The Optical Society of America ? Awarded the position of research associate with the Polytechnic Insti tut_:e of Brooklyn 16 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120002-7 Approved For Release 2004P/10: CIA-RDP96-00787R000200120QW-7 DRAFT 1. Dean, E.D., Int. J. of Neuropsychiatry 2, 439 (1966). 2. Tart,. C.T., Int. J. of Parapsychology 5, 375 (1963). 3. Duane, T.D., and Behrendt, T., Science 150, 367. (1965). 4. Cavanna, R. (Editor), Psi Favorable States of Consciousness, Para- psychology Foundation, New York (1970). 5. Ref. 4, pp. 143-169. 6. Ref. 4, pp. 158-159. 7. Hill, D., and Parr, G., Electroencephalography: A Symposium on Its Various Aspects, Macmillan, New York (1963). 8. Siegel, ,S., Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956; pp. 152-156. 9. Ornstein, R. (Editor), The Nature of Human Consciousness, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco (1973). See especially articles by M.S. Gazzaniga (pp. 87-100) and J.E. Bogen (pp. 101-125). 10. Artley, J.L., Physiological Correlates of Psi Processes, HEW-PHS Proposal (1975). 11. D.H. Lloyd, New Horizons Transactions of the Toronto Society for Psychical Research 1, No. 2 (1973). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDp96-00787R000200120002-7 DRAFT