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ved For Release 2000/08/10: CIA1-RDP96-00 7l 000300100001-9 Final Technical Report Covering the Period 1 October 1986 to 30 September 1987 ENHANCED HUMAN PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION (U) SRI Project 1291 PY ??-?-???? of ... Copies. is document consists of S3 pages. oved For ft1 os,Z80OQ&L10? :IUQ IA-RDPWLfOOrP8 603UbfQ0001-9 14151 ^26-;;200 . ('able: SRI INTL MPK ? TWX: 910-373-204 Approved For Release 200 6flet Itgli f tEB787ROO0300100001-9 TABLE OF CONTENTS (U) LIST OF TABLES ......................................................... LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................ iv iv I INTRODUCTION ............................................... 1 A. Overview ................................................. 1 B. Definitions ................................................. 1 C. Program Scope ............................................ 1 D. Program Objectives ......................................... 2 E. Program Resources ......................................... 2 II PROGRESS TO DATE ........................................... 4 A. Status of Subcontracts ...................................... . 4 B. Status of Consultants ........................................ 5 C. Progress to Date for Each Objective/Task ................. ... 5 III PROBLEM AREAS .............................................. 45 IV ADMINISTRATIVE COMMENTS ................................. 46 V PROJECT MILESTONE CHART ................................... 48 VI COST SUMMARY .............................................. 50 REFERENCES ............................................................. 53 APPENDIX A - A POSTERIORI ASSESSMENTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE ................................................. A-1 APPENDIX B - PHYSIOLOGY CONFERENCE LETTERS ....................... B-1 I UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 200p abkS?r?tb787R000300100001-9 LIST OF TABLES (U) 1. Status of Subcontracts for FY 1987 ....................................... 4 2. Status of Consultants for FY 1987 ........................................ 5 3. Priority/Deliverable Assignments for FY 1987 ............................... 46 4. Authorized Task Changes to FY 1987 Statement Of Work .................... 47 5. Authorized Interpretations of FY 1987 Statement Of Work .................... 47 6. Enhanced Human Performance Investigation--FY 1987 ...................... 48 7. Cost Analysis By Objective/Task--FY 1987 ................................. 51 LIST OF FIGURES (U) 1. The Attribute Set for the DACOS System ................................... 8 2. DACOS Hierarchy for Water-Present Targets ............................... 9 3. DACOS Hierarchy for Water-Absent Targets ............................... 10 4. Hypnosis-RV Protocol .................................................. 22 A UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 200fflet jItkpf ffp787R000300100001-9 (U) University of Delaware, plus the consultants having expertise in specific areas of interest to the program. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 200M1e 1C -5fflFjt jJ787R000300100001-9 II PROGRESS TO DATE (U) (U) For this reporting period (1 October 1986 to 30 September 1987), our primary progress was made in the areas of pilot and formal experimentation in RV and RA. (U) Table 1 shows the current status of the subcontracts for FY 1987. For administrative purposes, it was convenient to use a number of different types of contractual agreements: SGFOIA2 ? Consultant Agreement - Used for a single individual within a large organization. ? Services Contract - Used for contracts having total funding of~less than $100,000. ? Full Subcontract - Used for contracts let by prime contractor having total funding of greater than $100,000. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 200fMrLAtSJftElU787R000300100001-9 SGFOIA2 vv''`v~ C. (U) Progress to Date for Each Objective/Task (U) The progress to date for each Objective and Task in the Statement of Work is 1. (U) Objective A, Task 1--Statistical Protocols and Research Design (U) All of the formal experiments have been reviewed by the Scientific Oversight Committee (SOC) during FY 1987. 2. (U) Objective A, Task 2--A Posteriori Assessments (U) On November 12-13, 1987, the available members of the SOC met to review the FY 1987 work. Their comments and, where appropriate, SRI's responses are included in Appendix A. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 200p jtL iIt VffffY787R000300100001-9 ff_,%ftff? 3. (U) Objective A, Task 3--Improve RV Evaluation a. (U) Fuzzy Set Applications in Remote Viewing Analysis (U) In FY 1987, fuzzy set mathematical techniques were applied to the problem of remote viewing analysis. Two analytical methods were developed: the first was designed to be sensitive to the verbal content of the RV response; the second was designed to account for the visual/spatial arrangements of response elements. A definition of "ground truth," against which these new analytical techniques could be tested, was also devised. (U) The verbal method is predicated on the application of fuzzy set mathematics to the figure of merit (FM) technology. * The method also features a new descriptor list, which was introduced to provide a richer vocabulary for analysis. The list's hierarchical structuring in levels, ranging from very abstract to very concrete, affords considerable flexibility for analytical manipulation of descriptor elements. A pilot application of the verbal analysis was shown to correlate highly with ground truth. (U) The combination of fuzzy set technology and the new descriptor list also proved effective for the visual/spatial approach. The implementation of these techniques--in conjunction with a third technique known as "cluster analysis"--has resulted in an algorithm for the production of orthogonal target sets. This has resulted in a significantly more effective rank-order analysis procedure. (U) The visual and verbal analyses were each determined to have certain strengths and weaknesses. The verbal analysis is statistically more powerful and provides a more comprehensive breakdown of the verbal information in an RV response. It is quite labor-intensive to apply, however, and it appears to be relatively insensitive to noisy RV data. "Noisy," in this context, can be defined as a preponderance of incorrectly identified response elements. The visual analysis system is statistically much less powerful and is less capable of providing systematic objectification of the true RV signal content. It can be rapidly applied, however, and is sensitive to the primary manifestation of true RV signal in noisy data--namely, the visual arrangement of RV response elements, regardless of their verbal labels. Potential applications of these techniques in their current states have been suggested; areas of future research for their refinement have also been identified. * (U) The FM analysis has continued to undergo refinement since its inception in FY 1984. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED b. (U) An Expert System Approach to Remote Viewing Analysis (1) (U) Motivations to Explore Expert Systems (U) The judging of RV transcripts has proven to be a difficult task for the experienced as well as the uninitiated analyst. Judging can be both analyst and viewer dependent, in that the combination of a viewer's response style and an analysts's interpretive style may enhance or hinder the analytic task. The process is, to a large extent, a subjective task that does not lend itself to a literal or procedural quantification. In an effort to render the judging more transferable, if not more uniform, we decided that, if development were feasible, an expert system to assist the analyst would prove invaluable. (U) The ultimate task would be to develop an expert system that could ask an analyst a series of questions about a given RV transcript, arrive at a composite description of the response, and map the response to a group (possibly with only a single member) of targets within a known target pool. The system would have standard data about a numbeiv of common abstract and concrete objects. Furthermore, the system would maintain a data base of the ideograms and idioms commonly used by a particular viewer and their possible/probable correspondences. By prompting the analyst for information about the concrete or unambiguous elements of a response (i.e., are there parallel lines, or are there elements labeled as structures), the system would combine the user-supplied data with data collected in previous experiments with the same viewer, to piece together composite hypotheses about the transcript. In an interactive exchange, the system would attempt to present the analyst with possible transcript interpretations of increasing complexity and/or concreteness until some kind of composite picture could be drawn. (U) Clearly, such an undertaking is very ambitious and. well beyond our current expertise. Acting as a consultant, Dr. Jacques Vallee was to undertake the initial steps towards the development of such a system. As requested, we supplied him with the-NExperto* development system, an expert system shell which exploits non-monotonic reasoning (i.e., simultaneous forward and backward chaining oit, analogously, simultaneous inductive and deductive reasoning). As the analyst's task is by no means a clearly hierarchical or linear process, this feature of the NExpert? system is a clear necessity. (2) (U) Initial Goals (U) The delivery of an expert system matching our specifications, if indeed such a system can be devised, would obviously require numerous development cycles, and (U) NExpert? is a product of Neuron Data, Inc., 444 High Street, Palo Alto, California. 7 Approved For Release(Wt//A6-007878000300100001-9 Approved For Release 20U00/08/10 :CL (U) was therefore not an immediate expectation. After discussions with Vallee, it was decided that' the thrust of the FY 1987 effort should be focused upon the mapping of response to target. Rather than assuming that the target possibilities are effectively infinite, the system should be designed and programmed to have prior knowledge of the structure and contents of the 200 targets in our current target pool. This design decision renders the problem much more tractable, and certainly does not prevent further efforts from focusing upon response analysis with little or no knowledge of the target universe. Once a system was in place, we would supply Vallee with transcripts from 1987 experiments to serve as test data for the system. (U) Even with a limited universe of targets, mapping a response to a single target is not a practicable goal. Many targets are visually similar, and the information contained in a typical response transcript is not sufficient to distinguish, for example, the Gobi desert from the Sahara. Rather, a more reasonable task is to break up the target pool into similar groups and map responses to a target type. As we had not yet determined these groupings, Vallee undertook the description and classification of the 200 targets and use the resulting target types as the basis for his work. (U) The system Vallee developed for categorizing the target pool, DACOS (Description and Classification of Sites), contains 40 distinct target categories made up of specific combinations of 27 possible target attributes. The set of attributes used is broken up into six types: Water, Structures, Interfaces, Contours, Land, and Features (Figure 1). I Water Structures Interfaces Contours Land Features Present Absent Waterfall Hilly Fertile Rocky Absent Non-Urban Island Flat Arid Volcanic Urban Peninsula Mountainous Dense City Snowy (Glacial) Coastline Rugged Open City Green (Verdant) Lake Plowed RIver Monuments Ruins T Dunes Applicable Applicable if water if water is present is absent FIGURE 1 (U) THE ATTRIBUTE SET FOR THE DACOS SYSTEM ~IN #-%~S IFIED Approved For Release 200 / 8 1 . CI DP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) DACOS is a hierarchical system which'is best described by a tree whose interior nodes each represent a decision point and whose levels each represent an attribute type. By selecting one of the possible paths at each node, one traverses the tree until a leaf node is reached, at which point a target category has been selected. As is clear by inspecting the hierarchy, it is possible to determine a target category by answering a maximum of five questions (Figures 2 and 3). Water Structures Interfaces Contours Features Island Volcanic Non-Volcanic Waterfall F Structures Absent Coastline r Glacial (Snowy) I- Lake ` Non-Glacial (Snowy) v VIl:Cl1 Hilly 11V Water . Present Structures Non-Urban L Island L Coastline L Lake River --E Flat Hilly Island Peninsula L_ Structures Coastline Urban Non-Volcaniu* FIGURE 2 (U) DACOS HIERARCHY,FOR WATER-PRESENT TARGETS IM 11 Approved For Release 2Y0D1Oo"76 !lE!00787R0003001 00001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED Water Structures Contours Land Features L Volcanic Mountainous Non-Volcanic r Structures Rocky Absent Rugged Dunes Snowy Plowed Flat C Fertile --E Verdant (Green) Arid Plowed Water Structures Verdant (Green) Absent Non-Urban Structures Urban Fertile Arid I Monuments Dense Cityy Non-Monuments Ruins Open City Non-Ruins Monuments Dense City Non-Monuments Open City FIGURE 3, (U) DACOS HIERARCHY FOR WATER-ABSENT TARGETS (U) The computer system Dr. Vallee delivered was developed using the NExpert? system, but was later transferred and coded in BASIC for efficiency reasons. The DACOS program initially prompts the analyst for an answer to the question "Is there water present?" and, depending upon the response, continues to traverse the appropriate DACOS decision tub-tree asking further questions. The final output is a list of pairs, the category type with its corresponding confidence factor. Theseiconfidence factors directly reflect the number of attributes that correspond to any given category. For example, if the final attributes were Water, Urban, River, and Hilly, the categories under the Water-Absent node would have a factor of zero, the categories under the Water-Present, Non-Urban node and the Water-Present, No-Structures node would have a factor of one, etc. With these confidence factors, one can then determine a hierarchy of possible correspondences for the given transcript and propose a best match category. Approved For Release 200 10'8l'I~~Cri~R~~9TU0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (4) (U) Results of Testing DACOS with Actual Remote Viewing Data (U) The data given to Vallee for testing consisted of 30 RV transcripts from one 1987 experiment. He then used the DACOS program to assign confidence factors to the different target categories. Overall, the DACOS performed only marginally better than chance. Out of 30 transcripts, the water attribute was correctly identified 17 times, the structures attribute 13 times, and the full target classification twice. Unfortunately, this series of remote viewings, when judged, did not show a significant RV effect, and thus proved a poor test case. Nonetheless, this exercise allowed us to evaluate the progress and direction of this work. (5) (U) Shortcomings of DACOS (U) The categories within the DACOS system were constructed to produce visually distinct or "orthogonal" target types. The first two attribute levels of the DACOS hierarchy, Water and Structures, are by far the most clear, simple, and symmetric; most important, they correspond to common elements of RV transcripts. Nonetheless, some of the target classifications are inappropriate for the kind of RV response data typically seen. Experience has shown that the visual content is the most important aspect of a target; the minute details of a target are often missed and thus should not overpower the overall description of the target. For example, although several of the water targets do picture water, the water is confined to such a visually insignificant region as to be either unnoticed or ambiguous. (U) The deeper levels of the DACOS hierarchy do not maintain the symmetric nature of the first two levels because they inherit properties from the preceding levels. Furthermore, the attributes chosen for the deeper levels do not necessarily reflect the actual visual nature of the targets. The attribute Monument discriminates targets on a very high social and cognitive level; identifying a monument requires a significant amount of conceptual or functional knowledge about a particular site, and is not necessarily evident from the visual contents of a target. The attribute Non-Monuments, representing the explicit absence of monuments, is even more abstract and visually ambiguous. Although Vallee's hierarchy yields a target category with a maximum of five question, the choice of attributes is not ideal for the task. (U) Clearly, the most significant problem with the DACOS system is its strict hierarchical structure. The system, by its tree traversal method, makes each decision strictly binding; once water has been determined to be absent, the system does not have any means of reconsidering water as an attribute. Effectively, by completely isolating sub-sections of the decision tree, the DACOS system renders the attribute Hilly for Water-Absent targets to be distinct from the attribute Hilly for Water-Present targets because the categories on one side of the tree will receive credit and those on the other side will receive none. This occurs because the Approved For Release 200 LA6 IHE 787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) system does not allow for any network or global attribute semantics. Ideally, the system would not force a decision about the presence or absence of an attribute if that information is not available; rather, it would consider the data already acquired, and prompt for alternative data. Further efforts in the development of an expert system must allow for a broad and dynamic evaluation of all of the data the analyst presents. (U) The DACOS system implicitly assumes that all the information it receives is certain. Clearly, a tool for the novice or uninitiated analyst must not expect that the analyst will be correct in 100% of his decisions. Furthermore, the system must not expect that an analyst will be able to render a meaningful decision about every possible attribute; in the absence of data about any given attribute, the analyst cannot necessarily assume that the attribute in question is in fact not present. For example, the particular attributes chosen for the lower levels, optimized for the minimality constraint Vallee imposed upon the system, do not best represent the elements typically contained in an RV response. The attributes Fertile, Arid, and Plowed are rarely seen; assuming that data pertaining to these three attributes cannot be discerned, eight categories are reduced to two, and the system has no way of resolving the analyst's uncertainty. As all RV response data are, by their very nature uncertain, the expert system we envision must deal with uncertainty from the very start. (U) The NExpert? development system offers many capabilities tailored to dealing with uncertain reasoning. Unfortunately, the power of NExpert? was by no means fully tapped by Vallee's initial effort. For this reason, we cannot make a meaningful assessment of the potential utility of an expert system approach to RV analysis. Further development should continue in this area, but the development will clearly need to focus upon the rectification of two specific shortcomings of this year's effort: (1) the integration of uncertain reasoning into the data analysis, and (2) the redefinition of an attribute set and network that allows for a more flexible and comprehensive evaluation of the response data. Approved For Release 2000f re} 6?-M%Flg P787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) implemented the first working version of PsiLine. Bibliographic information and abstracts of the major parapsychological journals from 1970 to the present were entered. During the second year, FY 1987, the main purpose was to add as much material as possible. PsiLine now contains bibliographic information and abstracts of the major parapsychological journals from 1940 to date, complete sets of some of the minor parapsychological journals and several parapsychological newsletters, over two thirds of the major English-language books on parapsychology from 1880 to date, articles on parapsychology originally published in a language other than English, and 1,000 relevant articles published in nonparapsychological journals. 6. (U) Objective C, Task 1--Personality and Health Assessments (U) There was no activity on this task during FY 1987 because no new subjects were added to our in-house subject pool. 7. (U) Objective C, Task 2--Analyze Personality Data (U) A purchase order was let for this work to Dr. David R. Saunders of MARS Measurement Associates during the first quarter of FY 1987. Specifically, Dr. Saunders was asked to continue adding new cases to the PAS/psychoenergetic data base both from SRI International and from subcontractor sources, to continue his study of the relationship between the Personality Assessment System (PAS) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and to add known good hypnotic subjects to the data base as a potential basis for selecting hypnotic subjects for psychoenergetic research and hypnosis. (U) No new cases were added from SRI during the year but Dr. Saunders added PAS data on four subjects from Psychophysical Research Laboratories, two subjects from Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory, and nine subjects from John F. Kennedy University to the data base. (U) In his work comparing the PA, with the MBTI, Dr. Saunders concluded that MBTI scores could be predicted from the PAS but that predicting PAS scores from MBTI data was not feasible at present. He suggested that predicting potential psychoenergetic function directly from' the MBTI and then using the PAS to confirm was a better procedure at this time. (U) On the basis of accumulating PAS data on known good hypnotic subjects, Dr. Saunders identified several potential subjects in our current data pool who would be both good hypnotic subjects and good RV subjects. Approved For Release 200087'I'9lL`1k!5jWVb787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 ASS I ~rb00787R000300100001-9 8. (U) Objective C, Task 3--PAS Review (U) During FY 1987 we conducted a thorough review of the (PAS) to gauge its continued usefulness as a screening and selection instrument and a personality descriptor for subjects in the psychoenergetics project. Data for this review came from published articles where the PAS was reviewed or used as a research tool, attendance at the annual PAS conference, and extensive interviews with several of the principal developers. (U) The PAS is a multifactored personality assessment instrument that has been evolving over the past 30 years using behavioral measures as raw data for making inferences and predictions about personality and behavior. The early development work was conducted by John Gittinger and his associates in a private firm that served clients in business and government. During the last 20 years, the test has begun to make small inroads into the academic environment but it remains obscure and controversial. (U) It was concluded that although the PAS appears valid and is receiving growing attention in academic circles, the instrument is currently not useful as a screening and selection device either by itself or in conjunction with self-report measures. It is much too labor intensive to be used alone and it has not been found possible to predict PAS profiles from MBTI data. In addition, any type of screening use would require the testing of more high-quality remote viewers than are available to the project at present. Use of the PAS as a descriptive tool has continuing merit and it is recommended that we continue to test persons who show psychoenergetic abilities on laboratory psychic tasks. t 9. (U) Objective D, Task 1 (see Objective G, Task 1) 10. (U) Objective D, Task 2 (see Objective H, Task 3a) 11. (U) Objective E, Task 1--RA Effects on Marine Algae s (U) In FY 1986, SRI International awarded a subcontract to the College of Marine Studies of the University of Delaware to conduct remote action experiments using marine algae as target elements. Protocols were developed during that year that would enable SRI to test, with a living system, the Intuitive Data Sorting model. During FY 1987, significant improvement was made to stabilize the data so that standard analysis techniques (e.g., ANOVA) might be used. While much progress was made toward that end, significant auto-correlations persist. Regardless, an attempt was made to generate successful RA. SRI analyzed the data of four participants and found no evidence of RA. Approved For Release 20007c lcLCfi-RE! - 0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 20U/f $/a,,Q A IMP .Q0787R000300100001-9 12. (U) Objective E, Task 2--RA Effects on Human Blood (U) An experiment was conducted by the Mind Science Foundation to study the possible relationship between intent to remotely influence a biological system and actual changes in the system. Three phases of the investigation were conducted, including a pilot study, an intermediate study, and a confirmation study. The first two were used to test and refine the protocol for the third and final study. As a result of these preliminary studies and further input from various experts, the confirmation study appears to have been extremely well conducted. (U) Thirty-two subjects participated in the confirmation study. Their task was to attempt to retard the rate of hemolysis (destruction) of red blood cells that had been placed into a tube of distilled water and saline in a distant room. Each subject participated for one hour, broken into four fifteen-minute periods. Of these four periods, two were identified as control periods and two as protect periods. The experimenter measuring the rate of hemolysis was blind to this condition. During the protect periods, subjects used visualization and other intention strategies to try to protect the blood cells. During the control periods, subjects were to try to think of other matters. In one control and one protect period, eight tubes tlf blood were processed, and in the other periods two tubes were processed. Subjects were blind to this condition. It was used to attempt to ascertain whether observed effects could be attributed to causal relationships, or to intuitive data sorting. To see whether or not blood source was important, fourteen of the subjects were trying to protect their own blood, and eighteen were trying to protect that of another. Both subject and experimenter were blind as to the source of blood. (U) Results showed that 9 of the 32 subjects were able to achieve a significant difference in the rata of hemolysis for the control periods versus the protect periods. The probability of such an extreme result by chance alone is 1.9 x 10-5. There was no significant difference between those trying to protect their own blood and those trying to protect that of another. t (U) The study was designed to try to determine whether causal forces or intuitive data sorting were responsible for any observed phi results. The extreme heterogeneity in the data made it impossible to make that determination. It is recommended that future studies of this type be designed in such a way that data from each subject can be analyzed separately. It appears that level of psychic functioning, whatever the underlying mechanism, is highly individualized, so that it is difficult to test a specific theory using data combined across subjects. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) Random access to any single target was programmed via the computer, and a tutorial program was constructed that walked the practicing viewer through an RV session. Using these tools, an individual can randomly select a target from the pool, do a remote viewing session, and receive immediate feedback. (U) The first step in exploring the use of video disk RV training technology was to establish a suitable video target pool. It was discovered that because of some deterioration in picture quality inherent in the recording and playback process, a different set of visual criteria had to be applied to obtain targets that, when copied to the video disk, retained acceptable levels of feedback information. Additional considerations included, for example, finding appropriate target materials to fit within frame parameter constraints, achieving acceptable color, granularity, and focus, etc. After some experimentation, 243 National Geographic Magazine targets were photographed frame by frame onto the video disk to serve as a pilot target pool. (U) One of the best novice viewers from the FY 1986 training group was used to demonstrate the capability of the system. Viewer 137 produced two sets of eight RV responses to w each of 16 targets selected randomly by computer. The responses were judged' by comparing each response to the eight targets in the set and ranking the response according to the visual correspondence between the response and the eight targets. Analysis of these rankings showed that significant RV occurred in one of the two sets. We concluded that significant RV functioning could be obtained using the video disk format and propose that in coming years this device be employed in conjunction with any proposed training program. In addition to using the video disk technology as a training device, we also formulated a way of applying it to a screening and selection task (see`Objective F, Task 7). 15. (U) Objective F, Task 3--Develop and Test RV Training Hypotheses (U) During FY 1987, an informal group of advanced remote viewer trainees and researchers was organized to: (1) discuss variables that may affect the quality limits of RV, (2) conduct practice sessions to maintain the in-house viewers in a state of readiness for formal RV experiments, (3) provide a setting for reinfording the positive psychological set necessary for consistency of viewers' effort, and (4) develop experimental protocols designed to test hypotheses generated during discussions. This effort was exploratory in nature and it was agreed that any formal experiment proposals generated would be reviewed by the appropriate primary investigator and the SOC before any formal experimental trials were conducted. (U) The group met weekly during the first half of the year. On the basis of discussions and informally conducted RV sessions, three experiments were proposed. The first Approved For Release 200"W-WAR787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) was designed to test the hypothesis that several RV sessions could be conducted over a e time without feedback after each session. The p riod of examine what effect lack of feedback would have uonosubse uentproposed experiment was to viewing attempts, given the possibility that post-session feedback may not always be available. (U) A second proposed experiment dealt with the issue of different types of target material. Some viewers have reported subjectively different impressions when the task is view an actual outdoor scene (after which the viewer goes to the scene for feedback) than when the task is to view a photograph of an outdoor scene (following which the viewer is the photograph). The specific opinion is that the RV impressions are richer, more varied, the limited to visual for actual scenes than for the photographs. It follows that vie' and not as ponses might also be more detailed and not as limited to visual impressions. This hYpothe sisr co resuld be tested by conducting a series of viewings where targets are randomly chosen from outdoor sites and photographs. a pool of (U) A third proposal reached the stage of a formal written protocol. It was to test idea that experienced viewers could perform just as well without a monitor as with the present in the RV session. This experiment was rated as a high priority i a mmbn f it were successful it would (1) reduce the resources necessary to conduct an RV experiment, were eliminate potential monitor cues, and (3) allow multiple viewers to work on the same (2) once. target at (U) Formal twork on experiments previously proposed and approved reem further efforts on these proposals. Advanced viewers spent the second hal p pear participating in several experiments with large numbers of remote viewin s, f of the year the group 'ceased for the remainder of the year. g Weekly meetings of 16. (U) Objective F, Task 4-- Develop RV Training Hypothesis (U) This task, originally intended to Consultants International (CI), was converted to a consulting through a subcontract with Mr. Gary Langford. During FY 1987, g tionship with the founder of CI, Mr. Langford provided consulting services in two areas: ? Remote Viewing - During the year Mr. Langford served as a viewer in approximately 100 RV sessions including practice, exploratory, and pilot work, and served as subject in two major experiments: (1) the Real-Time versus Approved For Relea-UbL-GS 4MP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) Precognition experiment and (2) the Feedback experiment (see Objective F, Tasks la and 1b). s Hypothesis Generation . - Mr. Langford participated in the meetings with other viewers and researchers contributing to the formulation of testable RV hypotheses. 17. (U) Objective F, Task 5--Investigate RV Stimulus-Response Times (U) Experienced monitors of remote viewing sessions have often come up with hunches as to how to tell when a particular session might be more successful than another. One such hunch has to do with the length of the response latency following the writing of the stimulus word "target." The hypotheses tested in this pilot study were (1) shorter response latencies produce relatively better RV responses, and (2) better responses are produced when less time is spent producing them. k (U) Twenty-four RV sessions from a separate experiment were videotaped. An independent analyst viewed the tapes and measured the response latency following each presentation of the stimulus word "target" with a stopwatch. In addition, the total time elapsed from when the viewer began his response to when he stopped to take a break was recorded. The RV responses were analyzed by figure of merit analysis. The average response latency and the average production time for each presentation of the stimulus word were calculated for each session. Results showed a significant tendency for higher quality viewings both when response latencies were relatively short and when production times were relatively brief. (U) These results also add confirmatory evidence that RV impressions are relatively brief and easily subject to modification by the associational processes of memory and experience. 18. (U) Objective F, Task 6--Investigate Hypnosis as an RV Debriefing Tool (U) It has been assumed that remote viewing information is mediated through subconscious processes and is therefore not readily available to conscious retrieval. Hypnosis has been found to increase the ability of observers to recall information acquired in a variety of circumstances where conscious recall has been blocked (i.e., material was presented subliminally, trauma was associated with the initial perception, or information overload occurred). In the present study, hypnosis was used in an attempt to enhance the data of an RV session. Approved For Release 200&"1&WFJ9_P787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100061-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) The specific hypothesis examined in this study was that hypnotizing a subject following an RV session and giving instructions to recall all the information associated with the just completed RV experience would facilitate the recall of subconscious information blocked from awareness during an RV session. It was hypothesized that hypnosis could provide a significantly better aid in the recovery of unconscious, target-related material following a standard RV session than only a second try at the same target. To test the hypnosis hypothesis (hypnosis condition), a subject was hypnotized following a standard RV session (before feedback was given) and given instructions to remember everything about the target from the just completed session. A second RV session followed. The hypnosis condition was compared to a control condition (proofread condition) where the subject was asked to proofread technical report material following a standard RV session. A second RV session followed the proofreading period. (U) An SRI employee with previous remote viewing and hypnosis experience was used as a viewer in the demonstration. Remote viewing experience included more than one hundred monitored experimental sessions. In addition, the viewer had received certified formal training in the practice of hypnosis. In preliminary testing, the viewer was found to rank in the 92nd percentile equivalent on the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales suggesting high hypnotizability. (U) Targets were individually selected just before an experimental RV session and, while aware of the general nature of the pool, the viewer and experimenter remained blind to the target until after each trial was completed. Twelve targets were randomly selected for 12 experimental trials from a group of 200 National Geographic photographs of natural scenes previously chosen as a pool of potential targets for RV experiments. (U) RV sessions were conducted in the standard way with a monitor present. After the conclusion of the RV session, a computer randomly assigned the session to one of two experimental conditions. In the hypnosis condition, the viewer was assisted into trance by an experiericed hypnotist. When appropriate trance depth was achieved, the viewer was guided through a re-experience of the just completed RV session and given post hypnotic suggestions to recall all the information acquired during the session. The trance was terminated after 30 minutes and a second RV session using the same target was conducted. In the proofread condition the viewer was given a technical report to proofread for 30 minutes before a second RV was conducted. Feedback followed the second RV session for each condition. This protocol is shown in Figure 4. Approved For Release 20I& 0 0 f4 I-A Jl II 0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000 ,( .$CLAgI -l 960787R000300100001-9 Target RV 1 randomly selected 15 minutes = Hypnosis (30 minutes) Proofread I Feedback FIGURE 4 (U) HYPNOSIS-RV PROTOCOL (U) Two analyses of the responses were performed. The first involved a visual judging of the 24 responses with each response blindly ranked by independent judges against a subset composed of six randomly generated targets from the pool and the actual target.'* Exact p-values from the sum of ranks were then calculated. Under the pre-treatment condition (RV1), the RV quality failed to reach significance. However, the post-treatment sessions (RV2) were independently significant (p < 0.029). Further analysis showed that all the significance was due to the 6 trials in the hypnosis condition ( p < 0.025; n = 6). There was not a significant difference between the proofread and hypnosis conditions. v (U) A second analysis of the 24 responses was conducted by another judge to compare the calculation based on a 133-item descriptor list with the results of the visual ranking analysis. The FM for each pre-treatment session (FM1) was subtracted from the FM for the corresponding post-treatment session (FM2) and the resulting difference, AM, was plotted versus FM1. A regression line was computed for both conditions. An F test was performed comparing the "full" model which allows two separate lines, to the "reduced" model in which the lines are the same.2 The general linear test comparing the two models showed no significant difference between the two conditions--likely due to the small sample size. (U) The results confirm previous findings that hypnosis can facilitate the acquisition of information not available to sensory processes. Its efficacy may be due in part to the general state of relaxation produced by the process or to the greater right hemisphere involvement thought by some to be a part of the hypnotic experience. These questions should be addressed by continued research in this important area. 19. (U) Objective F, Task 7--Develop Mass Screening Protocol (U) Current efforts for establishing a core group of talented remote viewers have focused primarily on two major approaches: (1) enhancing RV abilities through the use of (U) References may be found at the end of this report. Approved For Release 20VOY0'8l' CTR-PXENP00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2yfflef AC rgf 0787R000300100001-9 *0 #10 (U) specified training procedures, and (2) screening the population for RV abilities using performance-based psychological instruments (e.g., PAS and the current research into neuropsychological testing). (U) In the first approach, the emphasis has been primarily on enhancing whatever latent RV abilities might be extant in a given subject pool. Talented performers in this context have been largely defined as those who continue over time to demonstrate stable accuracy and reliability in remote viewing within the confines of a single, highly specific RV technology. Therefore, selection of talented subjects is relative to the specific training procedure being employed and may not be related to identifying those individuals who are best on an absolute scale. (U) In the second approach, psychological profiles for known talented viewers are obtained using two methods of psychological screening technology--i.e., the PAS and a battery of neuropsychological tests. In principle, these star subject psychological profiles can Y then be used as templates for future subject selection. The major limitation of the psychological screening approach centers on the labor-intensive nature of test administration. Unless a meaningful second-order correlation with self-report tests can be effected, the potential for using these methods for screening large populations appears circumscribed. (U) Therefore, a third approach for locating talented individuals is suggested, through the deployment of a standardized and automated procedure that would screen directly for RV abilities in a large population. The following discussion advances some preliminary ideas as to how such a pilot mass screening technology might be optimally designed and deployed. (U) Initial design considerations for mass screening hardware would include the following: (1) Portability, i.e., the screening unit should be easily deployable in a variety of settings; it must also be durable enough to withstand frequent relocation; (2) Efficiency, i.e., a variety of RV target materials should be rapidly accessible, in order to exercise the range of a given subject's abilities as efficiently as possible, Approved For Release 200Y INI 0~-C1X UP'!0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 20URCI 4tff11!6D787R000300100001-9 (U) Analysis of the results showed evidence that the factor of productive ideation was partially related to measures of psychoenergetic function. Subjects who showed significant computer dowsing ability in the time condition of the Search/Dowsing study showed a tendency to have higher scores for productive ideation while subjects scoring significantly in the space condition showed a tendency to have lower productive ideation scores. (U) Two groups of remote viewers were tested: (1) a group consisting of four experienced viewers who had shown significant remote viewing ability in previous experiments, and (2) a group of novice viewers from the FY 1986 training program. Two of the experienced viewers (009 and 372) received the highest productive ideation scores of all the individuals tested. The nine novice viewers were ranked in order of performance on the last six sessions of the novice training. The best novice viewer had one of the lowest productive ideation scores of all the persons tested. The other eight showed a pattern of increasing productive ideation scores as average measures of RV function increased. (U) The scores on two of the tests, Sketches and Possible Jobs, showed high correlation with the total scores on all ten tests. Since these tests require about 15 minutes to perform and can be done in a group setting, it may be possible to use them as part of a screening effort. 22. (U) Objective F, Task 10--Investigate RV of Analytical Information (U) In the pilot phase of the exploratory analytics program, we have continued to research some of the fundamental mechanisms of RV. The goal of these analytic experiments is to identify the internal mental processes and other variables that enhance and/or inhibit psychic functioning in forced-choice RV. We used one viewer. As during FY 1986, the FY 1987 experiments have been long distance; Viewer 002 was in New York City, and the experimenters were at SRI International in Menlo Park, California. (U) During the first half of FY 1987, we conducted a series of approximately 300 trials ofsthe forced-choice format where, before declaring his response, Viewer 002 stated how he felt about his contact with the target. Specifically, for each trial, he declared one of three conditions: (1) "yes," he had contact with the target, (2) "no," he did not have contact with the target, or (3) "?," he was unsure whether or not he had contact with the target. For these trials, the viewer and an experimenter communicated by telephone. Targets were objects, Zener cards, or words or numerals written on 3" x 5" cards. The experimenter, who worked in an office with a computer, chose two possible targets and described them to the viewer. Using a random number generator (RNG), the experimenter selected one of the two possible targets for the trial, Approved For Release 200V/OSIc C1?ZQU0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) off-the-shelf components whenever possible. In particular, we chose a Hamamatsu silicon microstrip radiation detector as the key element. Although charge-sensitive preamplifiers are usually selected when using a semiconductor detector, such preamps are awkward to use in large numbers. Because we required 48 active strips, a compact LeCroy current-sensitive preamplifier and discriminator unit (2735B) was purchased. The 2735B cards were originally designed for use with wire chamber detectors but we were assured by the manufacturers that the cards could be mated with a semiconductor device. As we have learned, a substantial development effort was required to reduce the noise of the system and create an interface between the detector and the 2735B. The balance of this note describes the work which was necessary to eliminate sufficient noise to observe the alpha particles. (U) Initial System (1) (U) Connector Noise (U) The discriminator card is a current-sensitive preamplifier that allows the noise floor to be adjusted using the threshold control. The system uses this threshold control to calibrate the magnitude of the current pulses. One volt on the threshold-line will discriminate against 2 ?A of signal. If all 48 channels are high until the threshold voltage is increased to 10 volts, then the noise floor will be 20 ?A. As was determined later, the alpha particles produce 40 ?A pulses, not visible in the original system which exhibited 48 ?A of noise. The discriminator was on the outside of the vacuum chamber and was connected to the strip detector by twisteds-pair ribbon cables and two vacuum feedthroughs. The contacts on the feedthrough connectors contributed 10 ?A of noise each. Because there was a connector on each side of the feedthroughs, the noise contribution was 20 ?A. This was determined by unplugging the connectors on each side of the feedthroughs, one at a time, and watching the threshold voltage go down 5 volts per connector (10 ?A). This noise was reduced by relocating the discriminator cards inside the vacuum chamber and eliminating the feedthroughs in this part of the cirduit. Now, only logic signals pass through the feedthroughs in the base plate, not the (2) (U) Hybrid Preamplifiers (U) The wiring between the strip detector and the 2735B was originally coaxial cables below the base plate and twisted pair ribbon cable inside the chamber. To reduce the noise, the twisted pair was replaced by coax inside the chamber. When it became evident that the wire was not the problem but rather that connectors were making the noise, we decided Approved For Release 2 d C1LA&$ FIfO0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10:-CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) that the 2735B cards had to be placed inside the chamber. We resisted doing this initially for several reasons: e The 2735B cards may be damaged in a high vacuum. e Overheating may occur. ? The system may be contaminated through outgassing. (U) The heart of the 2735B is four custom hybrids called HILs. We were concerned that these sealed hybrids would not work under high vacuum, but LeCroy guaranteed us that they could even be used in deep space. The HILs require 1.5 amps at -5 volts and thus produce a great deal of heat. Without convection cooling in the vacuum chamber, overheating could make long runs impossible. To solve this, we used the strip-detector mounting plate as a heat sink and mounted the 2735B cards on it backwards, with the HILs sandwiched in between the PC board and the plate. A leaf of indium foil was inserted between the HIL and the plate to provide better heat conduction. Using the mounting plate as a heat sink, we stabilized the temperature of the HILs to 50 ?C. Our last reservation about mounting the HILs in a vacuum was our concern for outgassing. This would lower our vacuum pressure and distort the path of the alpha particles. However, no outgassing has yet been detected. b. (U) Pulse Processing (U) The 2735B performs to its specifications and the system noise is only 2 ?A with no input. Our next task was to find out why the alpha particles were not visible at this time. Detailed analysis of the detector preamplifier circuit revealed a subtle problem not addressed by any vendors. (U) We have shown the bulk silicon of the device to be N-type, as it is in the Hamamatsu detector. When such a device is reverse-biased, a positive dc voltage is. applied to the highly doped N+ contact. An alpha particle that enters the depletion volume (the bulk of the silicon) will generate a cloud of holes (positive charges) and electrons (negative charges) in its path. Fundamental semiconductor physics dictates that the holes will be collected at the negative-biased contact and the electrons will collect at the positive-biased contact. (U) In our microstrip detector, the fabrication of the device determined that we bias the entire unit through the N+ substrate and make individual connection to the 48 signal inputs from the P+ contacts. Therefore, the 2735B input signal was in effect biased negatively with respect to the substrate. However, as described above, the holes (i.e., positive charge) are Approved For Release V -9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) collected at that contact. As a consequence, a positive current pulse was being transmitted to the input of the 2735B. (U) LeCroy's specifications state that the 2735B card is designed for negative current pulses and will reject opposite polarity pulses up to 50 ?A. (U) Using a single-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier and a nuclear spectroscopy shaping amplifier, we were able to carefully examine the alpha particle pulses generated by the microstrip detector. We determined that the charge pulse should be equivalent to a 40 ?A positive current pulse. Given the rejection characteristics of the 2735B, it was clear that our positive alpha particle pulse would not be detected. (U) We elected to design a pulse-inverting circuit. Two custom PC boards with 24 pulse-inverting transformers were made and installed on the output of the strip detector. Because the current pulse's duration is 10 ns, we selected an RF pulse transformer so the signal would not be attenuated. (U) These transformers have an output impedance of 75 ohms, which effectively short-circuited the input of the 2735B. It was necessary to add a 0.1-?F ao coupling capacitor to the circuit. At this point, the alpha particles became visible as a normal distribution on the computer screen for the first time. (U) After these modifications were made to the system, the noise floor was brought down to 24 ?A and discriminated away. Only signals larger than 24 ?A will be seen by the computer. The system can now see the alpha particles in real time, and is sensitive enough to use as a tool to see any system noise. The noise has been greatly reduced; however, noiseless performance outside of the alpha particle beam has not yet been attained. Two types of noise have bee found and need to be eliminated for an infinite signal-to-noise ratio. These types are as follows: { ? Spurious, intermittent, random noise. ? Parallel noise pulses. (U) There is a rare, random event that shows up intermittently in random places. In the data presented at the end of this paper, the alpha particles are very visible Approved For Release 20GW/N)U.A$,$E P95Q787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) in the middle with a few single noise pulses randomly dispersed. This random noise is produced by defects in the silicon strip detector. Detectors can be specially selected for their low noise characteristics and a new detector could be purchased to eliminate these sporadic, individual noise pulses. (2) (U) Parallel Noise (U) Another anomaly in the system is a dc noise pulse that intermittently pulses every/ channel simultaneously. This is referred to as a parallel noise pulse and it can be caused only by an event that affects all 48 channels in parallel. The discriminator power supplies, threshold voltage supply, and the strip detector high voltage supply are all connected to the 48 lines and could be a common source of noise. A noise pulse on one of the voltage lines could induce this type of noise pattern. Such noise is found when the telephone is k used. If the telephone is lifted off the hook, it induces several parallel noise pulses in the system and increases the count on each channel. A ringing telephone will not affect the experiment but, as a precaution, the telephones were forwarded whenever data was collected. (U) The power line was the next suspect point for ac line noise getting into the system. All electronic equipment was plugged into a single power line filter/conditioner, including the computer, CAMAC crate, and the discriminator power supply. When overloading the conditioner reduced its effectiveness, the computer and CAMAC crate were removed from the conditioner and plugged into the wall. The discriminator power supply and voltage threshold supply were left on the power-line conditioner to reduce any noise to the charge-sensitive electronics. To help filter low frequency noise on the high-voltage bias line of the strip detector, an RC filter was used with a time constant of 100 ms. 4 d. (U) Electro-Magnetic Noise (U) The sensitive inputs of the discriminator make it vulnerable to electro-magnetic pickup. The presence of a large electro-magnetic field could account for the induction of a parallel noise pulse being induced in the output wire that connects to the discriminator input and acts as a receiving antenna. Shielded coaxial cables were used at first, but their capacitance affected the charge-sensitive inputs of the discriminator. Shielding the bell jar of the vacuum system, where all the charge sensitive electronics are held, helped shield the Approved For Release 200 MAi55tfED787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) discriminator inputs from the environmental noise. Using the metal mesh cage around the glass bell jar as a Faraday shield and covering it with aluminum foil helped to increase the noise immunity to high-frequency noise injection inside the chamber. To reduce emitted EMI, the computer and printer were removed from the CAMAC rack and placed 15 feet away from the experiment. This did not change the system noise and the computer was put back in the rack. e. ECL Logic Levels (U) Another problem that could be causing the parallel noise pulse is a weak ECL logic level on the discriminator outputs. The ECL output voltage is lower than specified but is just within operating range. There is a 200-mV, 60-Hz ac sine wave riding on the logic output. Combining the low logic level with the 60-Hz noise puts the logic level right on the edge of the threshold between a logic 1 and 0. A very small signal on this line, such as an environmental event, could be just enough to lower all logic levels. The weak logic level on the discriminator output is not being caused by the coincidence register or the parallel OR gate loading it down. The logic levels do not change when the registers are disconnected; loading the 2735B has no effect. (U) As the system noise diminished, it became apparent that ground loops were being created by a grounding strap connecting all pieces of the system together. Eliminating this strap reduced the noise floor another 4 ?A. g. (U) Alpha Particle Distribution (U) The uneven distribution of the alpha particles is not inherent in the system, but rather in the curium 244 source. Tests were performed to verify that the detector strip numbers 1-48 are the same as computer channels 1-48. This indicates that the lines are properly matched. When the source is moved A couple of millimeters, the alpha particle pattern moves as well. This indicates that the strip detector is still functioning correctly. The two collimating screens inside the curium source, or the curium itself, could have shifted slightly inside the housing. This could explain the uneven distribution of alpha particles shown in the data. Approved For Release 200U '(GLA&SlF4ED787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) The following data represent a sample of each type of noise. The data were taken over a period of one-half hour with threshold voltage set at 15 volts and the curium source set at a distance of 1 cm. Spurious, intermittent, random noise 1-16 0 0 0 0 0 0 17-32 0 0 0 0 0 0 33-48 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parallel noise pulses 1-16 0 1 1 1 1 1 17-32 1 1 1 0 1 2 33-48 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 36 833 3 4 78 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 40 22 848 0 8 71 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 The following is a chart of eight, one-half-hour sessions compiled with all the random noise pulses displayed on the same histogram, and with the curium source present but subtracted from the data: 1-16 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 17-32 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33-48 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 h. (U) Proposed System Testing And Modifications (U) We are now able to demonstrate the presence of the alpha particle beam well aboveithe noise floor. Three different software packages have been debugged and can be used to give us maximum flexibility in the way we collect and display the data. Both types of noise still exist but we now have a better understanding of the noise and the limitations of the system. In order to meet the requirements of the RA experiments, the alpha particle system must be noiseless except for the beam. In order to examine and, if possible, exclude all remaining noise, the following tests and modifications are suggested: Approved For Release 2( NCL1b &EID0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) ? Separate vacuum system and CAMAC crate/electronics by 10-20 feet. ? Monitor outlying random noise channel with charge-sensitive (pulse shape) electronics. ? Retest, examine, and, if necessary, modify 2735B to increase the ECL logic to -2 volts. ? Purchase a new, microstrip detector selected for low-noise characteristics. Price $3,000, with delivery in 3-6 months. ? Slowly and carefully move detector connections on present microstrip device to examine the noise performance of all 48 strip combinations. ? Using EMI equipment and appropriate spectrum analyzers, retest the ambient electro-magnetic noise environment. (U) During FY 1986, all necessary detector apparatus was specified and purchased, or was fabricated. During the first half of FY 1987, this equipment was tested for use in the proposed RA experiment and modified or improved where necessary. The radioactive source has been verified using a separate detector system, and was found to be in the range of - 100 counts per second, which will be adequate for the experiment. The operation of the multiple-strip detector system has also been tested using a single-channel preamplifier unit and found to be functioning properly when the system noise has been filtered by an appropriate amplifier time constant. Principal difficulties encountered in the pilot work with the detector centered on proper, alignment of 48 parallel channels and suppression of electronic noise pickup from the environment. The first problem was solved by careful checking and rerouting all wires, vacuum feedthrough connectors, and computer register inputs. Noise interference has been suppressed by several techniques, including identifying and removing ground loops, establishing a substantial ground plane next to the detector, supplying a shielded connector inside the vacuum chamber, and replacing twisted pair wires with coaxial cable. (U) With the help of an SRI Geoscience and Engineering Center specialist in real-time computer systems, the LSI 11/23 computer, the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) interface, and data inputs have been made operational. We now are able to identify which of 48 possible detector strips have been activated, save those data, and rapidly reinitialize the system for another cycle. The information is then transmitted via the CAMAC interface to the LSI 11/23 computer, where it is stored in a memory buffer, then Approved For Release 200WNfo9 A i1FJg 0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) shown on a video-display screen. In parallel, the pattern of activated strips for all 48 locations is printed for later inspection. At present, this process is repeated each time any detector strip has been enabled. (3) (U) Artifactual Influences (U) We have initiated environmental measurements of potential sources of artifact, which may influence the flight of the particles or may add extra noise to the electronics. The room in which the apparatus is located also contains a transmission electron microscope (TEM), with its attendant high-voltage power supply and typical industrial fluorescent lighting--as well as the video-display terminal and other computer equipment. Measurements of magnetic-field transients indicated a need for some shielding near the detector apparatus. This shield will served to suppress ambient electric fields. A TOPAZ power conditioner was purchased and installed to suppress or eliminate power line surges resulting from switching of other nearby apparatus such as the TEM mentioned above. The unit',neets severe IEEE and Mil-Std specifications for noise and transient suppression, and appears to have successfully eliminated such problems. 26. (U) Objective H, Task 2--RA Effects on a Few-Photon Quantum System (U) We have used a single-photon interferometer to examine the role of consciousness in the state vector collapse. The result was that an "irreversible act of amplification" does not require consciousness. The implication is that RA is, at least, not a necessary condition in; nature. 27. (U) Objective H, Task 3 and 3a--RA Effects on Strain Gauges (U) In FY 1986, a joint venture was begun to examine possible remote action (RA) effects on piezoelectric transducers. Participants were recruited, evaluated, and trained, by researchers from John F. Kennedy University. WI International developed an experimental RA system, and prepared a well-characterized environment for formal experimental sessions. (U) During the pilot phase, transducer signals were observed under sufficiently controlled conditions to warrant continued investigation. During FY 1987, significant improvements were made to the protocol, system hardware and software, and control environments. A separate report reviews the FY 1986 pilot study and details the elaborate and necessary precautions undertaken during FY 1987 to prevent or understand the sources of artifact. No evidence for RA was observed in this experiment. Approved For Release 20U Lik9mmOW0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED 28. (U) Objective I, Task 1--Meta-Analysis of RNG Data Base (U) This work is being conducted under subcontract with Psychophysical Research Laboratories (PRL) in Princeton, New Jersey. The PRL Purchase Order Contract was let August 4, 1987 with the first deliverable due at the end of the first quarter of FY 1988. 29. (U) Objective I, Task 2--Test of IDS Model with "Dynamic" Systems (U) A computer test of the Intuitive Data Sorting (IDS) model has been carried forward from the FY 1986 tasking. The primary reason for this delay was that only one out of the 100 individuals tested was able to demonstrate psychoenergetic ability during the FY 1986 screening phase. Because the IDS model is such an important model for the program at large, we will continue to screen for talented participants. (U) A modification to the computer program was made in order to provide information about the details of the button-press timing. Because of the nature of pseudorandom number generators, adjacent seeds do not produce nearly identical sequences. Thus, the remarkable 1-ms timing reported by Radin and Maya appears to be a methodological artifact. We incorporated a simple seed transformation in order to have the significant seeds be evenly spaced in time. Thus, the IDS experiment is expected to yield results with regard to the model, as well as with regard to human timing ability under psychoenergetic conditions. 30. (U) Objective I, Task 3--Host Theory Conferences (U) No `theory conference was held during FY 1987. 31. (U) Objective I, Task 4--Princeton Conference (U) In FY 1987, SRI International awarded a subcontract to the Princeton University Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR). The purpose of that subcontract was to organize 4nd host a conference of SRI Cognitive Science Program staff, subcontractors, and designated consultants. The conference was held4at Princeton's Scanticon Conference Center on April 9-10, 1987, to discuss the topic "What constitutes proof of a controversial claim?" Thirty-one persons attended the conference. There was also an after dinner speaker each evening. A separate report contains an SRI assessment of the conference. Following the conference, the PEAR staff prepared a conference proceedings.4 Approved For Release 20U1C(LASOO787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) cost of the contract will be shared by those requesting coverage, and thus the cost to the project is not yet known. Nonetheless, the cost will be at least 50% less than previously paid. (U) Since the beginning of FY 1987, approximately $7,000 has been spent for hardware repairs to monitors, video controller boards, and power supplies. In the past, it has been more expensive to buy hardware maintenance coverage than to pay for individual repairs. Currently, SRI is negotiating a hardware maintenance contract with Sun to cover all Sun systems at SRI; this contract is expected to be as advantageous as the software contract. Once this agreement is in place, key nodes in the system will be placed on a hardware maintenance contract. (U) Of the 13 Sun Microsystems workstations used by the group, all are in working order, and only one is off line--pending the completion of software and hardware modifications to the tachistiscope experiment. (U) When the Sun 3/280 file server was brought on line in mid-Match, the most recent version of the UNIX operating system (Version 3.2) was installed. The most recent version of the Unify data base program (Version 2.0), along with a new window-based interface (SunSimplify), will be installed in mid-April. Unlike the old data base system, which was slow and complex, the Unify system will provide rapid and easy access to data from any workstation on the network. 36. (U) Objective J, Task 4--Upgrade Computer Hardware (U) No new computer upgrades were made during the second half of FY 1987. 37. (U) Objective J, Task 5--Additional RA Experimental Hardware (U) No new substantial RA hardware was purchased during the second half of FY (U) There are no deliverables required for this task. Approved For Release 20`JN LA& 96QO787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED 39. (U) Objective J, Task 7--Additional SRI Internal Technical Support (U) This task provides the allocation required to support ongoing research in a variety of ways. Those areas are: ? Administration - Full-time Program Secretary ? Participant Charges - Time allocation for SRI participants in all experimentation Piezoelectric RA System Development - Labor charges for Senior Research Engineer (hardware development) - Labor charges for Research Engineer (software development) A Alpha Particle RA Equipment Development - Labor charges for two Senior Electronics Technicians (hardware) - Labor charges for Real-Time Computer Specialist (software). Approved For Release 200A~~iS5JM1Ef)787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED III PROBLEM AREAS (U) (U) The FY 1987 Cognitive Sciences Program sadly lost the services of one of its Research Analysts, as a result of the untimely passing of Martha J. Thomson on February 9, 1987. Interviews were conducted to identify a replacement, and a new Research Assistant was hired on June 1, 1987. Approved For Release 200t/PW 1.0 I HE&UR000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED IV ADMINISTRATIVE COMMENTS (U) (U) Peter J. McNelis and Edwin C. May separately set priorities for the Statement of Work for FY 1987. McNelis set priorities on an Objective/Task basis, while May prioritized on a level-of-effort basis for deliverables. The assignment definitions, which were formally agreed upon, are as follows: C Postpone 3 Major formal report Pilot, exploratory, approximately 3 to 5 pages Wild guess, few paragraphw Postpone. (U) Table 3 summarizes the assignments on a task-by-task basis. Table 3 (U) PRIORITY/DELIVERABLE ASSIGNMENTS FOR FY 1987 RV Rating Task B3 A4 B3 QI Al Fa Al Flb A2 F2 A2 F3 B2 F4 B3 F5 B2 F6 A3 F7 B3 F9 B2 F10 Al G1 Name Physical Correlation Dowsing RV/Precognition Feedback + SL Tachistoscope Video Disk Advanced Training Training Concepts Stimulus/ Response Correlation Hypnosis Special Targets Neuropsychology Analytics Computer Search TECH SUPPORT t Rating Task Al Al Al A2 Al A3 B2 B1 A2 C1 Al C2 C3 C3 A2 F1l Al 11 A3 J3 A3 J4 Name SOC Design SOC Assessment RV Analysis Library Med/Psych Baselines MARS PAS Review MDS PRL Computer Maintenance Computer Hardware RA Rating Task Name Al El Delaware B2 E2 Mind Science A2 H1 Alpha-Particle Al H2 QM Photon Al H3 JFK Al I i IDS-Dynamic A2 J2 RA-Hardware Al H3a SRI Part of JFK GENERAL Rating Task Name A3 13 Theory Conference Al 14 Subs Conference Al Jl Administration A3 J2 Publications A3 J6 Travel A3 J7 Additional SRI Staff Al F8 Physiology Conference Approved For Release 20c N?tA1S-ctptED787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) In a separate memorandum, several FY 1987 task changes and task interpretations, were formally authorized. These changes are summarized in Tables 4 and 5. (U) AUTHORIZED TASK CHANGES TO FY 1987 STATEMENT OF WORK TASK CHANGE O RIGINAL SOW CHANGED SOW Old New Task $ K Activity Task Activity Justification D-2 35.0 E&M correlates to H-3a SRI portion of Provide recognition dowsing JFK of significant SRI participation in the JFK project F-7 30.0 "Applications" targets F-7 Develop video Augment talented for novice viewers "mass" screening viewer pool F-8 16.2 MEG with F-8 Physiology More effective search Los Alamos Conference for physiology correlates (U) AUTHORIZED INTERPRETATIONS OF FY 1987 STATEMENT OF WORK TASK INTERPRETATION Task $ K Activity Interpretation Justification F-1a 87.5 Precognitive RV To include real-time Balanced protocol RV F-lb 87.5 Subliminal Perception Continue FY 1986 Experiment feedback experiment contains SL $ G-1 100.0 Abstract to real-world Continue FY 1986 Necessary pilot target link computer search phase for link activity investigation Approved For Release 200 ( 9L lifFIEE1787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED V PROJECT MILESTONE CHART (U) (U) Table 6 is the overall project milestone chart for FY 1987. Table 6 (U) ENHANCED HUMAN PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION--FY 1987 Objective A--Protocols: Design Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Objective B--Library Task 1 Objective C--Psychophysical Task 1 Profiling Task 2 Task 3 Objective D--Field "Dowsing" Task 1 0- Objective E--Continue RA Task 1 Experiments Task 2 Objective F--RV Parameters Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 Task 7 Task 8 Task 9 Task 10 Task 11 010, Begin Key* d End With Deliverable ? Deliverable o End w/o Deliverable * Tasks with no beginning indicator (11o.) are continuations of an FY 1986 effort. Approved For Release QASIJlIFEI 00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED (U) ENHANCED HUMAN PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION--FY 1987 Objective G--Computer "Search" Objective H--RA Parameters Task 1 Task 2 Task 3a Task 3 Objective 1--IDS Model / Task 1 Conferences Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Objective J--Administrative / Task 1 Hardware Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 Task 7 0. Begin Key* End With Deliverable ? Deliverable UNCLASSIFIED * Tasks with no beginning indicator (/-) are continuations of an FY 1986 effort. Approved For Release 2040,IQ$l &.On787R000300100001-9 SGFOIA2 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED REFERENCES (U) 1. Humphrey, B. S., May, E. C., Utts, J. M., Frivold, T. J., Luke, W. W., and Trask, V. V., Fuzzy Set Applications in Remote Viewing Analysis, Final Report, Objective A, Task 3, SRI Project 1291, SRI International, Menlo Park, California (December 1986) UNCLASSIFIED. 2. Neter, J., Wasserman, W., and Kutner, M. H. (1985), pp. 94-96, Applied Linear Statistical Models, 2nd Edition, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., UNCLASSIFIED. 3. Radin, D. I., and May, E. C., "Testing the Intuitive Data Sorting Model with Pseudorandom Number Generators: A Proposed Method," Proceedings of the 29th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, pp. 537-535, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California (August 1986) UNCLASSIFIED. 4. Hubbard, G. S., The SRI International Cognitive Sciences Conference at Princeton University, Final Report, Objective I, Task 4, Project 1291, SRI International, Menlo Park, California (December 1987) UNCLASSIFIED. Approved For Release 2081 f4CL.AIS.SWMEP787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED APPENDIX A A POSTERIORI ASSESSMENTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* (This Appendix is Unclassified) The SOC members were requested to complete a "Reviewer's Comments" sheet (see example on next page) for each task that they had elected to review. This Appendix provides a verbatim, unedited transcription of the reviewers' (mostly hand-written) comments on a task-by-task basis. SRI responses have been appended to the reviewers' comments where appropriate. Approved For Release 20i0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED The attached report titled: has been reviewed by the undersigned. My assessment of the research design, statistical protocols employed, the analyses of the data, and conclusions reached in this report is as follows: Approved For Release 20U4 l (kJkWH f 0787R000300100001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300100001-9 UNCLASSIFIED SOC Reviewers' Comments, Objective A, Task 3 (Fuzzy Set Applications In Remote Viewing Analysis) (verbatim transcription--not edited) NAME: S. James Press Comments: 1. The research is very interesting and is clearly very fruitful. It is so promising it should continue to be pursued with vigor. 2. Page 12, line 10. "Lowest p-values" - should be deleted. It's not necessary for the argument--"figures of merit" is enough. Then you're not involved in the issue of interpreting p-values. 3. Page 13, line 1. You should include 0