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November 4, 2016
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March 29, 2000
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June 11, 1976
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c_ NC ti`Q}RDP96-007878000500240024-7 UNIVERSITY (*`p0rAVfi.0'F)jtRW0AA0q4""k6 IHERKELEY ? DAVIS ? IRVINE ? 1.05 ANGEI.LS ? 1kIVL1tSII) ? SAN DIEGO ? SAY 1 IL&NCISCO LANGLEY PORTER NEUROPSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTE Dr. Harold Puthoff Mr., Russell Targ Stanford Research Institute 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, California 94025 Dear Dr. Puthoff and Mr. Tarp;: June 11, 1976 . In this letter is a summary of our efforts to refine and replicate your report of EEG response to remote stimulation, published in NATURE in 1975. We have first verified the effect, by playing your previously recorded data tapes through our analysis system. We then designed a new experiment with an EMI.-free source, tested the experiment on several of our staff, and, finally we reran your original finding with more extensive data acquisition and improved controls. We played the EEG tapes of Hella llaIipid, gathered by Dr. Rebert of SRI,. through the following analysis system, whicih can handle a maximum of six channels simultaneously. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EEG PROCESSOR: The channels of EEG signals are taken from the output and lead to the alpha EEG filters. The filters were built by Kinetic Technology, Incc., of Mountain View, California, to high specifications: corner frequencies 9.0 and 12.0 Hz, 48 db down at 8.0 and 13.0 Hz with rejection over-the rest of the stop band greater than 30 db, pass band ripple less than 0.2 db p-p. The KTI filters also had a 30-60 mg DC offset. Therefore, a high pass filter with f=8Hz was designed which blocked the DC offset and satisfactorily attenuated the delta contamination, giving adequate comparison to the computer, eneratedalpha ratios. Alpha lever, at the filter output are usually less than 400 mv. Operational amplifiers invert and amplify the filtered alpha (gain=50) to provide optimum (near maximum) input to the squared circuits. The alpha signals are squared by analoguee, multipliers (Analog Devices #533K) to yield instantaneous power, an approximation to the FF'L' computation. The transfer function is X2/10, with a maximum of + 1OV input yielding + 10 V output. After this stage, the signal procest;s:iuy- is commanded by a microprogrammed controller, hardwired in TT1, logic, c: copt for read-only memories (ROM) which control formatting in the digital. printer. A master clock is synchronized with the power line (6011z). 1. Reanalysis of previous data. Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 -2- When the experimenter is ready to begin data acquisition, he selects the summation time (1.-99 seconds) with a two digit thumbwheel switch and pushes the START button. In our experiment two four second intervals were chosen. The START function resets the summing integrators, commands the printer to print a line of special characters signifying the beginning of the record, delivers a 50m second .pulse to the polygraph marker channel, and connects the outputs of the six squared units to the integrators. Switching is handled by reed relays for lower leakage. Soli state switching devices were used initially, but leakage currents (10 A) were too high for the accuracy and stability required. .The integrators make use of low loss polystyrene capacitors,.., and FFT-input amps with ultra low (5 x 1612 A) input offset current. This design makes it possible to use long summing intervals or interrupts with a drift error of no more than 1%. After the summation time has elapsed, the outputs of the six summing, integrators are sequentially connected to the analog to digital converter (ADC) by the analog multiplexer. When each conversion is finished (10 bits BCD) the data is parallel loaded into shift registers. The shift registers are then clocked by the controller to send the data in digit serial form to the printer. This being completed, the next integrator is connected to the ADC and the process repeats. This continues untill all six integrators have been read and the summed power of each EEG lead is printed. The digital printer is a MC4000 Monroe Datalog. A fiberoptic cathode ray tube exposes light sensitive paper quickly and (most important for our research) silently. All standard alphanumeric characters are printable. Next the controller commands a line feed from the printer. The second line of data for this sample consists of the log ratios of pairs of integrators. The log of the ratio rather than the ratio is desired as it is linELV2,around zero, e.g., a ratio of 2/1=0.301. The analog multiplexer is then commanded to connect the first two integrators to the two inputs of the log ration module. Its output is an analog voltage representing the log ratio of the two channels to a 10 bit BCD number. The printing process is the same with the addition of a polatiry bit indicating which hemisphere has a higher output for the task. The process is repeated for computation of log ratios of the other two pairs of integrators. After the last data are printed, the controller resets the integrators, then reconnects the squaring units to their integrators. One count is added to the trial display register which tells the experimenter at a glance how many 30 second epochs have been collected. The digitizing, computation and printout takes 2 seconds, primarily due to the switching speed of the relays. The results of this transcription and analysis are provided below: they show power means at 07 in the null. condition greater than that of the 16 Iiz condition at greater than .01. This reanalysis confirmed the published effect and also ensured the compatibility of our systems. Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09115.ti CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 TRANSCRIPTION OF DR. RlBERT'S TAPES PLAYED THROUGH THE ANALYZER FROM FEBRUARY 2, 1976 TO FEBRUARY 6, 1976 Oz 4-8 SECONDS X16 0 SESSION 1:1 578 490 3:1 465 397 2:1 553 466 2:3 232 174 2:4 308 236 Mean: 427.2 352.6 F-RATIO 0OMPUrATION SS 13913 82:3 df F . .' .p. 1 169.05 ~.01 .01=21.2) Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 -4- II. In pretesting our equipment situation, we ran our experiment using .un:selected subjects such as laboratory personnel, in order to test the adequacy of the. experiment and to determine whether there were any correlated electronic or mechanical discharges from the apparatus. In 20 sessions of data acquisition, of 40 each (800 trials) there were no significant differences between the null and 16 Hz conditions. III. For the formal replication of the experiment we used a non-radiating electromagnetic source which could be triggered at either OHz or 16Hz. This was stationed in a remote room approximately 10 meters from the subject. The trials in the experimental sessions were triggered by pulses from one of a set of seven tapes so that no human operator was involved in the triggering of the trials in either the 16Hz or the 0Hz condition (once the session had.begun). These tapes were made at our laboratory during the month preceding the experiment. Randomized tables for the tapes were generated with a Texas Instrument SR-51A electronic calculator, which has a random number key. This random number key produces a sequence of two digit numbers (zero superseeded, i.e., if the first digit is 0, the zero does not appear but can be assumed, which is truly random (i.e., not repetitive, and with no seed number) and distributed in a pure rectangular distribution.' Random sequences of +'s (16Hz) and -'s (0Hz) in lengths of 40 were generated, constrained by the requirements that 1) the trials be pseudo- randomized within each block of trials (i.e., groups 1-10, 11-20, 21-30 and 31-40 each contain five of each kind of trial): and 2) not more than three trials in a row of either type be allowed. The following procedure was used:*' +'s and -'s were assigned alternat= ely within each block of 10 trials according to the random sequences of numbers generated by the key. E.G., if the 21-30 block was being filled, and the random sequence of numbers was 14, 38, 45, 27: first a + would. go to 1, then a - to 4, then + to 3, - to 8, + to 5, - to 2, + to 7, etc., until the block was filled and then on to the next block (repeated digits were ignored). Further more, each + and the succeeding was linked in-the record for editing purposes (see below). Blocks of +'s and -'s were discarded if it was clear that they would include sequences of four or more consecutive +'s or -'s; also,.if a sequence of four or more +'s or -'s was created from the juxtaposition of two blocks of 10, the latter block was reversed (+'s changed to -'s, and vice versa). A single block of 10 trials was discarded becuase of calculator failure in the middle of generating the block, and another becuase of a possible recording error on the part of the operator, otherwise, each trial that was generated was kept. *When the condition was first turned on each time, the random number key was pressed twice to clear initial entries. Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 0 0 Trials were recorded on a tape with a 4 trace Ampex stereo FM tape deck in direct mode, with pulses of 4-5 on one channel for the 16Hz condition and on another for the 0I-Iz condition. The pulses were produced by two Grass stimulators. They were recorded 30 seconds apart, then checked'afterward on playback. The inter-trial interval was checked and found to be within 1. second of 30 seconds, consistently, with no detectable systematic difference between conditions. The tapes were played back on a Tandberg 2-track stereo tape recorded into a logic circut which triggered the type of trial corresponding to the channed. There were no failures in trial triggering due to errors in the trial tapes at any point during the experiment. Trials were deleted after the session for three reasons only: artifact, logic circuit failure resulting in a breakdown in the trial sequence, or abnormal EEG power (under 50 or above 1299 on printout). In each case, the linked trial of any trial discarded was also discarded along with data from all leads for all 8 seconds. If more than 10 trials all together were deleted for any session, the session was deleted. Only inthe case where it would make the difference in saying or discarding a session were the tapes of the session played back and reanalyzed at different levels to recover all the epochs. This was done. for 3 sessions. The trials were deleted by experimenters blind to the condition. The coded tapes were selected by number with no prearrangement except that a different tape be used for each session in a set until all tapes were used once. Only the operator of the logic equipment had the knowledge of which tape was being used and no person knew before any trial what the trial type would be: that information was coded in the tape. The coded tapes were played back through a conventional tape recorder' producing pulses of about 5 volts which, mediated by the digital logic, triggered the appropriate stimulus type for any trial. Intertrial interval was fixed by the spacing of pulses on the tape to be 30+ 1 second. The command box of the free photic stimulator, when triggered, produced a one second warning tone to both sender and receiver, then flashed a light for 10 seconds when a 16Hz trial was ordered, or did nothing if a null trial was ordered. The digital logic meanwhile kept track of the events from the tape and command box and sent pulses to turn on and off the analyzer at one and ten seconds respectively from the onset of the trial. For each trial the digital logic generated pulses to be recorded on the Hewlett-Packard tape for use, if necessary, in computer analysis of the data. A 16Hz trial was differentiated from a 0Hz trial by the presence of an initial .5 volt positive pulse for the 16Hz trial. This was the only electronic event of difference to the conditions that entered the recording area while the experiment was in progress. Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 o The "sender" sat before the photic stimulator and behind a partition in a separate room from the receiver or the recording equipment, but shared a room with the logic, equipment and monitors. The number of people in the room with the stimulator and the sender varied from one to three. Noise from the street and hallway were also variable. The "receiver" sat upright in a sound-attenuated darkened room and made no overt responses for set 1, but was required to press a button to indicate her idea of trial type about 12 seconds after the warning tone for set 2. The subject being familiar with the nature of the experiment was not formally instructed for each session. The EEG output (J6) of the Grass model 7 was sent to our data analysis system, described above and also to a Hewlett Packard FM tape recorder, through a Vetter :,multiplex system. Our obtained means in arbitrary relative power units are in summary in the table below .with those differences significant at greater than .05 starred. A "set" was define &a 100 acceptable trials to each type. After the first set,minor modifications (such as a button to indicate guesses) were added, and a second set was run. The total number of acceptable trials was 222 of both types, or 424 total. The previous experiment reported a decrement at 0 -linked mastoids at 161Iz compared with the null condition, in the second four seconds. We did not find this but did find a significant decrement in Oz in the first 4 seconds of the first set. None of the other Oz comparisons attain significance and the combined set 1 and set 2 first 4 seconds is not significant. Therefore we did not directly repeat your earlier findings. however, the other occipital leads do also show consistent decrements at 16IIz compared with null, and analyzing all the data from 01 on all 424 trials over 8 seconds shows a consistent decrement. This finding is most encouraging and does lead us to pursue the matter further. There does seem, in these data, an indication of a consistent effect which is difficult to explain by any arbitrary hypotheses Since'these data are so consistent, even though it is only one subject and the possibilities so intriguing, we propose to continue our explora- tions. Specifically, we would like to explore factors on this experiment such as the dependence of this effect upon the "sender" and to set the experiment so that no one knows during the experiment which trial is which. We would also like to explore more elaborate physiological monitoring of the subject to more precisely determine the locus of the effect (we found si/gi.ficance in this experiment in the occipital but not in the central leads), and its dependence upon site of reference. m We would also like to determine the subject variables such as Ms. Ham id's EEG under our series of hemispheric activation tasks, and other tests of her sensitivity to internal stimuli. If we can develop a workable * A battery driven CW incandescent lamp, chopped by a continuously rotating apertured disc. 0 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 1 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 LIGHT CHOPPER MOTOR RUNS CONTINUOUSLY O @ 0 0 EEG CHANNELS 0 HALLWAY 1, 2. 3. 4 1 BETWEEN ROOMS ~ ~~ t ff O 1 ~p O I T IMINC CHANNEL 5 10 sec LOCKING CIRCUIT CONTROLS LAMP 10 Hz TIMING GENERATOR 1 kHz TONE GENERATOR 2 sec BEFORE EACH TOTAL PERIOD (Light. or No Light) 2 sec WARNING TONE FIGURE 1 REMOTE SENSING EEG EXPERIMENT Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 0 0-8 sec. 276 276,?' 261 24 284 268 267 249 560 544 528 494 0-4 sec. 4-8 sec. 0-8 sec. 4-8 see. 0-8 see. 353 / 425, 05* 336** 358 415 ed For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00a78g78000500240024-7 sign at & .,E 161 (7. ***sign at < .01 383* 413 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 experimental paradign through these further tests and extensions of the method, we would then be in a position to test many subjects in this situation and so begin to determine the generality and distribution of the effect on the. population. Robert E. Ornstein Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute o Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 POSSIBLE EEG CORRELATES TO REMOTE STIMULI UNDER CONDITIONS OF SENSORY SHIELDING nJ C E. C. May, Russell Targ, and H, E. Puthoff Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 We have investigated the ability of certain individuals to perceive remote (faint) stimuli at a noncognitive level of awareness. To inves- tigate this we have looked for systematic changes in a subject's brainwave (EEG) produc- tion occurring at the same time as light flashes are generated on a random schedule in a remote laboratory. Although we have found in this in- vestigation that significant correlations appear to exist between the times of light flashes and the times of brainwave alterations, we consider these data to be only suggestive, with a defini- tive result requiring further experimentation. INTRODUCTION In a number of laboratories evidence has been obtained indicating the existence of an as- yet-unidentified channel wherein information is coupled from remote electromagnetic stimuli to the human nervous system as indicated by physio- logical response, even though overt responses such as verbalizations or key presses provide no evidence for such information transfer. Physio- logical measures have included plethysmographic responsel and EEG activity.2,3 Kamiya, Lindsley, Pribram, Silverman, Walter, and others have suggested that a whole range of EEG responses such as evoked potentials (EPs), spontaneous EEG, and the contingent negative variation (CNV) might be sensitive indicators of the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by usual sensory processes.4 A pilot study was therefore undertaken at SRI to determine whether EEG activity could be used as a. reliable indicator of information . transmission between an isolated subject and a remote stimulus. Following earlier work of others, we assumed that perception could be in- dicated by such a measure even in the absence of verbal or other overt indicators. To aid in selecting a stimulus, we noted that Silverman and Buchsbaum attempted, without success, to detect EP changes in a subject in response to a single stroboscopic flash stimu- lus observed by another subject.5 Kamiya sug- gested that because of the unknown temporal characteristics of the information channel, it might be more appropriate to use repetitive bursts of light to increase the probability of detecting information transfer.6 Therefore, in our study we chose to use repetitive light bursts as stimuli.7-9 PILOT STUDY AT SRI In the design of the study it was assumed that the application of remote stimuli would result in responses similar to those obtained under conditions of direct stimulation. For example, when normal subjects are stimulated with a flashing light, their EEG typically shows a decrease in the amplitude of the resting rhythm and a driving of t~8 brain waves at the frequency of the flashes. We hypothesized that if we stimulated one subject in this manner (a putative sender), the EEG of another subject in a remote room with no flash present (a receiver), might show changes in alpha (8-13 Hz) activity, and possibly EEG driving similar to that of the sender, either by means of coupling to the sen- der's EEG, or by coupling directly to the stimulus. We informed our subject that at certain times a light was to be flashed in a sender's eyes in a distant room, and if the subject per- ceived that event, consciously or unconsciously, it might be evident from changes in his EEG out- put. The receiver was seated in a visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded double-walled steel room located approximately 7 m from the sender's room. We initially worked with four female and two male volunteer subjects. These were desig- nated "receivers." The senders were either other subjects or the experimenters. We decided be- forehand to run one or two sessions of 36 trials each with each subject in this selection proce- dure, and to do a more extensive study with any subject whose results were positive. A Grass PS-2 photostimulator placed about 1 m in front of the sender was used to present flash trains of 10 s duration. The receiver's EEG activity from the occipital region (Oz), referenced to linked mastoids, was amplified with a Grass 5P-1 preamplifier and associated driver amplifier with a bandpass of 1-120 Hz. The EEG data were recorded on magnetic tape with an Am- pex SP 300 recorder. On each trial, a tone burst of fixed fre- quency was presented to both sender and receiver and was followed in one second by either a 10 s train of flashes or a null flash interval pre- sented to the sender. Thirty-six such trials were given in an experimental session, consisting Approved For Release 2003/09/16 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000500240024-7 of 12 null trail pGo / cgr li 2Q /09/16: CIIA