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October 17, 1974
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r _iY ,,.. . a ? c. r ry rr e'l New Science Publications Approved For Rle sel2OAO/.08IOL71cCIAGRDP96-00787R000700110020-3 ? ?~~? Tc?re }'orc?C1-goo^'F3 Cables: Newseient London \VC2 Telex: 27253 Subscription irquine:s: 01-242 4477 ` ^ .?.. :...:LU~~.aJ w. ~.trY: w.wr.f. ?'a1.:Mf;..,. Y{ .J.'.--. w. Editor: Dr ?ierr.ard Dixon Oc?P.,!y fcitcr (Sc:encc): Dr Peter Stubbs L1, puty Editor (Technology): Nicholas Valery L.ar.a; ing E.::lor: Richard Fifield Science Policy Editor: Dr Martin Sherwood Science EEdilcr: Dr Rog-:r Lewin Assistant Science Editor: Dr Robert VJalgate Socir?l Editor: Ic:n Low Technology Ed tor: ;Lich: el Kenward Technclo,0y Policy Editor: Dr Joseph Hanlon Technology Ncvs Editar: La?r:renco McGinty Art Editor: Mnrcaret V/sbb Assistant :eft Editor: Alan Middleton Artists: Neil Hyslop, Mlcnael Peyton LIS Editor: Graham Chedd 72 Addir:btcn Rd, Brookline, Massachusetts 0214G Consultants Eiiochem!slr;: Dr Robert Freedman Computers: Hadley VOYSEY Eduction: Juhn De!in Environment: Jon Tinker Marine: Tcny Lo'tas Psycho!c; : Dr Nick Humphrey Soviet Science: Dr Sarah White Telc:or.unc: ications: Ron Broom Adver'ieemoont manager :. Roy Edwards Ad?r:sdry Panel ? Or Meaty F!rnistcn FRS Sir \'Jriii=_m Glanville FRS Or L;astl '.',?son FRS Professor Sir Mich el Swann FRS Monitor 165 Technology review 1EG Enemy fife 193 Feedback 203 Westminster scene 202 New York view 202 Paris notebook 203 EEC notebook 203 Venture 204 Pig-ignorant 205 A greundling's notebook. 205 Tantalizer 2C'6 Letters 212 Grimbladon Dcv.n 212 Ariadne 22-2 Comment Dr Roger Lewin, Adrian Hope, Dr Michecl Schwab Uri Geller and Science A Nev., Scientist special investigation by Dr Joseph Hanlon Generalisations Professor Guy Ourisson talks to Dr Martin Sherv;ood . How safe are North Sea platforms? i R9&007S7R00070041002a.4estin_g as he was` "how imp t 1 1 divi(ua burr simpl fiddli ...:,1. _d:-l- ----. b h y ng y t e on 'the rec d d V. - suggest that Geller was unwilling to perform before someone who was more watchful than usual. Another example of this sort of choice came up in a discussion of ex- periments with Pat Price, also published in the SRI paper. In the test, one of the investigators went to a randomly selected place in the Palo Altc area- a motorway toll booth, a drive-in movie, a marina, etc. Thirty minutes after he started, Price would dictate into a tape recorder a description of where he thought the investigator was. Transcripts of the nine descriptions were given to five judges who were asked to correlate them with personal knowledge of the nine locations but with no knowledge of which descriptions Price said were of which trips. There is a wide diversity, with two judges picking 6 and 7 of Price's descriptions as correct, while two others picked only S. When asked about the diversity, Targ said that it simply showed that they had to be more careful in picking judges because some judges were not good at doing - correlations! or er. ileoard is convince , how- ever, that Swann did perturb the output without touching the recorder. But as often happens, his version of the story tells more than he realises. He said that there were several people in the room and that they stood talking for about 40 minutes. Swann, he said, stood close to the chart recorder looking at it intently for 20 minutes before any- thing happened. Hebard is sure that Swann did not touch the recorder, but in a crowded room with people talking, who can concentrate on any single object for 20 minutes and be sure it is not touched? llebard also added a point that neither Swann nor Puthoff men- tioned-they came back the next day with fewer people around and Swann failed to have any effect. One also has the comment of Ray Hyman-the Oregon University psy- curious incident which occurred at the end of the third day of the test. After the formal test had been abandoned, it,,. was decided to loosen the precautions and try again with six drawings. This time the drawings were left lying about the room so that it was possible to"remove a drawing from the pile without anyone noticing, and Geller was per. ' mitted to leave the room, which he did three times. This time, Geller had no`' trouble with the clairvoyance test, and:.'= succeeded in drawing one of the pic- tures. Commented the third researcher: "I'm convinced he cheated." If he could do this test under loose conditions but not under tight conditions, is this not worth a mention in the paper? chology professor, magician, and con Looking in Uri's mouftl, fumed sceptic about psychic phenomena. Hyman observed a day of SRI tests on The final question that must be Geller in November 1972 and concluded answered is how the SRI paper stacks that "they don't know how to observe. up against Occam's Razor-is there a Targ and Puthoff recounted incidents plausible normal method by which' we just saw in completely the reverse Geller could have done his two success-, order, making them miracles". ful tests at SRI? Plausibility is hard to - Finally there are two problems that d f , e ine in this situatio bt itt tk n,u musae Good observers? apply to all scientists, Targ and Puthoff into account anything that can be done included. First, future funding clearly with the assistance of Dr Andrija By far the most important component depends on success-there'is no-money ' of the validity of the SRI I uharich. ty paper is the available to prove that subjects of their As the box on the next page shows, investigators' abilities as observers. Two choice have no psychic ability. Second, Puharich is a medical electronics expert incidents suggest that although Targ the mystique of the hard-headed scientist who developed a radio receiver which and- Puthoff may be competent laser objectively searching for truth bears can be hidden in a tooth. It must there-. physicists, they are less successful in little relationship to reality; in the real fore be considered plausible that Uri has this radically different area. In particu- world of science most people are trying a miniature radio receiver concealed on'_ lar, their desire to believe may cloud to prove the truth of a hypothesis to his person. Even if it is not hidden in their discrimination. which they are already committed. Thus his teeth, it could easily be hidden .,in Perhaps the most telling event is Hal it is hardly surprising to find that Targ his hair or- in a wristwatch which he Puthoff taking Ingo Swann-an experi- and Puthoff are strongly committed to presses against his chin to hear. The mental subject not described in the Geller and seem genuinely to believe in possibilities are limitless, especially if Nature paper-to the quark detector his abilities (although Targ seems more Uri is not carefully searched. Because at Stanford University early in 1973, cautious about Geller's metal bending). Uri constantly runs his bands through The quark detector is a highly sensitive Targ has worked in the parapsychology his hair and across his face, no one magnetome'ler which works by looking area on and off for 15 years. Puthoff would notice him listening toy his Dick at the decay of a magnetic field. This has gone through encounter groups and Tracy wrist radio-nor, because of the:. is shown on a -chart recorder by a other West Coast fads, and is now a direct nerve stimulation, would anyone periodic function. Puthoff and Swann Scientologist (as is Ingo Swann). In else hear it. independently told me roughly simi'ar an area where observation is difficult There are two small pieces of evidence stories: Puthoff took Swann to the quark anyway, have the SRI investigators that give some credence to this sugges- detector, where Swann described in taken enough precautions to ensure that tion. The most obvious is that all of, some detail the inside of the detector, their natural desire to see Geller succeed Uri's drawings are representations of.- of which he could not possibly have had does not cause them to unconsciously words which would describe the target any knowledge. Then, without going snake errors or misinterpret the data drawing, and thus are consistent with near any of the equipment, for short to Geller's benefit? radio communication.The second occurred times he both increased and decreased in January when Puharich was telling the period of the signal. me that in any test Uri should be - Dr Arthur Hebard, who designed the Omitting a success "properly examined" for hidden devices. equipment, and who suggested that But then he suddenly added: "But I Futho'T bring Swann there, tells a One test with Geller that is omitted know Uri will not submit to excessive somewhat different story. He dismisses from the paper throws some interesting examination like total body X-radiation". the description of the inside of the light both on Geller and the researchers. In other words, Uri will not permit the detector by saying that Swann was Whereas the 13 drawings in the tele- only test for a Puharich implanted radio 'talking in such poetic terms that lie pathy test are described as the "entire receiver. could have hen dnscrihln7 ?r.vt?riff rr set of consecutive experiments". this is 1 ^_ ch~_ , i;~tioa ~?. "dc:. ,: , d To some measure, SRI has r.rotected _, C2-e " :::: 1nL' C..::[': r,~?;:;:Ca test ., ,..,.n5i i?:::1:0 tra^S:a:SS:On 1..: worl-inz- the sort of tiling any poetic layman which Geller failed-his attempt to with shielded rooms for the picture would use to describe any piece of draw the contents of sealed envelopes. drawing tests. But have they succeeded; scientific equipment. The targets were drawn by an SRI or is it On the perturbation of the detector artist at the request of a third SRI to a radio possible to penetrate the room output, Ilebard made two interesting researcher who worked with Targ and To answer this question, I consulted comments. First, just that sort of per- Puthoff for a short time in August 1973. Robert King, a senior lecturer at tur5.eticn often oc-urs lvn~~i otiicr people As Tar a d *1 - n g m t u?lo repon in lne paper, ipenat Cohere, London. King wrote rTio share th helium sup ly a r~lso 1 r biusing their qq~roved can `Iease t2D ~o a&';7, w i ie JQT ;~t R2's _j` three shiol,l~d i In o egg lectrical En;in- Aaoroved' For R'el`ease 2000/08/07 CIA-RDP96-0078.7R00070014,0020-3 t eering Department. King was dogmatic: "I could get information into any shielded room." The reason, he ex- plained. is that shielded rooms are simply not designed to protect against secretive attempts to get information through. The SRI paper gives only vague info m ation on the room in which' most Hearing with a tooth The dream of spy writers, a radio receiver that can be concealed in a tooth. actually exists and was in- vented by Andria Henry Puharich -the man who found Geller in Israel and brought him to the US. Puharich is a wealthy 56-year-old MD who holds 56 patents, primarily in medical electronics. Since 1560 his inventions have related primarily to hearing aids for people with nerve deafness. But Puhar ich's hearing aid is a unique device which stimulates cer- tain facial nerves just as the organ. of Corti stimulates auditory nerves, and the person can actually hear normally w t.hout using his or her ears at all. The facial hearing system will work with nerves on the face and neck, on the tongue, and in the sinuses. Puharich claims. But for cosmetic reasons. the nerves in a living tooth are best. "The invention comprises an element applied to a viable tooth, for receiving electromagnetic signals at radio freeuenc-v% and a transducer element coupled with a receiving element and with live nerve endings of the tooth for converting the electromagnetic signals to electric signals at audio frequency, and im- parting the electrical signals to the nerve endings of the tooth for trans- mission to the brain," according to US Patent 299565Z issued 8 August, 1561. of the tests were done (S1 in the Table, p 179)-it says only that it is "a double- walled steel room, locked by means of an inner and outer door". The second room (S2 in the Table, p I79) is a "double-walled, copper-screen Faraday cage" which "pro- vides 120 d13 attenuation for plane wave radio frequency radiation over a range of 15 KlIz to 1 Gliz. For magnetic Normally, the user would carry a small transmitter in his pocket which would pick up sounds and transmit them to the tooth. But Pubarich and co-inventor Joseph Lawrence noted in US Patent 3 267 931, issued 23 August, 1966, that the device "may, of course, be adapted for longer range transmission of radio frequency signals". Although the device will receive radio signals directly, it works best with an amplifier. In the initial patent, this amplifier is relatively large, concealed in two false teeth next to the viable one with the implant (Figure 2). But by 1964, Figure 2 Signals can be transmitted from a radio to a receiver/amplifier hidden in two false teeth, and then passed on to an adjoining viable tooth as in Figure 1. Drawing from US Patent 2 995 663 Puharich had modified the amplifier cirduitry (US Patent 3 156 787) to be mounted on the one tooth. The drawing (Figure . 3) "is greatly exaggerated in size to facilitate description. . . . The entire assembly . . . advantageously is of wafer-thin construction, so as to be unobtrusively concealed with the cap. . . . It is contemplated that the various com- ponents of the system of the inven- tion may be further reduced, to micro-miniature proportions, through the use of so-called 'thin film' circuit 1l'.e an-pit:.C:Sit(,:1 in ir.c ihG-1 and Fic;.,re I Pula,-;Ch tooth radio receiver. 1S66 patents is provided by a fee_d- S:cra's are recei,Ed t the gold filling, back loop within the mouth, using converted to electric slcna!s in the audio either two di'.;erent teeth (Figure 4 `ea,.Er.cv ranee by i e rectifier crystal, from the. 1966 patent) or the tonO,uc King said that this is typical of screen ing for shielded rooms, and provides the, key to getting data inside in this case. '' Attenuation drops off very rapidly a,,,'.,' the very small wavelengths about 1 GIIz, he said, so that microwaves of 10`;;: Gllz or more provide a good possibility. Figure 3 By 1964, Puharich had improved the amplifier so that it could be mounted on the back of the tooth. In this drawing, the amplifier "is Greatly exaggerated in size to facilitate description" and would, in fact, be hidden under the tooth cap. The amplifier has a terminal on the left which must be touched with the tongue to complete the circuit. Drawing - from US Patent 3 156 787 has the interesting side effect that amplification only works when the tongue is pressed against the tooth, and thus the wearer can listen selec- tively and be undisturbed by radio signals at other times. In another version of the device, described in the 1966 patent. an electrode "about the size of a penny which is covered on its operative surface with a thin film of Mvlar" could be pressed against the skin in "one of several identifiable areas of the head and neck" to stimulate facial nerves and produce the same effect of hearing. The electrode is connected to a receiver similar to the one mounted in the tooth. The. feedback circuit is completed by a, connection to any point on the body. For example, a quite small device held in the hand could be pressed against the face. - Amplifier ow~Lr a - .Cirr parted c re CV, :c the nerve pressed against an exposed terminal Figure 4 An alternative empt;fier t;$ Pate r US dr led FornRelease ~0 %Q ~~r~f the 'DIR ?`0 787' ~~ ( ~1g1t I2 ; 31gn T Ge11e performs at rkbeck Uri Geller has worked with one group of scientists in Britain. On 21 and 22 June, 1974, he did a set of tests in the of-ace of Professor John Hasted at Birkbeck College, London University. Also present were Professor David Bohm, Dr Ted Bastin (a friend of Andrija Puharich and a strong Geller supporter, who first introduced Uri to New Scientist in 1972), Brendon O'Regan (another Geller proponent who wrote the first New Scientist report on Geller at SKI), theoretical physicist Dr Jack Sarfatt, authors Arthur Koestler and Arthur C. Clarke, and several other people. In an unpublished paper, Hasted reports that Geller bent four keys and a 1 crr molybdenum disc 0.32 mm thief., affected a Geiger counter, and deflected a compass needle while at the same time producing a pulse on a magnetometer. Hasted concludes that "these observations are consistent with the hypothesis that Mr Geller could by concentration produce occasional and rather un- predictable pulses of electromotive force". As usual, they are also consistent with non-paranormal explanations. Indeed, the whole set of tests seems no better controlled than the typical Geller show. In a telephone interview last month, Bohm told me that "unfortunately there were a lot of people in the room", and that "as far as the key bending is concerned, we had much better conditions in his hotel room (in February 1974] where it was much quieter". "I can't assure that there were no tricks, and no one there could,"''Bohm added. "Geller works in a very high state of excitement which communicates to the experi- menters, and that makes it hard to keep your mind on what is happening." - According to the Hasted paper, Geller bent four brass Yale keys through angles of between 10? and 400. "In all cases the bending took a time of the order of minutes good magician could have bent the keys no platter how. closely the observers thought they were watching-with the chaos that must have reigned in the office, it should have been trivially easy. The bent disc was one of ten metal objects. ",1Tr Geller' was not asked specifically to bend this specimen rather than others on the tablfe". As I noted in the box on pane 180, SRI observed a similar event and even videotaped it, yet they rejected it because of the possibility of sleight- of-hand. The Geiger counter was connected to an amplifier and a chart recorder, and "during a total period of about 10 minutes eight pulses of duration of the order of a second were recorded. . . . However, the loudspeaker clicking, which was recorded on magnetic tape, did not always accelerate during the chart recorded pulses, nor did a second Geiger counter record click consistently". To me, this is more consistent with Uri or one of his supporters bumping the chart recorder or fiddling with a knob on the amplifier than with any paranormal event. As for deflecting the compass needle, the best comment is that made in the SRI filer of Geller: "we found later that these types of [compass needle] deflections could be produced by a small piece of metal, so small in fact that they could not be detected by a magnetometer". Bohm stresses that to perform, Uri must be in the right state of mind. "tiMy attitude is that whatever lie requires, we must accept." For example, "considering the sort of person Geller is, you couldn't search him-it would put him off". Bohm also noted that Geller "tends to get discouraged by complicated set-ups. We had some set-ups that would have given stronger proof, but he was never in the right state of mind". not mention it at all in their paper, loss around tortuous routes. The air_ conditioning system probably vseri Shipi was constantly under foot during good wave guid ing the experimenters during actual e-a transmitter placed -?~ ~;:~~;,?. k V t, : experiments. Shipi an}-where in the air conditioning could easily have w ld ! " t ou ~.~ transmit to all linked offices. Naturally, signalled Uri in code with a transmitter effective in the microwave range. On 7) II ' ?t -1 room" which suggests that Shipi might the other hand, microwave transmitting V ...~ ', have had other chances to see it as well. equipment can be miniaturised and ti- -; In the chaos of the computer room for draw very little power. A microwave tests 11 to 13, Shipi would hardly have transmitter for this sort of purpose need r Y,x been noticed while the picture was being ~?- ~~?::y. ti- a. c.zt r~.:= decided on and drawn. The SRI data be no big_er than a cigarette pack. And talks about his tooth receiver working un ypo der the control the drawings were in the MHz range, it should work just as would the of an outsider G who well in the GlIz range. In the confr gura_ would be less likely to accede Shipi, tion where the n picture out loud after they drew it- requests and the presence of hipi, Uri tongue is part of the after all, as they say in their paver, the failed (Trials 5. 6, and 7). a:ua:i: r. Geller wo,n i evrn he able to sliieided room provided acou, is isola- Even if `ti ,: ? tarn !t oa and off at will, and thus not tic.;" not - tvurkt.Puha s rich could surely elue will be affected by possible continuing trans- Another choice would involve Shipi , way. Four th possibilities find a missions. St ra n g, simple way, Four other osibi!itics came igher in frequency' discussions with avg: How would such a radio be used? According tosPuhar ch inlehis book Uri, 1)lIi ~ k3 between Perhaps the simplest way would be to Geller first met Shipi in 1967 when Uri tsould pass s through the cracla between use it to bug the room in which the was serving as a counsellor at a summer t"rs_'t y:cture was being viewed. Targ Giii", b'us, .uiu une ui his the steel plates and around the door. pad Put^o f ttiere so anxious to lea e c ~ Indeed, Bing notes to at the space Ur! that the ? ;4pi? 4+_ y it tTt f?~cq70 3 ' t d provide a 'T4': } /OC}90/@darul'tEI~BS@r WVtUI~ Rt / 87~3i ttcu arT~~q~~l1otuide. With a with a request om Uri to describe the Hannah, and Uri and Shipi soon became transmitter anywhere in the room A3P Release 2000/08/0.7 'CIA-RDP96-00787R000700110020-3 directly outside the shielded room, if Uri's request came via Spectra, signals would penetrate in this way. Puharich would be sure to obey. Thus, 2) To get electricity into. a shielded Puharich need not be a party to a wide- room (for lights) without any radio tran- spread and continuing fraud to have sients, the normal procedure is to put helped Uri in this wav. a steel plate (usually the roots wall) I have no proof that Uri did do his b ? etr. een two sides of tf Th di aransormer.erawngs in this way. But it fits the 60 Hz magnetic field penetrates, whereas data at least as well as the Targ-Puthoff di G ld ld ra o e s wou not (this is supported by the fact that the copper screened room shows only a 3 dB loss to mag- netic fields at 60 Ifz). Therefore, King suggests low frequency magnetic induc. tion transmission of data. Frequencies of 5-10 Hz should pass through double steel plates without unacceptable losses. The transmitter coil could be concealed in a briefcase left sitting next to the wall of the shielded room. Geller would have a coil of wire (for an aerial) under his b-alt or even hidden behind his teeth, and would stand close to the inner wall. During a 30 minutes test, large amounts of information could be trans- mitted by simple code. 3) If SRI has not properly shielded the mains current supply to the room, it would be possible to send radio signals along the mains (just this system is used for internal radio systems in universities, hospitals, and the like). This could be done with a transmitter smaller than a cigarette pack plugged into any outlet in the building. Geller would simply touch an electric wire inside the cage and his body would act as an aerial for the tooth radio. 4) There. is an intercom connecting the inside of the cage with the outside. This could be like a telephone and have a fker to cut out everything above 3 KHz. But if it does not, it too could be used to carty.radio signals into the room with the transmitter simply clipped onto the communications wire. The preceding discussion applies only to the extremely difficult problem of the shielded room. The other successful test -guessing the die--can be much more easily solved by radio. MMir Hubert Caddy of the International Magic Studio, Lcndca, tells me that for several years it has been possible to buy a dice for about #30 which radios which face is up! It would not have been too difficult for Uri to have given SRI a. normal die that looked like the radio (Le, let them mark the normal die as they wanted, and then simply mark the radio die in the same way and switch. ?tiaturaally-, this all depends on the cooperation of Puharich in perpetrating fraud-. ti'~'hv would lie do so? In his book Uri, Puharich reports that extraterres- trial powers called Hoova speak to him through a voice called Spectra, and have cone so for longer than he has known Uri. Uri's power, he says, comes from Eoova. To have any hope of having this report accepted, Puharich needs Uri's .s. if t':-i ear no:' and ii - - thetic to Geller, but it did call in is magician James Nandi to help set the experimental conditions.) And Mitchell" told me that Geller "broke several .': engagements" at SRI and that he did not seem to want to do any more there' even though "we've got funding for it if he will work under conditio ns accep ? paranormal explanation. By Occarn's table to us." Uri, it seems, will work:`' Razor it is only necessary to show that only with scientists such as those at:: plausible normal explanations have not Birkbeck who seem loth to set any been excluded. To be sure, by what conditions at all. might be considered a reverse Occam's Thus, it appears that the paper pub= Razor, it must also be shown that the lisped this week may be the closest to route to the normal explanation is not halyd scientific evidence will w e w get and , more complex than simply accepting it must be unusually closely scrutinised. the paranormal. But Puharich takes the It seems clear that no matter how' good plausible virtually into the realm of they are as laser physicists, Russell science fiction. Targ and Dr Hal Puthoff are no match Conclusion The ultimate test of any scientific research, including the SRI work with Uri, is the ability of other scientists to independently reproduce the results. As Uri himself said on a Thames TV docu- mentary on 15 January: "W hen I am doing enough experiments with scien- tists, the disbelief will drop off." But there is a real danger this will not happen-that Uri will consider the publication of the SRI paper to be all the scientific validation lie needs. Uri has backed out on a written commitment to work with the New Scientist. He backed out on a verbal commitment to work with the Maimonides Medical Centre Division of Parapsychology and Parauhvsics in Brooklyn, New York. (The Maimonides team is highly sympa- for Uri Geller. There is too much evidence that they missed out on impor- tant points. And their exper-iments fail the Occam's Razor test-they did not.. exclude non-paranormal forms of infor- mation transfer that, based on Puharich's background, must be considered highly possible. I do not question the integrity of the SRI researchers. But science is filled with examples of scientists---often in large numbers-seeing v;hat they want to see rather than what is there. Canals on Mars, poly water, and the supposed double mass peak of the A, particle are just three examples. Several magicians have told me that scientists are good audiences because they are so easily fooled. My investigations of the Geier phenomenon support this. The SRI paper simply does not stand up aairst the mass of circumstantial evidence that Uri Geller is simply a good magi "a_i. a=gig me to uo I things I may not always be able to do inc something whil " i e In h s . , Thiianch tells of often hearing the voice of Spectra, and FFoFeReIease 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00787R0007001100 .:4:..w~:u:r;.~vr+ti~~'w.:4Vixv.ul.r-f+i~n:`iv~.a.-!V'..-uwuM w..-..~_-.?A....rS?~h ;v~.ih..J ]:i...