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Ap131767d1 Fork-el6ase2000/08/10 : -C14-FIDP96-Q0787R0003001,10001-8 - 1 Final Report- -Objective D, Task 1 A SUGGESTED REMOTE VIEWING TRAINING PROCEDURE (U) By: G. SCOTT HUBBARD SRI International Prepared for: ? It! GARY 0. LANGFORD Consultants International 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, California 94025 U.S.A. (415) 326-6200 Cable: SRI INTL MPK For Releasis+40000061303!-2DIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 December 1986 Approved For Release 20CUNCLASSIC4615 000300110001-8 ABSTRACT (U) (U) In FY 1986, SRI International awarded a subcontract to Consultants International (CI). The purpose of that subcontract was to assemble a detailed report, by an expert viewer, of the subjective experiences associated with remote viewing (RV). The goal of CI's report was to suggest procedures that might evolve into a testable training method. This rgport from SRI contains, in abbreviated form, the basic principles and techniques that CI has proposed. For the purpose of testing these ideas, two key concepts have emerged. These two concepts are that (1) a perceptual "window" or "channel" to RV data may be briefly opened on demand through proper application of a stimulus?response type technique, and (2) once access to the target has been established, correct impressions are fleeting, vague, and generally indistinct. This information is captured as "bits" of data which may have' a symbolic character. In FY 1986, SRI began a Novice RV Training program, using nine individuals selected by psychological profiling and the two concepts outlined above. I i UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200UNtilAISSINErf000300110001-8 TABLE OF CONTENTS (U) ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vii I INTRODUCTION 1 II METHOD OF APPROACH 3 A. Basic Structure of an RV Session 3 B. Key Concepts of RV Perceptions 4 C. Data Acquisition on Demand Through Noise Reduction 4 D. The Impressionistic Nature of RV Data 6 E. Remote Viewing Procedure 8 III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 11 A. Anatomy of a Viewing 11 B. Applications to RV Training 13 IV CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 23 APPENDIN, A--A PROPOSED METHOD FOR REMOTE VIEWING TRAINING 25 APPENDIX B--FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF REMOTE VIEWING 57 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/CUtget-NSVM0300110001-8 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (U) 1 Spontaneous Remote Veiwing State With Normal Mental Noise 2 RV Data Access On Demand Through Noise Reduction 6 ? 3 Common RV Symbols (Bits) And Their Usual Interpretations 8 4(a) Initial Access Period 14 4(b) Second Access Period 15 4(c) Third Access Period 16 4(d) Fourth Access Period 17 4(e) Fifth Access Period 18 4(f) Final Access Period (Composite) 19 5 The Ruins 20 APPENDIX A A-1 Grant's Tomb 32 A-2 'the Superdome 33 A-3 Criminal Suspect 34 A-4 RV Response 35 A-5 Percent Time Spent By Novice on Three Steps of Remote Viewing 37 A-6 Percent Time Spent By Advanced Viewer on the Three Steps of Remote Viewing 38 A-7 Spontaneous Remote Viewing State With Normal Mental Noise 39 A-8 RV Data Access on Demand Through Noise Reduction 41 A-9 Common Remote Viewing Symbols (Bits) and Their Usual Interpretation 43 vii UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 :'CIA-IkOP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0t/iNtattifitt0300110001-8 APPENDIX B B- 1 The Remote Viewing Process 62 B- 2 States That Affect Remote Viewing Results 63 B- 3 Novice Training?Improvement As A Function of Practice 65 B- 4 Novice Training?Improvement As A function of Rate of Practice 66 B- 5 Novice Training?Performance Related to Time Between Successive Sessions 67 B- 6 Novice Training?Improvement 'Through Instructional Reinforcement 69 B- 7 Rate of Improvement As Related to Frequency of Introducing New Concepts 70 B- 8 Improvement As Related to Target Material 72 B- 9 Improvement As A Function of Experience For Types of Target Detail 73 B-10 Performance As A Function of Viewer Confidence 74 viii UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/1 ? CIA-RDP96-007 7R000300110001-8 I INTRODUCTION (U) Through work at SRI International and other laboratories, a number of individuals have demonstrated an apparent ability to accurately perceive information, which is inaccessible through the "conventional" senses and to convey their impressions in words and symbols. At times these individuals can apparently describe events, places, people, objects, and feelings with very high quality. At SRI, the particular ability to provide detailed descriptive information has been termed remote viewing (RV). Although latent ability and motivation undoubtedly play a significant role, some accomplished remote viewers have claimed that this ability can be taught and learned to varying degrees. In FY 1986, SRI awarded a subcontract to Consultants International (CI) to assemble a detailed report of subjective experience that might lead to a testable RV training methodology. CI was selected because of the long and successful remote viewing experience of its founder, Mr. Gary Langford. CI's reports detailing the suggested training methodology and the concepts upon which the procedure is based are given in Appendices A and B. (U) SRI's overview" contains, in condensed form, the basic concepts and techniques that CI proposed and a critique of them. Selected RV examples will be shown to clarify and demonstrate the ideas involved. Certain figures appearing in this overview have been abstracted from the CI report. Because the contents of this document are subjective and exploratory in nature, we will not examine RV from an experimental protocol or evaluation perspective. (U) We emphasize strongly that these concepts and hypotheses have been arrived at almost entirely through personal observation, introspection and informal experimentation. Almost none of these concepts have been rigorously tested with sufficient data collection to (U) This report constitutes Objective D, Task 1: Design, develop, and improve training protocols and methodologies for all RV subjects. 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/ 0 : CIA-RDP96-00787R 00300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000tINCLAAM7Ely00300110001-8 II METHOD OF APPROACH (U) A. (U) Basic Structure of an RV Session (U) Remote viewing requires a viewer, a monitor and a target. Practical definitions of these terms are: ? Viewer--The percipient who accesses and records data about the target. ? Monitor--An individual who tracks the progress of the RV session, provides the necessary environmental and procedural framework and queries the viewer for details about the target. ? Target--A term includes almost anything imaginable, e.g., objects, events, people, places, functions, etc. Targets are designated by an agreement between the remote viewer and the monitor at the time of the viewing and are strictly defined by their property of uniqueness. Uniqueness is that agreed upon characteristic that separites the target of choice from all other potential targets. Examples of unique targets range from a single photograph in a specified sealed envelope to geographical locations specified through (encoded ,coordinates. A typical example of an RV session conducted at SRI for demonstration or training purposes might procetd as follows: (1) An experimenter not otherwise part of the session selects a target photograph from a pool of 300 using a computer pseudorandom number generator (PRNG). These photographs are of a wide range of man?made and natural sites, taken from National Geographic Magazine. 1ifi-e?pho?ibilaT3h- is placed' inside of-an opaque manila?folder?I-hat, in turn, is sealed inside an opaque envelope. (2) The session monitor obtains the target envelope and places it in a room adjacent to the RV area. The RV data acquisition proceeds as described elsewhere in this report. When the session ends, the monitor opens the envelope and displays it to the viewer. This feedback process appears to be crucial in reinforcing the correct perceptions of the viewer. (3) 3 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED B. (U) Key Concepts of RV Perceptions (U) Appendices A and B contain the detailed reports outlining the practithod and theoretical principles of remote viewing as experienced by CI. It is beyond the scope of this report to evaluate those ideas quantitatively. Indeed, it may not be possible, in principle, to evaluate some concepts such as the proposed interaction of the viewer's conscious and unconscious mind. (U) However, for the purpose of testing the value of these ideas as a method for training novices, two key concepts emerge. ,These two ideas are known colloquially as "targeting" and "bit-grabbing." More formally, the concepts are expressed as noise reduction and the impressionistic nature of correct RV data: ? (Targeting?This term embodies the idea that a perceptual "window" or "channel" to RV data may be briefly opened on demand through proper application of a stimulus. CI asserts that this procedure establishes access to the target by reducing the mental "noise" that obscures RV data. Bit-grabbing--Once access to the target has been established', correct impressions are fleeting, vague, and generally indistinct in outline. --- Especially for novice viewers, this information is captured as "bits" of data that often have a symbolic character. Correct interpretation of these impressions is the, product ore-xperience. C. 4J) Data Acquisition on Demand Through Noise Reduction (U) It is CI's contention that once any target of interest has been agreed upon by the viewer, data regarding the target is immediately available below the conscious awareness of the viewer, However, the normal mental noise (e.g., concerns, memories, imagination, and analysis) of everyday activity usually prevents access to that data. CI claims that all individuals will occasionally and spontaneously lapse into brief periods where the noise drops and a lash" of intuition brings RV information to the level of awareness. This process is schematically displayed in Figure 1. 4 Approved For Release 2000M 10001-8 3 Approved For Release 20001q0eiliAlnyfirty000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 1 (U) SPONTANEOUS PSYCHIC STATE WITH NORMAL MENTAL NOISE (U) Once the target has been defined and a need to describe the target has been established, the key to accessing this data on demand is to artificially stimulate these periods of lowered noise. Then and only then does the viewer obtain the data. In practice, this form of noise rec-kiction is reproduced through a stimulus-response procedure where a neutral word such as "target" is provided to the viewer by the monitor. At that instant, the viewer's task is to capture the very firsonental impression he receives. By subjective report, the "data access window" is approximately 0.5 TO 1 second in duration. Figure 2 displays this key element of the RV process. 5 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED SIGNAL INT'ENSITY STIMULUS OCCURS RV DATA ACCESS BACKGROUND NOISE 40-- DATA I I I I I I I I I I 5 10 TIME (SECONDS) UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 2 (U) RV DATA ACCESS ON DEMAND THROUGH NOISE REDUCTION (U) Two techniques often suggested to further reduce the noise are sensory isolation - and trance induction (hypnosis). Sensory isolation through use of white noise, visual grey-field (Ganzfeld), and other special environments, however, appears to increase vivid visual imatery, which contributes to additional noise rather than reducing it. _ (U) The possibility of using hypnosis as a tool for improving RV through enhanced recall after a session will be investigated at SRI in FY 1987. However, as with sensory isolation, related tasks other than RV carried out under hypnosis have not produced substantially better results in the past than those in the waking state. Remote viewing at SRI has always been carried out in a normal interview format. D. (U) The Impressionistic Nature of RV Data (V) Given that the stimulus-response technique coupled with a need to describe a target an produce brief periods of lowered noise, the next key element to successful RV is to correctly recognize and interpret the impressions perceived. Accomplished viewers appear to _ agree that correct RV data is perceived as impressionistic and generally vague. Novice viewers 6 ApproVed For Release 2000,14 4411F0W400300,000,8 ? Approved For Release 2000CINCEPASRSIFITED)00300110001-8 (U) in particular find that valid information is nearly always nonvisual. Experienced viewers report that correct visual impressions are largely indistinct in outline. - (U) This unusual mode of perception requires correct reporting of a very brief exposure to impressionistic data. To facilitate the reporting of these impressions, CI has proposed a series of symbols that appear to represent the general features of the targets* used . - in novice training. A representative selection of these symbols (called bits) with their usual interpretations, are shown in Figure 3. (U) The novice viewer must first learn to identify the brief period of access which follows the stimulus and then to recognize the fleeting _impression in which the correct data is contained. Once this process has been established, the viewer can learn to make use of the data symbols to correctly report bits corresponding to the target. After a period of practice comprising roughly 25 to 30 viewings, individuals with sufficient motivation and latent ability to continue in the training process will begin to distinguish themselves. (U) Photographs taken from the National Geographic Magazine were used as targets for these training sessions. 7 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08t10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 NCLASSIF1ED ANGULAR LINES (steep cliffs or structures) STRAIGHT LINES (boundary or land/water interface) CURVED LINES (bounded area or charnel) AIMA A AMAA ANV\A IRREGULAR WAVING LINES (rolling terrain or hills) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? lRRIGULAR/JAGGED LINES DOTS (hills or mountains) (light/dark or shaded area) UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 3 (U) COMMON RV SYMBOLS (BITS) AND THEIR USUAL INTERPRETATIONS E. (p) Remote Viewing Procedure (0 Once a viewer has grasped the fundamental principles of noise reduction after a stimulus and learned to identify the data bits correctly, further improvement requires practicing a structured procedure. CI has separated that procedure into three phases: 8 Approved For Release000300110001-8 N grA??) 0 a Approved For Release 2000/U1 eragtirty00300110001-8 (U) Access' (noise reduction) - Uniquely identify the target. - Establish a need to describe the target. - Supply the stimulus through a neutral word (target). - Capture and hold the first impression following the access word. Objectify (data recording) - Quickly write down the first impression using an appropriate bit symbol. Recall that correct data will appear vague and indistinct. - Immediately take a brief break of 10 to 30 seconds following a response. - If any impressions appear vivid or distinct, record and circle them. Such information is known as Interpretive Overlay (10). It is almost always incorrect and is discarded. Qualify (data interpretation) - Repeat all the above steps until the target is described in detail. - As each impression is received, describe the target in terms of texture, function, color, age, motion, etc. - When the description appears complete end the session by receiving information about the actual target (feedback). 9 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 /I Approved For Release 2000/08/ 0 : CIA-RDP96-0 787R000300110001-8 III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (U) (U) Whether the percipient is a novice, advanced or expert viewer the foregoing procedure applies. With rare notable exceptions, CI asserts that correct descriptions of targets are always built out of much smaller data bits that are gradually assembled into a whole.* As the viewer progresses from novice to expert, the amount of time spent on the various steps of the procedure changes. For example, an expert should find access routine and focus the most attention on details of form and function. A detailed discussion of the division of effort as a function of expertise may be found in Appendix A. A. (U) Anatomy of a Viewing (U) An example of how the foregoing process is applied by an expert may be found in Figures 4(a) through 4(f). These six figures comprise the entire response of the viewer for a given session. Other than the labeling, the transcripts have not been edited in any way. Where the viewer's handwriting was illegible or where an abbreviation was used, we have provided a "translation." 1. (U) Figure 4(a)--Initial Access Period. Note that the uniqueness requirement of the target has been satisfied by writing down name, date, time and session number. This is the access phase. Need and motivation for a description were provided by informing the viewer this RV was one of a series intended to calibrate the viewer's proficiency. The objectify phase is indicated by the primary and multiple bits. The initial primary bits are of a steep angle drop-off and a flat area. Multiple bits (a series of connected impressions) serve to fill in the gap between the two primary bits. Access is brought to an end by writing "break." This amount of data is much greater than that which a novice would perceive during an initial access period. *(U) Experienced viewers do report very occasional sessions where detailed descritions of the target are possible during the initial access period. 11 Approved ? Approved For Release 2000/08/10: CIA-RDP96-007 7R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDPr-00787R00030 1 0001-8 L.--- 2. (U) Figure 4(b)--Second Access Period . At this point, the viewer was overwhelmed by a vivid impression of cliffs with water and other features. The viewer correctly recognized this as 10 and labeled it as such. 10 is not considered valid data in subsequent analysis. 3. (U) Figure 4(c)--Third Access Period More primary bits are presented, and the viewer enters the Qualification phase for the first time (e.g., hard surface). For purposes of visual clarity, we will not routinely label the objectify and qualify phases in subsequent figures. However, the distinction can be easily made by the reader because primary and multiple bits always represent objectification, while any further description of form or function is qualification. 4. (U) Figure 4(d)--Fourth Access Period ) As the viewing proceeds, more time is spent on describing form and functional aspects. 5. (U) Figure 4(e)--Fifth Access Period i At this point in the session, the viewer has made use of a technique in which he retraces a bit to acquire more information. These advanced procedures are discussed more thoroughly in Appendix A. Note that the viewer has begun to arrange bits perceived during previous access periods into a more nearly pictorial representation.. 6. (U) Figure 4(f)--Sixth and Final Access Period tNote the detailed description of the elements of tatget. The bits have now been arranged into a more coherent whole (sometimes called a composite), and the viewer has provided a summary word that characterizes the entire target "ruins." The actual target is shown in Figure 5. Aside from the obviously correct assessment of the target as ruins, it is very important to note that all of the other data bits are also correct. Furthermore, the session required only approximately 15 minutes to complete. Such a result is particularly compelling when compared with other free-response techniques. 12 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP18-6-00787R00030(110001-8 111 Approved For Release 2000108f10 : CIA-RDP96-007 7R000300110001-8 For example, telepathy experiments using the so-called Ganzfeld technique of sensory isolation typically require one-and-one-half hours, during which time the percipient produces extensive stream-of-conscious descriptions.The sheer mass of data and dreamlike quality of the responses prevent any effective transcript analysis that might separate signal from noise. (U) In early RV experiments at SRI (c. 1975), unstructured free?response descriptions were used, but were limited to 15 minutes. Even with that restriction, discrimination between the product of imagination, memory, and RV was a burdensome analysis task. (U) The twin insights that mental noise can be briefly suppressed and that correct data appear in fleeting, indistinct, and sometimes symbolic form has resulted in an enormous increase in viewing efficiency. B. (U) Applications to RV Training (U) As the preceding example demonstrates, the procedure described earlier works well when used by the expert who invented it. The task that CI addressed in FY 1986 was to supply sufficient detailed instruction so that individuals with no prior exposure to RV could be trained. A test of this training methodology is presently underway. 13 Approved For Release 2000/0 /10 : CIA-RDP96-007 7R000300110001-8 ei Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96- 0787R0003001 001-8 C. %11?1?1?11111?1. 14 - Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP9c00 - 787R000300 01-8 i -di 0 0 a. INITIAL ACCESS 5 FIGURE 4(a) Approved For Release 2000/08/0 : CIA-RUM-100 7R000300110001-8 1_ _ .5 I 15 LApproved For Release 2000/08/10 CIA-RDP96-0078 R000300110001-8 , SECOND ACCESS PERIOD 5 FIGURE 4(b) Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R00030011 001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP961 0787R0663001100 1-8 ACCESS THIRD ACCESS PERIOD FIGURE 4(c) Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007871 000300110001-8 ?1\ PRIMARY BIT FOURTH ACCESS PERIOD 5 17 t Approved For Release 2000/08/1 ; CIA-RDP96-00787 00300110001-8 i awl col Approved For Release 2000/08/10: CIA-RDP96-00787R00030 110001-8 ri 1-1,---p4 ACCESS RETRACING BITS tit DETAILED DESCRIPTION MULTIPLE BITS PRIMARY BITS / (Man-made) r V 1,4 (rises up, very sharply) (stone) [did tvit_END ACCESS .(long flat) FIGURE 4(e) (U) FIFTH ACCESS PERIOD 18 Approved For Release 2000/08/10: CIA-RDP96-00787R00030011 001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/ 0 L : CIA-RDP96-00 87R000300110001-8 fcj 411L11.0.01/4., PRIMARY BITS 1.??????"'c (structure) nit ,41/ END OF SESSION (END ACCESS) FUNCTIONAL DETAILS FIGURE 4(f) (U) FINAL ACCESS PERIOD (Composite) 19 rApproved For Release 2000/08/1 : plA-RDP96-00787 000300110001-8 CPYRGHTA_pproved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDIL011787R000300t 0001-8 sot est 20 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RD 96-00787R00030011 01-8 THE RUINS OP" Approved For Release 200UNCEIAFSSMED000300110001-8 IV CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (U) (U) While another test of CI's training methodology is ongoing, there is suggestive evidence that it is a successful approach. From SRI's perspective, the key elements in training RV appear to be latent ability, motivation, structured practice, and the conceptual framework supplied by CI. At this time, the relative importance of each has not been experimentally determined. (U) We recommend that if results warrant, CI's tasks be expanded to include expert as well as novice and advanced training. We also suggest that rigorous tests of CI's concepts of training be formulated in order to determine which may prove to be more effective. 23 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/ 110 : CIA-RDP96- 787R000300110001-8 (U) Some indication of the previous success of the. training method can be found in existing data. In FY 1984, CI first began to outline the basic elements of an RV novice training program. Six individuals with limited or no exposure to RV were selected on the basis of interest and subsequently participated in a series of lectures and experimental sessions that served as the model for the FY 1986 program. Two of the participants in the FY 1984 program demonstrated independent statistically significant evidence of RV ability. (U) During FY 1986, three of the best viewers from the FY 1984 program and CI's expert viewer participated in a series of 6 RV sessions each for another Task in the program. As of the time of the FY 1986 experiment, all three previous novice viewers had participated in a total of approximately 100 viewings each. All of those viewings followed the procedure proposed by CI. 1 1, As shown in detail in another report,* 3 of the 4 viewers independently scored statistically significant in that 6 session series (If the probability of a successful series is 0.05, the binomial probability of three out of four successful series is 4.8 x 10-4). Two of the 3 FY 1984 novices scored significantly, one scoring slightly better than the expert viewer. This result suggests that, at least for certain individuals, the viewing ability can be learned. Whether these particular viewers learned successfully as a result of practice, motivation, latent ability, CI's "technology," or a combination of all four elements is at this time unclear. Considerable future experimentation will be required to begin to determine the relative importance of each element. Hubbard, G. S., and May, E. C., "An Experiment to Explore Possible IgnOmalistic Behavior of a Photon Detection System During A Remote Viewing Task," Interim Report, SRI Project 1291, SRI International, Menlo Park, California (December, 1986) il:mio) 21 Approved For Release 200077 : CIA-RDP96-00 87R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2004jNCLIMISMED000300110001-8 Appendix A A PROPOSED METHOD FOR REMOTE VIEWING TRAINING Gary 0. Langford Consultants International Mountain View, California SRI Proprietary 25 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200UNCL!A1SSIRE0000300110001-8 COMPANY BACKGROUND Mr. Gary Langford founded Consultants International (CI) in 1979 to develop and apply RV abilities to problems insolvable by conventional means. Since its founding, CI's clients have included five government organizations, four industrial corporations, four commereial companies, and three private individuals. 27 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approyed For Release 2000/0NaRK9_6:007_87R000300110001-8 55IFIED PREFACE This is the first full published report on remote viewing (RV) methodology by CI. A fortunate involvement with SRI International almost thirteen years ago provided an initial expoure to research in parapsychology. That exposure to repeatable and verifiable pgychic functioning dramatically changed some of my basic concepts about the nature of science. CI wishes to acknowledge the many individuals whose suggestions, criticisms, and support have at one time or another sustained and directed the development of insights to further understand and teach (RV). 28 Approved For Release 2000/WYCM??-1D8W00300110001-8 3 Approved For Release 200UMEASSIFFED000300110001-8 INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE VIEWING Through work at SRI and other laboratories, a number of individuals have demonstrated the ability to accurately perceive information inaccessible through the "conventional" "senses" and to convey their impressions in vrords and symbols. At times they can describe f events, places, people, objects, and feelings with very high quality. Although latent ability undoubtedly plays a significant role, it is CI's contention that this RV ability can be learned to varying degrees. The purpose of this report is to outline a discipline of structured practice and interpretation through which RV can be taught. This report is based on over thirteen years of formal and informal experimentation with remote viewing; and more than six years of observing novices remote view. In the report we will utilize numerous specialized terms that have been coined to provide a standard reference vocabulary. Although some terms are discussed in detail in the text, a glossary is provided at the end of this report. 29 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0thsitiria600/87R000300110001-8 SIFIED BACKGROUND Foremost in any discussion of remote viewing are the results typically achieved. Responses of near?photographic quality and with much nonvisual detail of remote targets are 7--. produced about 10 to 30% of the time by the more experienced (expert) remote viewers. _ The objective of this training methodology is to enhance an individual's innate capability to produce high?quality renderings and information. Figures A-1 through A-4 show examples of RV results that led to the current method. These examples show the evolution in quality from novice to advanced through expert levels. Although there are many analytical tools that can assist an analyst in "scoring" the match between the target and a viewer's rendering, the reader may determine the relative quality of the remote viewings by visual inspection. The term "target" can include almost anything imaginable, e.g.: objects, events, people, places, or functions, etc. Targets are identified by an agreement between the remote viewer and the monitor at the time of the viewing. Targets are strictly defined by their property of uniqtteness. Uniqueness is any characteristic that separates the target from all other potential targets. Examples of unique characteristics range from designating as a target a single photOgraph in a sealed envelope to complex schemes of numbering and coding. Uniqueness embodies both the concepts of temporal and spatial uniqueness. Therefore, both the time of the target viewing and the identification of the target in the mind of the monitor are necessary to satisfy the uniqueness property. 30 Approved For Release 2000/V/NclICA??-M00300110001-8 Approved For Release 2ootiuttAvsafFoftty0003ooll000l-8 A more detailed and accurate rendering is shown in Figure A-2. The target (the New Orleans Superdome) was again specified by the presence of an out-bound individual acting as a beacon. Greater detail, more precise correspondence between target and rendering, and information of a nonvisual nature typifies advanced-level RV. Even though most remote viewings from advanced individuals could be readily blind matched to the correct target out of a set of potential targets, there are inaccuracies in some of the details and the overall shape. Figure A-3 shows the RV response of an expert-level remote viewer. The target was designated by the question, "Describe the individual who committed a certain offense on a specified date?" A very accurate portrayal of facial characteristics was achieved. The - expert-level remote viewer can produce high quality renderings about 10% of the time. In general, the overall average quality is significantly better than observed with the advanced-level. Further distinction between these three levels of proficiency is discussed in later sections. Figure A-4 is a response from an expert remote viewer, using the complete methodology described in this report. A significant reduction in the time to do the remote viewing has been attained with this method. The rendering shown in Figure A-1 took 20 minutes and responses in Figure A-2 and A-3 were made in sessions that exceeded 90 minutes, Figure A-4 was completed in 12 minutes. , The information content of Figures A-3 and A-4 are approximately equal. In the first example, Figure A-1 illustrates a novice level response to the target, Grant's Tomb. The target was designated by the presence of a person at the actual site acting as a "beacon." *A cursory review of the target and viewer's rendering shows a weak correspondence between the gross exterior features of Grant's Tomb and the general shape of the drawing. In general, the quality of most novice-level responses is insufficient to blind match the correct target out of a group of candidate target selections. However, similarities in outlines and forms between novice-level responses and the appropriate targets can be identified. It is these similarities that serve as the fundamental reinforcement so necessary for the functioning to be developed. 31 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 ApproVed For Release 2000/U/N erADgt W13E150300110001-8 CPYRGHT GRANTS TOMB TARGET IN NEW YORK CITY FAC*1 T VLw SUBJECT DESCRIBED: "OUTDOORS, LARGE OPEN AREA-SHADE TREES- WHITE BUILDING WITH ARCHES." FIGURE A-1 GRANT'S TOMB 32 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/ErN OEMS-FM=130300110001-8 CPYRGHT FIGURE A-2 LONG DISTANCE REMOTE VIEWING EXPERIMENT?SRI, MENLO PARK, TO LOUISIANA SUPERDOME. Subject described large circular building with a white dome. 31 October 1976. 33 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2OUCINC:EAISSWIED000300110001-8 lap TARGET INDIVIDUAL 411111k I. REMOTE VIEWING OF SUSPECT FIGURE A-3 REMOTE VIEWING OF SUSPECT IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION. June 1978. 34 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 ? Approved For Release 2000153NIMAASSIMID30300110001-8 PRIMARY BITS 1.40. (structure) FUNCTIONAL DETAILS END OF SESSION (END ACCESS) FIGURE A-4 RV RESPONSE 35 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200011% GIA-RDP96-0k78/13000300110001-8 CLASSIFIED REMOTE VIEWING PROCEDURE There are three steps in the RV process: (1) accessing the information concerning the target 1(2) objectifying our feelings, perceptions, and physical information in written and verbal form, and (3) qualifying the renderings, taking care to separate and label data related to the target from that which is extraneous to the task. Novices need to focus particular attention to the 3 steps as shown in Figure A-5. Initially, all the work is spent on accessing (Step 1--Access). Several exercises are given to introdirtce the concept of thinking about the target in very short duration packets of time (Step 2--Objectify). First impressions are all that is desired. gradually, the novice is exposed to techniques designed to convey their feelings to others (written and verbal communication. Only then can work be started on interpreting these feelings (Step 3--Qualify). Figure A-6 illustrates a similar apportionment of steps for advanced level remote viewers. Expert level remote viewers spend nearly 100% of their time on Step 3--qualify. 36 Approved For Release 2000/0itickaVAFTP00300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0 UNCMISSIVIEZ0300110001-8 100 75- 44 50? u 25? ACCESS OBJECTIFY QUALIFY I l 1 I I ( 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 NUMBER OF RV SESSIONS FIGURE A-5 PERCENT TIME SPENT BY NOVICE ON THREE STEPS OF REMOTE VIEWING 37 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED 100 7 75 50- 25 ACCESS OBJECTIFY QUALIFY 5 10 15 20 25 30 NUMBER OF RV SESSIONS FIGURE A-6 PERCENT TIME SPENT BY ADVANCED VIEWER ON THE THREE STEPS OF REMOTE VIEWING 38 END Approved For Release 2000/11 cIA-R -0u/0/R000300110001-8 k??I Approved For Release 2000/UN:eltADSSfrift500300110001-8 DATA ACCESS We believe that the condition under which RV data acquisition occurs is shown in Figure A-7. The mental "noise" of everyday life usually prevents one from focusing attention in a fashion necessary to remote view. Occasionally, we might spontaneously lapse into a quiet state conducive to remote viewing. During such a state, when the individual has in some manner wanted to know certain things, pertinent information may become accessible. It is the purpose of this RV methodology to create optimum viewing conditions so as to yield access to target information on demand and then enhance the viewer's ability to correctly identify and report that information. The techniques outlined in this report are based on observing their effectiveness in achieving consistent, reliable functioning in various remote viewing experiments. The fundamental hypotheses underlying these techniques are described in detail in a separate report. SIGNAL INTENSITY QUIET STATE LEVEL OF BACKGROUND NOISE DATA 1 TIME --OP 10 FIGURE A-7 SPONTANEOUS PSYCHIC STATE WITH NORMAL MENTAL NOISE 39 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 ApproVed For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED ACCESS METHODOLOGY Brief Perceptions By far the most basic and important concept in remote viewing is that correct information is perceived in brief impressions. Contact with the target typically follows a progression from simple singular impressions to more complex concepts and relationships. Often the perception changes rapidly resulting in several small increments of information becoming perceptible, then fading away within a few seconds. These increments of information (or bits) contain the basic and essential elements of the target. Of paramount importance is the first impression the viewer experiences. This impression is not vivid, but nebulous and weak. It can manifest itself in many ways: a simple shape or form, a single color, feeling or sound. All of these first perceptions have in common an equiValent level of detail, the fundamental unit on which more complex concepts and relationships are based. This first feeling is very brief in duration (by personal experience less than half a second) but can be retained for at least several seconds. Initial perceptions that seem fleeting and impressionistic nearly always have been observed to be related to the target. However, s4zbsequent impressions for the novice are often derived from experience, memory or imagination, and not directly interpretable in terms of the target. Figure A-6 demonstrates conceptually the process of data access on demand through the RV methodology. At an early juncture in learning of the RV process, the second and third impressions may be vivid manifestations of the viewers imagination or experience and overwhelm the weaker impressions indicative of the target. These stronger impressions (interpretative overlays) are one of the major deterrents to more accurate remote viewing. We will consider the problem of interpretive overlay (I0) in detail later in this report. 40 Approved For Release 2000/U1NQA1IEMP00300110001-8 Approved For Release 2oowlyNtustitityjoo3ooll000l-8 SIGNAL INTENSITY STIMULUS RV DATA ACCESS LEVEL OF BACKGROUND NOISE DATA I I IIIIIIIII 5 10 TIME --Ow FIGURE A-8 RV DATA ACCESS ON DEMAND THROUGH NOISE REDUCTION Breaks In The Viewing Process The fundamental process of RV embodies a method that reduces overlay and isolates the impressions related to the target. Two techniques are used to accomplish this goal. Immediately on perceiving the first impression, the viewer records it on paper with the aid of symbols, wcids, and drawings. After recording the impression, the viewer takes a break from the task by mentally and physically stopping all activity associated with the RV. While the process of objectifying the first impressions serves to curtail additional thoughts concerning the target, the break effectively terminates the first step in the process. The break can be brief (a few seconds) or extended (several minutes). The second, third and later impressions are suppressed if not eliminated a good portion of the time. In those instances where they occur, the same procedure is followed as with the first impressions. The viewer records all the impressions he perceives, then takes a break. Breaks taken after experiencing a vivid feeling are several minutes in duration, so that any 10 is eliminated as completely as possible from the viewer's consciousness. 41 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED DATA OBJECTIFICATION Symbnlic Language Of Remote Viewing Primary (Bits) Recent image perception experiments indicate that the diffractive contours of retinal images play an important role in visual recognition. By spatial sampling a dispersed, _ _? compounded scene, a few basic patterns can be isolated, and evaluated in small packets of information. In a parallel fashion, the information perceived during an RV session is initially acquired in small, brief "glimpses.", These basic ideograms, or "bits" of information, are generally simple in form and Content. The symbol appears at the moment an abstraction of a particular nature is called for by the viewer. Figure A-9 illustrates some of the "bits" more commonly observed during remote viewing. This set of bits, or symbolic language is fundamental to communicating the RV impressions perceived by the novice viewer. The value of this symbology lies in the viewer's ability to express simultaneously the various aspects of the riclmit_ represents. In addition a symbology "vocabulary" allows the viewer to objectify quickly the impressions related to the target. if 42 Approved For Release 2000/CY/N:clitAW-V718FiiP00300110001-8 ANGULAR LINES (steep cliffs or structures) STRAIGHT LINES (boundary or land/water interface) CURVED LINES (bounded area or channpl) Ai\AAA ANV\A AIW\A IRREGULAR WAVY LINES (rolling terrain or hills) IRRE;tULAR/JAGGED LINES DOTS (hills or mountains) ? (light/dark or shaded area) FIGURE A-9 COMMON RV SYMBOLS (BITS) AND THEIR USUAL INTERPRETATION O Approved For Release 2oowymetyttlirritomoi 10001_8 In general, commonly observed phenomena can be represented by a series of bits. These bits may be scattered spatially about the target tirea. )No single bit will necessarily describe the target. Instead, we have found that secondary and tertiary bits will provide the additional information. It is observed that symbols of whatever form are not usually isolated; they appear in_sluste.rs, giving rise to symbolic compositions that may be enhanced to fully represent the target. 43 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED Parity Bits When the viewer perceives the same bit as was perceived previously, then the viewer has objectified what is referred to as a parity bit. The bit is correct, but the viewer's interpretation of that bit will be inaccurate. This misinterpretation occurs when the viewer has glossed, over the perception too quickly. Tracing back over the bit may provide additional _ information' If the bit continues to be repeated after retargeting, the viewer is required to take a break of several minutes duration and then return to the task. If the same bit returns, the session should be terminated, and the viewer retarget after several minutes to as much as a day later. Multiple Bits Oontact with the target follows a progression from the simple to the complex, the singular perception to the complex perception. Often the perception changes quickly and a multiple bit results. A multiple bit is the combining of two or more single bits objectified in one coUtinuous drawing_ or writing. As the viewer objectifies a multiple it, care must be taken to not the existence of more than one bit. For each bit, a description can be given and more detail provided. Retracing a multiple bit will help show the relationship between the bits. Multiple bits are in close juxtaposition and generally contiguous. Multiple bits show relationships between otherwise seemingly isolated bits. Multiple bits are the stepping stones to full three dimensional mobility at the site. Retracing multiple bits may allow the viewer to "fill?in" between bits of single and multiple ? structure. Even though the tracing does not span across all bits, there is a bridge that can be crossed in the interpretation of the relationship between bits. In other words, over a series of singular and multiple bits will help you describe the relatedness of each ideogram. The _ process of retracing may result in additional description about the bits. A common occurrence is a flood of information pertaining to the target. The essential feature of this "new" information is that one can rely on its correctness. At this stage in the session, the viewer mill be interpreting data correctly. It is important to take a break after the viewer has objectified a great quantity of data. During this break, he should also be prepared to objectify his thoughts about the target. $eparation of single from multiple bits is an artifact of training. The intent is to slow down the RV process so that the viewer can use these two types of bits so that he can be more familiar with the feelings associated with each type. This will assist in discrimination of these remaining noise problems from that of data. The first bits do not look like the. target; 44 Approved For Release 2000/UNCIASSIOURIP00300110001-8 5 Approved For Release 2000/cfmet-Assimer0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 -8 they are only parts of it and should not be considered to be in any way representative of the level of detail that can be obtained. v 45 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10: CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION OF DATA Interpretative Overlay Interpretative overlay (10) is information that, when perceived by the remote viewer, overshadows or changes real data (or RV signal) related to the target. IO is mostly observed to be very vivid and clear. It can be experiential in nature and look like something with which you are familiar. When 10 is perceived, it should be described and objectified on your session paper and labeled as IO. JO is dealt with through extensive training in recognizing and dealing with it. Its appearance in a novice?level session (80 to 100% of the time) is commonplace but not found to be objectionable. At this point, it is rationalized and shown as to how relates to the target. At the advanced?level it is seen less frequently (perhaps 50% of the time). At this level of development IOs should be correctly labeled as such. It appears less than 20% of the time in expert?level sessions and is used to extract additional information about the target. Retracing en access to the target through objectification of bits is clouded, it oftentimes helps to trace over the bit with the writing instrument. This process of retracing the objectified bit permits focusing attention, somewhat unconsciously, on the experience that resulted in the bit. This refocusing can assist the viewer in describing the corporeal and aesthetic qualities of the bit. The continual use of retracing can clarify thoughts about ideograms. 46 Approved For Release 2000/UN:44f15?-1M00300110001-8 6 Approved For Release 2000ntmemsestneryo3ooll000l-8 Oa Annex DETAILED STEPS IN THE REMOTE VIEWING PROCESS 47 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 ?w' ? Approved For Release 2000/CONCORSOSTREF00300110001-8 PREPARATION FOR REMOTE VIEWING TRAINING Demonstrating the Access Method There are several effective methods of demonstrating how information is perceived in time spans of less than one second. One simple demonstration of this principle is, *starting with the eyes closed, blink them open, allowing only a fraction of a second view of a target. The target could be a group of small objects (e.g., pins, paper clips, erasers, pencils, staples and buttons) or a photograph of a scene (e.g. a photograph from the National Geographic Magazine). Any target with a range of variously sized and shaped objects (man made or natural) is acceptable. The procedure outlined below has been successful in demonstrating the amount and type of information available in a brief period of time. A note of caution: although this method is useful in instructing the novice in the idea of working with brief bits -"lam of information, the experience of visualization and recall is not like that of RV. Consequently, this exercise should be used once or twice then dropped from subsequent use. 1. Have the novice close their eyes. While their eyes are closed, place the target object in front of them. 2. Ask novices to blink for a VERY brief moment. (Less than a second) 3. emove the target from view. 4. Ask novices to write down their first impressions of the target.. 5. Let the novice compare their renderings with the target. Have them note, the shapes, colors and things they remembered. Note what they thought they saw, and what they did not see. 5. Repeat the above exercise with a second target, with the addition of the following steps after Step 4. (a) Have them label this first impression with what they believe it is. (b) Stop the group after they finish Step (A). (c) Ask them to describe in as much detail as possible what was "seen" when they blinked. (d) Without revealing the target retarget the group by saying, "the TARGET just shown to you needs further description." "Please record your next first thought when you hear the word TARGET." (e) Stop the session, and ask each person about their first thought after the word target. 49 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED Repeat the above exercise with a third target (including Step 6a through e). Demonstrating the Learning Process Learning how to remote view is quite similar to learning just about anything else. The procedure resembles a trial and error technique, with strong reinforcement of the correct answer and thorough guidance through the basics. The following exercise sequences illustrate the fundamental teaching technique. 1. Say a word such as "house." 2. Have each person respond by describing the visual image they perceive. 3. Say a word such as "water." 4. Have each person objectify a rendering that reminds them of water. 5. Ask them what type of water they described: flowing, still, rough, turbid, placid. 6. Say a word such as "A." 7. Ask them to objectify an "A" on paper. 8. Tell the novices that their renderings are correct. 9. Ask how they know their renderings are correct. 10. Describe how the letter, "A" was taught to them by writing and saying A, then when they used A correctly, they were told they used it, or described it, or wrote it correctly. 11. The process of remote sensing is learned in much the same matter. 12. Flash a series of targets and have the people write down their first Impressions of each target. 13. Now take one target and show it for a split second. 14. Have the people objectify their first impressions. 15. Say "TARGET" and have them objectify their next "first" impression. 16. Say "TARGET" and have them objectify their next "FIRST" impression. 17. Continue for four more "TARGET's" and objectifications. 18. Review the work to assist novice in identifying the first impression for each example. 4 is a desired end goal of remote viewing to reach a level of expertise at which a remote viewer can access the target through a quick succession of targeting, accurately describe an a.g...!ft of the target or the target feature and then provide an overall perspective that _ embocjesl i-elevant aspects. These results can be accomplished by extending the initial brief . _ contact with the target. The initial contact with the target should be of short duration in an effort to block the interpretative overlay that may occur. Once the complete separation of 50 Approved For Release 2000/Y8/1u : C -R 6- Of oi m000300110001-8 ? . Approved For Release 2000/0tyNeUSSIFIE150300110001-8 r interpretative overlay and target relatedness is accomplished, the remote viewer Can extend the duration of contact with the target and gather additional information. Then a more dimensional perspective can be obtained. 51 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED REMOTE VIEWING METHODOLOGY Access 1. Write down anything that you are thinking or about which you are concerned. Objectify your emotional and physical state. throw this $ paper away. 2. On an unmarked piece of paper indicate your name and the current date and time. Relax your physical and mental being. Clear our mind of any thoughts that remain after completing Step 1. Time spent on Steps 1, 2 and 3 is preparatory to good performance. Take your time. ? Write down the task (e.g., as described by a monitor). Relax again, making sure that you are not thinking consciougly about anything. 6. When your are satisfied that you have completed Step 5, put your writing instrument to the now labeled paper, thereby indicating your readiness (e.g., to the monitor). . At the moment you touch your writing instrument to your paper, the target access word (e.g., TARGE7') should be spoken (e.g., by a monitor; or the viewer if the session is to be self?monitored). 8. Freeze your first impression immediately following the target access work in your memory. If you are not immediately struck with a feeling, then either lay down your writing instrument, or indicate your readiness to respond again by repeating Step 7. If you get a bit and a reasonably descriptive aspect about it from the feeling you should consider this information as correct. If you then get another (different) bit after the first, it is likely that the description of the previous bit is correct. It is only when the same bit repeats that you have to be more careful. Objectify 9. First impressions (only) are objectified on the paper and verbalized. If you perceive a contour or shape, so indicate using symbolic written form. For speed, use the simplest rendition possible, so as not to miss writing down the first impression. Remember, the feeling will be nebulous, faint, fuzzy, virtually undefined. 10. Describe and objectify any additional feelings and perceptions. If these subsequent impressions are likewise weak, fleeting, and nebulous, then include them in your data set. 52 UNctITAAVEINP Approved For Release 2000 1 . - - 000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200EffittlASESNEV000300110001-8 11. Take a break after each sequence of access and objectification to the" target. Breaks are typically less than 30 seconds, but greater than 5 seconds. Occasionally, the breaks may be several minutes in length. After such longer term breaks, the task should be reviewed (e.g., monitor should repeat or viewer should reread. Qualify NOTE: Repeat Steps 5-11 until the target is described in detail sufficient to show three?dimensionality and detail, unless tasking is otherwise. NOTE: Generally, certain things are described before others in the remote viewing transcripts. The order observed over years of sessions is as follows: Concrete objects - Spatial forms Colors Numbers 12. Describe the ideogram by contours (e.g., note the relative changes in height, dimension, direction? or continuity). 13. Describe the ideogram by color (i.e., gross generality). 14. Describe the ideogram by texture (i.e., surface relief). 15. Describe the ideogram by general feeling (e.g., size, noun describing the generic object.). 16. Describe the ideogram by any feeling or emotion that you ascribe to the target. 17. The first ideogram is the "primary bit" describing the target. NOTE: Bits do not have to be visual. NOTE: Work to quantify each bit with overall feelings and specify details such as: a. Color b. Motion C. Shape d. Texture e. Function f. Relative age g. Orientation h. Emotions i. Time 53 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED j. Use k. Weather conditions 1. Lighting conditions rn. General terrain features n. Cultural aspects o. sounds. 54 Approved For Release 2000/OUNCLA451000300110001-8 ? Approved For Release 2000/CUINICLASS-FREFD30300110001-8 GLOSSARY OF TERMS RV Experience--A series of strong impressions, with no contrived origin, blurred in their sharpness of identity Bit--A single, basic unit of information, Ideogram--A written symbol that represents an idea or object directly (bit + tfeeling = ideogram) Consciousness--Awareness (quality or state of being aware) Unconsciousness--Without awareness (without overt knowledge or behavior) Subconsciousness?Existing or operating in the mind but not immediately available to consciousness State--The condition with respect to circumstances or qualities Access--Opening the channel to perceive RV information Objectify?Converting impressions to written words and drawings Qualify--Separating and interpreting RV signals 55 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 20CUNICLASSIREDR000300110001-8 Appendix B FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF REMOTE VIEWING TRAINING G. 0. Langford Consultants International Mountain View, California SRI Proprietary 57 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 3 I, Approved For Releasel/m MUNCEASSIFFEEP00300110001-8 COMPANY BACKGROUND Mr. Gary Langford founded Consultants International (CI) in 1979 to develop and apply RV abilities to problems insolvable by conventional means. Since its founding, CI's clients have included five government organizations, Tour industrial corporations, four commercial companies, and three private individuals. 59 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0/Neragityttf300110001-8 PREFACE This is the first full published report on the concepts of remote viewing (RV) by CL An involvement with SRI International almost thirteen years ago provided an initial exposure to research in parapsychology. That exposure to repeatable and verifiable psychic functioning has radically changed some of my basic conceptions about the nature of science. 'CI wishes to acknowledge the many individuals whose suggestions, criticisms, and support have at one time or another sustained and directed the development of insights to further understand and teach RV. Fifty years of laboratory parapsychology experiments have demonstrated that many people can perceive information inaccessible to the "conventional five senses." In so?called "free response" experiments some participants have been able to convey this information verbally as well as through written words and symbols. In work at SRI, a few individuals have so developed this process that they can provide detailed descriptions of hidden or concealed evenis, places, people, objects, feelings, and color with considerable consistency. In the opinion of Consultants International, this ability can be taught and learned. The process of teaching RV is embodied in (1) creating an environment conducive to the fu_nctioning, and (2) fostering situations whereby novices can learn by observing, by imitating, and by receiving reinforcement It is the purpose of this preliminary report to review some of the key concepts and hypotheses which underly the RV training methodology. We emphasize strongly that these concepts and hypotheses have been arrived at almost entirely through personal observation, introspection and informal experimentation. Very few of these concepts have been rigorously tested with sufficient data collection to establish them as fact. Nevertheless, the procedure does appear to work when put into practice. We welcome the opportunity to participate in experiments which will serve to further evaluate our hypotheses. 60 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/UrICIACS51F1ED00300110001-8 A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF RV DATA ACCESS The following diagram, Figure B-1, has been useful in describing the relationships between the target; remote viewer; session monitor (individual who attends to the structure, format, and implementation of the instructions during the remote viewing task; and angyst (one who judges the results of the RV with reference to the target). The diagram Aepicts three parts of the viewer's mind (the unconscious, subconscious, and conscious) indicating their interaction in terms of the sources of different types of information. The interaction between the monitor and the viewer is through an abstract key that uniquely identifies the task (e.g., the word "target") This abstract key is indicated by the line labeled 1. The RV "data" related to the tasking are available from the viewer's unconsciousness. We speculate that the unconsciousness has access to all targets in all space and that data is stored in the form of bits of information. These bits are accessed by the remote viewing process and made 4./002, ? available for the viewers to perceive. Line 2 represents this information path. It has been observed that the the viewer's physical, mental, and motivational states strongly influence the outcome of an RV session. Any disturbance in one several of these states provides a diversion often sufficient to obscure any RV perception. A technique that provides some relief to these everyday disturbances is that of writing down what you are aware of before the RV session begins. Throwing this piece of paper away, symbolically eliminating the disturbance for a brief period, sufficient to attend to the RV task with "full," undivided attention. Figure B-2 illustrates a proposed relationship between the viewer and these three states. 6,1 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200U14 eyksFs1prED00300110001-8 ABSTRACT KEY FIGURE B-1 PSYCHIC FUNCTIONING?THE REMOTE VIEWING PROCESS 62 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200003144CCLAASS61119EFEy0300110001-8 PHYSICAL STATE PERSONAL HEALTH MENTAL STATE SOCIAL, FAMILY HEALTH 41:041i MOTIVATIONAL STATE SURVIVAL AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING U = UNCONSCIOUS C = CONSCIOUS S = SUBCONSCIOUS FIGURE B-2 STATES THAT AFFECT REMOTE VIEWING RESULTS 63 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT During the balance of this report we shall make frequent use of the terms performance and reinforcement. As will be clear from the context, performance will be taken to mean either the correspondence of a target and response for a single viewing or improvernt (perforthance as a function of time.) Reinforcement refers to practice, praise (instructional reinforcement), or the type of target chosen for training. As with performance, the precise type of reinforcement will be clear from the context. The effectiveness of any training method can only be measured by performance. A useful yet simple measure of relative performance for a single viewing is to compare the viewer's renderings with the target. The comparison can be as straightfol-ward as observing that the l target is a group of buildings, and the viewer's response is a building. Over time, the responses for this target may include additional details concerning the buildings. This increase in correct detail is a qualitative indication of learning. Analytical methods of quantitatively assessing the correspondence between a target and a transcript have been developed at SRI. Those methods continue to be improved but will not be discussed in this report. We have observed performance to be a function of the following factors: ? ! ? ? Latent ability and motivation of the viewer. Amount of practice. Rate of practice (number of viewings per session/days between sessions). Time between sessions. Intensity of instructional reinforcement (teacher/viewer relationship). Frequency of introducing new concepts. Type of targets selected for training. Level of detail required of the viewer. Confidence of the viewer. It Is expected that the novices will not retain all that has been taught to them over the course of several weeks. Teaching is a process of repeating the major concepts until the novices make effective use of the information. Figure B-3 illustrates the relationship between quality of viewing and the number of viewings (i.e., practice). During the teaching session, 64 Approved For Release 200C/0W. LASIALEMP000300110001-8 r>. Approved For Release 2000UNCIA9SEI-HEI3p00300110001-8 there is a significant increase in performance. However, once the teaching session is finished, there is a marked decrease in the performance. The net result of performance from teaching session to session is an increase over that which was observed in the first session. HIGH ? QUALITY OF VIEWING VARIABILITY IN RESPONSE ???? INCREASE IN ? PERFORMANCE LOW ?1 ? (NOVICE) NUMBER OF VIEWINGS -30 FIGURE B-3 NOVICE TRAINING--IMPROVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF PRACTICE Novices who show no learning or inclination to learn will not respond to either a high or low rate of reinforcement, and their overall performance will be low. A novice who exhibits ? learning and an inclination to learn will exhibit better performance with an increased rate of reinforcement. The experienced remote viewer will be much less affected by a high rate schedule of reinforcement. Figure B-4 illustrates the relationship between rate of improvement and the rate of practice. 65 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 10001-8 HIGH HIGH RATE OF IMPROVEMENT LOW 0 I I 1 1 4 RATE OF PRACTICE (NUMBER OF VIEWINGS PER SESSION/DAYS BETWEEN SESSIONS) FIGURE B-4 NOVICE TRAINING--IMPROVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF THE RATE OF PRACTICE Up to 4 viewings per day, the performance has been observed to increase. The performanc9 suffers when 4 viewings per day is exceeded. Note that one viewing every day yields la performance equal to that obtained with 4 viewings done every 4 days. As will be seen with several of the figures in this report, many of -the observations appear to reflect the confidence and the familiarity of the viewer with RV technique. performance is a strong reflection of the time between successful groups of trials for a novice. In the beginning stages, the teacher should allow approximately 2 to 4 days to elapse between successive sessions. After a few weeks, the schedule can be changed to a 7 day reinforcement schedule if necessary. Figure B-5 illustrates the? correlation between quality of viewing and time between successive sessions. A point is reached when the novice's memory of successful successful results will be nearly as good a reinforcement as an actual good result. The more experienced RV should perform with consistent quality regardless of the time between significant successes. On any given day in which more viewing is desired, the sessions should be separated by at least 15 minutes for all viewers (novice through expert level). 66 Approved For Release 2000/MINgt-4?9?-1EIR00300110001-8 VO Approved For Release 2000ftlicIARSFSVII7E15000300110001-8 HIGH ? QUALITY OF VIEWING LOW ? 0 2 4 6 8 TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE SESSIONS (DAYS) FIGURE B-5 NOVICE TRAINING--PERFORMANCE RELATED TO TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE SESSIONS :0 67 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/061kcfilik-IVID0,99,;22/fg50300110001-8 L I r INSTRUCTIONAL REINFORCEMENT There appears to be a correlation between the intensity of positive instructional reinforcement and the performance of the novice. There are three types of reinforcement that are effective in increasing the performance of novices. They are teacher/other?dfitected individual reinforcement; vicarious reinforcement; and self?induced reinforcement. The teacher is in the best position to provide the forum for reinforcement. The rules can be set up so that every novice will receive the gratis they deserve. It is very important to set and maintain an atmosphere in which group interactions are strictly controlled by the teacher. Reinforcement should be? given only according to the rules set up by the teacher, not by interaction between novices. Vicarious reinforcement occurs when a novice recognizes and identifies with the reinforcement experience of another. This can be used most effectively by the teacher when using one novice's work as an example for the others. Vicarious reinforcement may play an important part in helping establish a new, previously untrained response, but probably will not be enough without additional reinforcement to maintain that response over a long period. The third type of instructional reinforcement used in RV is self?induced reinforcement. Here the observer succeeds in copying a response from someone else arid experiences an internal sense of reward. The most effective teaching reinforcement of the three types depends on the personality of the novice involved and the teaching situation. Fhe greater the significance of the reinforcement the greater the rate of improvement. This relationship is illustrated in Figure B-6. Reinforcement of low intensity (or importance) only slightly increases the performance. Responding strongly and positively to a phenomenal succesS by the novice has higher significance (more importance) and greatly improves the overall, performance of the novice. Experienced remote viewers perform rather independently with regards to the significance of the reinforcement. However there is one exception: Repetition of the same type of targets, or of the same task over a prolonged period of time can lead to a degrading of the functioning with resultant loss of performance. It is desirable to provide the novices with a variety of targets and to introduce new concepts according to the schedule discussed. 68 Approved For Release 200010c RU00300110001-8 3 Approved For Release 2000UNCLAAS9 IRED00300110001-8 HIGH ? RATE OF IMPROVEMENT LOW ? LOW HIGH STRENGTH OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT FIGURE B-6 NOVICE TRAINING--IMPROVEMENT THROUGH INSTRUCTIONAL REINFORCEMENT As indicated above, it has been the practice for the remote viewers to be expressly congratulated for highly successful results. It is very helpful in teaching RV to always stop the session for he day when the result desired from the novice has been achieved. Always stopping on a "win" seems to tell the novice that they have performed as expected, and they should internalize this "win" experience so they can repeat the success. 69 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 UNCLASSIFIED INTRODUCTION OF NEW CONCEPTS There seems to be an optimum rate at which concepts can be introduced to novices. Figure B-7 indicates that in the early stages of teaching a novice, more time is necessary between the introduction of concepts than in the later stages of teaching. Also, int the early stages, a higher rate of reinforcement seems to increase the acceptance of newly introduced concepts. After a relatively short period of time, however, it is possible to teach concepts at a more rapid rate than in the beginning stages. HIGH ? RATE OF IMPROVEMENT LOW ? v 1 2 3 4 NEW RV CONCEPTS PER SESSION FIGURE B-7 NOVICE TRAINING--RATE OF IMPROVEMENT AS RELATED TO FREQUENCY OF INTRODUCTION TO NEW CONCEPTS Examples of new Concepts are: ? Ideograms (bits) ? Multiple Bits 70 Approved For Release 2000/11NcLAUICE MP00300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000UNcityBPSI-Firry00300110001-8 ? Interpretive overlay ? Retracing bits. 71 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 200003RdlyaSiti1705000300110001-8 THE EFFECT OF TARGET MATERIALS After relatively few trials the novices will become familiar with some of the fundamental techniques and concepts of RV. Performance can be enhanced by practice of the functioning. Figure B-8 illustrates that in general, using high reinforcement value targets (e.g., visiting an actual target site after a viewing) yields greater performance than using lower reinfolcement value targets (e.g., photographs). It is also the case that too much practice without strict adherence to the fundamental processes of the functioning, will result in degraded performance. Practice does facilitate an increased level of performance. The practice should focus on relatively easy tasks with some apparent relationship between the tasks. A gradual increase in the difficulty of the tasks appears to yield better performance, rather than trying to tackle difficult tasks at first. HIGH- 4. QUALITY OF VIEWING LOW TARGETS WITH HIGHER REINFORCEMENT VALUE TARGETS WITH LOWER REINFORMCEMENT VALUE NUMBER OF PRACTICE VIEWINGS -10 FIGURE B-8 NOVICE TRAINING?IMPROVEMENT AS RELATED TO TARGET MATERIALS There are differences between targets, not only in how they appear to the five senses, but also in how they feel emotionally. Some targets evoke very positive feelings, while others have the opposite affect. In the early stages of the functioning, the range of stimuli that the 72 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 3 Approved For Release 200CUNCOVSFSIFIED000300110001-8 novice will experience is somewhat limited. As more concepts and techniques are introduced and used the targets will stimulate additional feelings and sensorial responses. Figure B-9 illustrates that with reinforcement and practice on several types of targets, the range of stimuli will increase. HIGH? QUALITY OF VIEWING LOW ? EXPERIENCED VIEWER STRUCTURAL DETAIL WITH INCREASED EXPERIENCE SHAPES, OUTLINES SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS RANGE OF TARGET STIMULI FIGURE B-9 IMPROVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF EXPERIENCE FOR TYPES OF TARGET DETAIL 73 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000300110001-8 Approved For Release 2000/001ket-Xlit-Na510300110001-8 PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES The level of motivation of the novice should be monitored session by session. If the motivation is low, so will be the performance. However, it is not necessarily the case that high motivation implies good performance. Indeed the opposite is sometimes the vase. Figure B-10 illustrates the relationship between quality of viewing and confidence. We speculate that the apparent steep decline in quality of a viewing is a result of the overconfident viewer forgetting the fundamental RV procedures thus allowing mental noise from memory and imagination to dominate his response. HIGH QUALITY OF VIEWrIsT' G 1 1 LOW LOW HIGH VIEWER CONFIDENCE FIGURE 8-10 PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF VIEWER CONFIDENCE 74 Approved For Release 2000/McL45951E7=0300110001-8