Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 4, 2016
Document Release Date: 
March 14, 2003
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
September 29, 1994
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP96-00787R000300310001-6.pdf6.04 MB
Final Roved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis Edwin C. May, Ph.D., Wanda L. W. Luke, and Christine L. James scier-ce,4pplcarionslntemational Corporation An Employee-Owned Company Contract MDA908-93-C-0004 (Client Private) Submitted by: Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory 1010 EI Camino Real Suite 330, P.O. Box 1412, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (415) 325-8292 OfherSAlC6kr~~o~?d~~~nd?.e~a+s~r~~?a3'/4~41U}~g';~!~~~~A(~~fa~~U'~~~'~'(f~'$~Q~'~9~b1~r~,saarria, r~~so~ SG1A Phenomer~~ogicaT Re?searcll aned~n0a~~s~~ ~ih~il~96-007878000300310001-6 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................. ii LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................iii I. EXECU'T'IVE SUMMARY ................................................... 1 II. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW ................................................... 2 1. Biophysical Measurements ................................................ 2 2. Data Patterns/Parameter Correlations ...................................... 11 3. Theoretical Issues ....................................................... 15 4. Applied Resea"rch ....................................................... 18 5. Research Methodology and Support ....................................... 25 III. GLOSSARY ............................................................... 27 REFERENCES ............................................................ 28 APPENDIX A: Autonomic Detection of Remote Observation ............. ...... 30 APPENDIX B: 'Target and Sender Dependencies in AC Experiments ................ 31 APPENDIX C: Managing the Target Pool Bandwidth ............................. 32 APPENDIX D: Shannon Entropy as an Intrinsic Target Property ................... 33 APPENDIX E: Ganzfeld Experiment .......................................... 34 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 00~/04/1~ ? C(I~--RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and na ys~s: ina sport LIST OF FIGURES 1. Stimulus Timing ................................................................ 7 2. Typical ERD from Direct Stimuli .................................................. 8 3. Cluster Diagram ............................................................... 16 4. Cross-Section of the Detector (Not to Scale) ....................................... 21 5. 'li=st Exposure: 2,250 Volts for 28 Hours ........................................... 22 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenom~~Y~ ~~~~~~~d~~~~s~~? ~ih~11~~g~96-007878000300310001-6 LIST OF TABLES 1. AC Resints ..................................................................... 9 2. Wilcoxon Statistics for ERDs ..................................................... 9 3. 0-7 Point Assessment Scale ...................................................... 10 4. Partial Element List for aTest-bed Experiment ..................................... 24 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenome~i~o?g~~~il ~~irS~~F~~~~id2~~a~~j~s~sl~Pn~~~~~t96-007878000300310001-6 I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Clur research has advanced our understanding of applying anomalous mental phenomena to practical problems and lead us toward a comprehensive theoretical model for the phenomena. ~ During thecon- tractperiod ending29 July 1994, we have: ? Successfully verified a claim from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and from the U.S. that it is possible to influence the physiology of an isolated individual exclusively by anomalous mental phenomena. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate in our analysis of previous work that the mechanism of such influence is mast likely causal. That is, the mental intention of a distant agent appears to cause physiological changes in an isolated person. ? Identified an intrinsic property of an AC target (i.e., the gradient of Shannon's entropy). This result is abreak-through in our understanding of the mechanisms of AC. We have shown that detecting AC is not unlike how our other sensory systems detect their particular inputs (e.g., how the eye detects light). In the future, all practical applications and laboratory experiments can be significantly im- proved by choosing targets that possess the largest possible value of this particular parameter. ? Provided a proven method for the detailed evaluation of individual AC-performance in practical ap- SG1A plications, in the laboratory and as a certification procedure. encoura~inQ, and the final results will be available before 30 September 1994. ? Set a lower limit for the response of the central nervous system (i.e., brain) to anomalous cognition (AC) signals. If we could be successful at identifying a brain response, then practical applications and laboratory research would be sharply improved, even though the estimate for the lower limit is only 0.2 percent change in brain activity. ? Developed and calibrated instrumentation to replicate aphysics-type experiment from the FSU that suggests a new form of energy can be detected. Researchers there speculate that this form of energy might be responsible as the carrier of anomalous mental phenomena signals. Preliminary results are SG1A ? Clearly demonstrated that using AC as a technique to send messages is not a productive pursuit. All of the experiments that we conducted for this year produced highly significant evidence for anoma- lousmental phenomena. We interpret this success, which is 20 times chance, to our expanding under- standing of the protocols, mechanisms, and psychology that are responsible for a high level of function- ing. The magnitude of our AC effects exceed the value that is considered robust by the psychology research community. " This report constitutes our final deliverable under contact number MDA90$-93-C-0004. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenom~?~~(~ ~~~~r~f a~rd~~a~j~~s1 ~in~'~~~96-007878000300310001-6 II. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW In this section we provide a technical overview of the activity which was conducted under contract num- ber MDA -004. The technical details of the experiments can be found in the Appendices. 1. Biophysical Measurements These tasks were to search for possible physiological correlates to anomalous cognition (AC) function- ing. If such correlations could be found, they would directly lead to improved application and laborato- ryresults. We conducted two experiments with regard to biophysical measurements that were replications ofpre- viouswork. The first of these was an attempt to replicate a finding in the U.S and in the Former Soviet Union that claimed that some aspect of human physiology can be influenced by an isolated and remote observer (Schlitz and I.aBerge,1994).~ The second was an improved experiment to determine if and how the central nervous system (i.e., the brain) responds to "signals" that are sensorially isolated from a receiver t 1.1 Remote Observation Experiment A series of experiments has been conducted in the U.S. in which it is claimed that a receiver's electrical properties of the skin (i.e., electrodermal response) can be influenced by a remote observer. This is a laboratory example of a frequently reported anecdote: after entering a crowded room, you "sense" that you are being stared at and discover that you are correct. A complete write-up of our experiment, which includes the history, methodology, and results can be found in Appendix A; however, we summarize the findings here. 'livo experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which people are able to unconsciously de- tect another person staring at them from a distance. Aclose-circuit television set-up was employed in which a video camera was focused on the experimental volunteer (Observee) while a person in another room (Observer) concentrated on the image of the distant person as displayed on a color monitor; this procedure was used to preclude any conventional sensory contact between the two people. During the experimental session, the Observee's galvanic skin responses were monitored. An automated and com- puterized system was programmed to record and average the physiological responses of the Observee during 32 30-second monitoring periods. A random sequence was used to schedule 16 periods of re- mote observation and 16 control periods when no observation efforts were attempted. A within-sub- jectsevaluation was made for each experimental session with a comparison between the mean amount of autonomic nervous system activity during the experimental and control conditions. Twenty four ses- ? References maybe found at the end of the document. f Please see Section III on page 27 for a definition of terms. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenom~Y~ ~~~~g~a~rPrd2~~~j~s~~s1~in~'~~~t96-007878000300310001-6 sions were conducted in each of two experiments. As predicted, both experiments yielded significantly more autonomic activity during the remote observation periods as compared to control periods (Ex- periment 1: t=1.878, df = 23, p C 0.036; Experiment 2: t=2.652, df = 23, p < 0.014). Aspre-planned, the two experiments were combined to increase the statistical power, yielding a significant t-score of 2.652 (df = 47, p < 0.005). There are two competing anomalous mental phenomena descriptions for these results. Given that this experiment represents successful replication of a number of such experiments, we do not include the possibility that these results are a rare or chance statistical deviation. The question we pose for future experiments is: Is this effect causal (i.e., the Observer forces the skin parameters to be different than they would otherwise be) or informational (i.e., the Observee is AC-sensitive to know when he/she is been stared at and responds accordingly)? The methodology we used in our experiment was primarily designed to replicate both US and FSU similar experiments rather than to answer this particular ques- tion. Although most of our analyses of so-called anomalous perturbation (AP) experiments demon- strate informational mechanisms, we have recently analyzed a bio-AP experiment that statistically fa- vored the causal explanation. Determining the mechanism is very important because it will dictate the potential applications for this type of phenomenon. 1.2 Central Nervous System Response to AC Signals The objective of this effort was to test the hypothesis that physiological responses to AC stimuli re- semble those which occur in response to identical direct visual stimuli. 1.2.1 Background As part of the research tasking for FY 1993, we had been asked to conduct an investigation of the rela- tionship between the central and/or the peripheral nervous system and AC. In this section, we review the pertinent literature and provide a justification for the effort. We only consider AC experiments that use complex material for targets. While there have been sub- stantialnumbers of experiments in which symbols have been used as targets (Honorton,1975; Honor- ton and Ferarri,1989), we will not include that data as part of the behavioral evidence for AC. In 1976, Puthoff and Targ (1976) published the results of a series of experiments in what was then called remote viewing. In 51 trials, their results led to an overall effect size of 0.960f0.140 which corresponds to a 6.8a effect. In behavioral terms, Cohen (1988) would classify this effect as large. As part of our FY 1991-1992 effort, we were asked to use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investi- gate how, or if, the central nervous system (CNS) responds to "visual" stimuli that are physically and sensorially isolated from a receiver. The reasoning behind this request was that during an earlier inves- tigation in FY 1988, we observed, what was suspected to be, instantaneous phase shifts of the dominant alpha rhythm concomitant with such stimuli. That study itself was originally thought of as a conceptual replication of even earlier work in which alpha power changes were putatively induced with remote visu- al stimuli (Rebert and'Iltrner,1974; May,1'arg, and Puthoff,1977). As we stated in our final report (May, Luke, and Lantz, 1992), the FY 1992 study did not replicate the FY 1988 finding (May, Luke,'IYask, and Frivold,1990b). Because of our technical and methodological Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenam~Nfi~~ ~~~r~~~rd2~~~~~s`~s1~tn~~~~rPt96-007878000300310001-6 improvements, we concluded that the 1988 results were likely to be spurious. We can, however, specify a number of possible arguments why the 1988 study failed to replicate: ? AC does not exist. ? AC exists, but the conditions were not conducive for quality AC functioning. ? AC exists, but the target system (i.e.,100 millisecond sinusoidal gratings in the lower left visual field of the receiver) did not constitute an appropriate stimulus. The verification of the existence of AC is an epistemological problem. The definition of AC is a nega- tive one; we are able to describe what AC is not, but there is no statement about what AC is other than methodological. Colloquially, we might say AC is a form of information transfer when, according to the currently understood laws of physics, the retrieval of information is impossible. Thus, we say AC exists if a statistically valid anomaly is observed under the proper methodological conditions. Since replication is better than distribution theory, it is important to define what replication means in a 2-Q domain. Professor Utts, from the statistics department at the University of California at Davis, has provided a good operational definition, which is based on standard power analysis (Utts,1988). Since 1975, there have been four major articles published in the reviewed literature that analyze substantial numbers of experiments that portend AC. All but one use the modern methods of meta-analysis to determine the final conclusion far each collection of studies. It is important to realize that in all these analyses, all the published data are included. In addition, the techniques of meta-analysis allow for re- sponsible estimates of the number of studies that "failed" and were not published. (1) In "Error Some Place!" Honorton critically reviewed card-guessing experiments, which were con- ducted between 1934 and 1939 (Honorton,197S). The AC-targets in these studies were five geo- metric symbols; circle, square, wavy lines, star, and cross. In almost 800,000 individual card trials that were obtained after the targets had been specified (i.e., real-time AC), the weighted effect size was E = 0.0130.001, which corresponds to an overall combined effect of 12.7x. This analysis, however, was completed before the techniques of meta-analysis were known. Improvements, which include the analysis of experiment quality, can be found in the next example. (2) Using the tools of modern meta-analysis, Honorton reviewed the precognition (i.e., a target is ran- domly generated after the trial had been obtained) card-guessing database (Honorton and Ferarri, 1989). This analysis included 309 separate studies reported by 62 investigators. Nearly two million individual trials were contributed by more the 50,000 subjects. The combined effect size was e = 0.020f0.002, which corresponds to an overall combined effect of 11.4x. 'Iivo important results emerge from Honorton's analysis. First, it is often stated by critics that the best results are from studies with the least methodological controls. To check this hypothesis, Honorton devised an eight-point quality measure (e.g., automated recording of data, proper randomization techniques) and scored each studywith regard to these measures. There was no significant correlation between study quality and study scare. Second, if researchers improved their experiments over time, one would expect a significant correlation of study qualitywith date of publication. Honorton found r = 0.246, df = 307, p < 2 x 10-? In brief, Honorton concludes that a statistical anomaly exists in this data that cannot be explained by poor study quality or a large variety of other hypothesis. (3) In examining AC with complex visual targets, Bem and Honorton analyzed 11 separate studies in- volving atotal of 329 trials (Bem and Honorton, 1994). They report a combined effect size of e = 0.159f0.055, which corresponds to 2.$9a. We wish to call attention to the fact that this effect size is approximately eight times larger than the effect size reported for studies where the targets are sym- bols. Since effect sizes are relative measures above mean chance expectation, this result is one, of Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenom~f~~l ~~~r~~~rd2~~l~~j~s~s~~tn~+~'f~~t96-007878000300310001-6 many, which suggest that the statistically simpler target system of five symbols does not produce as much AC as do complex targets. (4) Rodin and Nelson (1989) provide, in Foundations of Physics, ameta-analysis of a different form of AC. The targets were randomly changing binary bits whose random nature was usually derived ei- ther from electronic noise or radioactive decay. Similar to Honorton's work, they assigned a 16-point quality rating to over 800 individual studies conducted by 68 investigators from 1959 to 1987. They compute an overall weighted effect size of approximately e = (3.Of 0.5) X 10_4 which corresponds to 60. They also find no correlation between study quality and study score. An independent analysis of these statistics can be found in Statistical Sciences, which is a journal that invites and publishes contributions and substantial critical comments by recognized leaders in the field of statistics (Utts,1991). Although Utts focuses her attention on the meta-analyis of the Ganzfeld, her analysis, discussion, and defense of the commentary are noteworthy. These effects are small. Tb illustrate a point about replication, we will compute, using standard power analysis, the probability that a new studywill demonstrate significant (i.e., p C O.OS) evidence forAC. If we assume that the actual AC-effect size isgiven by E = 0.159 then the probability of observing a signifi- cantoutcome in SO trials is only 30%. Although this is six times chance expectation of S%, there remains a 70% likelihood that this study would "fail" to replicate. It is exactly this type of realization that is responsible for a shift in the determination of replication from p-values to effect sizes. It is clear from these analyses that there is incontrovertible evidence that a statistical, albeit small, in- formation-transfer anomaly exists that cannot be accounted for by methodological issues or fraud. Thus, we were strongly motivated to continue our investigations of the CNS in order to identify how the brain responds to AC stimuli. Conditions for Quality AC Functioning One of the problems associated with our earlier CNS investigations is that we did not obtain concom- itant behavioral measures of AC. Many experiments and discussions about what constitutes an AC- conducive state can be found in the parapsychology literature. It is beyond the scope of this report to provide an analysis of this research, and there remains substantial disagreement among the researchers on this point. In Ganzfeld studies, for example, it is assumed that reducing somatisensory noise en- hances AC, yet in our experiments we observe equivalent or larger effect sizes without the reduction. Lacking reliable research results on this point, it has been our view that the "ideal" environment for AC would not be much different than what might be needed to perform any high-level mental task. For example, the best environment for a person to read and understand a novel might also be sufficient for producing AC. In most all of our AC experiments, receivers are seated in a quiet and comfortable room with few external distractions. The atmosphere is cordial, yet business like. On the one hand, we would like to have the receivers be attentive (i.e., we suspect that too relaxed or asleep is not helpful); yet on the other hand, we do not want them to be distracted. Under these conditions, we routinely observe large effect sizes for AC. In our MEG investigations, receivers were required to recline, face down, on a wooden table in a dark, technically complex room for approximately 30 minuets. A large device (i.e., the MEG and its associated liquid helium flask) was comfortably touching the back of their heads. In addition, they were instructed to move as little as possible and relax as much as possible. Some receivers complained that Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenorr~~~r~l ~s~i~ic~a~~9~s~:8Fir~~4~rt96-007878000300310001-6 various body parts fell "asleep," and that the experience was not particularly pleasant; other receivers did not mind the setup. No receivers, however, found the experience enjoyable. We suspect that since this environment was sufficiently different from our usual one, it may have failed to provide a conducive atmosphere to elicit AC functioning. Target Systems The meta-analysis of the historical databases clearly show a preference for certain target systems. For example, as we have shown above, complex visual targets provided better AC than do simple geometric symbols. In addition, Bem and Honorton have demonstrated a statistical preference for even more complex targets than static photographs. They observed a significant difference in the Ganzfeld favor- ingvideo segments from popular movies over single photographs. There is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a 100-millisecond long sinusoidal grating constitutes a viable AC target. In fact, our en- tropy results suggest that it would not be a good target, because it's total change of Shannon entropy is small (May, Spottiswoode, and James,1994). Except for the alpha blocking experiment done at SRI in the early 70's, we have not been able to observe CNS correlates to AC functioning. We think that this may have resulted because of methodological issues. In the remainder of this section, wedescribe amuch-improved approach that remedies the prob- lems of the previous methodologies. 1.2.2 Protocol Introduction Using an electroencephalograph (EEG), we corrected the shortcomings of the previous work. Each stage of the investigation was built upon the results to date, and represented only modest extensions to the previous stage. In addition, we used traditional EEG methods for data collection and analysis so that comparisons with the established literature were straight forward." We assumed that AC exists in general (i.e., within the framework discussed above); however, our approach included a "local" verifica- tion of AC's existence. Consider event-related desynchronization (ERD). Spontaneous EEG reveals short-lasting, task- or event-related amplitude changes in rhythmic activity within the alpha band (i.e., 8 to 12 Hz). This am- plitudechange or desynchronization is one of the elementary phenomena in EEG. It was first described by Berger (1930) in scalp EEG as alpha blocking, and was later termed ERD by Pfurtscheller and Arani- bar (1977). ERDs can be quantified as a function of time and can then be used to study cortical activa- tionpatterns during the planning of motor behavior (Pfurtscheller and Aranibar,1979), sensory stimu- lation, and cognitive processes (Pfurtscheller, Lindinger and Klimesch,1986; Klimesch, Pfurtscheller and LindingerKlimesh,1987; and Sergeant, Geuze, and Van Winsum,1987). Kaufman, Schwartz, Salustri and Williamson (1990) provide a more recent example of cognitive-process-related ERDs, which they call alpha suppression. They found a significantly shorter ERD when subjects simply responded to a target stimulus, compared with the ERD that occurred when a subject had to search visual memory to determine whether the target matched one previously presented. Because ERDs arise from external " Fortheseinvestigations,wedidnotrequirethespecialpropertiesofaMEG(e.g.,sourcelocalization),soweusedthelesscom- plex and more readily available EEG technology. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenom~~~~a~ F~t~e~~td ~'~1 ~1~~I~P96-007878000300310001-6 stimuli, cognitive tasks, or motor functions, they are a likely variable to use tv study how the CNS might respond to AC stimuli. It would be odd, indeed, if AC was the only stimulus that did not produce an EItD. Target Stimuli To overcome the potential problems associated with the earlier stimuli, we used throughout this study our standard National Geographic target pool. These images are complex, but there is an increasing database in our laboratory that shows they are suitable for targets in AC experiments. In addition, the results of the meta-analyses, which were described above, show a significant preference for complex target systems as opposed to symbols or 100-millisecond long sinusoidal gratings. Our target pool was digitized for later display on a laboratory PC. Figure 1 shows the stimulus timing. During a trial, a ran- domly selected photograph was displayed for one second with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 3 seconds. Figure 1. Stimulus Timing. While this stimulus-post stimulus pattern is fixed throughout the session, what happens in a stimulus window is counter balanced between two stimulus types and random. We created a digital "image" that was technically identical to the target images (e.g., same resolution, size) except that the color was nu- mericallyidentical to the background color of the display. These pseudo stimuli wuld not be detected visually and, thus, served as a within run control. We asked three of our best receivers, 009, 372, and 389 to participate in the experiment. Because of the pilot nature of this approach, we did not set the total number of trials; rather, time and receiver avail- abilitydetermined the number of trials for each receiver. Vial Protocol The following was the sequence of events for each trial: (1) The receiver was wired at the standard positions for right and left hemisphere EEG for occipital and parietal measurements referenced to CZ (i.e., the center of the top of the scalp). (2) The receiver was seated in asound-attenuated and electrically shielded room that is commonly used for such measurements. (3) One of two possible random sequences for pseudo and target stimuli was selected randomly, and the trial was initiated. (4) The receiver was instructed to silently obtain AC data for the first five minutes. (5) The receiver debriefed his/her experience during the next five minutes in words and drawings. (6) After the response had been collected, the receiver was presented visually with the exact same stim- uluspattern that was used in the first five minute interval as feedback. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/'8 ? ~~4-RD~96-007878000300310001-6 Phenamenolagical Research and Analysis: ria epo After a brief rest, a second trial was conducted, which was identical to the first except that a new target was selected randomly and the second possible stimulus order was used in step 3 above. AC-Behavior Analysis An analyst who was otherwise blind to the experiment and trial details, was given a target pack number that contained the original target and four decay photographs in random order. The analyst's task was to rank-order the five targets from best to worst match to the- trial behavior response (i.e., writings and drawings). With the usual sum-of-rank statistic, we could determine the overall level of AC functioning in the study, for each receiver, and determine the level of AC for each trial. ERD Analysis The EEG record for each trial contains continuous samples at 500 samples/second for five minutes of AC-stimuli and five minutes for direct stimuli (i.e., feedback of the target visually). Each epoch con- tained random sequences of stimuli and pseudo stimuli. These data were low pass filtered to avoid aliasing, then reduced by five, yielding an effective sampling rate of 100/second. The alpha content (i.e., 7.81 to 12.7 Hz) was extracted with a 32-pole, FIR, zero phase shift, digital filter, and the alpha power was estimated by the ensemble square. We computed an ERD template for each receiver. For each direct stimulus during the feedback five minute interval, the alpha power was ensemble averaged and normalized by the average alpha power for one second of prestimulus time. The resulting ERDs were averaged to produce the template for each trial. Figure 2 shows a typical ERD from one such calculation for receiver 372. We see that for direct stimuli we expect a latency of approximately O.S second (i.e, time after stimulus onset), an 85% reduction in alpha power and approximately two seconds for recovery. This template was cross correlated with the data during the AC-portion of the trial. That is, for each stimulus and for each pseudo stimulus, the maximum of the absolute value of the cross correlation for X0.2 seconds surrounding the stimulus time was accumulated separately for each stimulus type. A stan- dard non-parametric sum-of-ranks method was used to compare the resulting two distributions. U 0 0.0 w w Time (s) Figure 2. Average ERD Normalized by Pre-Stimulus Mean. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/1$ ? C~I~--RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: ina sport 1.2.3 Results and Discussion 'Table 1 shows the results of the blind rank-order judging for the three receivers; Receiver 'Dials ES Rvalue 009 18 2.389 0.432 0.033 372 24 2.500 0.354 0.042 389 28 2.750 0.177 0.175 Total 70 2.571 0.303 0.006 Tivo receivers produced independently significant evidence for AC and the combined data were also significant. Thus we have corrected one of the shortcomings of our earlier efforts; we have independent evidence for AC. Table 2 shows the results of the non-parameter Wilcoxon sum-of-ranks test between the distributions resulting from the pseudo- and AC-stimuli. Since the total number of stimuli per receiver was over 1600, the statistics shown in Table 2 are not en- couraging. That is, given we observed significant evidence for AC, how is it that we do not see a signifi- cant CNS response? Wilcoxon Statistics for ERDs Receiver Z-score Rvalue (2t) 009 -0.758 0.448 372 1.509 0.132 389 0.930 0.352 Total 0.938 0.175 To determine the overall sensitivity of our signal detection methodology, we inserted template ERD's into copies of the EEG data. Averaged overall receivers, we found that a 0.2 % change from pre-stimu- lusalpha would lead to a significant difference between the distributions resulting from the AC-stimuli and the pseudo stimuli. This high sensitivity arises primarily because we have over 1600 stimuli per receiver and because the cross correlations technique (i.e., frequently referred to as a matched filter) can be shown to be the best possible signal detection algorithm in a noise environment. Yet, with this sensitivity we did not observe a statistically significant ERD. We must examine some of our basic as- sumptions, if we are to understand this result. One assumption is that a putative ERD would result, on the average, from every AC-stimulus. To test this, we re-analyzed the behavioral data post hoc. Rank-order analysis does not usually indicate the Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomeno~ogicaf Researchean~ Anaiysis~1~~aC~~~96-007878000300310001-6 absolute quality of the AC. For example, a response that is anear-perfect description of the target re- ceives arank of ane. But a response which is barely matchable to the target may also receive a rank of one. Table 3 shows the rating scale that we used to perform a blind assessment of the quality of theAC responses, regardless of their rank. Score Description Excellent correspondence, including good analytical detail, with essentially no ~ incorrect information Good correspondence with good analytical information and relatively little 6 incorrect information. Good correspondence with unambiguous unique matchable elements, but S some incorrect information. Good correspondence with several matchable elements intermixed with 4 incorrect information. Mixture of correct and incorrect elements, but enough of the former to indicate 3 receiver has made contact with the site. Some correct elements, but not sufficient to suggest results beyond chance 2 expectation. 1 Little correspondence. 0 No correspondence. 1b apply this subjective scale to anA C trial, an analyst begins with a score of seven and determines if the description for that score is correct. If not, then the analyst tries a score of six and soon. In this way the scale is traversed from seven to zero until the score-description seems reasonable for the trial. We thought that by analyzing the EEG data only when the AC functioning was high, we might have a better chance of detecting an ERD. Unfortunately, we found no statistical change of the Wilcoxon Z- scoresonly using data from the upper portions of the scale shown in Table 3. Thus, we must examine our assumptions further. One implicit assumption in the search for AC-ERDs is that there is a direct casual and temporally stable link between the stimulus and the response. That is, since the data analysis involves an ensemble aver- age over time, we must assume that changes in spontaneous alpha that are not associated with the stim- uluswill beaveraged out of the ensemble. It may be, however, that AC is more complex. In Honorton's meta-analysis of the precognition data (Honorton and Ferrari, 1989), the precognition of complex visu- al targets reported by Jahn (1982), and the anecdotal reports of many of our receivers all suggest that AC may not be stable in time. One explanation for the significant improvement in AC when complex targets are used instead of sym- bolsmay berelated toimagery. If a receiver knows the stimulus set (e.g., in the case of Zener cards; star, cross, square, circle and wavy lines) then he or she is likely unable to differentiate between a vivid inter- nal image of one of the symbols, which results from memory or imagination, and a putative "signal" resulting from AC. In the case of more complex targets, such as National Geographic photographs, Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomeno~ogica(Re?searcheaned Anaiysis~1~~aC~~~96-007878000300310001-6 there may be a lesser tendency to remember all possible combinations of elements one may find in such a target pool. If this speculation is correct, then internal imagery is a source of noise, and we might not expect to see changes in occipital alpha. Some receivers report that their internal experiences tend to be kinesthetic rather than visual. These ideas have not been formally tested in the laboratory, yet they are commonly reported by many of our excellent receivers. We have assumed that the CNS will respond as if the AC-signal stimulates neurons near the visual cortex. Given that we were unable to take survey data over the entire scalp, it is possible that we might not have positioned the EEG electrodes for optimal detection of an AG response. We recommend that we adopt the new technology of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can survey the entire CNS. In addition, we suggest that we optimize the target pool to contain the largest possible gradient of Shannon entropy. This should be the best possible next step to observe the CNS's response to an AC stimulus. 2. Data Patterns/Parameter Correlations The task of this section was to identify parameters that would potentially lead to anincrease of AC func- tioning and assist in determining optimal protocols for potential applications. 2.1 The Gradient of Shannon's Entropy T'he primary activity in this category was to determine if the total change of Shannon entropy could be confirmed as an intrinsic target variable. This effort constituted a replication of our finding during the 1992-1993 period, and led to three papers that have been accepted for publication at the Parapsycholog- ical Annual Convention. We include these three papers as Appendices B, C, and D and summarize their findings here. The Ganzfeld experiments as summarized by Bem and Honorton (1994) suggest that using dynamic targets produces stronger results than using static ones. Bem and Honorton, however, only analyzed Ganzfeld studies that included the use of a sender. Since it is known that a sender is not a necessary requirement in forced-choice trials, we designed and carried out a study to see if a sender is required in non-Ganzfeld, free-response trials. In the first of two experiments, five experienced receivers partici- pated in 40 trials each, 10 in each condition of a 2 X 2 design to explore sender and target type. We observed significant effects for static targets (i.e., exact sum-of-rank probability of p < 0.0073, effect size = 0.248, n=100), chance results for dynamic targets (i.e., p < 0.500, effect size = 0.000, n =100), and no interaction effects between sender and target-type conditions. One receiver slightly favored the no sender condition (F(1,36) = 4.43, p C 0.04), while another slightly favored static targets (F(1,36) _ 5.47, p < 0.04). We speculate that these surprising results (i.e., favoring static over dynamic targets) arose, in part, because of the difference between a topically unbounded dynamic target pool and a topi- cally restrictive static pool. In a second experiment, we redesigned the dynamic pool to match more closely the properties of the static pool. Four of the receivers from the first study participated in at least 20 trials each, l0 in each target-type condition. No senders were used throughout this experiment. We observed a significant increase in anomalous cognition for the new dynamic targets (XZ = 9.94 df = 1, p C 1.6 x 10~~, and an increase in anomalous cognition for the static targets (XZ = 3.158, df = 1, p 0.075). We conclude that a sender is not a necessary requirement for free-response anomalous cogni- Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenom~~~~B~FiF~e~~t~tpd A~~1~1n~1~~96-007878000300310001-6 tion. A rank-order analysis showed notarget-type dependencies in the second study (X2 = 0, df =1, p < O.S), but a rating analysis revealed some difference favoring dynamic targets (t = 1.3~ df = 68, p ~ 0.096) for the significant receivers. Based on our analysis, we believe a fundamental argument suggests that in free-response anomalous cognition experiments, dynamic targets should be better than static ones. The experimental result, however, was surprising-it was directly opposite to the results that were derived from the Ganzfeld database. The topics of the dynamic targets were virtually unlimited, where- as the topics for the static targets were constrained in content, size of cognitive elements, and range of affect. In our second experiment, we redesigned the target pools to wrrect this unbalance and observed significant improvement of AC functioning. We incorporate these findings into a definition of target pool bandwidth and propose that the proper selection of bandwidth will lead to a reduction of incorrect information in free-responseAC. Based upon our early entropy result and using the knowledge gained about the target pool bandwidth, we propose that the average total change of Shannon's entropy is a candidate for an intrinsic target property. We find a significant correlation of the gradient of Shannon's entropy (Spearman's p = 0.337, df = 31, t = 1.99, p < 0.028) with an absolute measure of the quality of the anomalous cognition. This result is a successful replication of our 1992 finding. Our identification of an intrinsic target property that correlates with the quality of AC is an extremely important finding. Not only does it instruct us to select better target material for laboratory studies, but it also guides us in task selection for practical applications. 2.2 Senders in the Ganzfeld Another primary activity in this category was to assess the role of a sender in an AC experiment. We subcontracted to the Psychology Department at the University of Edinburgh to conduct a detailed test using the methodology of the Ganzfeld. Appendix E contains their final reports which detail their ex- periment and results. We summarize their findings in this section. The Ganzfeld methodology differs in three fundamental ways from our usual AC experiment: (1) A mild altered state is used to elicit AC functioning. (2) Senders are used in a "telepathic" modality. (3) The receivers perform their own the rank-order judging in the analysis of the data. Otherwise the Ganzfeld protocol is similar to ours. A receiver is asked to register his/her impression of an isolated target that is randomly selected from apre-defined set. We asked Dr. Robert L. Morris to use this methodology to determine the role of the sender. As they will be reporting at the next Parapsy- chologicalAssociationAnnual Convention, they found, as we did, that a sender is not a necessary partic- ipant in successful AC experiments. In addition, they were able to show that the sender may not partici- pate in any significant way in the process. As a consequence of this experiment, they are considering dropping the sender in all of their future experiments. While it is agreed that perhaps for psychological reasons, some receivers may produce better results with a sender, there appear to be no mechanistic arguments favoring the use of a sender. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomer{~~og~caT Re?searc~i aned~nalys~s~ Fiha~l~eporPt 96-007878000300310001-6 2.3 Q-Sort Personality Assessment The objective of this study was to explore potential personality variables as they relate to AC ability through the use of the Q-Sort method. 2.3.1 Introduction Historically, a wide range of psychological tests have been used in an attempt to detect correlations be- tweenpersonality variables and AC performance. These tests have included standard clinical batteries as well as the Personality Assessment System (Lantz, 1987). Some of these have yielded statistical cor- relations; however, the magnitude of the correlations are often too small for predictive purposes. The Q-Sort differs.from other methods of personality assessment in that it is not a psychological test, but merely an empirical system devised to permit individual personalities to be comprehensively de- scribed and quantitatively compared. First conceived by William Stephensen, the Q-Sort method has become a useful tool for comparing personality variables between a wide variety of different popula- tions (Block, 1978). For example, studies have ranged from examining the differences between effec- tive and ineffective liars to analyzing the difference between individuals who tend to rely upon external visual fields rather than proprioceptive (i.e., muscular skeletal) cues in determining true vertical. One common difficulty with traditional self-report personality tests is that they ask the subject to identi- fywhere they fit on a continuous spectrum ofpre-determined dimensions. For example, one dimension of the MBTI ranges between extroversion and introversion. Even if the subject chooses not to describe him/her self in these terms, nonetheless, they must respond. The Q-Sort allows the subjects to deter- mine the appropriate dimensions for themselves. In 1989 we conducted a preliminary test of this method using 14 individuals, including three receivers who were known to be talented in anomalous cognition (AC). Cluster analysis was used to assemble the results of individual Q-Sort scores into groups of similar profiles, at the same time attempting to create groups that are as different from one another as possible. The result is a visual display called a cluster diagram. 1b the 14 receivers, we added three standard profiles; a normal personality profile, two differ- ent types of pathology personality profiles, and a tentative AC-Profile; an average of the personality traits of the three known viewers. The result was that the pathological profiles were in a cluster by them- selves while the normal profile and the tentative AC-Profile were clustered together with the known receivers. As a result of the 1989 Q-Sort work, we proposed to expand the use of the Q-Sort and to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) What personality variables are common to those individuals who perform well on AC tasks? (2) How do the personality descriptions of individuals who do not do well on AC tasks differ from those who do? (3) What might an "ideal" AC profile look like? 2.3.2 The Q-Sort Method For each individual, the Q-Sort method involved sorting 100 cards into nine categories with an assigned number of cards placed within each category. The 100 Q-Sort cards look something like adeck ofnor- malplaying cards, except that on the face of each is written a single psychological statement iri a theoret- icallyneutral form (e.g., "Initiates Humor"). Each psychological statement is written in a way so as to Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenome~c~~a$~s~t~ ~r~a~~s~~~rra~96-007878000300310001-6 suggest a continuum rather than aneither/or dichotomy. The numbers of cards within each of nine cate- gories must be 5, 8,12,16, 18, 16, 12, 8, 5, respectively. The first category represents those psychody- namic elements that are least characteristic of the individual, while the last category represents those elements most characteristic of the individual and the middle categories represent a continuum in be- tween. The prescribed distribution is a powerful tool, in that it forces individuals into making difficult definitive decisions about their own personalities at the extreme ends of a scale while also allowing for some flexibility. The Q-Sort is self-administered and takes approximately 20 minutes per individual. Subject Selection Thirty four individuals participated in the Q-Sort study. All were aself-selected subset of individuals who consented to participate in other AC experiments conducted by SAIC, recruited from the profession- al and academic communities within the greater San Francisco Bay area, drawn from the student and faculty populations of Stanford University, the Institute for'Il~anspersonal Psychology, and other neigh- boringeducational and research institutions. The age of all participants ranged from 16 to 60. The following is a step-by-step description of the method used to collect the Q-Sort personality as- sessments. This process is done only one time by each subject. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) A participant was greeted by the PI in the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory at Science Applications International Corporation in a warm and friendly way and was shown to a comfortable, quiet loca- tionwithin the laboratory. Following a brief "get acquainted" period, the procedure was explained and (s)he was encouraged to ask any questions about the nature of the study. The PI provided a consent form, typed instructions, a record sheet, and a deck of 100 Q-Sort cards. The PI left the participant alone to sort the 100 cards into the nine categories. The record sheet, instructions, and deck of cards was then collected by the PI. 23.2.3 Analysis All personality descriptions were put into a computer database for cluster analysis. This kind of analysis assembles Q-Sort descriptions into groups of similar profiles, and attempts to create groups that are as dif- ferentfrom one another as possible. The result of such an analysis is a visual display of clusters, such as the one in Figure 3. 'Patented AC receivers are indicated by a (*) and seem cluster around the normal pro- file. Fortunately, the two personality pathology profiles are in a cluster by themselves. 2.3.3 Results and Conclusions The results of the cluster analysis can be seen in Figure 3. Three standard profiles; a normal personality profile, two different types of personality pathology profiles, and a tentative AC-Profile were added to the analysis. The AC-Profile was composed of the wmbined Q-Sorts of six known talented receivers (i.e., 454, 372, 009, 389, 518, and 330). These receivers were chosen on the basis of their repeated suc- cessfulperformance on ACtasks within our laboratory. From our analysis, we find that good AC receiv- ers think of themselves as: ? Possessing a wide range of interest. ? Thinking and associating ideas in unusual ways. ? Valuing intellectual and cognitive matters. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 14 Phenom~i gl~'~i~~f~e~~.~~l~~l~~ >~R~l~!$i~~~na~rl#~~s6-007878000300310001-6 ? Concerned with philosophical problems. ? Being verbally fluent and can express ideal well. They also believe that they are not: ? Subtly negative and do not tend to undermine, obstruct, or sabotage. ? Guileful, deceitful, manipulative or opportunistic. ? Ego-defensive or have a small reserve of integration. ? Exploitive or create dependencies in people. ? Self-pitying or feel victimized by life. It remains to be seen if this general statements are predictive of good AC performance. They do, how- ever, represent a personality profile of our best receivers. For example, in a study investigating a possible correlation between ESP and creativity using subjects from awell-know music academy in New York City, Schlitz and Honorton (1992) suggest that subjects who exhibit greater cognitive flexibility and elaboration produce higher AC scores. The five Q-Sort items most characteristic of the AC-Profile would tend to support this idea. The advantages of using the Q-Sort method of personality description is that it is easy and inexpensive to implement and analyze. The problems are that the results are conditioned both by the content of the Q-Sort card set and the willingness of the sorter to give a candid and accurate description of themselves. These results are only preliminary and little can be known until we have a much larger database of reli- able AC viewers. In time it is hoped that the Q-Sort may prove useful in predicting where we should begin to look in the general population to find successful AC viewers. 2.4 Improved AC Evaluation for Applications Under this section, we were asked to provide improved AC analytical techniques that might be more germane in an application setting. We have delivered a complete description of one such technique as a separate document. This technique expands our fuzzy set analysis to include adaptive learning based upon real-time feedback. 3. Theoretical Issues The objective was to identify models for physical mechanisms for AC and to develop protocols for test- ableexperiments using select individuals. We reported our theoretical approach in an interim technical report; however, we include it here for completeness. 3.1 Probable Futures Since the dawn of history, mankind has been fascinated by the "what ifs" associated with the probabilis- ticpaths that form the future and form the myriad worlds of "what might have been." Mankind's fas- cinationwith predicting the future evolved into the mathematical science of probability theory. Howev- er, classical probability theory is a description which is overlaid on an assumed physical reality. With the advent of quantum theory, alternative paths to the same end took on a physical reality. The very fact that alternative paths exist change the probability of the outcome. There is no classical equivalent. Suddenly the world of "what ifs" has become comingled with the worlds of "what might have been." Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 15 Phenomen~~g~ca~lAes?earchearicg~t~~sQsf ~n~~j~~P96-007878000300310001-6 LEt e 68L SSE ~ewioN pioue~ed ~ualsl~H E6E L s?t o?~ S?o o?o Figure 3. Cluster Diagram Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report This idea has been experimentally verified in recent experiments wnducted at Rochester University. It has been shown that the physical outcome of a quantum mechanical experiment depends not only upon what is being measured, but also on what could be measured, even though it wasn't. The implication for AC mechanisms is that precognition may be the underlying mechanism. If, for some yet unknown reason, humans have access to probable futures rather than actual futures, then the perception appears not to contradict the rules of physics. 3.2 Einstein, Poldasky, Rosen Paradox (EPR) The paradox suggest possible information transport during the collapse of a wave function. It arises naturally when considering two-particle correlations and the effects of measuring the state of one par- ticlewhich gives rise to unambiguous knowledge of the state of the correlated particle even though it may be very far from the measured particle at the time the measurement is made. While no one any longer questions the validity of the predictions of quantum mechanics for correlated systems, the very fact of their validity has caused a philosophical revolution. There is no underlying reality, no absolute reality. There is only reality as defined by measurements made by an observer. There is substantial anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) literature on what are called Observational Theories (OT). It is possible that the EPR paradox and its implications may serve as a physics base for the OTs. There is a major problem both with the OTs and EPR as models for perception. Brain func- tioning at room temperature appears not to be a quantum system; therefore, care must be exercised before we can demonstrate the value of EPR for AMP mechanisms. 3.3 General Relativity The recent resurgence of interest in Einstein's general theory of relativity has lead to some startling theoretical conclusions about the nature of space-time again bringing to the forefront the fact that sci- encehas not unveiled all the secrets associated with time. One such piece of work is Matt Visser's paper on traversable wormholes (Visser, 1989). This paper predicts that it is physically possible to transport energy (and, therefore, information) between remote space-time points without traversing the classical distance between the space-time points. For sometime it has been known that even according to Einstein's special theory of relativity, it is pos- sible to describe mathematically a fully consistent universe in which everything moves faster than the speed of light. The particles inhabiting such a universe have been given the name tachyons while, in contrast, the particles with which we are familiar are named tardyons. The important fact is that neither particle can ever travel at the speed of light. Photons, of course, are common to both universes. More- over, this is anon-quantum mechanical description. We know that in quantum theory it is possible to violate such constraints providing that we do so far short enough periods. The question of whether a tardyon can exist as a tachyon for a short period of time merits investigation. From a heuristic perspective, reverse information flow (i.e., precognition) appears to describe much of the AMP data. While Visser's calculations are not a theory of precognition, at a minimum they demon- stratethat physics may allow for the macroscopic, but statistical, breach of causality. We anticipate that a continuation of these ideas may lead to a law for causality similar to the Second Law of Thermody- namics. That is, on the average causality must hold, but locally there may be a slight statistical reversal that is compensated for elsewhere such that the average is correct. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 17 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : C~4-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final sport 3.4 Time and Entropy The relationship between time and entropy is once more open to question. For nearly two hundred years, scientists have taken the position that the entropy of a closed system can never decrease with time and that, on the scale of the universe, entropy always increases with increasing time. Recently however, Steven Hawking raised the possibility that macroscopic time or psychological time, the time that we perceive, is actually determined by the change of entropy (Hawking, 1988). Similar conclusions were reached at about the same time by Tony Rothman from the Center for Relativity at the University of Tbxas (Rothman, 1987). Rothman discusses the seven arrows of time that represent the distinction be- tween microscopic reversible time and the macroscopic time as experienced by intelligent life. This concept was first proposed by Szilard (1929) in the paper, "On the decrease of entropy in a thermody- namic system by the intervention of intelligent beings." Given that we showed experimentally that the total change of entropy is related to the quality of AC, this theoretical approach seems most promising (May, Spottiswoode and Jarnes,1994). 3.5 Novel Potentials Classical mechanics and, for the most part, quantum mechanics have treated potentials as convenient mathematical descriptions for which there was no physical instantiation. Recently a series of clever ex- periments have dispelled that view by showing that a potential can have an effect on a particle even when there was no corresponding force present. T'he electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials or torsion fields are examples of such novel potentials. At this time, the existence of anomalous perturbation (AP) remains open. While there are intriguing experiments, the database for AP is substantially less than for AC. A theoretical approach for AP using novel potentials is probably premature; however, it may be possible that such potentials could act as a "carrier" of AC information. 4. Applied Research The task objective was to focus on items that might lead to improved functioning through protocol mod- ification and to provide demonstrations of potential applications. We conducted three primary activi- tiesfor this tasking under the direction of physicist S. James P. Spottiswoode. 4.1 Replication of a Russian Experiment In a series of papers, Russian physicist Alexander Parkhomov has reported curious results from a simple high energy particle detector equipped with a diffraction grating. Parkhomov's detector consisted of a photographic emulsion with a small air filled space above it sandwiched between two glass plates. A steady potential difference of slightly less than the breakdown voltage of the air gap was maintained across this structure. Parkhomov denoted this device a Narrow Gap Spark Chamber (NGSC) and simi- lar detectors, though with much larger gaps and usually filled with other gases, are widely used for de- tectinghigh energy particles. Parkhomov mounted periodic structures in front of his detectors, with the intention that these might act as diffraction gratings for particles. These structures resembled optical diffraction gratings, but were composed of alternating layers of high and low density materials, for instance steel/cardboard and glass/air. With this apparatus installed in front of a window and left to Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 18 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report operate for one to two days, Pazkhomov reported that a fraction of the resulting emulsions displayed some hundreds of exposed spots per square cm. Furthermore, he reported that regular variations in the spot density across these films was observed consistent with diffraction effects for particles with wave- lengths in the range O.OS to 2 mm. Pazkhomov's initial interpretation (Parkhomov, a) of these results was that his apparatus was detecting very low energy electron neutrinos gravitationally trapped in orbits around the earth and sun. He rea- soned as follows: The velocity for a stable earth orbit at ground level is 7.9 ICm sec-1 while particles in highly elliptical orbits have a velocity at perigee of 11 Km sec-1. Parkhomov noted that at 7.9 Km sec-1 and 11 Km sec 1 particles of 23 eV mass would have de Broglie wavelengths of 2.0 mm and 1.4 mm respectively, which were two of the most prominent wavelengths that he had observed in his diffraction experiments. The measurement of the electron neutrino mass is experimentally very difficult, and be- cause oftheir great theoretical interest in particle physics and cosmology, many groups have worked on the problem. The best current estimate is that the mass is under 13 eV at a 9S% confidence level. How- ever, during the 1980's the rest mass of the electron neutrino was experimentally measured by Lyubmov and'I~etyakov at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow to be 23 eV, and Parkhomov used this figure in his calculations. Other particle wavelengths observed in his diffrac- tion experiments he associated with neutrino velocities corresponding to solar and galactic orbits. The interpretation of the observed fringes in terms of gravitationally bound electron neutrinos is prob- lematicnot only because of the doubtful mass assumption; but, it is also is inconsistent with well estab- 1rshed measurements of the ground level neutrino flux and the neutrino's cross section. The ground level solar neutrino flux is approximately 6 x 1010 cm-2 sec-1 and the cross section for electron neutri- nos in the 1 MeV energy range to interact with nuclear matter is around 10-`~ cm-Z. Given the small mass of the material available in Parkhomov's detector for neutrino capture the expected detection rate is approximately 2 x 10_g sec-1. Parkhomov reports up to "several hundred tracks per cm2 after a 24 hour exposure," a rate some seven orders of magnitude greater. As this calculation shows, a neutrino flux some 10~ times more intense than the solar neutrino flux would have to exist at ground level to ex- plain his results in this manner, but such a flux has not been reported from the many experiments under- way to investigate the solar neutrino shortfall problem. In a subsequent paper, Parkhomov does not mention neutrinos as a possible explanation of his results and refers to an unknown radiation as the cause (Parkhomov, b). Pazkhomov's results aze extremely intriguing and merit attempted replication. However, at first sight they are sufficiently surprising and the possibility that some artifact exists in his experimental method and equipment cannot be ignored. The small dimensions of the air gaps in his NGSC's render them sensitive to surface contamination and passible arcing due to dirt on the glass plates. Furthermore, the distribution of spots on the films were hand counted under a microscope, a process which is susceptible to error and bias. While he does not present precise statistics for his experiments, he reports that fringe patterns were observed in only 1/3 of the attempts and none at all were observable during two separate periods of two months. If the effects observed are due to the diffraction of real particles, then they show great variability. Alternately the observations may be caused by some uncontrolled experimental or environmental factor including, as some Russian researcher's believe, possible anomalous perturbation effects. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 19 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report 4.1.1 Background Charged with the task of investigating Parkhomov's measurements, two fundamentally different ap- proachescould betaken. ? Use the best currently available detector technology. ? Use an exact replication of his experimental setup. The first option has the advantage that a well understood and stable detection system could be used. However, since the nature of the particles responsible for Parkhomov's results is unknown (if indeed they are due to particles), it is not easy to choose what type of detector to employ. Additionally, if his results were in fact due to some kind of artifact in his detector design, the possibility of discovering this artifact would be lost. The exact replication route permits the discovery of artifacts, if they existed in his work, and does not require us to make assumptions about the properties of the particles, if any, which he detected. We therefore opted to try to reproduce his detector design as precisely as possible from his published description. 4.1.2 Detector Design Parkhomov's description of his detector is fairly detailed, though certain details are not clear. It con- sistedessentially of astack of two glass plates with a conductive graphite film applied to their outer sur- faces. Sandwiched into the space between the plates was a small air gap of approximately 200 microns and a photographic emulsion. A potential difference in the range of 2,OOOV to 2,SOOV was applied across the graphite films. The plates and film were enclosed in alight-proof metal container. No de- tails ofhow this structure was held together, or how the high voltage was fed to the plates are provided in his papers. Our design is shown in Figure 4. The 101.6 mm by 152.4 mm glass plates are 2.4 mm thick and are enclosed in a box fabricated from mild steel sheet. The bias voltage enters through a coaxial socket mounted in the top of the enclosure and is fed to a track on a piece of printed circuit board (PCB). Mounted on this PCB are eight beryllium-copper springs which make contact with the graphite coating on one of the glass plates. The other half of the external enclosure has similar springs to provide a ground contact to the graphite film on the other plate. A Teflon spacer cut to make a rectangular annulus around the area occupied by the film separates the glass plates. The Be-Cu springs place the glass plates and spacer stack under com- pression when the system is assembled prior to use. The device is designed so that a standard Kodak lithographic sheet film of 127mm by 101.6mm size fits snugly inside the Teflon spacer and the detector can be easily assembled under dark light conditions. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 ? C RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Fina sport Teflon Spacer h the Len corner Away from the door, with a five foot partition t~iwu;u it ettd the clrx~r, effrctivr:ty shielding against any extraneous light or color from the mottitor being viewed through any cracks around ctr under the door. 'The sound Amplit'ttr is sun~arly pc~sltioned, turd all suuii[ls to tlrc iuutu ere cunveycxt [ltrnngh the headphcutes. ?his ensures that no 2urbornc sounds or v[bratlons can be heard outside cif the sendrrrs room t5raugh the arcs around the dcwr. Thus, anytat:tc standing of lying outside the ecntle:r~ rurnv dunr c;annnt ere cir hCSr lhr. fli~sPlay TA iht' sender. ThC, skylight pictured In 5's room iR completely covered by an opaque dark green window ;thadc. Additionally, new locks have bean installed on 5 :S door, wiif[ utdy n:setbrch personnel act:iveiy invnlve.rt in [he ongoing studies having access to the keys. ,; aursirle tuv~tt ui office lounge office ~ ~ window f._._._ .......__._.:..-.exlrerimemal suite restraom ` 25 rneT.ers ^~ `~ :; ~, r t.:............. Skyltg}rt ri~ure 1. Laboratory layout. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 CPYRGH~proved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 R~cetveR .. ._... scMO~aa Figure 2. Auclin, vidrn, anti dlgiTal Cornmuaicationc layout This design isolates the audio and video (a/v) paths for S snd RlE to avoid introducing scrtsary coca. The only direct connection between 5'g and R's a/v syslciu~ is tiu: output cif the atuiic- rnixCr into the ittpu[ r)f the 5 audio mixer. IInx~wa[t~ The automated gauta..feld system at the KoeStler Chair usos the foiluwing sYstc:m hardware: . z MAC: TIC:-vt_'[ts (NT5C video format) . 3 NTSC video monitors (R, S, E) ^ 1 Technics ster~ec C~SCItc I~ro rr~:urder (far thr. mc~ntaNon ~ judging} . 1 Rraliatic stezeo cassette taps recoxder (far playing relaxtslion instructioa4 and white noise) . 2 rnictupttulx;.~ tclip-tm fnr R, hAncihpid Pnr E) . 2 kealistic four-channel stereo mixers . 2 Rculis~io ytcrLO audio ampaifitr~ ? 31aaa~dpl~uuCs . 1 MJN brand 33MHz gll3libU.X computer equipped with a 210 MB fixed disk, $ M13 DRAM, four RS 232 sorial parts, 8038? nuuieiic cuprur~~nr, sitpcr VGA mc~niior, and Primer ^ 1 red incandescent bulb and flexipose I?unp ? audio ca~,setta tape with relnxatiu~Y ii~true;tic~n.~ ~ white nnisP Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 CPYRGHT 3otrrw~xL '!'he program runs under a combination of Microsoft Visutil Basic !A anti Windows 3.1/U05 5, and is passwarded. The prugrant pnxluceti a darafile during P.Rrh sezcirm which is sKOred to both the hard drrve and a floppy disk, and is .rant far immediate printout to the printer at session conclusion, All tatgct pres,:ntatiof~s. VCIL video and audio si;iials. as wall a~ c{~mputrr 4rRphit?.s, Rre rotttputer-contmIIed. The target presentation system utvolvec tray separate NEC t?CNCR's, which arc frame accurate NTSC vidCOCassCttc recorders equippccl with RS 232 canal itttcitau;s. SEiCU1tITY M>&nsr~ru~:s The automated ganzfeld U~utx:clur~ {level{~ped at PR1. by Hctnnrtnn and cc~Ileagues is widely recognized as one of the soundest mc;thodologies in parapsychology, Howcvor, it has not been without its Criticisms. Naturally, ~uiy tepli~tiun allcuipt {~f cnmpir.x trttciies, such as those carried out at the EkL laboratories, must take inW accotmt the advantages and disadvaatagcs cncountcrc:d in those studies, and while cnpilnliring on the fcrotct, must attraupt to Glituit~ate or tninimire the. lalrrr. We have attempted to evaluate these erilicisms:a our awtt work at the Kaestler Chair, and Wilt addrdss those iveucs here. 7hc main criticisms of tht earlitr a~utomatcd ganzfeld work (e.,g., hlurti:~, et aI, 1943) have, hrc~n~ (a) possible subliminal sound leakage to the receiver, (b) Repeated playing of the target tape during sending might alter it physically su+:lt as to pruvi{Ie a c~tc, (C) Sounds from the VCIt might provide cues to the experimenter about which clip wns being played as target {{~) ~ollnd 1P.RkAgP fTQnl thf? target room W expenmcntcr might provide c,~ues, if sanders ace noisy, (c) Thcrc could be a Co{ttplc:x clu;ln~nic signxllin` ~ystcm herween sender and rect~vrr, and, (f) Delibc;rato cxpcrimcntcr fraud. In the case of cnticism {a), posb~iblc subliminal sound leakage to the rcc~:ivcr, the audio systetas, as well as the video systems, are elecUuuical].y iaulatn{1 fn~m each uttiGr. The only tlirt?ct connection between S's and R's audio or video systems is the output of the audio mixer iota tha output of the S audio mixer. See l"~igurc 2. 'The mchtaicians from the ElecuaeticsJAu~liu-Vi.~ua! cleparmtent Rt TTniversity of Edinburgh have electronically checked all such connections, following recommended procedures (all sound levels at upper limit), and have verified that ao such leakage c:xisi~ iu our faoility. Tltcvc c:heckti weer. cnndnered prior w the beguuti~tg of the present ganxteld swdy underway, and again at approximately the midwny point. In response to (b), that repeated playistg ref flee target tape login` ~:nding mighr allot it pLysic;ally tiuc;h a~ to Pmvide a strttitte cue, our system utilizes two separate tapes fax sending and judging, which era housed in two separate 1~C I'C1VCR's, and totally tttidcx computer-contmL xwo scparatn VCR's are usIeir uosiliuti uu the wpe. This alxcti nrrvt?nrc nthQr frarms of potential fraud, such as substituting S's acwal video with a specially prepared sham tape with Daly oat target repeatedly tvcorded thmughaut the tape. By doing this, E could prudrtu: frtwdulant hltw if (a) F. lrnnws how to read digital addresses an the tea[ S video tape, (b) has access to utother l?C-VCR to dub the digital addresses W die sham tape aad, (c) cart rGtrievt flit sham taps grid subslila-te tLe real nne at the. end of t:zic:h vescinn. Another concern we have attempted to rectify is that of (d), that sound lealago from the tEtrr~ct room to experymontcr might provide c;u~. iC ~tnden are nr-i~y_ AS was tinted altnve in the of both the expeflmehter and sender's rooms, theso rooms are separated by some distance (approximately 25 ntcters), and a smAll flight of stairs. In addition, wt have had otu' facilities acauyticapy r:vainatrcl (shoed ailenuatinn herween S's room and the foyer of the czpenmeittal suite was above SSdB Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 CPYRGHT In>rn 12.iHi r)n nlr, and presumably higher far the experimental room itSell), and vended that even without headphones oa, our oxpcrirncnicrs could not hear shouts fmm the target roam. In addition. tltctC is tut rrlfc:trit:al tensing cysrrm rnnnettt~d to the: drx~r of S's roam that was designed a defect the opening of the door by activating a !lashing red light in E's room. Consc4ttently, if S left the room during the oxpetimcnt, E would ittstarttly lw alt~rtt:d? A.~ an added ptrranriAn, the. door into the e~cpcrimental foyer is Dept locked dutYng sessions. In the present study tvrrendy underway only laboratory staff ar+e used as senders, who all kuaw w lx+ quu:t. Ta the t:acr: c)f {e), Char there could be a compleac e]ectranic segnal.ling system botween sender surd rcroiver, we consorted with scvcrnl security f'ums in our atttmpts to evaluate ttnd address this. They ooufir)ut:d Qtat while wr. cr)trlrl cnnceivahty do a grew[ deal to prevent and detect. tQrawn signallutg systems, given the present state of technology it would be extremely capensive m guard against alI available ty~s ul' Sigc)a,lliug syyt-:tas. Furtlrermttrt:, thr< tr:chnnl~gy nt such signalling systems is rapidly expanding and. any dctcctian systems would necessarily require continuos, ttrttd expensive, upgrading. Using only laboratory staff as xnders is oiie way of addttiyr'ing lhi~, a.~ iti rhr, elt~crMcA1 sensing system tncntioned above to detect any S leaving the sending room before the proper liras. Thcrc remains the possibility of a fixed monitoring syStcrn in the sender's route. ur utattiu)ring of the +;rnder'c mnm by ttn accxrmpilce outside of lire room. Our present physrcal circtrmstartcesmoke this unlikely, as the roam is pcriadically irrspcctcd and we monitor the en-?ironment during sessiuus fur ylrntrg~:ry. The layctnt nF the ccnd~r'.c roam is designed to prevc~nt any one standing ar tying outside al' the door to receive any visual at auditory information about the target clip. Additionally, such systems involve llw cu- c)peradttn of trie rc?.cFivar. We. rtn'rently use cash receiver for only one session, thus meaning that arty deliberate fraud by receivers would involve sevcrnl pcoprc. The last criticism to be addressed is that of (n. dclibtrraie expetimenu:r frond. We advocate the use of multiple experimenters in any automated ganzt'eld experiments. We are currcatly using three main expcnmcatcrs, plus four senders. All of the expccitneirtcrs ptuti~ipnte av needed in the raft. as cc~nder, plus ono other laboratory staff member. 'l~hus, each session will havo two mernberS of the cxpcrimcntal team iavolvcd. The automated ganzfald pmgram recardi stssiuu data Lul Utlly Ll) LhC bard tltiVC, her. :ilea to sloppy dltk. 'Ihts floppy disk is stored in a secure location by one of the experimenters, and produced before each trial. immediately afar each session as soon us the t;uurltuh;r hay retxnc(rQ tttt: tiresirin ac cxtmlilr~rrd, mglrlple eopirs of the cession dstla[ile are pealed out. l~ach frxperimentcr receives Orie of tlieSe session rceards, grid One: rs included in ChG SC$S10II fllc Wlr1Ch, along with the audio taixxl subjtx:l mentatinn, is ptactxt yn the imit's getvriry Cabinet. For more detail on the secunty precautions involved in axetasirrg the ~rtpsychology writ's Security Cabinet, plcasC sec lklanoy, et al, {1993). The scssIan reco,~ds au computer disk tut; wrupttred to lirintr)tres in the experimerrters'pcssession for discrepa~tcies betore any data are amalyzecl. A minimum of two cxpetlmcntcrs arc reyuircd to y~Rn off on the hand-written record of the gzu cicilaauta tnr,~:t rt:spnnses, wltitsh is lhrn inclutleti in thr. anhje:er rile vt~ith th~C computer print-out. 1n addition to the above security measrores, we have also conducted periodic tnndomncas chcclcs on the pro~.ram, uSinE a efts sgtratc Inyt ft)r numhrrs cclFCred uniformly a.t tandem. The interpretation of the ZING output by the pmgtam woe. checked t,y running a series of mini-trials, using tlic program to generate rc;qucsts far Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 CPYRGHT tlrgets and cnnditionc, and verifying these as about. These checked wrxe carried out prior t0 the current study and az intervals thmughrnrt. These were conducted ant only by rho cxperiruc:nu;rs ur the Pardpsycholo~y unit, but also by specialists in Artiffcial Tntciligcncc and Computer Cnginesring in tlic Psychology DepdrLtu~:ut. Rnnriunmess checks and program interpretadort were found to he within spccificd parameters. F.YSmple of u P'raccss-Oricntcd Autognrraield Study The system described above can cagt[y he tailored tc~ nmdur.P a variety of different experiuucutal ~vuriititms, w t'xplort; those that work best in general, or best for ,5peeific participant populations. It can also vary conditions in accordance with the design of process-oriented studies. Currently it is being used in a 3tndy to evaluate the rule of tt~ sender. Allhongh previous autaganzfeld research has always ernpluyt:d senders (Honortpn, et ai. 1~9U), earlier gattzfeld studtcs have pmduced results bosh with and without soutJcis (Huriurltrn, 1980. The present study employs thrcc conditions, each with 32 patucipants pre selected to match the charactettistics of canter autogan7Pubci rtuca:~cc~a ac best w,e could, e.g. autistic ur mtwic:ttl talent, posldvc aaltude toward psi. and so on_ in two conditions, participants arc introduced to a ]ah a.c.4ociste who is described as a helper who Wray or may not be serving as a sender. The initial preparation of the rcccivcr procccds ac uetyal. W~hcn the helper arrives at th~~ target room, the cumpttter system iucyrluiuly ;~le~:ts whether the scaler stays i0 send or is netted to leave, and dtspiays this decision on the monitor screure. 1f asked to leave, Qrtr setttler goGS elsewhere in the httildins. Tn this way receiver Lund experimenter rcmr-in blind as to the sender's Pr~crncn tmril the end of the. session. In the third cnndition, there is always a sender and all parties know this from the start. 1'n thrs way we hope to ascesc the contribution of flit Nhysical prraonce of the sender as watt ds the psychological effects ofknowing thcrc is tt sender. tanly lab pclSOarlel a[E us+cd ai S5 'watching' sham, making them fccl uncomfortable and self-ca~.ccious. Hwturtcm himsell' c~ntinned against the ore of catncras inside the scnderfrec~ivcr rooms Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 :CIA-RDP96-007878000300310001-6 CPYRGHT (H~m~rtnn, 199?.). AriditianAl security measures arc baing developed which address the psychological comfort of the involved parties while ensuring Thal a high level of experimental protocol is met. lfiere are many factors that conic into play within a laboratory experimental situation that are never eovereci in thr, pmtcx:nl dPSigned to chat des~cribc that uiuu:clu