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Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 CURRENT NEWS SPECIAL EDITION 26 JUNE 1984 Terrorism No. 1167 ARE U.S. TO FORTIFY PERSIAN GULF EMBASSIES (Wall St Jrnl) Eduardo Lachi ca 1 ONE REASON U.S. OFFICIALS ARE RELUCTANT... (U.S. News & Wrld Rept) 1 7 SUMMIT NATIONS EXPRESS RESOLVE ON TERRORISM, DEALINGS WITH SOVIETS (Wash Post) Lou Cannon 2 U.S. BUILDS 3RD WORLD ARMS AID (Wash Post) Fred Hiatt 2 U.S. MILITARY CREATES SECRET UNITS FOR USE IN SENSITIVE TASKS ABROAD (NY Times) Jeff Gerth and Philip Taubman 5 ITALY OPENS AN INQUIRY INTO A REPORT ON POPE (NY Times) 6 ADMINISTRATION DEBATING ANTITERRORIST MEASURES (NY Times) Leslie H. Gelb 7 TERRORIST BILL CALLED 'MCCARTHY THROWBACK' (Wash Post) 8 REAGAN EXPECTED TO BID ALLIES ACT AGAINST TERRORISM (NY Times) Steven R. Weisman 9 U.S. SEEKS ALLIED ACCORD ON TERRORISM, MISSILES (Wash Post) Lou Cannon 10 GRADUATES TOLD OF 'NEW STRATEGY' FOR TERRORISM (Galt Sun) Michael J. Clark 11 U.S. FOUND ILL PREPARED FOR TERRORISM (Wash Times) Bob Poos 11 WHERE WILL TERRORISTS STRIKE NEXT? (The Washingtonian) Bob Reiss 12 SECURITY A FACT OF LIFE IN WASHINGTON (Toronto Globe & Mail) William Johnson 18 CAPITOL SECURELY GREETING TOURISTS (Wash Post) Alison Muscatine 19 EXERCISE IN TERROR GOES WELL (Dallas Mng News) Mark Edgar 20 BOMB SCARE INTERRUPTS DRILL AT NUCLEAR PLANT IN WASH. (Phil Inq) 20 POLICE HQ A TERRORIST PUSHOVER--RICE (Chi Sun Times) Art Petacque & Hugh Hough 21 THE TERRORIST THREAT TO AMERICA (Rev of the News) 21 U.S. ACTS TO COMBAT TERRORISM AIMED AT OLYMPICS, BIG EVENTS (NY Trib) James T. Hackett 22 HARD LINE URGED ON GLOBAL TERRORISM (San Fran Chron) Kevin Leary 23 SOVIETS HAD CHANCE TO HELP PLAN SECURITY (San Jose Merc) Maline Hazle 24 INS CITES TERRORISM FEAR IN PROBE OF YUGOSLAV SMUGGLING (LA Times) Laurie Becklund 25 WHETHER FOREIGN NATIONS LIKE IT OR NOT,...(U.S. News & Wrld Rept) 25 FEAR OF TERRORISM... (Wall St Jrnl) 25 KILLING FOR THE GOLD (Soldier of Fortune) Kevin E. Steele 26 TOOLS OF TERROR (Soldier of Fortune) Bill Guthrie 30 DEATH IN THE AFTERNOON (Soldier of Fortune) Adrian W'ecer Helen Young, Chief, Current News Branch 76 31 For spedl& mMg F0089 r Q{~ arr~V k ?A' (0;88R(~0 100 n, Assistant Chief ie , hews (ppmg & Analysis Service, 695-2884 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 U.S.-MEXICO BORDER WON'T BE TERRORISTS' ESCAPE ROUTE (LA Times) Marjorie Miller ISRAELI INQUIRY FOR BENEFIT OF TERRORISTS, NOT MORALISTS (Wall St Jrnl) Eric M. Breindel PROFESSOR LINKED TO TERRORISM JAILED (Bait Sun) 34 VIOLENT LEFTISTS AIM TO TERRORIZE OLYMPIC GAMES (Wash Post) Jack Anderson 35 TERRORISM COMMON: KAPLAN (Toronto Globe & Mail) Jeff Sallot 35 AN INTERVIEW IN MEXICAN JAIL WITH A TERRORIST (Wash Post) Jack 36 Anderson O COSTA RICAN BLAST (Bait Sun) 36 'JOURNALIST' IS LINKED T DIPLOMATS & TERRORISM (For Svc Jrnl) 37 PLAYING EMBASSY CHESS (San Antonio Express-News) Glen W. Martin 38 U.S. ON ALERT FOR IRAN TERROR WAVE (NY Post) Niles Lathem & Uri Dan 39 BRITS BOOT KHOMEINI HIT SQUAD (NY Post) 39 LIBYAN ALLEGEDLY SOUGHT HIT MAN FROM FBI AGENT (Wash Post) Joe Pichirallo 40 TERRORISM CONTROLS ENDORSED (Wash Times) 40 CAN'T CLOSE BORDERS TO LIBYANS: U.S. (NY News) Joseph Volz and 40 Barbara Rehm QADHAFI'S NOT ALWAYS TO BLAME (Wall St Jrnl) Jerrold D. Green and n t d N 41 or o Augustus Richar LIBYAN THREAT TO BRITISH EXPATS (Manchester Guardian) 41 LIBYA MAY RESUME KILLINGS OF DISSIDENTS OVERSEAS (Wall St Jrnl) 42 Youssef M. Ibrahim UT THREATENED (Phil Inq) 43 AMERICANS IN BEIR EDITORIAL CARTOON (Omaha World-Herald) 43 THE TEN LESSONS OF LEBANON (R.O.A. Nat Sec Rept) 0. H. Rechtschaffen 44 46 MOVING AGAINST IRAN (Middle East Policy survey) 25 INDICTED IN ISRAELI PROBE OF JEWISH TERRORIST GROUP (LA Times) 47 Norman Kempster 48 ISRAELI GUILTY IN BOMB PLOT (Phil Inq) JEWISH TERRORISTS USE ARMS STOLEN FROM ISRAELI ARMY (Louisville 48 Courier-Jrnl) Michael Widlanski A CASE OF TERROR FOR TERROR (Newsweek) Angus Deming w/Milan J. Kubic 49 E THE TERRORIST (Bait News- WAY TO TERRORIZ UNCERTAINTY IS THE BEST American) Marvin Leibstone In- i 50 ve 4'HY IS THE WEST COVERING UP FOR AGCA?(Human Events) Exclus terview with Claire Sterling 51 55 FROM THE HOPPER (Rev of the News) VICTIMS OF THE 'DIRTY WAR'(New Statesman) Duncan Campbell 56 BOOBY TRAPS AND BANK RAIDS (New Statesman) Duncan Campbell 59 61 TERROR TACTICS (New Statesman) Duncan Campbell 63 PATTERNS OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: 1982 (Def & Econ) ppro ve or Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 TERRORIST INCIDENTS 21 BOMBS TRIGGER FEARS OF MORE TO COME IN MIDWEST (Chi Trib) Douglas Frantz and Philip Wattley 75 THE MIDWEST HUNTS A BOMBER (Newsweek) 76 ANOTHER BOMB JOLTS VEGAS STRIP (Phil Inq) 76 U.S. SUSPECTS SOVIETS ORDERED ENVOY BEATEN (LA Times) Robert Gillette 77 U.S. ASSAILS SOVIET ON ENVOY ASSAULT (NY Times) Stephen Engelberg 77 ISRAELI ATTACHE SHOT BY GUNMEN FROM CAR IN SUBURB OF CAIRO (Wash Post) NINE BOMBS EXPLODE IN TWO COLOMBIAN CITIES (Wash Post) COPS PROBING BOMB FACTORY (NY Post) 2 TERRORIZE CONSULATE (NY News) -NEW PERIL FOR BEIRUT YANKS- (NY Post) BOOKS TERRORISM OF WORDS (Wash Post) Oliver THE COMPLEXITIES OF TERRORISM (RUSI) Peter Janke 79 PERSPECTIVES ON TERRORISM (For Svc Jrnl) Michael F. Speers 80 BOOK ON COUNTERTERRORISTS DRAWS FLAK (USA Today) 81 THE U.S. GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO TERRORISM: IN SEARCH OF AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY (Air Univ Rev) Lt Col Richard Porter, USAF 81 EDITORIALS COMPUTER ON GUARD (Ft. Worth Star-Tele) 82 ANOTHER VIEW: SUBVERSIVES (Albany, NY Knickerbocker News) 82 TO TELL THE TRUTH (Wall St Jrnl) 83 TERRORISM 138 (The Nation) 84 AGAINST REAGAN TERRORISM BILLS (Phil Inq) 85 ISRAEL VS. THE GANGS (Wash Post) 85 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM WALL STREET JOURNAL 12 June 1984 Pg. 38 U.S. to Fortify Persian Gulf Embassies By EutARtxt LACHICA Staff Reporter of TIIL: WALL STBL:ET J/11'IVIAI WASHINGTON-The State Department is asking the Office of Management and Budget for $165 million over the next two fiscal years to redesign or build anew six or seven embassies in the Persian Gulf, where U.S. diplomats are exposed to maxi- mum terrorist danger. The new security program began even before the latest tensions in the gulf from the Iran-Iraq war. In December 1983, the U.S.-Embassy in Kuwait was wrecked by a terrorist who drove a dynamite-laden truck through the gates, killing three Kuwaiti employees and injuring 35 other persons. Around the world, the department has counted 45 separate acts of violence against its facilities and personnel since January. Urgently needed security measures have turned some of the remaining gulf missions into veritable fortresses. The one in Abu Dhabi looks like something out of "Beau Geste," with armed sentries in parapets. Pillboxes guard the wall corners. "Dragon's teeth," or concrete barriers, keep motor traffic a safe distance away. But this siege setting isn't how the U.S. government likes its overseas missions to look. "Ideally, our embassies should physi- cally express the openness of American so- ciety," says Robert Lamb, assistant secre- tary of state for administration. "We can't conduct our business hiding behind sand- bags and concertina wire. I'd hate to see us go the way of the Russians who build their embassies to keep their people in and other people out." The department is inviting U.S. archi- tects to submit designs that can accom- plish the twin objectives of keeping its dip- lomats safe while maintaining certain aes- thetic standards that the U.S. has set for its official buildings overseas. Some architects, though, wonder whether this is possible. "The two aims are terribly irreconcilable. You can't have it both ways," says Edward Bassett, a se- nior partner of Skidmore, Owings & Mer- rill. The architectural profession is digging deep into its bag of design tricks but there's almost no stopping the trend to- U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT 18 June 1984 (12) Pg. 16 One reason U.S. officials are reluctant to send more Stinger antiaircraft mis- siles to Persian Gulf nations threat- ened by the Iran-Iraq War: They fear security is so lax in some areas that the sophisticated weapons may fall into the hands of terrorists who would use them to shoot down civilian airliners. wards "building bunkers," he says. Mr. Bassett, who has been advising the U.S. government on building design since 1947, says it's almost impossible to protect consulates that draw hundreds of visa seekers every day. What makes the prob- lem more challenging is the extent of the threat. "Even our diplomats in friendly countries aren't safe anymore," he adds. "With all the insanity afoot in the world, architects are resigned to building castles again," he says. But even if he were to build a strongbox surrounded by 20-foot walls, that still couldn't protect against "a nut carrying a bomb in a sec- ond-hand Cessna." Some ideas that have been passed on to Mr. Lamb's office, however, could improve the security of embassies while retaining an illusion of openness. These include: -Constructing the buildings on ground higher than street level if climate and the need for public access require an open lay- out. The higher elevation could prevent truck-bombers from crashing into the walls. -Raising grassy mounds around the buildings to provide similar protection while giving the grounds a neat landscaped look. -Planting shade trees with dense fo- liage to block the view of important offices from the street. -Fencing the property with iron grill- work and firethorn shrubs. The layout is decorative but the thorny bush and the high fence could slow down an intruder long enough for security personnel to re- act. The State Department is also experi- menting with new ballistics-proof building material and high-technology surveillance. Much of this work is still secret. Stuart Knoop, a vice president of Ou- dens & Knoop Architects, notes that de- signers are increasingly attuned to secu- rity needs. "We've a rich market in the corporate world," he confides. "Some buildings designed for the oil and auto in- dustries are made to keep out industrial spies." Mr. Knoop is advising the State Depart- ment on finding new embassy sites. For reasons of economy and convenience, the department uses many rented properties overseas. But the security threat is giving the department a new incentive to acquire its own sites and build on them. The Beirut Embassy that was blown up in April 1983 with the loss of 47 lives was ill-suited for security. It was originally an apartment building. Little can be done about the historic buildings that U.S. diplomats occupy in London, Paris and Ottawa. "They are just too valuable to be ripped apart and re- built," Mr. Knoop says. Mr. Lamb says the department can't af- ford to relax. "The kind of threat keeps changing," he explains. In the late ]960s, terrorists targeted ambassadors and other principal officers. The Foreign Service re- acted by armoring ambassadors' cars and providing them with bodyguards. In the early 1970s, America's enemies switched tactics and started mailing letter bombs to embassies. That threat was curbed, but later in the decade mob violence became the major threat. U.S. missions in Tripoli, Islamabad and Tehran were overrun and illegally occupied. U.S. embassies now are easier to defend against mob attack. Some 1,200 Marines help guard overseas missions, and the de- partment is negotiating with the corps to augment this force. To prevent the capture of diplomatic secrets, paper files are being converted to computer memories that can be easily destroyed in the event of an em- bassy seizure. But with the early 1980s came the truck- bombing threat. The Beirut and Kuwait embassies were the major casualties. "We can counter each threat as it emerges but we can't tell what our ene- mies will think of next," Mr. Lamb ad- mits. Security doesn't come cheap. "We're al- ready spending nearly 1212 of our entire administrative budget for security," Mr. Lamb says. The department already is au- thorized to spend $175 million for that pur- pose for the next fiscal year starting Oct. 1. That's 2571 more than similar provisions for the current year, Mr. Lamb adds. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 WASHINGTON POST 10 June 1984 Pg. 26 7 Summit Nations Express Resolve On Terrorism, Dealings With Soviets By Lou CAnnon Washington Post Staff Writer LONDON, June 9-The western democracies patched up their polit- ical differences today and issued declarations opposing international terrorism and expressing "solidarity and resolve" in dealing with the So- viet Union. But both statements were blandly worded, and some diplomatic sources said they represented a mild setback for host Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher on terrorism and for President Reagan, who had pushed for a firmer statement on East-West relations. On terrorism, the six industrial- ized western nations and Japan meeting here at their annual eco- nomic summit accepted U.S. and British contentions that state-sup- ported terrorism is an increasing problem. The declaration said the assembled nations "viewed with se- rious concern the increasing involve- ments of states and governments in acts of terrorism, including the abuse of diplomatic immunity." This abuse has been a special British concern since April 27, when a British policewoman was killed by shots fired from the Libyan Embas- sy. Britain and Libya subsequently broke off diplomatic relations. But objections from the French; and to some degree from the Ital- ians, apparently blocked British pro- posals to exchange intelligence and technical information about terror. ists, pass new legislation dealing with international terrorism and agree to expel or exclude known terrorists, "including persons of diplomatic sta- tus involved in terrorism." All of these ideas were included in the seven-point declaration on ter- rorism issued today but the state- ment referred to these points not as agreements, but as "proposals which found support in the discussion." The international leaders also dis- cussed preemptive acts to prevent acts of terrorism, sources said, but is- sued no declaration because the is- sue is considered too sensitive for public discussion. The French, who receive signifi- cant amounts of oil from Libya, re- portedly expressed the view that any public statement could serve as an invitation to acts of terrorism. But they agreed to the compromise state- ment announced today by Thatcher, in which the seven nations "ex- pressed their resolve to combat this threat by every possible means, strengthening existing measures and developing effective new ones." On East-West relations, the Unit- ed States salvaged portions of a pro- posal that it had unsuccessfully sought to append to a British-spon- sored Declaration of Democratic Val- ues approved yesterday. The single-page statement today said that the aim of the allied na- tions was "security and the lowest possible level of forces." "We wish to see early and positive results in the various arms-control negotiations and the speedy resuinp- tion of those now suspended," the statement said. "The United States has offered to restart nuclear arms control talks, anywhere, at any time, without preconditions. We hope that the Soviet Union will act in a con- structive and positive way." A senior U.S. official said today that West German Chancellor Hel- mut Kohl and Thatcher had been supportive of Reagan in private dis- cussions when the U.S. president said that continued deployment of the missiles was necessary unless the Soviets were willing to negotiate their removal or reduction. At a news conference following re- lease of the statement, Thatcher said, "It is the anticipation that we will complete the two-track decision on NATO [for negotiation and de- ployment] and deploy the missiles we agreed to deploy." The East-West statement also contained a phrase proposed by Ca- nadian Prime Minister Pierre Tru- deau saying, "We believe that East and West have important common interests in preserving peace ..." It CONTINUED NEXT PAGE WASHINGTON POST 10 June 84 (11) Pg.1 U.S. Builds 3rd World Arms Aid Defense Planners Emphasize Role Of `Special Forces' By Fred Hiatt Wuhington Post Staff Writer The Reagan administration is sys- tematically laying the foundation within the Pentagon for increasing military involvement in Third World conflicts, according to budget doc- uments and interviews with current and former officials. The new emphasis in many ways recalls the early 1960s, when Pres- ident John F. Kennedy commis. sioned the Green Berets to stop what he called "the Communist tide" in poor countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Once again, the De- fense Department.isabeefing, up'its Green, Berets and: other - `special forces," troops trained to kill guer- rillas and to teach other armies to-do the same. The increased U.S. role in what the Pentagon calls "counterinsurgen- cy," which has been advocated since 1982 in classified defense docu- ments, also is reflected in the types of ships and weapops being pur- chased, the network of overseas bases and military facilities being formed, the increase in U.S. military training overseas, the administra- tion's legislative proposals to lift re- rtrictions on such training and the record U.S. share in the Third World arms market. Fueling the new emphasis is the Reagan administration's conviction that President Jimmy Carter con- centrated too heavily on European and South Korean defense while ne- glecting what one former top official called "the nibbling and erosion at the edges." Fred C. Ikle, undersec- retary of defense for policy, said in a CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDPS-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- ARMS AID... Continued recent interview that the current administration took office amid "growing concern in this country with the spread of the communist empire into various outposts." Top officials agreed that their pol- icies echo those of the Kennedy ad- ministration in many ways, but they said they have placed more emphasis on training others to resist guerrilla movements than on using U.S. forces. But if U.S. troops are needed, they said, the lessons of Vietnam will influence the troops' deployment. "The military as well as the civil- ian side in the administration rec- ognize the importance of having a coherent strategy of first, if at all possible, avoiding the possibility of U S. combat forces being involved ... and second, should it be neces- sary, to make sure that an interven- tion should succeed,".Ikle said. The emphasis on counterinsurgen- cy has created some unease within the Pentagon, where generals who came of age in Vietnam question the usefulness of U.S. power in what they call "low-intensity" conflicts. Few seem to dispute the administra- tion's characterization of Soviet aims-"to put the West's access to petroleum and other strategic raw materials at risk," one official said recently. But many ask how much the U.S. military can do in places like El Salvador. Noel Koch, Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger's top aide for special forces, said in a recent inter- view that there is a "shortfall ... in doctrinal development" for guerrilla wars. The newly formed Joint Spe- cial Operations Agency-which will report to the Joint Chiefs of Staff- is moving to correct that problem, he said. In the meantime, the administra- tion is not waiting to demonstrate its resolve to be more active in the Third World: -? The Pentagon requested $6.4 billion in foreign military aid this year, as against $2.4 billion in 1980, adcording to Pentagon officials. Among the major recipients of U.S. assistance are countries such as Pak istan, which the Carter administra- tion held at arm's length because of concerns about nuclear proliferation WASHINGTON POST 11 June 1984 Pg.2 Correction. A report yesterday on mil- itary aid to the Third World should have said that, ac- cording to Congressional Re- search Service analyst Rich. and F. Grimmett, the United States concluded a record $14.9 billion in arms-transfer agreements to developing countries in 1982. and human rights. To ease the burden on poor coun- tries seeking arms, the administra- tion has offered grants instead of loans or has sought to ease lending terms. In 1982, it created the Special Defense Acquisition Fund, which stockpiles arms and equipment to allow quicker transfers, and in each succeeding year it has sought to in- crease the fund's size. ? In 1982, the United States transferred a record $14.9 billion worth of arms to Third World coun- tries, according to Congressional Re- search Service analyst Richard F. Grimmett. Last year the total fell to $9.5 billion, but the U.S. share of the Third World market nonetheless rose from 32 percent to. 39 percent. "Carter believed that arms sales are basically immoral, and he dis- couraged official support," said re- tired Air Force Lt. Gen. James Ahmann, a Northrup Corp. execu- tive who until 1982 headed the De- fense Security Assistance Agency. "That negativism on trying to help oiu friends and allies has disap- peared." :v ? To permit more U.S. military gaining, the administration has pe- titioned Congress with mixed success to scrape away what Ikle called "the barnacles that restrict our ability to help our friends in the post-Vietnam period." The administration- has sought permission to train foreign police and maritime forces; to send more than the current legal maximum of six military advisers to Tunisia, Leb, anon, Yemen, Pakistan, Sudan, Hon- duras, Venezuela and elsewhere; to lower the amount it must charge for military training; and to send train- 26 JUNE 198.4 SUMMIT... Continued went on to endorse the "confidence- building" measures proposed by the United States that would improve communications between the super- powers and among their allies to re- duce the risk of surprise attack and accidental war. Thatcher issued a statement from the chair about the Iran-Iraq war that she said the other nations had agreed to, expressing the "hope and desire ... that both sides will cease their attack on each other and on the shipping of other states," and urging respect for the "principle of freedom of navigation." The statement voiced "deep con- cern at the mounting toll in human suffering, physical damage and bit- terness." The formal communique pledged coordination of oil resources to deal with any shortages arising from the Persian Gulf war. The communique also endorsed an international manned space sta- tion, which is planned by the United States, and took note of the "gener- ous and thoughtful invitation" by Reagan to the other summit nations that would allow them to use the re- sources of this station. "President Reagan's vision is a long-term partnership in the peace- ful use of space-a permanent, fully international space station built by the United States together with its friends and allies, and used by all nations as an operating environment in which to work and learn," said a U.S. official. ers to dictatorial countries like Uru- guay that have been off limits. "It's precisely by bringing these people into the United States and letting them see how a democracy manages its military ... that you have a certain hope of affecting the political life in these countries," ilde said. ? The Reagan administration has expanded previous plans to establish a network of bases and facilities around the world. The overseas mil- itary construction budget increased from $1.79 billion in fiscal year 1981 to a proposed $2.14 billion in fiscal 1985, with more increases forecast. The increase partly reflects imple- mentation of two Carter administra- CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RD096-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 ARMS AID...Continued tion plans, one for the Persian Gulf and one for stationing medium-range nuclear cruise missiles in Europe. But the Pentagon under Reagan has done more than Carter planned at the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean and in Oman, Moroc- co, Iceland, Japan, Honduras, Tur- key and elsewhere. ? The Army late last year won permission to create a new "light" division, designed for quick deploy- ment to Third World hot spots. The Marines, the original Third World intervention force, have been strengthened and modernized. And the expansion of the Navy, partic- ularly the reactivation of four World War II battleships that would be of little use in a major conflict with the Soviet Union, is intended to increase U.S. "power projection" beyond U.S. bases. ? The Navy's enthusiastic em- brace of the cruise missile program under the Reagan administration similarly will expand the military's reach into relatively undefended countries. The Navy intends to buy more than 4,000 of the long-range slow-flying cruise missiles at mor( than $3 million each by 1992, includ? ing 3,200 in a non-nuclear versior that would be of little use against the Soviet Union. The missiles will "permit a limit- ed, measured response as an expres- sion of U.S. will and determination without jeopardizing aircraft or pi- lots," Rear Adm. Stephen J. Hostet- tier, director of the joint cruise mis- siles project, testified recently in Congress. ? The administration has rein- forced its buildup with action: send. ing AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft) to Africa to respond to crises in Chad and Sudan, shooting down Libyan jets in the Gulf of Sidra, stationing Marines in Lebanon, rotating thousands of troops through Honduras, invading Grenada. During the first three years of Reagan's term, the number of troops overseas increased by about 5 per- cent-from about 475,000 to almost 500,000. ? The administration has favored covert action in Third World coun- tries, unsuccessfully seeking to re- peal congressional restrictions on U.S. support for Angolan rebels and successfully seeking to finance Ni- caraguan insurgents bent on over- throwing that country's leftist San- dinista government. .The administration has tried to reduce the asymmetry, the extent to which the Soviet Union can use all means-terrorist, covert, arms ship- ments, what have you-to topple governments or support govern- ments that are opposed by the peo- ple-while the Unied States would be left with a choice between vacat- ing the field, abandoning the friends of democracy, or getting into an all- out conflict," Ikle said. He was referring to covert war, but his comment also could be ap- plied to the most dramatic aspect of the administration's preparations for the Third World: the revitalization of the Green Berets and other spe- cial forces that went into a decline after Vietnam. Koch, principal dep- uty assistant secretary for interna- tional security affairs, has been charged with strengthening the spe- cial forces to combat what he sees as Soviet-inspired insurgencies. "I think Kennedy properly recog- nized that we were confronted with this kind of problem all over the world," he said recently. "Then the thing slid into what became Vietnam and sort of went to hell in a hand. basket, but it doesn't follow that the essential motive was faulty or the rationale behind it was faulty." In the two years ending next Oct. 1, the number of special operating forces in the Army will have grown by almost 50 percent, from a little more than 4,000 to almost 6,000, according to Army officials. The Army is adding a third Ranger com- mando battalion this year and a new Green Beret unit with a forward-de- ployed battalion in Okinawa, similar to those already stationed in Pana- ma and West Germany. The Navy formed a new team of commandos, known as Seals, and now is modernizing the Seals' equip- ment and buying them "special war- fare infiltration craft; Koch said recently. The Air Force agreed to buy 12 new MC130 Combat Talon airplanes, which can fly low at night and drop troops and equipment with pinpoint accuracy. It was then told The potential use of these special forces is not limited to guerrilla wars. The forces also are trained to defeat terrorists and to infiltrate enemy lines in conventional wars, blowing up radio stations, organizing fifth- column resistance groups and sab- otaging command centers. how to defeat guerrilla movements. "If we send in the 82nd Airborne or the Marines, we have taken over effective is questionable .... You ulation over, and for that you need guys or seven guys creeping around nublic and skeptics within the Pen- He frequently cites soviet -apet- "The threat posed by these forces- tal United States-is real, grave and too slowly being recognized," he tes- tnn. the Army in 1982 formed the ;Joint Chiefs creates the aoun opv- 611 snecial forces activities and, re- generals would prefer to plan for "which tend to be cleaner," Ahmann said. Koch has complained in testi- s mony that the services are stingy with promotions for special-forces conventional military is somewhat suspicious of it, in many cases for very good cause," Koch said in a re- CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approvea or Release 0108/07 : CIA-RQP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM NEW YORK TIMES 8 June 1984 Pg. 1 U.S. Military Creates Secret Units For Use in Sensitive Tasks Abroad The following article is based on reporting by Jeff Gerth and Philip Taub- man and was written by Mr. Gerth. WASHINGTON, June 7 - The De- fense Department has created several secret commando units in recent years, and they have tried to rescue missing Americans in danger spots abroad, participated in the invasion of Grenada and supported Central Intelli- gence Agency covert operations in Cen- tral America, according to Administra- tion officials and members of Con- gress- The development of the elite units, which has extended the military's traditional concept of special forces, has raised concern in Congress, some lawmakers say. They say the worry is that the units might become a uni- formed version of the Central Intelli- gence Agency and be used to circum- vent Congressional restrictions and re- porting requirements on intelligence activities and the use of American forces in combat operations. But a senior intelligence official denied that such a risk existed. He said that although the new special opera- tions forces constituted a resource for intelligence operations, any such use of them would be directed by the C.I.A. and properly reported to Congress. Some of the units were created to fight terrorism 'but have acquired broadened mandates and training for missions against insurgencies in devel- oping countries in Central America, Af- rica and Asia, according to the Admin- istration officials and members of Con- gress. The training and activities of the units are highly classified. The growth of the units, Administra- tion officials said, stemmed from a general concern at senior levels in the Government that the United States needed to improve its ability to use spe- cialized forms of force in situations in which the open exercise of power and the deployment of large numbers of men and weapons would be politically unacceptable. In a few instances, including opera- tions in Central America, these new units have worked in conjunction with C.I.A. covert activities, but they are not officially considered intelligence organizations. Some of the Congressional commit- tees that have jurisdiction over intelli- gence and military matters, including the Armed Services and Intelligence committees in the House and Senate, are seeking clarification from the De- fense Department about the role of the new units and their relationship to laws and regulations governing intelligence activities. Maj. Gen. Wesley H. Rice, the direc- tor of the Joint Special Operations Agency, which provides high-level Pentagon planning and coordination for the units, told a House subcommit- tee in April that he did not view his or- ganization "as an agency of interest to the intelligence oversight committee." His remarks disturbed some of the members and staff of the intelligence committee, which has been trying to look into some of the organization's ac- tivities. 'Trying to Learn More' Senator Joseph R. Biden, Democrat of Delaware, a member of the Senate Select. Committee on Intelligence, said in an interview: "We are aware of the existence of the special operations units but not sufficiently informed about their activities or their connec- tion to intelligence operations. We are trying to learn more." Much about the units remains secret. The Defense Department refused to provide information about the organi- zation, training or activities of the groups, and the military officers who direct them declined to be interviewed. But interviews with current and for- mer Defense Department and intelli- gence officials, members of Congress and staff members of key Congres- sional committees, disclosed these de- tails about the new units: C1 They operate under the direction of the Joint Special Operations Com- mand, centered at Fort Bragg in Fay- etteville, N.C. The command was created to coordinate United States counterterrorist activities in the wake of the failed 1980 mission to rescue Americans held hostage in Iran. The command, which is headed by Brig. Gen. Richard A. Scholtes, has a sepa- rate budget for the development and procurement of special assault weap- ons. It has a core force of elite troops who can be quickly supplemented with more traditional commando units from the military services, including the Army Special Forces, better known as the Green Berets, cThe special operations units and the command structure above them have provided limited resources, both equip- ment and personnel, to the C.I.A. for its covert operations in Central America, according to an American official ARMS AID... Continued cent interview. "It basically conflicts with. standard doctrine, and there's a certain amount of discomfort that goes with that." But retired Adm. Robert L.J. Long, who headed the Pentagon in- vestigation of the Marine headquar- ters bombing in Beirut last October, said the military will have to adjust to "low-level" conflicts. "The United States as a super. power has become increasingly in- apable and impotent at this low send of the spectrum," Long said in a recent address. "This administration recognized that our problem is some- thing more than countering the So- viets on the plains of Germany. "It's only been recently that the true meaning of regional confronta- tion has been understood," he added. "This is an area we're going to hear more of. The interests of the United States and the free world are clearly at stake." familiar with the operations. Under the terms of a secret 1983 memo to Presi- dent Reagan from Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinber eer, the Pentagon pledged to provide a wide range of logistical support and manpower to as- sist C.I.A. covert operations in Central America, including support of Nicara- guan rebels. The Senate and House in- telligence committees are investigat- ing whether this Pentagon support al- lowed the C.I.A. to circumvent restric- tions, including a $24 million ceiling, on support for the rebels this year. cSome of the special operations com- mand units played a key but still largely secret role in the American in- vasion of Grenada last fall, according to American officials. The units, in- cluding Navy Sea Air and Land teams, known as SEAL's, infiltrated Grenada during the predawn hours before the landing of Marines and Army Rangers. They successfully carried out one ac- tion, safeguarding Grenada's Governor General, Sir Paul Scoon, but failed in two others, including an effort to knock the Grenada radio off the air, accord- ing to a Congressional report. At least four men were killed in these opera- tions, which remain officially classi- fied. cThe command's units tried to find missing or captured Americans in Lebanon in the last 18 months and as- sisted in the 1982 search for Brig. Gen. James L. Dozier, who was held hostage by Italian terrorists. As the Govern- ment's. primary counterterrorist strike force, the units under the special opera- tions command have been deployed in other unspecified situations around the CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RRP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- SECRET UNITS.. .Cont 'd world when American citizens were in- volved in airplane hijackings and at- tacks on American embassies or diplo- mats and will be involved in protecting against terrorist attacks at the Los An- geles Olympics. ?One unit, identified as Navy SEAL Team Six, based at the Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base outside Nor- folk, Va., operates amid extraordinary secrecy. Its members dress in civilian clothe.:, are permitted to have long hair and beards, and train at civilian instal- lations, including the Pinal County Air Park near Tucson, Ariz., which was a C.I.A. air base in the 1970's, according to former intelligence officials. When one team member was killed in a skydiving accident at the air park last year, his colleagues initially ordered doctors and nurses at St. Mary's Hospi- tal in Tucson not to turn over the body to the country medical examiner for "national security reasons," hospital authorities said in a recent interview. Civilian skydivers at the air park were told not to take pictures of the team members, and employees were in- structed not to record their names. Pentagon Wanted Its Own Units Intelligence officials said the De- fense Department, impatient with the C.I.A.'s leading role in conducting cov- ert operations, particularly paramili- tary activities, has pressed in recent years to establish its own units capable of directing and carrying out such operations. Starting in 1980, after the failure of the mission to rescue American hos- tages in Iran, the Army, under the di- rection of Gen. Edward C. Meyer, then chief of staff, created a small, secret intelligence organization called the In- telligence Support Activity. The group was formed without the knowledge of the Secretary of Defense, the Director of Central intelligence or Congress, according to intelligence of- ficials. Group's Original Mission Its original mission, according to for- mer Army officers familiar with its origin, was to collect intelligence to plan for special military operations such as the Iran rescue attempt. Eventually, however, the unit devel- oped the ability to conduct special operations and became involved in sup- porting C.I.A. covert activities in Cen- tral America, including aid to Nicara- guan rebels, according to intelligence officials. In the last few years, the Joint Spe- cial Operations Command has evolved beyond its original mandate of counter- ing terrorism to other kinds of special operations, according to American offi- cials familiar with its operations. As one official described it, the command "has become mostly a nighttime operation, with its own weapons pro- curement and research, as well as communications." Congress has carefully prescribed, through legislation and practice, the 26 JUNE 1984 TIMES 12 June 1984 Pg. 9 Italy Opens an Inquiry being held in IBulgarian taly on suspicion of Into a Report on Pope ROME, June 11 (UPI) - The Rome sta , prosecutor's office opened an in- quirytoday into how an American jour- nali:jt olltained a confidential'pmsecu- tol-'report on the purported Bulgarian aauaction to the 1981 attack on the Pope, the Italian news agency ANSA reported. T1 a journalist, Claire Sterling, cited the report in an article in The New York Times on Sunday. The decision to conduct the inquiry followed formal protests today by Ital- ian lawyers acting on behalf of Sergei reporting and oversight responsibilties for covert operations conducted by the C.I.A. The Intelligence Oversight Act of 1980 requires the executive branch to keep Congress "currently and fully in- formed" about intelligence activities. In addition, a 1981 executive order on intelligence issued by President Rea- gan required agencies engaged in intel- ligence activities to cooperate with Congress. Limit on `Special Activities' The executive order also limited "special activities," a synonym for covert activities, to the C.I.A_ unless the President determined that another agency was better able to conduct such activities. The order, however, did not fully spell out the definition of "special ac- tivities." National security experts and Congressional officials say there is some ambiguity over whether some types of commando operations carried out by the Pentagon would fall within the definition of special activities. The staffs of the House Select Com- mittee on Intelligence, Armed Services Committee and the Appropriations subcommittee on defense have been seeking clarification about these Issues from the Defense Department, Law- makers and staff members said they were concerned about the somewhat ambiguous area one staff member called it a "gray zone" -between mili- tary and intelligence operations. These sources also say they worry about a situation in which secret com- mando operations unknown to Con- gress might lead to open combat, draw- ing United States forces into a wider conflict. Under the War Powers Act. Congress must be informed about, and in some cases ultimately approve, the use of American troops overseas in combat situations. It is unclear how the law applies to commando operations, The Defense Department has re- sponded to oversight inquiries by the Intelligence Committee, but officials complicity in the assassination at- tempt- . The New York Times said Bulgaria recrglted Mehmet All Agca for the at- tempt on the Pope's life as part of a plot to !eeken Poland's Solidarity union movement. The same charge was re- port$d earlier by NBC News. WASHINGTON, June 11 (AP) - The ft Department refused comment today ao that toe, Italian state ptosecuto had concluded that the as- samination attempt on Pope John Paul II WWI was part of a plot in which the Bulgarian secret service played a ke y say the Pentagon is less cooperative than the C.I.A. in discussing its opera- tions. Representative Joseph P. Addabbo, Democrat of Queens, chairman of the House Appropriations subcommittee on defense, said he hoped the existing Presidential directives, coupled with assurancesgiven to his subcommittee by Pentagon officials would provide guidelines for proper oversight. Mr. Addabbo and other officials said the as- surances were contained in classified responses by General Rice, the direc- tor of the Joint Special Operations Agency, and other Pentagon officials to questions posed during and after the April hearing. "Hopefully, we have the apparatus to know what they're up to," Mr. Ad- dabbo said. He added that he opposed the creation of a uniformed C.I.A. "I think we have too much covert opera- tions already, as it is," he said. In a prepared statement in April be- fore the defense subcommittee, Gen- eral Rice said the Joint Special Opera- tions Agency was organized to allow the Joint Chiefs of Staff to better man- age special operations forces. The agency's organizational structure in- cludes a research and development division to provide items for use in anti- terrorism, unconventional warfare, psychological operations and direct ac- tion activities, General Rice's state- ment said. The organizational structure also in- cludes a support activities branch which provides "sensitive support" to other governmental agencies, includ- ing personnel, training, logistics, operational services, cover and opera- tional intelligence support, according to the written testimony. The Pentagon's current budget re- quest for special operations forces is about $500 million, according to data introduced at the hearing. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 NEW YORK TIMES 6 June 1984 Pg. 6 Administration Debating Antiterrorist Measures By LESLIE H. GELB Special to The New York Time WASHINGTON, June 5-Three and a half years after announcing that com- batting terrorism would be President Reagan's first national-security priori- ty, officials say a debate on the subject is still going on in the Administration and that it will be taken up at the eco- nomic summit conference this week. The British are said to have drafted a tough statement designed to show that the seven leaders at the meeting that opens Thursday in London are deter- mined to do something about state- sponsored terrorism. Another reason the statement was drafted, according to a key Administration official, is that "They think we're serious about pre- emptive military attacks against coun- tries supporting terrorism and they want to tryto head this off." Two months ago, President Reagan signed a two-and-a-half-page decision memorandum that officials called a foundation for a policy but not specific guidelines for action or specific com- mitments of new resources. As described by a range of Admin- stration officials, the document ap- proved on April 3 lists general princi- ples - including efforts to "dissuade" countries from sponsoring terrorism and the right "to defend ourselves" if victimized. But there is no discussion of how to do this, and no definition of state-sponsored terrorism. The Diplomatic Alternative Nor did the document discuss diplo- matic efforts to organize countries against state-sponsored terrorism, as was done a decade ago against hijack- ings, beyond calling for working "as closely as possible" with other nations. Officials said an obstacle to such ef- forts is the fact that many nations are reluctant to jeapordize economic ties with Iran, Syria, Libya and other na- tions, yet want to combat terrorism. Instead. according to the officials, the President's memorandum raises a whole series of questions for further study - principally, what additional resources are needed to gather intelli- gence on terrorist activities and how the United States should respond to dif- ferent kinds of terrorist attacks. At the conference discussion on the subject, officials said the British are expected to take the lead. Officials de- scribed the French as hesitant about is- suing a policy statement and the Ital- ians as reluctant to get too deeply in- volved given their important trade relationship with Libya. A senior official, commenting on some Administration-inspired news re- ports that there was now a new policy of taking pre-emptive and punitive ac- tion against terrorists, stated that the policy was essentially not new at all. Cooperation With Other Nations He said all it meant was that known terrorists would be arrested and that Washington should cooperate more with countries that have intelligence on terrorists, such as Britain, West Ger-. many and Israel. Officials said the memorandum also stressed doing eveything "legally." This word was added to the final docu- ment, according to the sources, even after virtually all those involved in the interdepartneptal study reiected a recommenda ion by senior 'Pentagon officials to authorize "hit squads" to kill terrorists and after the Central In- telligence Agency succeeded in remov- ing any language that might be con- strued as involving it in domestic spying. Robert C. McFarlane, the national security adviser; Vice Adm. John Poindexter, his deputy, and other sen- ior White House officials were said by knowledgeable officials to have fash- ioned the language of the document so that Mr. Reagan could be portrayed as taking strong action without his being committed to anything, especially any- thing that the Democrats in an election year could recklessness. `Crossing the Line' The result, in the view of some in the State Department and the Central In- telligence Agency, is a document that means either "essentially doing better at what we've already been doing for several years now," as one said, "or crossing the line at some point with pre-emptive counter-force and military retaliation where hard evidence may be lacking." The potential for just such actions in a second Reagan Administration is precisely what makes the document at- tractive to a number of high-ranking Pentagon civilians and several senior officials as well. In a recent magazine interview, Wil- liam J. Casey, Director of Central In- telligence, cited Israeli action in strik- ing back at countries that aid terrorist attacks and continued, "I think you will see more of that - retaliation against facilities connected with the country sponsoring the terrorists or retaliation that just hurts the interests of countries which sponsor terrorism." Issues of Conscience A close associate of Secretary of State George P. Shultz said the Secre- tary was "grappling with his con- science." The source said Mr. Shultz was in favor of using force, but was against what he said was the Israeli model of retaliating against the inno- cent along with the guilty. This official said Mr. Shultz's think- ing and that of the Administration would evolve in response to specific provocations in the future. "Some ter- rorist action will spark an Administra- tion reaction," the official said. To many officials connnected with this issue, the President's decision document represents at least a tempo- rary halt to three years of bureaucratic drift and high-level inattention to a problem the Administration leaders initially called their highest priority. Bombings in Lebanon By all accounts, the twin shocks that energized senior officials were the bombings of the American Embassy and the marine compound in Lebanon. The latter was followed by a spate of alarming intelligence reports to the ef- fect that terrorist groups - along with Iranian, Libyan and Syrian leaders - had come to the conclusion that terror- ism was working, that it was the way to break American will. Before a terrorist drove an explo- sive-laden truck into the Marine head- quarters at Beirut's airport, killing 241 American servicemen, Congress and the American public were uneasy with the American presence in Lebanon. Af- terward, as officials saw it, the politi- cal pressure to withdraw the marines became irresistible. It was at this point that senior offi- cials focussed on the interdepartmen- kal studies that had been languishing for some time. Achievements Listed Since then, Administration officials maintained that three things have been 'accomplished: reorganization and new personnel that they hope will strengthen policy formulation and ac- tion; the reaching of an uneasy consen- sus about what is known and not known about the phenomenon of government- supported terrorism, and agreement on a series of small steps to improve coordination against terrorists within the United States and with other coun- tries. Officials said Mr. Shultz would soon name a new Director of the Office for Combatting Terrorism. Robert Oakley, a career diplomat and currently Am- bassador to Somalia, will replace Am- bassador Robert M. Sayre, another ca- reer Foreign Service officer. Mr. Shultz is said to hope that Mr. Oakley will energize what has been for many ;years a bureaucratic backwater. The office was established about 12 years ago as a response to a series of international aircraft hijackings and is responsible for coordinating the activi- ties of 26 different Government depart- ments and agencies. In January, the Joint Chiefs of Staff quietly established a new agency to coordinate special forces operations and war plans against terrorists. Called the Joint Special Operations Agency, it is headed by Maj. Gen. Wes- ley H. Rice of the Marine Corps. The C.I.A.'s main unit is called the Global Issues Staff. Created about 12 years ago as part of the Administra- tion's response to hijackings, it is a CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION - TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WASHINGTON POST 6 June 1984 Pg. 19 Terrorist Bill Called 'McCarthy Throwback' Associated Press Sen. Howard M. Metzenbaum (D-Ohio) yesterday said a Reagan administration bill to combat terrorist groups would "trample on our human rights," and called the measure "a throwback to the McCarthy era." While Metzenbaum told a Senate hearing that the bill was unconstitutional and unnecessary, even conservative Sens. Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah) and Jeremiah Denton (R-Ala.), both supporters of the legislation, expressed concerns about its sweeping language. The controversy was over one bill in a four-measure anti-terrorism package. It would allow the secretary of state to designate a list of international terrorist groups or countries, and subject Americans to prosecution if they provide active support. In a provision that upset Metzenbaum the most, the bill would prohibit any defendant prosecuted under the measure to challenge, as part of his defense, the govern- ment's inclusion of a particular group or nation. Hatch told two Justice Department witnesses that the ANTITERRORIST MEASURES ...Continued counter-terrorist unit today that serves as the focal point for agency intelli- gence collection, analysis and covert action. Following the instructions of the new presidential directive, the interdepart- mental group led by the State Depart- ment is now reviewing whether addi- tional resources are needed. In the course of the recent policy re- view, the officials said, members of the intelligence community generally shared the view that government-sup- ported terrorism was now a clear and established fact that required special treatment apart from group or individ- ual terrorism and that Moscow was at least indirectly involved. View of Soviet Role Few of the intelligence and policy- level officials interviewed argued that Moscow was actively controlling, di- recting or directly supplying terrorist activities. The prevailing judgment was that Moscow does not like to under- take high-risk ventures that it cannot control, and that such are the hall- marks of terrorism and terrorists. Robert H. Kupperman, an expert on terrorism at the Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies, summed up the view often heard inside the Administration: "The Soviets sup- bill lacks criteria for the secretary of state to use when designating the terrorist groups. "You would not be averse to putting standards in?" Hatch asked Mark Richard, deputy assistant attorney general. "That's correct," Richard said. Denton, chairman of the Senate Judiciary subcommit- tee on security and terrorism, repeatedly assured Met- zenbaum, "The chairman has no interest in trampling on the Bill of Rights." Denton said the bill "needs some further polish," pointing out that it contains no requirement that the secretary consult with Congress before making his des- ignations. "We have no problem with consulting with Congress," Richard said. An angry Metzenbaum said, "It's a throwback to the McCarthy era," referring to the late senator Joseph Mc- Carthy's 1950s hunt for communists at the expense of Americans' civil liberties. port a general destabilization program through terrorists, but they're not going to get very close" to actual ter- rorist operations. In 1983, officials said there were 71 major terrorist incidents probably sponsored and supported by govern- ments. The principal ones were said to be Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea, and possibly Cuba and Iraq. The evidence, which comes from a wide net of intelligence agents and paid informants and varies greatly in qual- ity, is almost entirely circumstantial, but officials say they believe it is sub- tantial and convincing nonetheless. Four Bills Sent to Congress The Administration's major move so far was to send four bills to Congress in April that are designed to help detect and prosecute those involved in inter- national terrorism. The legislative package embraced prison terms and fines for people assisting terrorists, re- wards for information, and language that would broaden existing laws against kidnapping, hijacking and sabotage. This was a direct outgrowth of the President's decision memoran- dum of early April. The memorandum also directed a continuation and expansion of meas- ures to protect American missions and people overseas and at home. . Intelligence operatives reported con- tinuing efforts to coordinate activities with anti-terrorist organizations in other governments. Consideration is also being given to amending the Vienna Convention of 1961. This set out procedures for diplo- matic immunity. The idea would be to check presently immune diplomatic baggage for arms and explosives and to withdraw diplomatic privileges from countries supporting terrorism. Practical and Moral Problems Officials said that these represented all the specific ideas being discussed, and that further actions raise troubling practical and moral problems. Some officials, for example, say they see real difficulties in the fact that the decision memorandum does not define terrorism, yet calls for condemning it in all its forms. These officials said it could be argued that Administration support for the rebels fighting the Nica- raguan Government or Afghan guerril- las could be construed as a form of ter- rorism. "One man's freedom fighter is another's terrorist," an official said. Other officials took strong exception to this, arguing that there was an im- portant difference between terrorism and insurgency. In general, they said that insurgent groups supported co- vertly by the United States did not en- gage in indiscriminate acts of violence, and that these groups posed an alter- nate leadership for a country. To skeptical officials, this definition of insurgency could apply to guerrillas fighting the American-backed Govern- ment of El Salvador as well. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-WP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 NEW YORK TIMES 6 June 1984 Pg. 1 REAGAN EXPECTED TO BID ALLIES ACT AGAINST TERRORISM President Reported Prepared to Join Mrs. Thatcher in Plea at Summit Talks By STEVEN R. WEISMAN Special tome New York Times LONDON, June 5 - President Rea- gan and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher conferred today amid indica- tions that they would press other West- ern leaders this week for a commit- ment to improve efforts to combat ter- rorism. American and British officials said political issues in general could over- shadow economic matters on the offi- cial agenda. They said that during mealtime dis- cussions the leaders would pay particu- lar. attention to relations with the Soviet Union and the crisis in the Per- sian Gulf resulting from air attacks in the war between Iran and Iraq. Cooperation Is Sought Mrs. Thatcher, the host of the eco- nomic conference of major industrial democracies, has been interested in a public statement condemning terror- ism ever since a British police officer was killed in April by gunfire from in- side the Libyan Embassy. A senior Reagan Administration offi- cial said today that Mr. Reagan would join Mrs. Thatcher in trying to per- suade other leaders at the conference that more can be done to share intelli- gence information on the whereabouts of known terrorists. He said there was also a need for Western countries to in- crese the resources used to combat ter- rorism. Mr. Reagan, who arrived here from Dublin last night, spent the fifth day of his 10-day European trip largely out of public view. He and his wife, Nancy, had lunch with Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh. at Buckingham Palace and dinner with Mrs. Thatcher. Frustration in Washington An Administration official, discuss- ing terrorism, said today that theme was frustration in Washington about the lack of cooperation among Western allies even as terrorist acts have in, creased. .American allies, he said, are reluc- tant to share information with the United States because they prefer to act alone and because they fear that in- formation given to Washington might bedisclosed. Because of objections from France and other countries, the official said, participants at the conference' may well not say anything significant about terrorism even if informal agreements are reached. But he said Mr. Reagan hoped something concrete could be de- cided, even if it is not disclosed. "We really want to get on with a pro- cess that leads to results," the official said, asking not to be identified. But he added there would be "no U.S.- or Brit- ish-led harangue" on the subject. French officials have belittled the idea of addressing terrorism in the elaborate surroundings of a summit conference and are considered likely to oppose any sort of public statement on the subject. Mrs. Thatcher, meanwhile, was said by British officials to be interested in establishing a "diplomatic blacklist" prohibiting diplomats charged with harboring terrorists, or other abuses from being allowed into other coun- tries. British officials said Mrs. Thatcher, who will determine the conference agenda, expects relations with the Soviet Union will also be reviewed by the leaders. She was said to have wel- comed Mr. Reagan's conciliatory com- ments toward Moscow in his speech to the Irish Parliament Monday. Presidential aides said Mr. Reagan was also pleased at the reaction to the speech. In it, he reiterated that he was ready to negotiate with the Soviet Union and suggested a new willingness to discuss the Soviet demand for a re- nunciation of the use of force by West- ern allies. The initial reaction from Moscow to Mr. Reagan's speech has been nega- tive. The Administration official who asked not to be identified said today that Mr. Reagan was disappointed but not surprised by the reaction. "It's con- sistent with what they've been saying for three or four months," he said, add- ing that the reaction was not "alarm- In general, the official said, the West- ern allies have come to feel that the Soviet Union is in a state of leadership transition and introspection as it strug- T over how to deal with the west. Russians are also thought to be un- certain because of tie American elec- tion, he said. Soviet internal politics are expected to be discussed at the London meeting, the official said. But he added that he expected no change in the consensus that the west should not try bold initia- tives now to revive the nuclear arms control negotiations that have, been deadlocked and cut off. Relations With Soviet Discussed An American official said tonight after the dinner between Mr. Reagan and Mrs. Thatcher that the two leaders had discussed relations with the Soviet Union at some length. He said they had had a talk that was "theoretical and theological" in nature on how to induce Moscow to return to nuclear ' arms talks. The official said the two leaders both felt Moscow was now "frustrated" be- cause of failures in its economy and be- cause of renewed willingness in the West to rebuild its military. On economic matters, Mrs. Thatcher has let it be known that she is increas- ingly concerned about high interest rates and budget deficits in the United States. At a news conference last week, she suggested she would raise these sub- jects at the conference and also at her separate meeting with Mr. Reagan today. She told reporters that deficit spending and high interest rates violate the principles of "prudent banking." A British official said tonight'that at the dinner with Mr. Reagan, Mrs. Thatcher raised the economic issues but that there was no intention to "put the president in the docket" at the con- ference on the deficit or other such issues. He also said Mrs. Thatcher had thanked the President for his com- ments in Ireland this week denouncing terrorism in Northern Ireland. The Prime Minister also discussed Central America with Mr. Reagan, ac- cording to the officials, and counseled "caution" on recent United States ac- tions, in particular the mining of Nica- raguan harbors by insurgents acting with the assistance of the Central Intel- ligence Agency. Little Criticism Expected In general, British officials and aides to other participants at the meeting say they do not expect criticism of Mr. Reagan to be as strong at this confer- ence as it has been in the past. They. say that Mr. Reagan long ago, proved himself adept at parrying diffi- cult questioning about the subject by asserting amiably that he is working hard to bring interest rates and deficits down and that in any case the world economy has improved greatly in the. last few years. Administration aides said again today that they expected very little trouble from allies at the conference, and indeed they view recent favorable economic trends as vindicating Admin- istration policies. In another development today, Sec- retary of State George P. Shultz met briefly here today with Defense Secre- tary Moshe Arens of Israel. Larry Speakes, the White House"spokesman, said they discussed the situation 'in the Persian Gulf and Lebanon and other matters. Mr. Speakes and other officials said that Mr. Shultz was to have met last. week with Mr. Arens in Washington but that the meeting had to be put off be- cause the secretary was tied up with other matters. The spokesman gave no further details of the discussions. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RIW96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WASHINGTON POST 6 June 1984 Pg. 18 Administration Hoping to Keep Pressure on Soviets U.S. Seeks Allied Accord on Terrorism By Lou Cannon Washington pod Stan Writer LONDON, June 5-The Reagan administration, eager to obtain a show of western unity and keep pressure on the Soviets, is struggling to convince U.S. allies to reaffirm the basic goals of the Atlantic Alli- ance and also condemn international terrorism, according to U.S. and Eu- ropean officials. These officials predicted that the six western industrial nations and Japan, which meet here this week at their annual economic summit, would reaffirm the NATO commit- ment to deploy intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe in an effort to convince the Soviets to re- turn to nuclear arms talks. But there was pessimism among U.S. and British officials on whether France and Italy would agree to pub- lic condemnation of "state supported terrorism." Officials say there is even less unity on U.S. policy in Central America, which President Reagan views as an essential element of U.S.-Soviet conflict. Nevertheless, a senior U.S. official said that Reagan intends to press his views on Central America in private meetings later this week with the other government leaders. This official, expressing growing White House skepticism that Nic- aragua is willing to halt its "subver- sion" in El Salvador and move to peaceful resolution of differences with the United States, said that the primary accomplishment of Secre- tary of State George P. Shultz's visit to Managua Friday was to demon- strate that the United States is will- ing to talk to Nicaragua. The U.S. official described the statement is- sued by the Nicaraguan junta after Shultz departed as "deserving of the Pulitzer Prize in fiction." The statement had emphasized that Nicaragua is .willing to discuss U.S. security concerns, but insisted that a third nation participate in further meetings. U.S. diplomats and State Depart- ment officials initially reacted favor- ably to the meeting and the commu- nique, but officials traveling with Reagan have been cautious about the prospects for a breakthrough in the negotiations. Today's remarks were the toughest yet from a White House official. On the terrorism issue a senior British official said tonight, "We most certainly intend to raise the issue of terrorism and have some very specific ideas, especially when they [the terrorists] operate under a diplomatic cloak, but I'm not able to say precisely what will come out of it at the summit .... We're trying to open up the whole international ap- proach." The official said he believed that British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher would address the issue no matter what the other nations did. The senior U.S. official called Thatcher "our ace in the hole," meaning that she could be relied upon to make a statement even if the other nations would not go along. "The ... president wants a full discussion of terrorism, including state-supported terrorism," the U.S. official said. "Clearly not everyone is prepared to go as far as we go." The issue was discussed tonight by Reagan and Thatcher at a private meeting at 10 Downing St., but none of the U.S. Officials accompanying Reagan, including national security affairs adviser Robert C. McFarlane, was present. White House sources were unable to say whether any agreement was reached. U.S. Officials say that even Thatcher is less concerned than the United States on the issue of "state- supported terrorism" the phrase the Reagan administration uses to de- scribe international acts of violence fostered by Libya or Iran. The British, spurred by the killing Missiles of a London policewoman who was shot from the Libyan Embassy in April, would like the summit to re- affirm adherence to the 1961 Vienna Convention governing the privileges of diplomatic immunity. What they especially want is to prevent the as- signment of diplomats to western nations who have been expelled from other countries for unacceptable be- havior. A senior U.S. official said that he expected, even if a public statement is not issued, that the seven nations would informally agree to a greater exchange of intelligence information and to the commitment of additional financial resources to combat terror- ism. On April 17, in the wake of the shooting at the Libyan Embassy here, White House spokesman Larry Speakes said, "Terrorism is a prob- lem for all nations, and this govern- ment will work as closely as possible with governments-particularly oth- er similarly threatened democra- cies-to deal with it." On April 26, the president sent a package of four antiterrorism bills to Congress that would make the tak- ing of hostages a federal offense, out- law airline sabotage, provide rewards for information on terrorist activity and prohibit the training and sup- port of terrorists. On another issue, U.S. officials discounted a published report that the United States was considering sharing its strategic oil reserves with other western nations because of a threatened cutoff of oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. A senior of- ficial.. said that the only agreement the seven nations have at this point is that they would not go to the spot market to obtain oil because this would force a sharp increase in oil prices. Washington Post London corre- spondent Michael Getler contrib. uted to this report. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RiDe96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 BALTIMORE SUN 24 May 1984 Pg. D-1 Graduates told of `new strategy' for terrorism WASHINGTON TIMES 21 May 1984 Pg. 2 U.S. found ill prepared for terrorism By Michael J. Clark Anne Arundel Bureau of The Sun ANNAPOLIS - A lesson gleaned from the terrorist bombing that killed 241 Americans in Beirut last October has led to a "new strategy" of preemptive strikes against terrorist groups in certain situations, the chief of naval operations told a graduating class of 993 midshipmen yes- terday. Addressing the 134th graduating class at the U.S. Naval Academy, Adm. James D. Watkins said, "We cannot stand idly by and let any small group of fanatics bend the will and break the spirit of an entire nation.... The four-star admiral, a 1949 academy grad- uate who is the nation's top-ranking naval offi- cer, said he helped devise a new strategy to combat terrorists following the bombing in Lebanon, and he came to the conclusion that "there can be moral justification to preempt a probable terrorist attack." He cautioned that using military force against terrorist sites where bombs are made or against countries that supply materials and money to terrorists should be "a last resort" af- ter diplomatic initiatives and political and eco- nomic sanctions are tried. Before undertaking such a military attack, he said, the United States must believe there is "a reasonable hope of success" and "we must foresee more good than evil as a result of our actions." Such a military action should have the goal of deterring aggressors from taking other actions against Americans, and "we should work to make terrorist acts so counterproductive and costly, or seem so costly, that potential perpe- trators will think twice before conducting, or threatening to conduct, terrorist acts," Admiral Watkins said. The graduation, staged on the football field of the U.S. Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadi- um, was the prelude "to the main event ahead - that's the fleet," said Academy Superinten- dent Rear Admiral Charles R. Larson. Among the midshipmen graduating yester- day before a crowd of 15,000 parents, friends and admirers, 811 were commissioned as Navy ensigns, 165 were sworn in as Marine Corps sec- ond lieutenants, four will become Air Force sec- ond lieutenants and seven foreign nationals will become officers in their countries' navies. Six graduates had physical disabilities which pre- vented them from receiving a commission. The cost to taxpayers to educate each graau- ating midshipman was $117,000, academy offi- cials said. .. By Bob Poos THE WASHINGTON TIMES The Soviet Union's terrorism policy will "play an ever increasing factor" in Soviet-U.S. relations, and the United States is ill-equipped to deal with it," a retired senior Navy admiral states. The Soviets' policies that result in confrontations and terrorism, "have remained remarkably stable over the years," he said. The Soviets employ guerrilla warfare involving political or religious minor- ities and the United States, said the off i? cer, who spoke at a seminar of the Hudson Institute on the condition that he not be named. The Vietnamese invasion of Kampuc- hea (formerly Cambodia) and terrorist Lacrics in Lebanon were instances in which Soviet policy has been somewhat effective, he said. The invasion will permit the Soviets to maintain a "high profile role in Southeast Asia, which they have no intention of relinquishing;' he said. Terrorist tactics in Lebanon were ultimately successful in forcing the U.S. military to retire from that country, he said. One region, the speaker contended, in which the Soviets have only partly suc- ceeded in establishing a presence is Southern Africa. The admiral did not say but it is general knowledge that South Africa is responsible for keeping .the Soviets either out of or off balance in that area. The Kremlin has learned the wisdom of "using surrogates or 'Paladins' as jthey're now being called and will contin- tually grow bolder in using them," he predicted. The United States must improve its special counter-insurgency forces "which have been neglected in the past" and upgrade its capabilities in human intelligence (HUMINT) gathering to cope with guerrillas, he said. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDI046-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 THE WASHINGTONIAN JUNE 1984 Pages 93-181 1 01 Str&e NeA .1 As the Concrete Barriers Go Up All Over Washington, Terrorism Experts Say the Question No Longer Is Will Terrorists Hit Washington, But When and Where By Bob Reiss With mounting horror, Larry Smith viewed the destruction. Thirty minutes earlier he had been getting into bed at his Alexandria home when the phone rang. "There's been a bombing at the Capitol," the operator told Smith, the Senate's ser- geant at arms. It was November 7, 1983. Now, as he stood amid the rubble, he saw the Capitol-normally a symbol of solidity and permanence-as an "utter mess. " "I felt sick," he remembers. "I felt like someone had bombed my own home." The blast had exploded from behind a seat in the hallway outside the Senate chamber, shattering and blowing off the doors of the Republican cloak- room and the office of Senate Minority Leader Robert Byrd 25 feet away. Debris flew into the face of the marble bust of Teddy Roosevelt. Glass and marble bits slashed and shredded portraits of Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun. Chan- delier glass sprayed Adlai Stevenson. The explosion was so powerful that it dispersed down three corridors, leaving a 250-foot path of destruction. "Any- thing that wasn't a wall gave," says Smith. "On a busy day, this corridor is so crowded it's hard to walk through. Had we been in session, we would have lost people, without question. People would have been blinded by flying glass. " Only a few days earlier, Smith had Bob Reiss is a widely published author whose upcoming novel, Divine Assassin, concerns terrorism in Washington. presented Majority Leader Howard Baker and Minority Leader Robert Byrd with a study concluding that security in the Senate needed to be tightened. New measures had been scheduled to be pre- sented to party caucuses three days after the explosion. "I felt like I'd been waiting for it to happen," Smith says, "but it was dif- ficult to sell that to members of Congress when nothing had happened yet." Today the bombed corridor is closed to visitors. Almost 30 more metal de- tectors have been installed at the Capitol and nearby congressional office build- ings. Women's bags are searched con- stantly. Color-coded passes are now re- quired for people who work in the Cap- itol-red or yellow for staffers and aides, green for media, blue for lobbyists. Bulletproof metal plates have been in- stalled in the backs of the House mem- bers' chairs. Concrete barriers seal the parking lot. At night, after visitors have left, Capitol police regularly stage mock rescue attempts in the buildings. But Larry Smith is still worried. Standing before the blast site, where a raised platform surrounds the damaged wall like three sides of a coffin, he is asked if he feels the new security pre- cautions are adequate. He answers with an unhappy shake of the head: "I have a feeling it's going to happen again." Smith is not alone. As the summer of 1984 approaches, legislators and law-en- forcement authorities are occupied with anti-terrorist preparations as never be- fore. Security armies are assembling at the sites of the Democratic and Repub- lican National Conventions, as well as at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the World's Fair in New Orleans. "Washington is a particularly good target," says Dr. Yonah Alexander, anti- terrorism expert and fellow at the Georgetown Center for Strategic and In- ternational Studies. "There is no ques- tion that we will see more violence." Says Michael Ledeen, a former spe- cial adviser to Secretary of State Alex- ander Haig and consultant on terrorism to the Pentagon, "The question isn't whether it will happen here. The ques- tion is why it hasn't happened yet." And so in ways both subtle and overt, the expectation of terrorism incorporates itself into the lives of Washingtonians at all levels. The President issues a policy directive calling for an "active defense against terrorism," including rewards of up to $500,000 for information on ter- rorists, as well as the creation of FBI and CIA paramilitary squads. Alabama Sen- ator Jeremiah Denton introduces a bill that would make terrorism a federal crime punishable by death if innocent victims are killed. A new 50-man FBI "hostage squad" demonstrates anti-terrorist tac- tics for reporters at the Quantico Marine base. All four divisions of the armed services train troops to "cope with ter- rorist incidents within this country," says a Pentagon spokesman. More signs: The Army commissions Dr. Robert Kupperman of the George- town Center for Strategic and Interna- tional Studies to write a report on "low- intensity conflict," which is what social scientists call terrorism. EPA security personnel request a talk on explosives. Approved For Release 2000/08/07: CIA-FMP96-00788R000100USD NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001;5 , and Lieutenant Jeff Altmire, who heads the bomb squad at Fort McNair, sends a staffer to pass out material entitled "Letter and Parcel Bomb Recognition Points. " Chief James Powell of the Cap- itol police speculates that someday an iron fence may be necessary around the Capitol-the last fence was torn down in 1873. Pennsylvania Avenue is closed during an evening rush hour when three suitcases are spotted on the sidewalk near the White House. Only clothing is found inside. The heightened awareness of terror- ism is most noticeable at government buildings, from the White House, Cap- itol, and State Department, where con- crete barriers have been erected to dis- courage car-bomb attacks, to the Pentagon, where tunnels under the build- ing have been closed for security rea- sons. Now it is rippling outward, touch- ing the everyday lives of many more Washingtonians. Cab driver Tom Sahr complains, "I used to hang around the Senate parking lot and cruise for passengers. Now I can't get in." Chris Vestal, a newsletter pub- lisher who reports on the Hill, says, "When I go to the Capitol, guards want to see my purse every ten seconds. " A ten-year-old boy on the Washington-New York train asks another passenger, "You're from Washington? Will terror- ists blow up the White House?" And Judith St. Ledger-Roty, an attorney, re- calls a recent day when she walked by the Soviet Embassy on 16th Street, no- ticed a man talking to a guard at the gate, and thought about how easy it would be for a terrorist to attack the building. "It struck me," she says, "that suddenly there were thoughts in my everyday rou- tine that terrorists can and do exist in this country. " "Terrorism begins with the perception that it exists," says Yonah Alexander. "If you think it's here, it's already al- tering your life." Larry Smith agrees: "The terrorists have had a degree of suc- cess. They're forcing us to conduct our lives differently." As summer approaches, do Washing- tonians occupy a twilight zone between terrorism as a form of nightly television entertainment and the real possibility of an explosion at Metro Center? Terrorists have existed globally for dec- ades without launching wholesale as- saults on Washington. Why the big con- cern now? The answer, experts say, lies in the evolution of terrorism itself. No longer a product of isolated attacks, terrorism is now recognized as an outgrowth of the last 30 years of superpower confronta- tion. It is the warfare of the future. The future is here. For years, social scientists have said that in the nuclear age, the superpowers would avoid direct confrontation as too catastrophic. Instead, the major powers would support smaller countries in little "proxy" wars around the world. Now anti-terrorism experts fear the proxy wars will be carried back to Washington in the form of bombings and assassinations by terrorists doing the bidding of their governments. The biggest concern of terrorist- "The terrorists have had a degree of success," says Larry Smith, the Senate's sergeant at arms. "They're forcing us to conduct our lives differently." watchers in the US is no longer the Weather Underground or other Ameri- can radical groups, but pro-Khomeini Iranians and pro-Qadaffi Libyans, many of whom enter the country across the Canadian border. Kupperman, as well as sources at the FBI and local law-enforce- ment agencies, confirms the presence of large numbers of them in this country. "For the first time," says Kupperman, "the infrastructure is here that will sup- port a terrorist operation. No terrorism occurs without surveillance beforehand. I'm talking about serious professional, politically oriented groups that are well financed. "The suicidal drivers are only cannon fodder in these deals. "My guess is you're going to see a bomb against the State Department. As- sassination attempts against individuals are also likely," says Kupperman. "In the nuclear age, the name of the game is not missile against missile," adds Yonah Alexander. "The name of the game is acts of terror conducted by ded- icated small groups that are supported by governments. " The key phrase of the new terrorism is "supported by governments." Says Kupperman, co-author of Terrorism: Threat, Reality, Response, "In the mid- '70s and late '70s, there was a lot of state-supported terrorism. For example, the Soviets provided training, weapons, and forged travel documents to terrorists. Libya provided safe haven for the Pop- ular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and encouraged Carlos (the legendary Venezuelan-born terrorist) to pull off op- erations. In no case did the country di- rectly manage the event. "But today you have state-managed terrorism. Which means that a national- level intelligence agency, the Syrian or Iranian government, trains individuals, designs and engineers a bomb, does the counterintelligence work, executes an at- tack, and lies back and denies it. You can't deal with it in court, and you're impotent to deal with it directly." The first two Washingtonians to die from state-managed terrorism were Or- lando Letelier, the exiled Chilean de- fense minister, and Ronni Moffitt, a co- worker at the Institute of Policy Studies. In 1976 they were murdered by a bomb, later traced by the FBI to the Chilean secret police. Four years later, during the overthrow of the Shah of Iran, Ali Akbar Tabatabai, an anti-Khomeini Iranian, was gunned down outside his Bethesda home by a man disguised as a postman. The gunman escaped. Asked if the United States also en- gages in renegade warfare, Kupperman responds, "Not as much as we used to," and criticizes the emasculation of the CIA during the Carter administration. But critics of the Reagan administration charge that covert training and aid to the anti- government contras in Nicaragua is as much a form of state-supported terrorism as Libya's backing of the PLO. They also contend that the covert wars are out of control and won't stop until the warring parties agree to ban support for terrorists. In the meantime, the renegade war con- tinues to escalate, which means the risks for the US are getting higher. Saul Lan- dau, a fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies and a friend of the murdered Le- telier, explains: "When the US govern- ment goes into the Middle East and the guns of the New Jersey blow away a village of Lebanese people or the CIA bombs or mines harbors in Central America, hitting at people who can't get back at you, sometimes the only re- sponse is terrorism," he says. "I con- sider terrorism a terrible thing. But if you operate a state as a terrorist entity and wreak terror on other people, it is ulti- mately logical that they're going to get back at you the only way they can." That's in line with a recent statement by Iran's ambassador to the United Na- tions, Said Rajaie Khorassani. When asked if he thought Middle Eastern op- ponents of US policy would resort to terrorism in America, he said, "It de- pends probably on how far you go." The purpose of most terrorist acts, however, is not retaliation for US foreign policy. Terrorism is an effective weapon for both pragmatic revolutionaries and fanatics. It provokes criticism of a gov- ernment that can't protect its citizens from it. It focuses world attention on issues that otherwise might be ignored, partic- ularly if it occurs in a city with the in- Approved For Release 2000/08/07: CIA-R 96-00788R0001003300TINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 ternational visibility of Washington. It can also legitimize, in some minds, the terrorists' position. Considering the devastating weapons available, a small band of terrorists can cause extensive death and destruction, making them the great equalizer in con- frontations between superpowers and weaker nations. Because media attention on terrorists is immediate and global, one well-planned act can have tremendous impact. And, points out Kupperman in his report to the Army, there is the matter of America's inexperience and relative naivete when it comes to coping with professional terrorists. "This nation, unlike others in the Western alliance, has no internal con- sensus on how to respond ... and has no common philosophical basis for ac- cepting the high costs, in lives, mate- rials, pride, and power, of occasional failure in dealing with terrorism," he writes. "We have no internationally rec- ognized commitment to firm retributive deterrence to such violence." Asked what "no internal consensus on how to respond" means, Kupperman cites a lack of coordination and preparedness among military and law-enforcement agencies. To a foreign group aware of these problems, the US becomes a more attractive target. A case in point: To combat the ter- rorism of the Red Brigades, the Italian government formed an anti-terrorist squad, which in 1978 alone tracked down and jailed thousands of suspected ter- rorists. By comparison, it was only re- cently that Ronald Reagan began push- ing for the formation of the FBI and CIA counter-terrorist squads, a proposal that is likely to come under fire in Congress. "Terrorists have not hit us yet because they are afraid," says Pentagon consult- ant Ledeen. "But [the US withdrawal from Lebanon] will encourage them. They will draw the conclusion that the best way to get your way with the United States is to kill a certain number of Amer- icans, and after a while, the US does what you want it to do. " In a city hit by terrorists, fear can quickly spread outward to friends and co-work- ers of victims. Saul Landau remembers how his life changed in the fall of 1976. Landau had arrived at work one Sep- tember morning when his wife phoned. She told him that on her way down Mas- sachusetts Avenue, she had witnessed the worst accident she had ever seen. "The car was still smoking. There were still flames, there was blood all over the place, she told me," he recalls. "She was so upset. I said, `Well, I'm sorry. That sounds terrible.' We hung up." A few minutes later, Landau received a call from the receptionist at the Institute "My guess is you're going to see a bomb against the State Department," says Dr. Robert Kupperman of the Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies. "Assassination attempts against individuals are also likely." for Policy Studies. What his wife had seen was not an accident, but the after- math of the murder of Landau's co- workers. The late-model Chevelle in which they were riding was blown up by a radio-detonated bomb as the car reached Sheridan Circle. Letelier's legs were sheared off in the blast; Moffitt drowned from blood dripping into her lungs. In the days and months following the killings, as the FBI's investigation pro- ceeded, fear stalked the Institute. "I was terrified," says Landau. "I learned to live with fear. "When I put my key in the ignition sometimes, my hand trembled. I had to use my left hand to steady my right. I had the urge to check my car every day- and my house. Everyone at the Institute was terrified. If they had the audacity to kill in the nation's capital, half a mile from the White House, what wouldn't they do? "There were other Chileans in the building-they were also exiles-in- cluding Mrs. Letelier. Several people urged the director to get the Chileans out of the building. Some fellows left. One said that when he signed up at the In- stitute, it wasn't a death trip he had in mind. "I sat with my back to the wall looking at people coming in, " Landau continues. "My sense of peripheral vision im- proved. I'm not saying there was any real danger. But we felt there was. What the bombing told us was that anybody could have been in the front seat with Orlando. It happened to be Ronni Mof- fitt. We had to understand that the mere fact of associating with someone could make you a victim of state terrorism." Landau goes on. "There were threats, letters and calls- `You all deserve what that Commie spy got.' Click. Like many fellows at the Institute, I had dreams. People chasing me. I elude all but one. Or my house is surrounded, and I man- age to figure out a way to escape, except there's always that one person left. "The worst dream was right after- wards. It kept recurring. It was of Or- lando as a ventriloquist's dummy. Sitting on somebody's legs, flopping. Smiling that dummy smile. Just the mouth open- ing, but no words were coming out." Eight years later, Landau no longer has the dummy dream but says he oc- casionally has the dream about people chasing him. Kirby Jones also learned to live with fear. Today he's a public-relations man at the World Bank, but in 1975 he was starting Alamar Associates, a firm that introduced American businesses to Cuba. That was also the year he interviewed Fidel Castro for CBS, helped set up George McGovern's trip to Cuba, and co-authored the book With Fidel. It was also the year the death threats started. "We're going to do to you what hap- pened to Ch? Guevara," a voice would say. Then the line would go dead. Jones recalls how the FBI advised him to start his car every day. "They told me never to wash my car. If someone plants a bomb on your car, they can't replace the dirt. So if you have a dirty car, you can more easily check it out at night and in the morning. "They said that when I start the car, I should always have the doors open. Many of the injuries come from con- CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA- P96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved Terrorism Continued from page 95 cussions. Open all the doors so the blast would go out, they told me. Keep your legs out of the car when you start it, if you can. And when you're starting it, put a briefcase between your chest and the steering wheel. "The threats made me nervous, but there was nothing I could do about them. I remember a photographer came to the house for a magazine. I asked him not to take pictures of my kids' faces. Or if there was a knock at the door at night, a neighbor coming over unexpectedly, I'd worry about who it was." The specter of terrorism extends beyond its impact on individuals. It can change the way a city lives. Michael Ledeen remembers what it was like to live in Rome during the Red Brigade's reign of terror. "Rome is a city built around outdoor places. People gather in piazzas and talk and drink coffee and play. The first thing that happened was that people went in- doors; the piazzas emptied out, mostly in the evenings, but also during the day. The second change was that an edge came over the city. In normal times, Rome is garrulous and friendly. But conversa- tions became much shorter. You didn't wander around the streets as much. Peo- ple tended to go outside, do what they had to do, and get in again. It lasted several years, until the Red Brigade was shut down." I have my own images of how terror- ism can affect a city. While researching a novel on terrorism, I traveled to Italy and Israel, two countries that are very familiar with it. Three scenes stick in my mind: ^ In Rome and Milan, soldiers with submachine guns guarded government buildings, synagogues, and a Greek Or- thodox church. I noticed that the soldiers kept their fingers on the triggers at all times. But what struck me most was that pedestrians seemed to pay no attention. The scene was that normal. ^ In Jerusalem one afternoon, I sat on a bus-station bench. Suddenly, I noticed the passengers on my right scurrying away from the bench. Then those on my left. I looked up to see a soldier directing me away, too. A police jeep roared into the lot; the buses pulled away from the curb. I asked the soldier what was going on, and he pointed to a crumpled paper bag eight feet behind me by a pay phone. It was a plain brown paper bag, the kind you carry sandwiches in. There had been no bomb threat, but the mere presence of an unclaimed paper bag cleared the area. A half-eaten sandwich was found EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 inside. ^ The bus I used while in Jerusalem was the Number 18 bus. It travels from the student dormitories on the outskirts of the city past the Yad Vashem mon- ument to Jews killed in World War II, through the downtown area and near the expensive La Roma Hotel and the Old City. Some of my relatives used this bus to get to school; a friend working on a book took it often while doing her re- search. While riding the bus, I some- You didn't wander around the streets as much. People tended to go outside, do what they had to do, and get in again. times would imagine what would happen if a bomb went off in it, particularly at rush hour, when it was packed with shop- pers, tourists, and schoolchildren. I vis- ualized seats ripped from the floor, a child's shoe lying on the street. One day after I left Israel, terrorists blew up the Number 18 bus. In one 24-hour period at the beginning of the recent Easter weekend, terrorist bombings shook two Western capitals. Here in Washington, a powerful explo- sive placed under a couch tore apart the officers' club at the Washington Navy Yard. No one was injured in the blast, which occurred shortly before 2 AM on Good Friday. A previously unknown group, calling itself the Guerrilla Re- sistance Movement, said the bombing was a protest against US policy in Cen- tral America. Several hours later, a bomb hidden in a briefcase at London's busy Heathrow Airport was detonated by a timer, injur- ing 25 people, five of whom had to be hospitalized. An anarchist group called the Angry Brigade claimed credit for the blast, but British police continue to in- vestigate links to Libyan terrorists. The bombings were indicative of the levels of terrorism in the two cities. Lon- don has been the site of indiscriminate bombings, such as the one that rocked H d's the famous department store, ro JUNE 1984 credit for explosions at the National War College at Fort McNair last April and at a computer complex at the Navy Yard last July. An unknown Philippine ter- rorist group ignited two fire bombs near the front of the Philippine Chancery. In the fourth incident, the Jewish Defense League claimed responsibility for a bombing that caused minor damage at the Aeroflot office here. Some terrorism experts contend that the threat from squads of professional Middle Eastern terrorists is being ex- aggerated, and statistics, at least, bear them out. Of the 31 terrorist incidents reported in the US last year, none were attributed to Libyan or Iranian organi- zations, according to the FBI. In fact, two-thirds of them were linked by the FBI to Latin American groups. One expert who downplays the threat from Middle Eastern terrorists is Neil Koch, deputy assistant defense secre- tary, who is in charge of the Pentagon policy on terrorism. He points out that despite what most people think, terror- ism is not a mindless activity; it's a stra- tegic weapon based on calculated deci- sions. Government-sponsored terrorists, he goes on, would have to have a very powerful motivation to stage mur- derous attacks in America and risk US retaliation. Other experts aren't as sure that an attack on a Metro train or National Airport or a department store is so implausible. That is clearly the trend of terrorism. Briga- dier General P. Neal Scheidel, chief of the Air Force security police, recently said that five years ago, 80 percent of terrorist attacks were on property, and 20 percent were on people, "But now it's 50-50." Professional terrorists, says one law-enforcement official, know that blowing up empty buildings will get at- tention but that it is indiscriminate mur- der that causes terror, and maybe a re- examination of policy. It is just that kind of terrorism that the administration's counter-terrorist strat- egy is aimed at. Reagan's policy direc- tive, which will become a legislative pro- posal, supports the principle of striking at terrorists abroad and staging reprisal raids in response to terrorism here or against Americans overseas. It repre- sents the first time the US has taken an ar during the holiday shopping season last aggressive anti-terrorist stance as a mat- year. But so far, Washington has been ter of national policy. That, in turn, raises spared the kind of wholesale violence the stakes in the renegade war. So law- inflicted on other cities. enforcement agencies, from the DC po- In addition to the Capitol bombing, lice to the Capitol police to the FBI, the FBI investigated four other terrorist continue to step up their anti-terrorist incidents in Washington last year, all of training. which were directed against institutions On March 9, FBI Director William rather than individuals. A group calling Webster unveiled the Bureau's new itself the Armed Resistance Unit took "Hostage Rescue Team" at Quantico. The squad, two years in the developing, Approved For Release 2000/08/07: CIA-RDh6-00788R00010033000cTID NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 has trained with US military and Euro- pean anti-terrorist forces. According to Webster, it is designed to deal with "a major-scale terrorist incident" and will be standing by at the Summer Olympics, the presidential nominating conventions, and the World's Fair. During the demonstration for report- ers, agents in black jumpsuits acted out scenarios. They slid down ropes from helicopters to "rescue" hostages in a mock bank. Marksmen with live bullets "killed" cardboard terrorists at the far end of a shooting range. It was a dem- onstration of what the FBI calls "sur- gical shooting," because sitting next to the make-believe terrorists was Assistant FBI Director Oliver Revell. In another scenario, agents broke into "Tire City," a roofless, seven-room "house" made of sand-filled tires. Once inside, they shot more "terrorists" and rescued more hostages. Other preparations include "gam- ing," the acting out of terrorist incidents. "We have simulated hijackings," ex- plains Wayne Gilbert, who is in charge of the FBI's terrorism section. "We might do it at night when planes are available. United Airlines might say, 'You need a DC-10? We have one sitting at Dulles until ten tomorrow morning."' Members of the squad are presented with different scenarios. In some, the terrorists claim to have a nuclear explo- sive. In others, an official of a big com- pany or the government is held hostage. Or the agents are told that there has been an explosion. "Sometimes the hostages are our own people," says Gilbert. "Sometimes they're from the military. Men and women. We brief them ahead of time to In some scenarios, the terrorists claim to have a nuclear explosive. In others, an official is held hostage. tell them what to expect. They're going to be treated badly; told when to go to the bathroom. They may be fed inade- quately or get lousy food. They'll be harassed and shouted at. When there's a rescue, they have to be prepared for ex- plosions, gas, and firing." Were a terrorist incident to occur, the command post would be Room 5005 in the FBI Building, a quieter but no less graphic embodiment of preparations in the war on terrorists. It even looks like a war room. Beneath clocks showing dif- ferent time zones and across from maps of Washington and local airports are the two banks of desks of the Emergency Operations Center. The upper tier would be manned by the FBI's top people, such as Webster, Revell, or Gilbert. The semicircular banks have direct lines to the White House, the US attorney gen- eral's office, the Pentagon, the State De- partment, and FBI field offices. There are computers on which agents can call up data on terrorist groups, plus police monitors, television monitors, and a glassed-in meeting room. On a recent day, a prepared hijacking log could be seen hanging on the wall. Empty slots are to be filled in if a hi- jacking occurs. The slots are labeled "Scheduled route," "Air carrier," "Number of crew members," "Weap- ons," and "Demands." There is one other prepared log-it's for nuclear extortion. Nuclear extortion is a major concern of the FBI. It has happened only once in the US-in 1979, when an employee at a nuclear plant in Wilmington, North Carolina, threatened to release uranium oxide into the atmosphere if he wasn't given $100,000. He was arrested, but law-enforcement officials realize the po- tential for more incidents. Playing a key role in any nuclear-ex- tortion case would be a highly secretive group called the Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST). Technically under the jurisdiction of the Department of En- ergy, NEST is made up of energy-phys- icists, explosive and electronic experts, and other scientists and technicians. It was NEST members who, during the 1976 bicentennial celebration, drove around Washington in unmarked vans and checked radiation levels at federal build- ings. A year earlier, NEST personnel dressed as businessmen conducted a ra- diation search at the Union Oil Company of California after a threat was received there. The detection devices were hidden in briefcases. In both cases, the team found nothing. In addition to the bicentennial inves- tigations, NEST has been used twice to check out nuclear threats in Washington. In 1976 they investigated a van parked outside the White House after someone received a tip that it contained a nuclear explosive. Inside they found a 50-gallon oil drum holding a ticking recorder. And in 1978 the team was called in when someone sent a package containing a brown substance to a congressional of- fice with a note saying it was radioactive. The substance was dirt. Today, about 30 NEST experts work out of Andrews Air Force Base. In the event of a nuclear threat, they would be contacted by the FBI and would have to be ready to leave the base within two hours. Even before the November bombing, Capitol police were staging their own terrorist scenarios in the Capitol at night when no tourists were around and Con- gress wasn't in session. Although au- thorities are reluctant to reveal details, at least one of the simulated terrorist at- tacks involved the seizure of the Senate chamber. As part of their training, mem- bers of the Emergency Response Team practice traversing the Capitol with ropes and swinging down on windows. "They're expert shots with special weapons," says Chief Powell. "They've done a lot of training in Maryland, away from the general public, to keep down panic." The biggest attempt to coordinate hos- tage-situation tactics in Washington oc- curred two years ago when the DC police organized Operation Speelunk, built around the takeover of a Metro train. In this operation, an escaping bank robber took hostages on a Metro train, but the situation was similar to what it would be in a terrorist takeover. "We were trying to find out how well we could interface all the agencies involved," says Lieu- tenant George Bradford, who organized the scenario. In addition to the DC po- lice, the FBI, Secret Service, transit po- lice, the telephone company, PEPCO, the Department of Highways, and Metro officials participated. The operation would later serve as the model the various agen- cies followed in December 1982, when an anti-nuclear activist threatened to blow up the Washington Monument. He was killed during the incident. The experts say that kind of coordi- nation is crucial in dealing with urban terrorism. Kupperman, in his report to the Army, points out that "while ama- teurs may continue to rely on the time- tested tactics of terrorism like skyjack- ing, the imaginative professional terror- ist has a number of avenues open for future attack: ^ "Attacks on the infrastructure of metropolitan areas (electric or gas net- works, communications, or computer fa- cilities), with a level of disruption be- yond the capabilities of the local police or the National Guard. ^ "Threats to thousands of people with agents of mass destruction such as nu- clear explosives, chemical, biological, CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-R[3096-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 or radiological weapons. ^ "Subtle exploitation of contentious political issues such as the anti-nuclear and environmental movements." At the heart of any anti-terrorism prep- aration lies a dilemma: How do you bal- ance security needs with the need to maintain a free society? "What we're doing here is a balancing act," says Larry Smith, who, ironically, is sitting beneath a portrait of Andrew Jackson, the President who opened up the White House to three miles of hand- shaking visitors after his election. "This building must be open to the public. It's their building. They come to see their legislature at work." Already there has been backlash to the security measures at the Capitol. Rep- resentative Don Edwards of California, The conflict between security and freedom in itself represents a victory for terrorists. chairman of the House Judiciary Sub- committee on Constitutional Rights, told his staff to refuse to provide any infor- mation other than name, employer, and Social Security number in filling out ap- plications for the new security passes. He objected to requests that staffers also reveal weight, color of hair and eyes, and home address. Smith acknowledges that there has been friction between Cap- itol police officers and Senate staffers over the regular checks for passes. "We feel bad about it, angry," he says, noting that some security measures have been modified as a result of the complaints. Says Steve Van Cleave, an Atlanta- based security consultant for multina- tional corporations, "In order to totally defend against terrorism, you'd have to hermetically seal the White House. When you deal with tenor, you deal with con- centric circles of defense, alert zones, something to cause a bomb to explode in the perimeter." "All the advantages lie with the at- tacker in terrorism," he adds. "To de- fend against it, you'd have to form an environment that's totally unacceptable to people in a free society." The conflict between security and freedom in itself represents a victory for terrorists. Writes Ray Cline, former dep- uty director for the CIA, "The first phase in terrorism . . . tends to erect an invis- ible barrier of noncooperation between people and their government. It an- nounces to a nation and the world that war has been declared on the government by shadowy and dangerous opposing forces. " The media have their own role in all this. In articles like this one, the media "lend credence to a hypothetical situation." savc Peter Caram, former head of the Ter- rorist Intelligence Planning Section of the Port Authority of New York. "Since terror is aimed at the media and not the victim, success is always defined in terms of media coverage," adds political scientist Raymond Tanter of the University of Michigan. "And there is no way in the West you could not have media coverage because you're dealing in a free society." Walter Laqueur, chairman of the In- ternational Research Council of the Cen- "The media are a terrorist's best friend. Terrorists are the super-entertainers of our time." ter for Strategic and International Stud- ies, offers a more succinct appraisal: "The media are a terrorist's best friend. Ter- our rorists are the super-entertainers-6f Critics of press specula ' n about ter- rorism in Washington mt out that ter- rorism has historically/been cyclical. They note that the Capildl was first bombed in 1915, that the group that claimed re- sponsibility for the recent Capitol bomb- ing linked themselves in their commu- nique with Puerto Rican Nationalists who tried to kill President Harry Truman on November 1, 1950. And they generally agree with Chief Powell of the Capitol police, who says, "We aren't any more concerned today about terrorism than we were five years ago. We were always concerned, and that concern hasn't changed." But the nature of terrorism has changed. And judging from the administration's counter-terrorist strategy, our approach to it is changing, too; now it is viewed more as a form of warfare rather than as street crime with political overtones. As terrorism spreads worldwide, there is, in the words of Ray Cline, "an increasing lack of distinction between war and peace." And, says Dr. Kupperman, there may be a greater danger. ' `Contemporary ter- rorism has become a tactic of strategic value . . . with large-scale conventional or nuclear warfare the likely conse- quence of failing to cope at the molecular level of violence." The freedom from terrorist attack that Americans once enjoyed is believed to be coming to an end. We need to learn more about a war in which we are tar- geted. Without information on the dan- ger, there's no preparation. Without preparation, there's deadly surprise. ^ 17 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 TORONTO a OBE & MAIL 9 May 19 84 Pg. 8 Assassinations not forgotten Security a fact of life in Washington frill" IAM JOHNSON files and Mnn CarrespeuaeM WASHINGTON - The funereal procession of assassinated presi- dents James Garfield, Abraham Lincoln, William McKinley, John Kennedy an immediacy to security procedures in Wash? ingtan that make them familiar facts of everyday fife. To appra-ch the White House, domain of the President, or to enter the Capitol, net of the Congress, one must walk through a metal detector frame, and one's briefcase, purse or bag must be searched. A tape recorder must be played for a security agent to demonstrate itdoes not disguise a bomb. Most presidents in this century have been the objects of assassi nation plots Ronald Reagan was three months . into hispresidency when' he was' wolnlded by a would-be assassin's bullet. Last November, a bomb went off during the night in a Senate corridor. No one was injured; but the property damage was exten- sive. Since then, security procc. durils at the Capitol have been tightened further. According to Y Chef Harry Grevey -of the Capitol Po- line Fora. the number, of en- trances to the' Capitol.. were reduced from nine 'to two. The public is no longer permitted to drive through the grounds - access is allowed only by permit. The now of traffic in and around the Capitol was rerouted, so it can be better controlled. Separate entrances were established for mploy~ and the general public and f!e~public . is subjected, to metal detectors, X-rays and searches of parcels and begs. Most corridors are off-limits. Journalists, employees and habit. =1 . visitors, such as lobbyists, must always ,display identifica- tion cards, which include a pic- ture. This is true of most govern- ment office buildings in Washing- tort. Around the Capitol, the White House, the State Department and some other buildings, "flower Dump trucks loaded with sand are parked near White House gate on earlier scare. boxes" of whitewashed concrete were installed so as to make it difficult to crash onto the grounds with a truck or car, possibly load- ed with explosives. Asked yesterday about security procedures for the White House; a special agent in the Secret Ser- vice's Office of Public Affairs declined to describe any whatso- ever. "if we discussed our proce- dures, they wouldn't be effective any more," he said. But there have been published reports that ground-to-air mis- siles have been installed discreet- ly around the White House to protect it from possible air at- tack. On the ground, marked or unmarked cars and vans are always parked on the streets surrounding the White House. Some of them contain German Shepherd dogs, which will some- times start to bark as one strolls past. Getting a highly coveted White House press pass requires secur- ity clearance by the Secret Ser- vice that takes months and, ac- cording to a press officer at the State Department, costs the Government $10,000 each time. A foreign journalist also requires also a security clearance by the State Department at a similar cost. According to the same press officer, one police body will not accept the security clearance of the other. Whenever the President -- or even a presidential candidate is travelling in public areas, the Secret Service can be rough and curt in ordering people not to move, and closing off elevators and corridors which will be pas- sed by the person they are guard- ing. In the age of terrorism, anyone and everyone must be considered a potential assassin. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : Ci -RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WASHINGTON POST 1 June 1984 Pg. 1C Capitol Securely Greeting Tourists By Alison Muscatine Waahington POStStat! Wdtlr Stricter security measures put' in place at the U.S. Capitol and congressional office buildings after a bomb explosion last fall have slowed the pace of the approximately 3 million people who pass -through them each year and caused cabdri- vers to grumble, but there is general acceptance of the inconvenience, according to security. offi- cials. An intricate identification system now requires journalists, lobbyists and staff members to ':wear color-coded passes at all times and metal detec- tors are in use at: every entrance to the Capitol and adjacent office buildings. "The publicity is the biggest deterrent [against attacks]," says Jack Russ,,the sergeant at arms. of the U.S. House of Representatives, who oversees security of the House side of the Capitol. "And there has been so much publicity about it." Harry Grevey, deputy chief of the 1,222-mem- ber Capitol Hill police force, said there has been no increase in the number of weapons confis- cated since the tighter security took effect. About 125 weapons are confiscated each year, according to security officials, who said most of the weap- ons are taken from people who forget they are carrying a gun. Most tourists are first-time visitors to the Cap- itol and are unaware that the security measures are new. Groups of high school students loaded down with cameras can be seen patiently handing over their wares to policemen as they pass through metal detectors outside the House and Senate galleries, where picture-taking has always been forbidden. Even at the main entrances of the Capitol, tourists seem willing to oblige police requests to search purses and pass through metal detectors. "It doesn't bother me," said a man who came from Pennsylvania for the Memorial Day week- end with his family. "It's just like going through the airport." The 20,000-plus people whose government-re- lated jobs take them to the Hill and the 4,000 journalists who cover them are complaining less, according to police, about the inconvenience of purse and briefcase inspection at every entrance and the lines at the metal detectors, which have grown with the advent 4 the tourist season. "Overall I think it's working fairly well," says Larry E. Smith, the Senate sergeant at arms. "There are occasional problems but there is a greater acceptance on the part "of staff and lob- 'byists." The stiffer security adds about 15 minutes to what used to be an av- erage 45-minute tour of the Capitol, but most tourists have been very co- operative, according to Tom Not- tingham, the Capitol's chief of tour guides. He said that tourism in the Capitol has dropped by about 10,000 visitors a month, but the decrease is not necessarily correlated to the de- lays resulting from increased secu- rity. "Everybody is willing to conform because they know it is something that has to be done," Nottingham said, adding that most tourists have become accustomed to metal detec- tors and bag searches in airports. After the November bombing, which caused $265,000 in damage but no injuries, there- were com- plaints about police behaving aggres- sively, occasionally even with mem- bers of Congress. Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-N.Y.) was confronted by a police officer who raised his gun at him, and Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker (R-Tenn.) was prevented tem- porarily from attending a GOP fund- raising event in the Senate ? caucus room because a police officer did not recognize him. "Generally, most senators have ac- cepted our mistakes with a sense of humor and have been supportive of what we're trying to do," Smith said. One congressional staff member said last week that the biggest incon- venience is that the new staff passes are too large to fit in a wallet and therefore "can't be used on weekends as identification for cashing checks." The increased security included changing traffic patterns to direct the flow away from the Capitol, and requiring taxis to discharge passen- gers at the Capitol's side entrances. The taxi rules draw constant moans from cab drivers, who are given no time to linger and therefore lose chances to pick up new passengers. Concrete barriers, which serve as flower pots and look similar to those now placed at several entrances to the White. House, were installed to prevent terrorists from trying to ram the building with a truck bomb. Bullet-proof metal was installed in the backs of all chairs on the floor of the chamber in the House of Rep- resentatives. Initially, the new security rules limited reporters' access to members of Congress outside the second-floor chambers, but that was changed af- ter complaints to the sergeants at arms. Smith agreed to allow report- ers in the corridor outside the Sen- ate chamber, a favorite place. to catch senators for comments after they vote, for a 60-day trial period. He said last week that the experi. ment had been successful and he sees no reason to discontinue it. As for the Hill police, security of- ficials say their training is adequate protection against terrorists and po- tential bombings. "We have one of the best bomb units on the East Coast," said one security official, ask- ing not to be identified. "And we also have a great hostage negotiation team" A team of specially trained dogs is used to sniff-search buildings for bombs before major events. Security at the Capitol also had been increased following a 1971 bombing-again with no injuries. In 1975, a $4 million surveillance sys- tem with 100 television cameras was installed throughout the Capitol and its subterranean walkways. At that time X-ray machines were placed at 10 entrances and there was a rule that briefcases had to be checked. Hill deputy police chief Grevey said that additional security mea- sures are going to be put into effect, but he would not disclose what they are. Despite the new measures, some Hill veterans believe the system re- lies more on symbolism and public- ity than on the efficiency of metal detectors and the identification pass- es. "Frankly, I think it's a joke," said one Virginia congressional staff member who has worked on the Hill since 1969. "I could think of 10 ways to get into the building without a pass if I really wanted to." The staff aide said the main im- provement resulting from the new security system is that there are few- er "crazies coming by our office." His office is located near an entrance to Independence Avenue where several police officers and an X-ray machine are now located. 19 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 DALLAS MORNING NEWS 19 May 1984 Pg. 33 Exercise in terror goes well City drills to be ready for anything at GOP convention By Mark Edgar Staff Writer of The News The terrorist, threatening to disrupt the Republican National Convention, drove a phony ambu- lance into the City Hall plaza and vowed to ignite a stash of dyna- mite. Police moved quickly to evacu- ate the plaza, filled with 2,000 anti- Reagan protesters trying to get closer to the RNC site at the nearby Convention Center. Negotiations with the ambu. lance driver, who bragged that he had contaminated the water sup- ply to the convention, lasted two hours. The man failed to make clear his demands, and President Reagan was never in danger. Fi- nally, after talking to the FBI, the man surrendered. Authorities found that the convention water had not been poisoned and that the ambulance had not contained explosives. The Republican National Con- vention escaped a violent attack this time. But the episode with the terrorist was a fake, anyway - part of a drill Friday by the Dallas Office of ,Emergency Prepared- ness. The city - in preparation to the Republican convention Aug. 20-23 - conducted the three-hour exercise with a slew of fake acci- dents, including hazardous waste spills, fires, traffic accidents and even a snake bite. Dubbed "Operation RNC," the drill was aimed at putting Dallas agencies through simulated emer- gencies between 6 and 9 p.m. Aug. 23, as well as evaluating the suc- cess of the city's emergency plans. Operated out of the Emergency Operations Center in the City Hall basement, the drill included more than 100 -members of the police, fire, health and other municipal departments. CONVENTION CITY '84 "The staff all performed'in a su- perb manner," Assistant City Man- ager Levi Davis said. Local reporters, although al- lowed to view similar exercises in past years, were excluded from much of the exercise Friday for "security reasons," Davis said. About three dozen disaster workers were stationed in the off- ice, surrounded by the usual city maps, phones, radios and weather radar screens and the not-so-usual signs saying, "THIS IS A DRILL." John Pickett, coordinator of the Office of Emergency Prepared. ness, said the disaster office will be on a state of "increased readi- ness" around the clock during the convention. The Federal Emergency Man- agement Agency will provide high-tech communications equip. ment, and regional officials will be on hand to assist in a major ac- cident. To give the scene authenticity, the organizers set up a television set that briefly broadcast news re- ports by Ken Smith, executive pro- ducer of CityCable. Protesters seemed to bear the brunt of the accidents in the first 30 minutes of the drill. The script - part of which was read by Smith in anchorman fashion - re- ported that, beginning on the sec- ond day of the convention, Tues- day, Aug. 21, two dozen conven- tion demonstrators camping at Reverchon Park clashed with an. gry residents. Six homeowners and four protesters were arrested. Davis said incidents with 'pro- testers made up only a small part of the beginning of the script. Davis said the incidents were played at as true emergencies but none reached a crisis stage. No one died during any of the fake exercises. But just to keep everyone off guard, one of the emergency workers in the basement office suffered a heart attack during the drill. He, of course, is fine. PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER 17 May 1984 Pg. 19D Bomb scare interrupts drill at nuclear plant in Wash. United Press tnternattonat RICHLAND, Wash. - A bomb scare occurred during a mock "unusual event" : drill yesterday at the Wash- ington Public Power Supply System's No. 2 nuclear plant, but the suspected bomb. - found taped to an empty nitrogen tank -- turned out to be electrical putty, officials said. The discovery of the substance had prompted WPPSS to declare an "un- usual event" in the middle of the mock "unusual event," which was called to test the ability of plant staff and local, state and federal officials to respond to an emergency situa- tion. WPPSS spokesman John Britton said the Richland Police Depart- ment's bomb squad had identified the black substance as duct sealant, or electricians' putty. "We don't know how it got there or who put it there," Britton said. "It's not some- thing that's used on the outside of these tanks. We're investigating." Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 CHICAGO SUN TIMES 21 May 1984 Pg. 7 Police HQ a terrorist pushover The headquarters of the Chi- cago Police Department is prob- ably the least secure against ter- rorists of any major police head- quarters building in the nation. That warning was sounded by Police Supt. Fred Rice in letters sent to Cook County Board members Jan. 20. Rice's letter asked . that the five Circuit Court branches in the building be moved as part of a plan to tighten security by limiting public access to upper floors. But after four months, he has received no official reply from the board despite the ur- gent tone of his correspondence. After obtaining a copy of the letter from a County Board source, we checked with Rice. He confirmed. he'd sent it and had received no formal reply. The letter notes, "As you may be aware, the emergency com- munication network.for the City of Chicago, i.e.; its lifeline, the 911 (emergency phone] system, is located in the James J. Rior- dan Headquarters Building, 1121 S. State." In the letter, Rice observed that Chicago police are keeping abreast of the terrorism problem and the efforts of other depart- ments to combat it. "In that light," the letter says, "the Chi- cago Police Department Head- quarters facility is probably the least-secure facility of any de- partment of a major city." The letter says the primary reason for the lack of security is "public accessibility" to the headquarters building due to the presence of the courts. Rice's letter says the head- quarters building was checked The Review of the NEWS 16 May 1984 The Terrorist Threat to America ^ Washington, May 6 - Assistant FBI Director Oliver B. Revell says that the Bureau is actively investiga- ting 19 U.S.-based groups suspected of terrorist activities and is cooperating with foreign intelligence and law en- forcement agencies to monitor 15 to 25 other terrorist groups on the inter- national scene. Noting the difficulty in gauging the size of the terrorist threat, Revell says that "most often the groups are small, cellular, for se- curity purposes .. . Terrorist move- ments are not mass' movements .... But the support apparatus can be ex- tensive." He says that "the United States is the most vulnerable .. . country from the standpoint of size and constitutional guarantees. Inter- nationally, we're the target of more than 40 percent of all terrorist activi- ties." Robert Kupperman, a terrorism expert at the Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies, agrees that "this nation is extremely vulnerable, catastrophically vulner- able, to even a small terrorist attack. We are a nation of entwined networks and have little redundancy. If you hit three or four key components of the electrical power system you can knock out a section of the country for three to four weeks. There are no replace- ment parts . . . . There are similar problems in natural gas delivery." More Threats From Libya's Qoddali ^ Tripoli, May 2 - Libyan dictator Muammar Qaddafi threatens to hurt the United States and Britain for harboring opponents of his regime. At a news conference, Qaddafi says rce on a floor-by-floor basis by "se- lected law enforcement adminis- trators and individuals knowl- edgeable in building manage- ment." They recommended removal of the courtrooms. That recommendation was concurred in by the department's own Building and Safety Committee, which included First Deputy Supt. John J. Jemilo and Depu- ty Supt.' Matt Rodriguez, the committee chairman. The letter was sent after Je- milo and Rodriguez returned from London, where they ex- changed information on terror. ism with Scotland Yard. Rice sent them to Britain to represent the department at the funeral of two police officers slain in a terrorist incident earli- er this year. FOOTNOTE: County Board Finance Committee Chairman John Stroger, reached yesterday, reviewed the letter and said the terrorism problem is so wide- spread he will consider making Rice's request a top priority. that Britain and the United States are "harboring Libyan terrorists wanted by Interpol. Wherever we can hurt them, we shall hurt them. Every coun- try has its sensitive spots." He accuses Britain of planting the weapons and spent shells found in a search of the evacuated Libyan Embassy in London and says that "this is barbarism that has no precedent. There is no compari- son between the behavior of Libya and the behavior of the British, be- cause we are civilized and they are barbaric, as is America." Qaddafi al- so says that he might increase aid to Irish Republican Army terrorists, de- claring that "if Britain is dealing with masked terrorists and stray dogs who have escaped from Libyan law, how can we not be expected to meet honest and honorable leaders of the IRA?" Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RD 1 -00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 TRIBUNE 17 May 1984 Pg. B1 L JAMES T. IHAC KETT U. S . acts to combat terrorism aimed at Olympics, big events There is a new fear in the nation's capital - the fear of terrorism in America. The question nagging gov- ernment officials is whether the fear will become reality in 1984, when four major events present prime targets: the national polit- ical conventions in Dallas and San Francisco, the Los Angeles Olym- pics and the New Orleans World's Fair. According to the FBI, much has been done in recent years to bring the problem of terrorism in the United States under control. The FBI has focused on those extremist .groups that have been active in the United States, such as the Weather Underground and its various suc- cessor groups, pro-independence Puerto Ricans, anti-Turkish Arme- nians, Croatian nationalists, anti- Russian Jewish groups and anti-Castro Cubans. Thus far, the problem has been far more serious abroad, There FBI Director William Webster says the FBI and local police forces are getting terrorism under control. James T. Hackett, a former For- eign Service officer and acting director of the,U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency early in the Reagan administration, is edi- tor of the Heritage Foundation's National Security Record. This article is excerpted from the publi- cation's April issue. have been no incidents here with a large loss of life, and most domes- tic terrorist activities have been manageable. Testifying before a' subcommittee of the House Judi- ciary Committee on Feb. 8, FBI Director William Webster said the FBI and local police forces are getting terrorism under control. He said the number of terrorist attacks was down from 51 in 1982 to only 31 in 1983, and he reported a drop in the activity of Armenian, Croatian and Puerto Rican groups, coinciding with a rise in convic- tions for terrorism. Efficiency claimed Webster likes to present a pic- ture of FBI efficiency. He proclaims a reduction of terrorist activities in the United States, the readiness of the, FBI's new 50- member Hostage-Rescue Team and the operation of a Terrorist Research and, Analytical Center that tracks and assesses terrorist activities by computer. But Capitol Hill sources claim that the FBI always reports everything under control, while local police say the sharing of information is often a one-way street, with the FBI taking their information while providing them with little useful intelligence. The local police also contest the FBI's rosy description of declining terrorism. They claim that FBI statistics do not include a number of explosions or other events that cannot clearly be classified as ter- rorism, but which the local police believe should be included, in that category. The FBI considers such criticism,inaccurate and unfair. Critics claim that the. FBI and CIA were emasculated by a series of demoralizing actions during the Ford and Carter presidencies, from which they have never fully recovered. The main criticism is directed against the so-called Levi .guidelines, issued in 1976 by Pres- ident Ford's attorney general to establish procedures for the FBI to follow when conducting domestic security investigations. This was followed by the arrival in office of the Carter administration, which gave a higher priority to the protec- tion of civil liberties than to the protection of the public from for- eign subversive activities. All behind them But now the FBI and CIA claim that their difficult time after Watergate and during the Carter years is behind them. The Levi guidelines were clarified early last year by the issuance of new guidelines by Attorney General William French Smith. Under the new guidelines, the FBI says its Counter-intelligence Division is actively conducting broad-scale investigations and that the bureau is doing its job effectively. There is still concern among FBI agents about the precedent set when the government prosecuted its own law enforcement officers. But President Reagan acted early in his administration to pardon the convicted officials, and this went a long way toward relieving that con- cern. The FBI now contends that its agents have nothing to fear if they The Reagan administration is actively encouraging officers to investigate and pursue terrorists and subversives. follow the current guidelines. Important though these actions have been, more significant for U.S. police and intelligence services is the change in official atmosphere. One senior intelligence officer says it is clear to agents in the field that the Reagan administration is actively encouraging them to investigate and pursue terrorists and subversives, while the pre- vious administration was so preoc- cupied with civil liberties that it acutally sought to constrain police activities. Both the FBI and CIA CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : cZ -RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE 12 May 1984 Pg. 7 Hard Line Urged on Global Terrorism By Kevin Leary Robert M. Sayre, the man in charge of President Reagan's get-tough policy against international terror- ism, said in San Francisco yes- terday that the United States must act more aggressively against terrorists or the prob- lem will get even worse. "What has become particularly disturbing in the past year is the extent to which states themselves have begun to use their intelligence services and other agencies of gov- ernment to engage in terrorist activ- ity," he told a Commonwealth Club luncheon. Sayre cited the Soviet Union, Iran,. Syria, North Korea, Libya and Cuba as nations that use terrorism as an instrument of international policy. He said those countries provide training, arms and other direct and indirect support to "a variety of na- tionaland insurgent and separatist groups." The soft-spoken, 60-year-old ca- reer diplomat apologized to his audi- ence of about 300 for talking about the "down side of American foreign affairs" but said the problem is get- ting worse. He blamed Syria and Iran for three major bombings in the Middle East last year, including the bomb- ing of the Marine barracks in Beirut and the destruction of the U.S. em- bassies in Beirut and Kuwait. "We have also been witness in the past weeks to the practice of terrorism by Libya against the peo- ple of London," he said, referring to the, shooting at the Libyan Embassy in. which a police officer was slain on April 17. Sayre said the United States is the target of 40 percent of terrorist attacks. Last year, such violence claimed the lives of 269 Americans, including the 241 Marines in Beirut, which he said was more than in all the 15 preceding years. Sayre said 52 percent of. the at- tacks against Americans were aimed at diplomats, 6.5 percent at other government officials, 22.5 per- cent at military personnel and 16.9 percent at private businessmen. He did not account for the remaining attacks. ',`There are other reasons why the events of 1983 were disturbing," Sayre said. "The accent was on kill- ing people. Such imprecise weapons as vehicle bombs were used to pro- duce large casualties." Sayre was ambassador to Brazil before 1982, when Reagan assigned him the job of developing a count- er-terrorist policy and of providing security for U.S. personnel at 257 overseas posts. Sayre manages a $100 million annual budget in his job as director of the State Depart- U.S. ACTS... Continued claim they now have the support and authority they need. In an effort to reduce the risk of international terrorism, to protect American citizens and property and ensure that the perpetrators of terrorist attacks are brought to jus- tice, the Inter-Agency Group on Counter-Terrorism has proposed a package of five bills that the White House plans to submit to Congress. The proposals are: 1. The Act for the Prevention and Punishment of Hostage Tak- ing. To amend the federal kidnap- ping law to provide federal jurisdiction over any kidnapping in which a threat is made to kill, injure or detain a victim to compel third parties to do or abstain from doing something. 2. The Act to Prohibit the Training or Support of Terrorists. Zb improve the ability of the Jus- tice Department to prosecute indi- viduals supporting, recruiting, soliciting or training terrorists. 3. The Aircraft Sabotage Act. This would tighten present law con- cerning criminal acts relating to aircraft sabotage or hijacking, to. coincide with the International Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation.' 4. The Terrorist Control Act. To make it a violation of U.S. law to conspire ' in the United States to commit acts of terror abroad. This would help the United States to prevent the international terrorist network from planning in. the United States to conduct oper- ations in other countries. ment's Office for Combatting Ter- rorism. Sayre urged his listeners to sup- port the Reagan administration's anti-terrorist proposals, which in- clude pre-emptive attacks and retal- iatory action against foreign terror- ists and $500,000 rewards for information on acts of terrorism. He said the hard line is neces- sary because "we must demonstrate that terrorism is not an effective way to conduct relations and that the price for such conduct is too high." 5. The Act to Provide Rewards for Information Concerning Ter- rorism. To authorize payment of. rewards for information concern- ing acts of terrorism either in the United States or abroad. There is general agreement that these proposals do not go far enough, and that the greatest need is for improved intelligence, espe- cially human intelligence, and effective law enforcement coordi- nation. Yet the critics have few specific practical proposals. The suggested legislation is at least a move in the right direction. More important is to giue the nation's intelligence and law enforcement agencies the high- level support and encouragement they need to carry out their often thankless duties effectively. Also, the military services must be encouraged to pay greater atten- tion to the worldwide terrorist threat and to recognize it as a new form of warfare to be guarded against and combatted on' a con- tinuing basis. The White House can increase its support for this effort by issuing guidance that makes unequivocal the president's commitment to pro- tect the American people from the threat of terrorism and by direct- ing federal agencies to take all legal steps toward that end. Con- gress can support the effort by promptly considering and acting favorably upon the White House legislative proposals, while assuring that proposal No. 4 does not make it illegal to provide assis- tance to the Afghan freedom fighters or any other anti- communist groups operating abroad. 23 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 SAN JOSE MERCURY 9 May 1984 Pg. 1 Soviets had chance to help plan security By Maline Hazle Staff Writer LOS ANGELES - Top police department officials said Tuesday that the Soviet Union was invited to review and participate in "secu- rity arrangements for the Summer Olympic Games but that Soviet officials ignored the overtures. At one point last month, accord- ing to Chief Daryl F. Gates, the Soviets sent word they would meet with' LAPD" representatives, but police Cmdr. William Rathburn who is heading LAPD Olympic security - waited four hours when .the Soviet delegation was in Los Angeles and no one showed up to meet with him. "I would suggest' that if indeed they do believe there is some prob- lem with security, they take me up on my offer," Gates said at a news conference held after'the Soviet boycott was announced. "That cannot be the reason," he said, "because security will indeed be adequate." Gates said the Soviets were again invited to review security plans in a letter carried by Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Com- mittee President Peter Ueberroth to a meeting of the International Olympic Committee in Lausanne, Switzerland, two weeks ago. In the letter, Gates wrote, "I wish to personally invite any secu- rity officials, particularly those from the Soviet Union, to visit our Olympic Planning Group and review our entire security plan. "We would, of course, be pleased to answer any questions and enter. tain any suggestions that might be made by those officials after. they have reviewed our plan." "There has been no follow-up nor any response to the invitation," said Cmdr. William ; Booth, chief LAPD press offices. Booth said that. Gate' invitation is still open and that police offi- cials hope Soviet officials will change their minds. The spokesman dismissed sug- gestions. that an anti-Soviet group called Ban the Soviets 'Coal'ition had any real effect on : the Rus-. sians. Daryl F. Gates. Open invitation "As far. as we're concerned, they're a small group' of people exercising their First. Amendment rights," Booth said. "It's doubtful that the mighty Soviet Union, would be intimidated by such a small band," The coalition 'itself took credit for the boEdo tt. "We something,"; said Orange County author aid adver- tising man David W. Balsiger, `sand we did it without" government endorsement , .. when everyone said we oopldp't keep ' the Soviets out." Nearly .'every' Soviet Statement expressing .. concern about the Olympic arrangements in Los Angeles mentioned timecoalition or its activities. On Tuesday, the Soviet National Olympic Committee (NOC) said that 'extremist organizations'. in this country, 'openly aiming to create unbearable conditions for the stay, of. the. ,Soviet delegation .and for the performance by Soviet athletes, have-sharply stepped up their activity, with direct conniv- ance of the American authorities:'. A month ago, when the Ban, the. Soviets Coalition announced plans for Russian-language, billboards. with advice to potential, defectors and information about 500-"safe houses" throughout Los Angeles, Soviet complaints. reached a fever, pitch. The possibility that the coalition could spark at least some defec- tions was taken seriously. enough by local enforcement agencies that many officers were being given special, instruction for handling defectors during the Games. The. special instruction is just one aspect of what has been a massive, five-year effort involving dozens of federal, state and local law enforcement agencies. During the Olympics, more than 50 law enforcement agencies - Including the FBI, the California Highway Patrol and county sheriffs' depart- ments - will be available con- stantly. Although events will be held throughout Southern California, most of the major events will be held within the Los Angeles city limits. In addition, both Olympic villages fall within the LAPD's jurisdiction. The city of Los Angeles has a $22 million contract with the LAOOC to cover the city's Olym- pic-related costs, with $15.7 million of that earmarked for security. That security. effort, Booth said, will rely on all 7,031 L.A. police officers. "Days off, vacations - all will be canceled," he said. "When we talk numbers, we're talking the entire. LAPD." With so many agencies involved, a battle for control of security was almost inevitable, and last month, the LAPD and the FBI signed an extraordinary document that essentially gave local police pri- mary responsibility for the ath- letes' safety. Both sides have been reluctant to release the document's fill text, but 'as details emerge, it is clear that the agreement is broad and general, purposefully vague in cer- tain regards and dependent almost exclusively on the good will of the two signatories. 24 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 LOS ANGELES TIMES 2 June 1984 Pg. B-1 INS Cites Terrorism Fear in Probe of Yugoslav Smuggling, By LAURIE BECKLUND, Times Staff Writer U.S. immigration officials said Friday that they inaugurated a major undercover inves- tigation into a Yugoslav alien-smuggling one undercover officer. ring last year partly because they were concerned that the organization could have "But we found absolutely no informa- been importing terrorists to the United tion-and at no time did anybody in the States for. the Olympic Games in Los -ring indicate to our undercover peo- Angeles. ple-that they were bringing these peo- They said they are now satisfied that in for political reasons," Perryman those fears were unfounded. But they are ,said still puzzled over the complicated ethnic "Most of the aliens brought into the strife in Yugoslavia that may have helped ?country appeared to be coming for spur the illegal immigration. economic and personal reasons, accord- "The up-front concern was that this ing to another immigration service offi- organization was to be used as a pipeline for ;pial, based in New Jersey, who asked not smuggling in aliens from the Eastern Bloc in -to be identified. great numbers for terrorist purposes or "He said many of those smuggled in had perhaps for political embarrassment during been working in West Germany but the Olympics," said Mark Reed, assistant returned to Yugoslavia when they lost regional U.S. Immigration and Naturaliza-their work permits during a German tion Service commissioner for anti-smug- .secession. Unable to find work in their own country, they sought jobs in the gling. "But our worst fears did not pan out. We United States. have no reason to believe any of these Almost all the aliens smuggled into the people is a direct threat to our security. We tnited States were ethnic Albanian Mus- do feel we shut off a very Significant lims who came from a part of Albania pipeline of illegal alien smuggling." that was added to Yugoslavia about 1913 Twenty-nine suspects have been indicted as a result . of the First Balkan war. in connection with the smuggling of Yugo- anans living in that part of Yugosla- ,.a t.._ hmn nrnt-tina what they slav nationals into the United States through Mexico, officials announced in: press conferences in Chicago, San Diego and Los Angeles on Thursday. They estimated that the ring brought in up to 175 aliens a month over the last 1%. years through two pipelines, one leading to: Chicago and the other leading to New. Harold Ezell, the Western regional commis- sioner for the immigration service, indicated; that there were ulterior political motives behind the smuggling operation. Ezell: charged that some of the smuggled aliens; were 'iromoting communism in our own country.'He declined to elaborate or offer', proof. ? eensider to be political repression by the 'Yugoslav government. Riots in the Alba-, nian region in 1981 left nine dead and 600 `Some of the strife has boiled over into ethnic neighborhoods in the United States, particularly in the Chicago area, 'Where one of the suspected smuggling "Iftfigleaders was located, immigration -service officials said. Oloman Selman, 53, a restaurant own- er, identified by officials as an Albanian lu uslim and the ringleader of the Chicago "operation, had three loaded firearms with `'him when arrested, Perryman said. Sev- eral were armed. The New Jersey operation allegedly was spearheaded by a. Yugoslav emigre Brian Perryman, the immigration service named Dragisa Terzioski, 45, a natural- superviaor'of criminal anti-smuggling in-, ized citizen , who once had his own vestigations in Chicago, said Friday that the; arranged television "'. frequently ; original concern about Communist ties stemmed from' the fact that four of the' U.S. tours for Yugoslav cultural and aliens smuggled into the United States were? athletic groups. Officials claim that he "avowedMatadsts." booked most of the illegal aliens' arrivals' The. immigration service conducted a;through his travel agency in Paterson, N.J. yearlong investigation into the smuggling operation, which included the use of at least U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT 11 May 1984 Pg. 21 Whether foreign nations like it or not, the FBI is making clear that offi- cial bodyguards sent to protect ath- letes at the Olympic Games will have to sit on their hands. FBI chief Wil- liam Webster says local or federal au- thorities will handle any incidents. WALL STREET JOURNAL 8 June 1984 Pg. 1 FEAR OF TERRORISM at the Summer Olympics persists despite the Eastern-bloc boycott. The FBI claims it is worried that Moscow's KGB may somehow inspire vio- lence during the games. G-men suspect that the Russians may believe that would justify their explanation for the boycott: that the U.S. couldn't protect athletes against at- tack, Most Wanted Jobs "If you wanted anything in the Yugo-' slav community, he was the patron," the New Jersey-based immigration service official said. He said most of the aliens who took advantage of the travel service "are just hard-working people who wanted jobs here." Investigators said they are still uncertain whether Terzios- ki, an ethnic Serbo-Croatian, was direct- ly involved with the Chicago group. None of the defendants nor their attorneys could be reached for comment Friday. Terzioski's wife, a former actress, denied in a brief telephone interview that her husband had been involved in any wrongdoing and charged that the immi- gration service had misconstrued the immigration of the Yugoslavs. She said community members and family are making contributions to pay his $1-mil- lion bond. "My husband never did anything to anybody," she said. "If he did some mistake, if he did something to help, it's because of his crazy good heart, not because he's criminal.... The relatives come here, we sell the tickets to them. That's all." Asked about any political motives for immigration to the United States, she said in broken English, "People come because have one brother there, one sister here, and they want, they desper- ate, to have families together." 25 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 SOLDIER OF FORTUNE July 1984 Pg. 30-35 SOF FEATURE KILLING FOR THE GOLD Olympiad '84: Ominous Parallels to the Munich Massacre by Kevin E. Steele Photos courtesy of AP/Wide World 0 430 hrs., an hour before dawn. Dark- ness clung like a cloak to the new high-rise buildings that housed the Olym- pic athletes. Eight men, dressed in athletic garb and carrying athletic equipment bags, easily scaled the 6.5-foot security fence. Once on the other side, they quick- ly shouldered the athletic bags that con- tained the instruments of their trade - Soviet assault rifles, handguns and gre- nades - and hurried to meet their appointment with destiny. Gold medals meant nothing to them. Twenty hours later a final body count revealed 17 dead - among them 11 Israeli athletes. Five of the eight terrorists were killed, along with one German policeman. How did this atrocity occur, and why was it allowed to happen? This was the infamous "Munich Mas- sacre," carried out by the Black Septem- ber faction of the PLO during the 1972 summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany. The televised drama that un- folded that September day ranks with the dark days of Dallas in 1963 as a vivid, step-by-step portrayal of murder and mayhem indelibly etched on our con- sciousness. Random and senseless acts of terror continue to this day. The terrorists them- selves are not important, nor are their warped beliefs and perceptions of injus- lice levied against their causes. It matters not what breed of rabid dog bites, only the pain and death that follow. The presence of terror, and the means by which it is inflicted on innocent citizens, should be all that concern us. Why is the Munich Massacre important today, 12 years later? Haven't we learned how to cope with terrorism? Or are we victims of the complacency bred by the successes at Entebbe, Mogadishu and London? Certainly we know how to com- bat these vile creatures who prey on inno- cent civilians - or do we? Los Angeles is about to host the 23rd Summer Olympiad. What security pre- cautions have been taken to safeguard both the athletes and the spectators, and have the Olympic organizers learned the tragic lessons of Munich? Unfortunately, it seems they haven't. Let's review the 1972 Olympics and the events that led up to the slaughter at Furstenfeldbruck Airbase, then compare these to the security arrangements made for the L.A. Games. The ominous parallels are all too evident. The West Germans welcomed the 1972 Olympic Games as a chance to set the record straight, and to exorcise the specter raised by the 1936 Games hosted by Adolph Hitler as a propaganda extra- vaganza to prove the invincibility of the Aryan race. A new Olympic Village was constructed in Munich (ironically the birthplace of National Socialism) where the athletes could live and compete in the spirit of sportsmanship and harmony. Security precautions were made, to include the 6.5-foot chain-link fence that ringed the village perimeter. Checkpoints were established at all village entrances, and the original intent was to restrict entrance. However, the press complained of these "Gestapo" tactics, and the village was opened for all. (Once again the general press rears its ugly head.) The police pre- sence was intentionally downplayed. to prevent further references to German "militarism." The responsibility for village security was under the jurisdiction of the Munich police, under the command of Dr. Manfred Schreiber. An "easy and re- laxed" atmosphere prevailed. Eight PLO terrorists quickly infiltrated this "easy and relaxed" atmosphere with no difficulty as part of the 30,000-worker contingent hired for the games. No back- ground checks were made, and the Arabs did not attempt to hide their national ori- gins. On the morning of 5 September, the eight terrorists disguised as athletes met no resistance scaling the relatively low "security" fence. The building that housed the Israeli team was not locked, and when the murder team knocked on the doors of the Israeli apartments they were opened. Only when the barrels of the Kalashnikovs were visible to the Israelis did they expect the worst - and by then it was too late. Within hours the Munich police were aware of the situation and had begun to take action. Under the orders of Schrei- ber, 600 policemen were alerted to cor- don off the area wth armored personnel carriers. A command center was estab- lished a short distance from the Israeli quarters, and Schreiber initiated the first discussion with the terrorist leader. It is at this point that the situation becomes in- teresting, and ultimately tragic. If a single blame can be leveled on the handling of the Munich Massacre, it would have to be placed directly upon the Ger- man officials who allowed disorganization to rule the day. In 1972, there was no GSG-9 (although this debacle was directly responsible for its formation), no SWAT, no Delta Force. The responsibility for the use of force to free the hostages rested on the shoulders of not one but three indi- viduals; their use of the decentralized police/paramilitary apparatus became their worst handicap. Schreiber commanded the Munich municipal police who initially took charge of the situation as it unfolded. Later in the day, Schreiber was supposedly supported CONTINUED NEXT PAGE 26 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 KILLING FOR THE GOLD-Continued by units of the Bundeswehr under the control of Bruno Merk, Bavarian interior minister, and the Federal Border Police, under the command of Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Federal interior minister. The ultimate failure of these units to success- fully free the hostages rests on the fact that no single individual commanded and, rather than the typical German penchant for organization, disorganization characte- rized the remainder of the operation. By late afternoon, the German author- ities had decided that the terrorists would not be allowed to leave Germay with their hostages. The terrorists requested trans- portation for themselves and the hostages from the Olympic Village to the Munich airport, where a waiting jet would carry them to Cairo. The Germans granted the terrorist request, then began preparing an ambush for the terrorists. During the day, intelligence reported that five terrorists had carried out the attack. Using this information, the Ger- mans came up with a final plan they in- tended to implement. A bus would enter the Olympic Village and transport the ter- rorists and hostages to a field adjoining the village, where they would board two Bun- deswehr choppers and be transported not to Munich airport, but rather to Fursten- feldbruck Airbase, some 20 miles outside Munich. At Furstenfeldbruck, a Luftwaffe base, a Lufthansa 727 sat waiting. Unknown to the terrorists, the 727 held no crew, for the Germans did not intend to allow them to board the jet alive. Atop the tower at Furstenfeldbruck, three German Border Police sharpshoo- ters had taken up positions. Two,addition- al marksmen were positioned on the air- field itself. Within 50 meters of the snipers' positions, the choppers holding the terror- ists and hostages would land. According to the plan, the terrorists would be shot as soon as they exited the choppers and made their way to the waiting 727. The sharpshooters were armed with bolt-action sniping rifles equipped with telescopic sights. Maximum range to their intended targets would not exceed 40 meters. However, by the time prepara- tions had been made, darkness had fallen on the airbase, and the killing ground was crisscrossed by eerie and confusing sha- dows caused by the spotlights illuminating the area. At the last minute, Bundeswehr officials offered the use of semiauto rifles equip- ped with infrared sighting devices. However, the police marksmen were not trained in their use, and turned down the offer. The stage had been set for the final option. At 2235 hrs., three choppers approached Furstenfeldbruck and land- ed. Two held the terrorists and hostages, while the third contained police and nego- tiators. By this time it was learned that the original intelligence was in error. Eight ter- rorists guarded the hostages - not five. This placed the police sharpshooters in a no-win situation, as it is tactically and prac- tically impossible to simultaneously kill eight terrorists with five bullets. In the in- terim between firing the initial volley and reloading, something was bound to go wrong. Four terrorists exited the choppers. Two approached the waiting 727, and two held the chopper pilots as shields. Satisfied with the 727, the two terrorists began walking back to the chopper. At this point the fire command was given to the sharpshooters. Inexplicably, only one round reverberated around the tense air- base, quickly followed by four more. Two terrorists went down for the count in the initial volley, with the remaining six returning police fire. The nine hostages, still within the chopper and mute to the horror that surrounded them, were gun- ned down where they sat. A terrorist tos- sed a fragmentation grenade among the contorted bodies in the chopper for good measure. At the end of an hour-long fire fight, three additional terrorists were kil- led, and three eventually surrendered. The Munich Massacre had become real- ity. The following scenario shows one possible replaying of the Munich tragedy. Los Angeles, July 1984: The catering truck pulled up to the Olympic Village entrance on the Westwood campus of UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles). At 0600 hrs., the caterers were running an hour behind their routine schedule for the 0700 breakfast serving. As the truck stopped at the barricade, the uniformed policeman on duty heaved his middle-aged bulk from the chair in the guard-shack and approached the open window of the van. The day promised to be a beauty. The early-morning fog normal for this time of year, hanging heavy and oppressive from Santa Monica to downtown, was missing - a warm Santa Ana wind had blown in overnight from the Mojave, replacing low clouds with brillant stars. As the guard reached for the caterer's extended I.D. card, a bleating BMW horn on nearby Freeway 405 distracted his attention: Six 9mm slugs chewed their way through his thin uniform shirt and buried themselves in his chest. As the policeman slid to the pavement, the cater- ing truck bolted through the barricade and roared into the Olympic Village, making directly for the apartments of the Turkish team. Jumping the sidewalk, the catering truck screeched to a halt beside the fire exit of the high-rise apartment building. The door to the building was locked, but a well-placed burst from the suppressed MAC-10 quickly gained them entrance. A startled security agent in the building corridor reached instictively for the hol- stered Beretta 92 under his jacket. Unfor- tunately, his effort was rewarded with another burst from the furious Ingram. Five men entered the corridor behind the submachine-gun-wielding point man. Moving instantly to the pre-planned target, the point man took up a position beside the door of the Turkish suite, as a second man moved into position in front of the door. The point man squatted, wait- ing for the door-breaker to employ the cutdown 870 loaded with #000 Buck on the twin door hinges. At this point, the blast of the shotgun charges mattered lit- tle. As the door slid from the wall, the two men rushed in, quickly followed by their four comrades. The six-man Turkish team was rounded up from their beds in moments. The Armenian terrorist team had accom- plished their first objective. At 0608 hrs., a telephone call to the Olympic security building assured the officials that the Turks were being held hostage for crimes committed against Armenia in 1917. As in Munich, preparations have been made to ensure the security of the L.A. Olympiad. But unlike Munich, the '84 Games will be spread over an immense area of Southern California, reaching over 200 miles from Santa Barbara to San Diego. Security will be provided by an army of uniformed and plainclothes police, in excess of 17,000 individuals, comprising over 100 different and over- lapping jurisdictions. Once again the question is asked, "Who is in charge?" At the present time, Olympic security is being coordinated by the Los Angeles Police Department, under its chief, Daryl F. Gates. Actual day-to-day responsibility has been passed on to Commander Wil- liam Rathbum. The Olympic Committee has also hired a former FBI agent as its security coordinator, Edgar Best. On top of these is William Webster, Director of the FBI. Webster and Gates have been trying for quite some time to overcome the problem of decentralized leadership. In a Los Angeles Times article (6 January 1984), Webster said that he "... had no doubt that the FBI and the LAPD will resolve their differences over which agency will take the lead in responding to any terror- ism within the city [read: LAPD's jurisdic- tion] during the Olympics." Both Webster and Gates have pledged to work together CONTINUED NEXT PAGE Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDA6-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 DUTCH DOCTOR It's night in one of the great cities of Europe. The row houses in this once- prosperous but now slightly seedy dis- trict are bathed in harsh floodlights. Access to the street is barred, and com- bat-suited figures flit through the deep shadows to take up firing positions. Obviously, hostages have been taken. But what of the actions that are closed to public scrutiny? The key ele- ments that usually ensure a satisfactory ending to the siege? Who are the ex- perts and advisers behind the scenes who manipulate the terrorists and make them receptive to negotiations? One of the first men on the scene is usually a middle-aged Dutchman. His coming excites no comment among The media gathered to witness the dra- ma unfold. His photograph has never been published, he doesn't give inter- views, and his address is a closely guarded secret. He, perhaps more than any man alive, knows the mind of the modem-day terrorist and the sinis- -ter men in the shadows who direct their actions. Police and intelligence agen- cles eagerly seek the advice of this Dutch troopers manning security cordon around train held by South Moluccas extremist, cluster around their APC, 31 May, some using optical devices to view the train. Accompanied by two South Moluccan terrorists, negotiators Dr. Hassan Tan (second from left) and Mrs. dosing Soumokil (wearing light scarf) leave hijacked train near Glimmen, northern Netherlands, on night of 4 June 1977. Negotiators held lengthy talks with South Moluccan separatists who kept 51 passengers hostage. Train was hijacked 23 May on the line between villages of Asses and Groningen. mild, bespectacled doctor of psycholo- gy. His handling of the South Moluc- can train and the Hague Embassy sieges have given invaluable lessons to the strike teams that battle the web of international terror. The scenario is distinctly different from a siege in which a criminal has taken hostages to try to escape retribu- tion for some action. The political ter- rorist takes hostages to get a message across. He needs to legitimize his act and so must talk, which opens the door for a skillful negotiator to turn the tables and give the advantage to the security forces. The negotiator can also mentally prepare the terrorists for the violent intervention of the strike teams. Among the first objectives of the good doctor Is the establishment of an immediate dialogue. Without this no- thing can be achieved. Before replying to the terrorists' initial statements, he must listen attentively. When respond- Ing, he must try to establish a basis of complicity between the terrorists and himself. He must never approve of their actions, but still make it clear that he and only he can help them obtain some of their legitimate grievances. Before the violent intervention of the strike teams he must prepare the terrorists psychologically and work to- ward getting them to accept the idea that every man has the right to be tired, to be sick, that nobody can bear such an enormous burden indefinitely. He must try to get them to describe their physical ailments, to erode their feeling of invincibility and get them to sleep. This restores their mental rhythms and also creates favorable conditions for the attack. For the hostages, the two most dangerous moments are the initial sei- zure when the terrorists are fired by an almost psychotic zeal and could mas- sacre them without a moment's hesita- tion; and when the captors' position weakens and they are tempted to try some violent act to regain the initiative. it is at the latter stage that most lives are lost. The negotiator must use an almost confidential tone to speak to the terror- ists - almost like doctor to patient - with no bluntness or the slightest hint of threat. He must insist that the cap- tors maintain discipline with the hos- tages and ensure that they remain un- hooded: Eye contact is crucial. A man will kill someone whose eyes he can't see. The negotiator must ease the terror- ists into a climate of submission by establishing a routine, setting times for meals ("Do you want chicken or ham- burger?") and deluging them with questions ("Leg or wing? Rare or well- done? Mustard or ketchup?"). These questions do not change the basic situation, but take the terrorists' minds off their obsession, put them back into contact with outside reality and weaken their will to resist. The doctor suggests sending food in on china, making the captors maintain standards of hygiene ("Be sure to wash the plates and utensils"). The terrorists are made to realize that objects are breakable - and also, unconsciously, that their hos- tages are fragile. The doctor vetoes sending in play- ing cards or board games, to avoid disaster should a terrorist lose to a hos- tage. Instead, he recommends trying to build up the leader and perhaps allow him a small success to increase his standing in the eyes of his men. He is then less likely to resort to violent means to regain authority or make a point. These are a few of the steps by which the Dutch doctor manipulates the terrorists to prepare them for the end. Roger Ingram Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : ClP fDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 KILLING FOR THE GOLD... Continued Loward a "common agreement." So far as we know, none has been reached. The FBI has also been hamstrung re- cently in the area of preventive investiga- tions. In a suit filed in Federal District Court in Chicago by the ACLU and the Alliance to End Repression (a front for the U.S. Communist Party), Judge Susan Getzendanner issued an injunction which disallows implementation of new FBI domestic security guidelines initiated by Attorney General William French Smith in 1983. Under the new guidelines the FBI would have been able to investigate indi- viduals or groups who advocated criminal activity or intent to commit a crime of violence. The outcome is that the FBI can investigate only committed crimes, not in- dividuals planning to commit crimes. Regarding security checks on workers hired for the Games, the police are permit- ted to instigate background checks, but are not allowed to take workers' finger- prints nor administer lie-detector tests. In the event of an act of terrorism which involves the taking of hostages. exactly what would the response be? Well, we have several options. One is the use of the LAPD SWAT Team. Another is the use of the L.A. County Sheriff's Department SWAT Team. Another is the use of the FBI SWAT Team, and still another is the use of the one-year-old, untested FBI Hostage Rescue Team. Perhaps more "final op- tions" than we need? The police have been given the job of Olympic security and terrorist-action re- sponse over the military for a number of reasons, all of which seem to evolve around image rather than action. To quote FBI Director William Webster (op. cit.): "Because of the FBI's readiness, there is no need for stationing a special Army Commando team close to Los Angeles during the Games." Webster went on to state that the Army does not concentrate on training that will allow the saving of lives, and that the FBI team will provide a "... civilian response, not a military response." Unfortunately, this thinking echoes back to the Munich deba- cle. Unlike Munich, the Olympic Villages in Los Angeles will be ringed with tight secur- ity - at least in the beginning. What will happen if the press complains again of Gestapo tactics? The two villages in L.A., one on the UCLA campus and the other on the USC (University of Southern Cali- fornia) campus, will be surrounded by high-security, alarm-wired and electroni- cally monitored fences. Entrance check- points will be guarded by armed police, and athletes and press will be required to show a special photo I .D. which features an electronic bar code. Metal detectors will be set up at the village gates and will also be used at the entrances to all events. At least L.A. will not be as "easy and relaxed" as was Munich in '72. However, even with the security pre- cautions already under preparation, the most glaring error that persists is the lack of a centralized control over all security forces. The Olympic officials are convinced that the proper response to terrorism is a police response. But do the police have the right background for the job? The effectiveness of the LAPD SWAT team is highly touted in law-enforcement circles - but is it for their response to terrorist activities, or for their response to drunk or drugged-out husband/boyfriends who threaten to kill their mates in a moment of insanity? Professional terrorists are not momen- tarily insane. They are cold, ruthless killers who practice their trade on an internation- al front. They consider themselves sol- diers and "freedom fighters" - not cri- minals. While the LAPD SWAT team may be good, I can only cite their performance against one terrorist group - the Sym- bionese Liberation Army in the famed shootout of 17 May 1974. In that fiasco, the SWAT team literally tore apart the 29 H&K MPS-toting agent runs to aid two colleagues in subduing revolver-armed "terrorist" and securing "hostage" during FBI training exercise geared toward the possibility of terrorist attacks at the Summer Olympics In Los Angeles. house holding the terrorists with uncon- trolled gunfire, finally bringing the siege to an end with tear-gas cannisters that ignited the home and created a blazing inferno. None of the terrorists were cap- tured alive. Is this what Webster terms a "police response"? What steps could we take to augment current Olympic security plans? To start, a centralized command must be estab- lished. This centralized command should be capable of dispatching the correct re- sponse to any terrorist activity at a mo- ment's notice. The commander should not be affected by local politics, nor be concerned with "public image." An im- partial commander should be selected - and all local forces should be subjugated to his control. In short, the overall security commander should come from the ranks of the military - not the police. But then, I suppose "image" is far more important than innocent lives.' Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 SOLDIER OF FORTUNE July 1984 Pages 36-37 SOF FEATURE TOOLS OF TERROR SOF's Guide to Underground Weaponry by Bill Guthrie F EAR is the first weapon, but after that guns are the tools by which terrorists move nations and men to act against their wills. Firearms of "liberation" organiza- tions can be defined by necessity and taste (simple weapons are best - since many of the grunts in a terrorist "army" are qual- ified more by zeal than by experience - and certain weapons have emotional appeal) but the guns found most often are the guns that are available. The distinctive banana-magazined out- line of the Kalashnikov is the symbol of revolution even to those who have no idea what an AK-47 is. Simple, rugged, relatively inexpensive and manufactured from Egypt to China, the AK may be the greatest small-arms contri- butor to world destabilization. Some analysts believe total production of AKs and AK variants must be near 30 mil- lion. The older USSR-made AK-47, the newer AKM and the Chinese Type 56 are most numerous in terrorist weapons caches, but East German, Polish, Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Yugoslavian, and North Korean versions can be found. M l6s are valued by many armies for mechanical simplicity, low recoil, accura- cy, lightness, compactness and ease of training. All of these characteristics make them fine weapons for amateur and profes- sional killers. Colt claims that about five million M 16s have been made in the United States and by licensees in the Philippines and South Korea, but there may be political reasons for not revealing a larger figure. Unofficial esti- mates of total production are double official figures. Our abandonment of about a mil- lion M16s in Southeast Asia has made a great contribution to the world terrorist arsenal. Vietnam-issue ' I6s have been used in terrorist acts and communist insurrec- tions from neighboring Cambodia, Burma and Thailand to Central America. The Irish Republican Army has received M16s from communist sympathizers, and IRA buyers have been in Vietnam to purchase U.S.- made arms and ammo from our old ene- mies. The first rifle issued to use the AK's M1943 7.62x39mm cartridge was the SKS. Strong and simple, production figures are not available, but Pete Kokalis figures that 10 million must have been made. SKSs lack selective-fire capability, and are relatively unsuited to urban and jungle fighting. But they were made in East Germany, Yugo- slavia, the Soviet Union, China and North Korea and are still found wherever com- munists are killing people. Some have called the U.S. M2 carbine the original assault rifle. The M2 fired an intermediate round, was light and compact with 30-round magazines and it featured selective fire. Official production figures are in the 6,000,000 range and World War II spread them over most of the globe. Semi- auto M 1 s and full-auto M2 and M3 carbines have been taken from basements and bodies of terrorists from Ireland to Africa and from Vietnam to South America. Since terrorist organizations do not have the same supply networks as an army, mem- bers of the same group may have different weapons. Czech vz.58 assault rifles are a good example. The Model 58 is visually similar but mechanically different from the AK, and parts are not interchangeable. It has the additional inconvenience of the capability of being misassembled, with potentially disastrous results. Still, the weapon is robust, accurate, and mainly well-designed. Since it is something different, some people like it for that reason alone. One of the terrorist cells of the Japanese Red Army named itself for the Czech rifle. Submachine guns and machine pistols are light, small and lethal. Many millions of them have been made since World War I, and by no means are all of them accounted for by either Free World or communist states that made them. All makes appear in weapons captured from terrorists, from the latest UZI to the oldest Thompson or the most delapidated PPSh-41. For power, compactness and shock value, hardly anything short of C-4 beats the MAC-10 in .45 ACP or 9mm Parabellum. Expensive on the open market and virtually non-rebuildable, the Ingram's high rate of fire (1200 rpm in .45) and small size make hit probability low at ranges beyond toe-to- toe. All that aside, it is available with an excellent Sionics silencer, is unbelievably concealable, and is very hard to argue with at very close ranges. Numbers are hard to get, since covert services are the gov- ernmental agencies that buy them and the manufacturing history is Byzantine. But they've been produced in some numbers for the last 17 years, were originally cheaply and easily available to civilian buyers, and have been purchased by more than 20 gov- ernments, including Yugoslavia. The real sex-appeal weapon for enemies of order is the Czech Skorpion machine pistol. The Red Brigades of Italy are parti- cularly fond of this 2.8-pound, 10.6-inch- long, folding-wire-stocked select-fire weapon. Available in .32 ACP (most com- monly), .380 ACP, 9mm Makarov and 9mm Parabellum, the Skorpion is relatively controllable, highly portable and reliable. Originally designed as a police and vehicle- crew weapon, Omnipol (the Czech sales organization) has found good foreign mar- kets, so the Skorpion is available all over Africa and throughout much of Europe. Common handguns are most popular for terrorist operations. Pope John Paul II was shot with a Browning Hi-Power 9mm, and Walther auto-pistols are so popular (and illegally available) in Europe the Red Bri- gades have been nicknamed "P-38ers." Compact .38 Special S&W revolvers are also popular. The world's terrorists have found other means when they didn't have guns -plasti- que in France in the '40s and industrial dynamite in Peru today - but firearms re- main their most important tools. Other weapons, such as nuclear devices or toxins, might be more ideally suited for terrorist operations, but guns are compact, inexpen- sive, require little training or experience for basic use and are available all over the world. The great numbers of military weapons and the lack of control over disper- sion in times of war define what firearms are available to terrorists. But whatever guns are found and wherever they are used, they are implements of slavery in the hands of terrorists as they are tools of freedom in the hands of informed citizens. 3k Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-PDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 SOLDIER OF FORTUNE July 1984 Pages 38-41 SO l4 FEATURE DEATH IN THE AFTERNOON Basque Separatists Wage Europe's Longest War Text & Photos by Adrian Wecer T HE young Basque terrorist walked out of the apartment house on Cal- le Reina Cristina, heading toward his car parked a short distance away. He froze in mid-stride, slapped a hand to the side of his head - as if he had just remembered something very important - and keeled over. He was dead be- fore he hit the ground. The bullet that killed him had been fired by a fellow terrorist, an old friend of his hidden in the lobby of the build- ing he had just left. It punched through a plate-glass panel on the exit door. drilled into the back of his head, spun around inside his skull a few times, and finally came to rest deep within the bloody mess that had once been his brain, It happened at 7:45 in the morning, while dozens of people on their way to work casually watched from doorways and passing cars. Within seconds the lifeless body was dragged off the street into the back seat of a waiting auto- mobile, which quickly drove off to dis- pose of it at some unknown location. But there was no need to hurry. None of the witnesses would have dared call the police to report the killing - not this one, anyway. And even if someone had, the authorities would certainly have taken their sweet time about com- ing out to investigate - if they decided to come at all. Getting involved in a settling of accounts between ETA gun- men did not exactly rate high on their list of choice duties. The killing, which this reporter had been invited to watch and photograph from a nearby rooftop, took place several months ago in the Basque pro- vincial capital of San Sebastian. To be sure, it was nothing more than murder, plain and simple. But it was also the single most important political develop- ment in Spain's struggle against Basque terrorism in the last 15 years. ETA had gone to war against itself. Earlier interviews with Basque politic- al leaders and ETA militants - includ- ing the two who later invited me to that rooftop on Reina Cristina - provide us with a fairly clear idea as to how this situation came about. According to these knowledgeable sources, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA Basque Country and Freedom), the ruthless left-wing underground organiza- tion that has been striving for Basque independence from Spain through a bloody campaign of terror launched in the late '60s, had suffered a series of political and military setbacks over the past two years which have deprived it of its leadership, eroded the vast popu- lar support it once enjoyed, and invali- dated any claim to a just political cause it may have had. The first of these setbacks occurred early in 1982 when Jose Martin Sagar- dia, ETA's top leader and principal strategist, was assassinated in a south- ern French sanctuary during a cross- border retaliatory raid conducted by members of an obscure extreme-rightist group known as El Batalldn Vasco Espanol (the Spanish Basque Batta- lion). The subsequent capture and in- carceration of his most trusted lieute- nants by Spanish border police certainly didn't help matters any. It quickly trans- formed the organization from a highly disciplined urban-guerrilla movement, with brilliant military strategy and well- defined political goals, into a disorga- nized band of thugs desperately striking out at any target of opportunity for mere publicity value. Given this situa- tion, the second major setback was as predictable as it was unavoidable. Horrified by the mindless slaughter that since June 1982 has claimed the lives of 14 military officers and more than 150 innocent bystanders, the Bas- que people began to deny ETA the un- questioned support they once offered so freely. The cities of Vitoria and Bil- bao - alleged birthplace of ETA where militants were once openly paraded through the streets and hailed as heroes - have since become staging areas for massive rallies denouncing the depreda- tions of this terrorist group. Recent out- rages such as the killing of a baker (for delivering bread to the families of policemen during a strike). and the kid- napping and cold-blooded execution of an Army pharmaceutical officer (after the government had already met their outrageous demands for his safe re- lease) triggered a nationwide protest the likes of which had not been seen in Spain since the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936. Thousands of people marched through the streets of every major city in the country to denounce the murders and to demand from the government in Madrid nothing less than the total extermination of these rabid killers. The third and potentially most damaging setback was a decision by the Madrid government to restore to the Basque provinces the political auton- omy revoked by Generalfsimo Francis- co Franco during the Civil War. In 1937, the second year of the war, Franco suppressed the self-governing powers of Guipiuzcoa, Vizcaya and Ala- va - the three provinces that presently make up the Basque region. They were officially proclaimed "punished pro- vinces" for having fiercely resisted the. onslaught of his rebel armies. His hatred for the Basques was so intense that he even went so far as to forbid them the use of their native language, Eskuara. People were forbidden to teach this ancient language, or even speak it in the privacy of their own homes. To ensure compliance, Franco's political police often stopped Basque families on the street and questioned the children as to whether they had heard their parents speaking anything other than Spanish at home. The Madrid decision to restore the rights of the local Basque government to levy and collect taxes, to establish its own police force, and to finance schools teaching the native language, met the home-rule demands of the moderate Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) which for years had been trying CONTINUED NEXT PAGE 31 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 DEATH IN THE AFTERNOON ...Cont'd to undercut ETA and all other extrem- ists who believe that political autonomy can be had only through the warm bar- rel of a gun. From the time the decision was im- plemented in 1982, ETA tried to show that it had not been seriously hurt by this or any other setback. More than anything else, it tried to show that it was still an armed political force that had to be reckoned with, Indeed, the ever-increasing number of indiscrimin- ate killings attributed to the separatists in recent months, and the appalling savagery which has come to charac- terize all their actions, certainly gave that impression. However, ETA defectors were telling a totally different story regarding the organization's strength and capabilities. They described a terrorist organization that had been forced to plan and direct its "struggle for independence" from the relative safety of a foreign sanctuary due to the fear its "freedom fighters" had of being turned in or even killed by the very people whose cause they claimed to champion. The organization was so reduced in numbers by internal strife and mass defections that their last Asamblea - a kind of Revolutionary Congress convened by the entire mem- bership of ETA every few years in order to discuss and evaluate past and future strategies - was held in a sheepher- der's shack high up in the Pyrenees. Nothing larger was required, as only 47 militants showed up. According to two former ETA gun- men who attended that Asamblea. a motion was presented to end hostilities if and when the Madrid government agreed to the following three condi- tions: first, that all "forces of occupa- tion" such as transit patrolmen, national police, and all members of the Guardia Civil that normally patrol and protect Spain's foreign borders, be recalled from the Basque region; second, that the Madrid decision to restore self- governing powers to the Basque pro- vinces be amended in such a way as to acknowledge the right of the Basque people to eventually obtain their inde- pendence and secede from the Spanish Union; and third, that the neighboring province of Navarre be acknowledged as part of the future Basque nation. "That last condition," remarked one of the former gunmen, "was like the Armed National Liberation Front of Puerto Rico (FALN) promising to end their campaign of terror bombings in America if only the U.S. government agreed to grant the islanders their inde- pendence and recognized their right to claim New York as part of the future is- land nation." BASQUE RESISTANCE The history of Basque resistance to incorporation by neighboring national and ethnic groups is long and bloody. The Song of Roland tells of a treacher- ous attack on Charlemagne's rear- guard at Roncesvalles by the Moorish army. It's a fabrication designed to save face for the French. Charle- magne's rearguard got wiped out by the Basques. The Basques live in the Pyrenees in the border regions of Spain and France. Rejecting both cultures, they hold to their own ancient ways. Of the total number of militants in attendance, the gunman recalled that 16 voiced their satisfaction with the gains already made by the PNV moder- ates and presented a counter-motion to end the armed struggle throughout Spain unconditionally. When their proposal was rejected, the group turned in their weapons and walked out. Another 12 also quit the gathering when their motion to abandon all attempts at a negotiated settlement in favor of escalating the violence was shouted down. This group did not turn in their weapons when they left. The remaining members, unable to get a consensus on their original motion, ad- journed to their sanctuary in southern France where they now spend their time dodging cross-border raids by Spanish secret police and trying to fi- gure out what went wrong with the re- voluti on. It is known that the dozen pro- violence extremists who quit the Asamblea are responsible for the cur- rent wave of indiscriminate killings sweeping over Spain. It is also known that their primary objective was, and still is, to provoke the Madrid govern- ment into declaring a state of national emergency and ordering a full-scale military intervention in the Basque pro- vinces - a move that would discredit Eskuara, their language, is unrelated to any other European language. The Basques probably represent the abor- iginal population of Europe. Basques have settled in the United States, especially in sheepherding and farming areas of the Northern Rocky Mountain states. Aside from their successes against the Franks, the Basques also invaded and occupied Gascony in the 6th cen- tury, and have fought, usually enthu- siastically, in every war in the area since then, especially in the Spanish Civil War and World War II. PNV efforts and reunite the general population behind their extremist cause. They came close to doing just that a couple of times so close, in fact, that by the end of 1983 they were publicly proclaiming themselves rightful heirs to ETA's name and cause. They had also augmented their numbers by forging a loose alliance with a group of free-lance murderers who called themselves the "Autonomous Commandos of the Re- volution," the ones who actually carried out the hits and placed the bombs. "They are like a pack of wild dogs that have been turned loose on the streets of our cities," explained the gun- man with obvious distaste. "Their senseless acts have made a mockery of our cause and have brought nothing but shame and sorrow to our people. Shooting an innocent man while his children beg for mercy on television is not what this struggle is all about. "We don't really know who these people are or what they stand for, but we do know who holds their leash ... and we are going to stop them. That's a promise." Early the next morning, standing on the roof of a building looking down on Calle Reina Cristina, I saw that same gunman fulfill the first part of his prom- ise.' Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-P96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 LOS ANGELES TIMES 10 June 1984 Pg. 3 U.S.-Mexico Border Won't Be Terrorists' Escape Route By MARJORIE MILLER, Times Staff Writer SAN YSIDRO, Calif.-Mexican and American officials are increasing law enforcement activities along Ot U.S.-Mexico border in an effort to ensure that it does nel become a gateway for terrorists planning an attack-.on the Olympic Games. On the Mexican side, Tijuana police have revamp4l plan to seal off that city in the event a terrorist should attempt to flee south after an attack. Security agepts have asked the Baja California state attorney general for permission to videotape all airport arrivals review daily the names and nationalities of people staying in Tijuana hotels. On the U.S. side, Immigration and Naturalization Service agents and San Diego police have intensified training on terrorism and are paying closer attention to the origin and travel routes of foreigners detained fbr entering the country illegally. `? .., On both sides of the border, police agencies are trying to improve binational communications, setting up a bbt line between the San Diego and Tijuana police depart., ments and installing two-way radios between the Tijuana Police Department and the immigration serviee 'Intend to Be Prepared' "We have no evidence of any problems. We anticipate no problems, but we intend to be prepared," said Sari Diego Police Cmdr. Mike Rice, who is heading the Olympic security operation in San Diego. ' "We are looking into everything out of the ordinary," a San Diego police officer working on, the binational security effort concurred. That means investigating talk of 1,000 Iranians who were supposedly training south of Ensenada, word that a Puerto Rican independence fighter was headed 'fdrr Tijuana and other such tips that arrive at polio headquarters via anonymous telephone calls and lettets None of those tips so far has proven valid, but the intensified scrutiny has resulted in confiscation of sotrie World's Busiest Crossing Trying to head off terrorists who might want to mike use of the. border here is an ambitious undertaking. Even on the calm days, the border is a maelstrontof activity. Every month, 3 million people pass through t13O San Ysidro Port of Entry, the busiest internatiai`a.9 border crossing in the world. Thousands of others illegally cross the 8-mile-long border between San Diego and Tijuana. They pass through beaches, barbed wire, rugged hills and canyons., and many, if not most, are undetected by immigration agents. "Our concern is that a terrorist group will use our border to cross into the United States," said Roberto Sanchez Osorio, a security consultant to the Tijuai a Police Department. "There is a big concern too abgti what may happen if a terrorist group tries to use our border as a door to escape, maybe with hostages." `. Under Mexican law, Sanchez Osorio said, it is a fedeiial crime to enter Mexico after committing a crimelp another country. So, if someone attacks the Games In Los Angeles and flees to Mexico, the problem becomes ,.the responsibility of Mexican federal police. U.S. police ,,agencies, of course, may not operate in Mexico. :'Should terrorists head for the border, Mexican customs agents would immediately begin to halt traffic at the border, so it would back up into the United States. Tijuana police say they could have all highway exits from the city sealed within three minutes of notification, and then could blanket the hillside slums, downtown ,streets and beaches with patrols. --City and state police each will have an additional 15 patrol cars and 25 to 30 officers this summer who could be used for such an emergency operation. But Sanchez Osorio noted that Tijuana is not a very ..good escape route for a criminal because, "there is only ,one, road out to Mexicali (east). To the south, past Ensenada, it goes into the desert and you don't want to escape through the desert." Collaboration is nothing new on the border, where San Diego police have maintained communication lines to Mexico for the last 50 years. The San Diego Police Department, Sheriff's Department and California Highway Patrol all have liaison officers who make daily or weekly trips across the border to trade information with Mexican police on everything from stolen cars to fugitives. So, much of the Olympic planning boils down to strengthening these relationships and working together more closely-such as trading telephone numbers they never got around to exchanging before. More formally, the agencies plan to install a direct line between the San Diego intelligence unit and the Tijuana Police Department, which will serve as a command center for local, state and federal police in Mexico during the Games. To complete the communications chain, San Diego police and sheriff's deputies will have a security post at Fairbanks Ranch, where one equestrian event is scheduled, and representatives in Los Angeles at the Olympics security coordinating center. The Olympic security plan calls submitted to increased Baja a California state attorney general surveillance along the south and eastern borders of the state and at bus stations, according to Sanchez Osorio. He said the attorney general has not made a decision yet on the plan. The plan recommends that police take greater notice of the hotel guest lists that now are routinely submitted to them each day. The lists show the names, nationali- ties and previous destination of the guests. Security Tightened Police and customs ? officials say inspections already CONTINUED NEXT PAGE 33 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WALL STREET JOURNAL 12 June 1984 Pg. 34 Israeli Inquiry for Benefit of Terrorists, Not Moralists By ERIC M. BREINDEL It is now official that two of the four Palestinian Arabs who hijacked a commer- cial bus in Israel in early April were killed after having been taken into custody unin- jured-and not as a consequence of the Israeli army's successful assault on the hi- jacked vehicle. This is a matter of special concern to Israeli authorities for reasons generally ignored by the Western press. A month-long inquiry into the incident by outside experts appointed by the Israeli Ministry of Defense was prompted by jour- nalists'-photographs taken during and im- mediately after an elite military com- mando unit stormed the bus and rescued the passengers. The photographs, initially barred from publication by Israeli military censors, ap- pear to show at least one of the hijackers- since identified by members of his own family living in the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip-alive and seemingly unharmed after the raid. At the time of the incident Israeli mili- tary spokesmen maintained that two of the hijackers were killed during the assault (as was one Israeli passenger). The other two, authorities insisted, died en route to a hospital of injuries sustained during the commando operation. According to the official inquiry, how- ever, the two Palestinians who survived the military action were taken to a nearby field for immediate interrogation and evi- dently beaten to death. This disclosure, a direct result of Is- rael's decision to allow newsmen and pho- tographers to witness the culmination of the hijacking incident, is a source of great distress to Jerusalem. But not because Is- rael may be excoriated for brutality to- ward captured terrorists in the editorial columns of leading dailies in Paris, Lon- don, New York and Washington. The Is- raeli government has far more immediate, and.practical, concerns. Israel has long upheld two principles with regard to terrorists and terrorist inci- dents. One principle frequently touted is Jerusalem's adamant and consistent re- fusal to negotiate with terrorists. The second, which is seldom discussed or even noted, is Israel's willingness to al- low terrorists who surrender before and es- pecially during a terrorist operation to be taken alive and remain alive. There is no death penalty in Israel for terrorists. And over time Israeli authori- ties have concluded that unless terrorists are offered an incentive to surrender they are likely to behave like kamikazes and seek to take with them as many of the civilian "enemy" as possible. The number of potential hijackers and saboteurs who surrender in Israel immedi- ately upon detection, events that take place so frequently that they are scarcely deemed worthy of press attention, indi- cates that those who are meant to under- stand Israel's willingness to spare their lives do indeed grasp that fact. Of course, should Israel again be con- fronted, as it has been once in Lebanon, and as has the U.S., by Shiite Moslem ter- rorists who are willing to give up their Professor linked to terrorism jailed A university professor alleged to have been behind much of the guer- rilla violence in Italy in the 1970s today was sentenced to 30 years in jail on murder and other charges at the end of a trial of 7,1 persons here. ESCAPE ROUTE... Continued have tightened at the Tijuana airport, but that a videotape would give them a record of the 1,000 to 1,500 passengers who use the airport each day. About 40 flights enter and leave the airport daily, 19 of them commercial. Police, customs and immigration service officials in the United States say they also are trying to increase awareness among their agents of potential terrorists. Border Patrol agents in the Chula Vista Sector, where 43,000 illegal aliens are detained each month, are beginning to interview some of those detainees more Toni Negri, a leftist political sci- ence professor at Padua Universi- ty, fled Italy last September after being freed from jail because he was elected to parliament as a dep- lives in order to ensure a successful opera- tion, this "incentive" strategy will be of lit- tle help. The reappearances on the interna- tional scene of kamikazelike terrorists is an important development in international terrorism. But European-style terrorists, the Red Brigades in Italy, for example, as well as others, generally have proved to be concerned with remaining alive. They have tended to establish reasonably reli- able escape routes, to disguise their identi- ties and, when necessary, to endeavor to surrender unharmed. Israel continues to be confronted with terrorists of the old school on a steady basis. Thus the present consternation in Jerusalem turns not only on a deplorable breakdown in discipline but also on anxiety that terrorists and would-be terrorists- rather than, say, the editors of the London Times-understand that what happened in the bus-hijacking case is an aberration. The Israelis nurture no illusion that ter- rorism suddenly will cease someday soon. Thus for now and the foreseeable future it remains important that those who under- take to commit these murderous "politi- cal" deeds are aware, if only in the dim recesses of their minds, that even upon detection or capture death is not their in- evitable fate. Israel wants its terrorist ene- mies to know that with surrender their lives will be spared as a matter of tactics, not morality. Mr. Breindel is a Washington-based cor- respondent for a Public Broadcasting Ser- vice program. uty of the small Radical Party. He is believed to be in France. The Rome court passed sentenc- es totaling more than 500 years on 55 defendants on charges including subversion, setting up an armed band and illegal possession of weapons. closely than usual, looking for anyone who, in the words of Alan Eliason, chief agent in charge of the Chula Vista Sector, "might fit the role of a terrorist." Despite the preparations, police and immigration agents acknowledge that the United States is an easy country to enter. Much of the 1,933-mile border with Mexico is unfenced and easily penetrated. "Obviously, if somebody wants to come into this country and do harm, they could probably do it relatively easily," Campbell said. "All you can do is the very best based on intelligence reports. You can't have an informant next to every burglar and nobody I know is standing next to a guy planning to blow up somebody." Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 34 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WASHINGTON POST 23 May 1984 Pg. 23E Violent Leftists Aim to Terrorize Olympic Games Intelligence reports warn that the radical Puerto Rican revolutionary group known by the dread letters FALN has set up mobile camps across the Mexican border to train terrorists for attacks on the Summer Olympic Games in Los Angelis. Ominously,'the reports also pre- dict that the FALN's violent leader, William Morales, will soon be re- leased from a Mexican prison and delivered into the custody of leftist authorities in the Tijuana area. That's as close to Los Angeles as he could get to set up terrorist head- quarters without crossing into U.S. jurisdiction. . The Soviet grievances against the Los Angeles Olympics, meanwhile, will encourage the terrorists to strike all the' harder, U.S. intelligence sources fear. The FALN is led by hard-line Marxists who ape the Mos- cow line and tend, in the way of young revolutionaries, to,, translate propaganda into violence. This group is regarded by. the FBI as the No. 1 terrorist threat to the United States, and Morales is this. Terrorism common: Kaplan nation's most. wanted terrorist. Ac- from the fourth floor of a New York cording to an intelligence document, prison hospital. "the FALN has been responsible for Morales' dramatic escape occurred over 150 terrorist bombings in the on May 21, 1979. He, disappeared U.S. since its founding ,in 1973 into the underground and, according .... [It] has developed an.extensive to an intelligence report, "began op- terrorist network stretching across erating between Mexico and the the U.S. and into Mexico Morales is U.S." Police located his wife, Dylcia also developing links with insurgent Pagan Morales, in Chicago and movements in Central America." traced her incoming calls from Mex- My associate Jon Lee Anderson ico. spent most of a day with Morales in The FBI tipped off the Mexican the maximum security wing of Re- authorities that Morales was plotting clusorio Norte, a model prison on to bomb a U.S.-Mexican legislative the outskirts of Mexico City. conference. This led to a shootout in Morales is ' a determined revolu- the city of Puebla on May 28, 1983. tionary and Marxist zealot driven at Morales was captured after his com- once by idealism and hatred, a panion fell dead in a hail of bullets. would-be usurper who justifies him- A police officer also died in the ex- self as the avenger of terrible wrongs. change. Yet he's the more boss of a small Morales was sentenced to 89 years .gang who seeks to stir up a mass in prison, which would keep him out following. of circulation for a long time. But "I am a member of a revolutionary Anderson found Morales confident .movement which is at war with the that he would soon be freed. Tele- United States government," he told graphed my reporter: "U.S. lawmen, my reporter. who want Morales extradited, might Morales, 34, a slim man with a do well to worry that he could slip coffee-colored complexion, is shock- from their clutches in Mexico." ing to look at, His mouth, chin and Not long after I received this re- both hands were blown off in a port, my associate Donald Goldberg bomb explosion at an FALN bomb learned from intelligence reports factory in New York in 1978. He has that, indeed, Morales is expected to a single digit that passes for a finger be handed over to leftist authorities on each stump. It's all he needs, ap- in Tijuana. They are expected to parently, to feed himself and attend give him free rein to direct the ter- to his basic needs. rorist training in clandestine camps support for what they're doing in Canada." Those activities include procur- ing arms, recruiting members and raising money, Mr. Kaplan told reporters. The Irish Republican Army, the Palestinian . Liberation Organiza- tiori and the Red Brigades of Italy are among the international terror- ist groups that have operated in Canada, Mr. Kaplan said. - A great increase in terrorist ac- tivity - both international and domestic - is responsible for the rise last year in the number of warrants issued under the Official Secrets Act for, national security wiretaps.. buggings and other inter- ceptions of private' . communica- tions, Mr. Kaplan said. In a. report 'to Parliament on 12 May 1984 Pg. 1 Thursday, Mr. Kaplan said that. he issued 525 warrants in 1983 for wire- taps, hidden cameras and electron- ic bugs in security cases an 18 per cent increase from the previous year. "In a. few cases, advance intelli- gence gathered by electronic sur- veillance permitted us to head off some incidents in 1983," Mr. Kap- lan said yesterday. He said he. coul4ln't recall the exact figures on terrorist incidents, but his office said later that there were 18 terrorist incidents in Cana da in 1982 and 1983. Among the incidents classified as terrorist acts were the bombing of an electronics plant that manufac- tures missile-guidance systems, the bombing of a West Coast . video pornography store,and the murder of a Turkish diplomat. By JEFF SALLOT Globe and Mail Reporter OTTAWA - Every international terrorist group known is present in Canada, Solicitor-General Robert Kaplan said yesterday. "I'm not saying their targets are in Canada,". he said, "but they develop their activities and their 35 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM - WASHINGTON POST 29 May 1984 An Interview In Mexican Jail With ' a Terrorist This nation's most wanted terror- ist, William (No Hands) Morales, is directing a guerrilla war against the United States from a Mexican prison cell. Intelligence sources believe his main target will be the Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles. My associate Jon Lee Anderson recently spent a day with Morales in the "maximunj security, highly dan- gerous wing" of the Mexican prison Reclusoria Norte. Morales is a deceptively relaxed, soft-spokgn man-congenial in re- pose, intense when animated-who routinely can give orders for shoot- ings and bombings. He learned his combat tactics on the streets of east Harlem, where he grew up; he picked up his politics from the radical movements of the 1960s. Now 34, he has developed a smol- dering hostility toward the society that spawned him, an animus so deep that he is willing to sacrifice his life' in a futile struggle against the U.S. power structure. Morales isstartling to look at. His chin and mouth were disfigured by a bomb that blew up in his face six years ago. The she' accident left him with two stutgps for arms, each with a single, grotesqu fimger, whore. a hand should be. The terrorist leader talked races=' santly about "imperalist domination" by the western world. Yet his lan- guage was more street talk than Marxist dialectic. He left no doubt that he was more interested in ac- tion than theory. Police reports confirm that Mo- rales has managed to find plenty of action: As a leader of the Puerto Ri- can radical group known as FALN, .he has been involved in shootouts and bombings. He made a daring es- cape in 1979 from a fourth-floor win- dow of a New York prison hospital. The FBI has warned any agents who ' may encounter him: "Morales should be considered armed, dangerous and an escape risk." In an earlier report, I cited intel- ligence warnings that the FALN has set up mobile camps just across the Mexican border to train terrorists for attacks on the Los Angeles Olympics and that Morales may be delivered into the custody of leftist authorities in the Tijuana area. This would put him as close to Los An- geles as he could get and still be in Mexico. Morales has been locked up for killing a Mexican policeman in a gun battle; other charges could keep him behind bars the rest of his life. Yet he :seemed ,confident that he would get oft. He hinted to Wy reporter Jon lee Anderson ,;thy; a political Anderson is- the '' i 5t reporter cleared by the: FALK to meet Mo- rales. The screening process was elab- orate, beginning with a contact on the U.S.-Mexican border. Anderson had to make two trips to Mexico City, where he was put in touch with a Trotskyite politician. Next he was cleared by a left-wing activist who once ran for president of Mexico. Finally, Anderson was taken to the prison by a woman who is one of Morales' lawyers. FALN literature portrays Morales as a "political prisoner." He said all FALN members take an oath that, if imprisoned, they will declare them- selves political prisoners. This means they can't request parole, which would imply that their crimes were nonpolitical. Morales talked about his escape from U.S. custody and his subse- quent capture in Mexico. He was approached, he said, by the U.S. Embassy. "Can you believe," he de- manded, "they asked to see me when I first got here and offered to help me?" He was incredulous. Footnote: Morales made it - clear that his agreement to see my report- er did not mean he liked my column. BALTIMORE SUN 7 June 1984 Pg. 4 `Journalist' is linked to Costa Rican blast SAN JOSE, Costa Rica (AP) - The mysterious "Danish journalist" who vanished after a bomb explosion killed three persons at a May 30 news confer- ence was in Central America for two months before the incident, Costa Rican immigration sources said yesterday. A Swedish journalist who met him three weeks before the explosion told police the man spoke "very bad Danish, but very good Spanish." The man called himself Per Anker Hansen, said he was a Danish reporter and was using a Danish passport. The Danish consul general, Palle Paaby, said yesterday, "We do not know who he is." Mr. Paaby said the passport had been stolen in 1980. The real Per Anker Hansen told reporters in Copen- hagen he has never been to Central America. Costa Rican authorities on Monday issued an international arrest warrant for him. The bomb exploded shortly after Eden Pastora, leader of a Nicaraguan anti-Sandinista, rebel group here, opened a news conference on May 30 at a ' guerrilla camp in Nicaragua, just across the San Juan River from Costa Rica. Mr. Pastora was among more than two dozen people injured. The Costa Rican immigration sources, who asked to remain anony- mous, said an incomplete computer rec- ord showed that a man using the stolen passport traveled by air between San Jose and Mexico City, but does not show' whether he was going to or from Costa Rica: The passport also showed that he traveled to or from Honduras by air on March 26 and went to Panama overland on March 28. It also showed that he, crossed into Costa Rica by land at the Pena Blanca checkpoint April 14 and crossed over to Nicaragua, via Pena Blanca on April 19. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIAMDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL May 1984 Pg. 18 CLIPPINGS Diplomats & Terrorism "Letters sent top Italian news organiza- tions purporting to come from Red Bri- gades guerrillas today threatened the life of another U.S. diplomat in the aftermath of last week's killing of Leamon R. Hunt....'The militarist wing of the Red Brigades claims the assassination of the dirty guarantor American general Leamon R. Hunt.... The militarist wing has an- other American diplomat in its sights.' " Reuters, February 20 "[U.S. Consul General Robert O. Homme) was shot and wounded yesterday in the city of Strasbourg, and a little known group calling itself the Armed Le- banese Revolutionary Faction claimed re- sponsibility. [He] was described as being in satisfactory condition.... The group said Mr. Homme was 'already well known for his activities as a member of the CIA.' " Baltimore Sun, March 27 "U.S. embassy officials said yesterday that they had run into a dead end in the kidnap- ing of diplomat William Buckley and now are considering moving the remaining per- sonnel to a Marine-guarded compound. A Western diplomatic source who asked not to be identified said, 'Last night, several American civilian employees did, indeed, move into the compound.'...In Washing- ton, the Reagan administration said it contacted Lebanese officials and Syria for help in finding Buckley, who was abduct- ed at gunpoint Friday morning while leav- ing his West Beirut aparment. Three gun- men forced Buckly, 55, the first secretary of the embassy's political section, into a car in front of his house, not far from the U.S. embassy, and sped off." Philadelphia Inquirer, March 18 "Secretary of State Shultz called in a panel of 23 experts and government officials yes- terday for a private briefing on a topic that has plagued the recent conduct of U.S. diplomacy: international terrorism." New York Daily News, March 25 "The U.S. embassy [in Beijing] has re- ceived information indicating that Islamic terrorists have targeted the diplomatic mission here for a bombing attack like those against the American embassy and U.S. Marine billet in Beirut. The bomb- ing of the U.S. embassy in Kuwait Decem- ber 12 and a recent warning by the myste- rious Islamic Jihad organization has prompted tightened security measures at American diplomatic missions all over the world in the last week, including the Beij- ing embassy, which an American diplomat described as having 'the worst security of any embassy in the world.'... The informa- tion indicated terrorists have also targeted the U.S. embassy in Paris.... Islamic Ji- had... claimed responsibility for the Octo- ber 23 suicide bombings in Beirut... and for the bombing of the U.S. embassy in Beirut last April, which left 63 people dead.... "One embassy source, noting the Brit- ish mission here has also taken security measures such as parking a truck around the clock behind the locked gates of their compound, was puzzled why the Ameri- cans maintain a truck blockade only at night." Jonathan Broder in the Chicago Tribune January 3 "Western embassies in East Berlin tight- ened security yesterday after six East Ger- mans succeeded in leaving the country by staging a weekend sit-in at the U.S. em- bassy.... The U.S. embassy, which nor- mally admits visitors to its library and con- sular section without identity checks, moved its receptionist into an outer lob- by." Baltimore Sun January 24 "Secretary of State George Shultz said: 'The cruel fact of the matter is that terror- ism works. We have to arrange things so that it is a tactic that we are able to frus- trate.' Omaha World-Herald March 13 "Senior U.S. officials agree that the new anti-terrorism policy should have three ba- sic components: protective measures, such as increased embassy security; better intel- ligence about terrorist groups and their operations; and more aggressive military and covert-action measures that can deter terrorists from attacking Americans." David Ignatius in the Wall Street Journal March 12 "It is time for the U.S. government to move decisively to protect its embassy em- ployees in the world's areas of turmoil. Security provisions should be realistically reviewed in these regions. Embassy staffs should be reasonably pared to those per- sons who are absolutely necessary. They should live under adequate protection of U.S. armed personnel.... "Even in quiet areas U.S. diplomats and other Americans need to be vigilant.. .In areas of turmoil, such as Beirut, it is essen- tial not to be foolhardy. After the March 16 kidnaping, American diplomatic per- sonnel living in civilian apartments were moved to a secure area to be guarded by American troops. They ought to have been there all along. As pointed out by Arthur Goldberg..., the State Department argu- ment that protection of U.S. diplomats is the duty of the host government breaks down in areas where there is no effective government." Christian Science Monitor, March 28 "Some embassies remain vulnerable. Only a 10-foot high iron gate separates the steel- and-glass U.S. embassy in Madrid from the main street-a mere 10 yards from the building. Missions in London, Vienna, and the Hague are similarly vulnerable." Washington Post, December 13 "in the late 1960s, with the contemporary beginning of diplomatic kidnapping and attempted assassinations, the United States failed to establish a consistent policy for dealing with terrorism. For example, when our ambassador to Brazil, Charles Burke Elbrick, was kidnapped in 1969, the U.S. put pressure on the Brazilian gov- ernment to accede to the terrorists' de- mand. The Brazilians complied and the ambassador was released unharmed.... In 1973, eight Palestinians of the Black Sep- tember Organization seized the Saudi Ara- bian embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, and captured five U.S. citizens including our ambassador. Then President Richard Nix- on, in an answer to a press conference ques- tion, declared that the United States 'will not pay blackmail.' The immediate result was the slaughter of the hostages." The Bureaucrat, Winter 1983-84 "According to the information provided by antiterrorist specialists, we may expect stepped-up -atttacks on American diplo- mats and diplomatic facilities in the fu- ture. Even as the United States takes steps to safeguard its embassies, installing more sophisticated surveillance and communi- cations and tightening perimeter security, terrorism has made a career in the Foreign Service riskier than ever." John B. Wolf in Worldview 37 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS 29 April 1984 Playing embassy chess It appears that Libya's leader, Moammar Khadafy, doesn't have enough to do in the day-by-day governing of his country. In any case, Khadafy has taken up several exciting hobbies. One is attacking or otherwise alienating other countries. The French, Jordanian and U.S. embassies in Tripoli have been at- tacked and most recently the Brit- ish Embassy has been subjected to coercion. The national territories of Chad, Egypt and Sudan have been at- tacked or threatened. Fourteen na- tions have suspended normal rela- tions with Libya since 1980. Terrorism is another active pur- suit of Khadafy's. About the same time that he seized power by mili- tary coup in Libya in 1969, interna- tional terrorism was beginning to bloom. Khadafy bankrolled several major terrorist movements of both right and left extremists. Meanwhile, Khadafy retains the initiative by pronouncing threats that attain worldwide notice. An example occurred last month. After Libyan aircraft attacked Omdurman, Sudan, the United States deployed two Air Force AWACS airborne control aircraft to Egypt. That was done at the re- quest of the Sudanese and the Egyptians to assist in defending against further air attacks. Kha- dafy then threatened to shoot down the AWACS. Last week, he announced a .new program of expanded help to the Irish Republican Army. That move was related apparently to the re- cent act of terrorism carried out from the Libyan Embassy in Lon- don. In turn, that caused the British government to break relations with Libya. The British attempted to adhere scrupulously to the norms of diplo- matic behavior instead of breaking into the Libyan Embassy and col- laring the murderer. The particular point of interna- tional law involved Is called "extra- territoriality." In simpler terms, Glen W. Martin that is the immunity of foreign dip- lomatic people and real estate from specified local laws. That principle has been evolving for many centuries and most re- cently was elaborated in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Rela- tions in 1963. The British decision to conform in this instance created a furor within their own government. It probably was a wise move, never- theless, because Khadafy could re- taliate against the British Embassy in Tripoli, with or without a pre- text. Beyond the trading of embassies, as rooks in a chess game, there is a mass hostage possibility on both sides. There are reported to be about 4,000 Libyans in Britain and 8,000 Britons in Libya. There are also some hundreds of Americans remaining in Libya. They have not been harassed since the U.S.-Libyan diplomatic break a few years ago. Those British decid- ing to stay in Libya have that ex- ample in mind. Let us assume that those condi- tions change - Khadafy does have, and seems to enjoy, the repu- tation of being unpredictable. Sup- pose the British citizens are abused. What next? Remember the Falklands. First, it would be disadvanta- geous for Khadafy to withstand world Quinion -by interfering with an organized mass evacuation of the British residing in Libya. So evacuation is one possibility. Second, however, British exper- tise in the Libyan oil fields would be missed, at least temporarily un- til some other country with petro. leum expertise stepped in. If events take that turn, the Brit- ish undoubtedly would make an ur- gent plea for U.S. help. Remember the Falklands. The main argument could be based on the importance of barring the way against Soviet incursions in Libya. That brings up another possibil- ity. Khadafy, at any time, could be in touch with Moscow to lay the groundwork for Soviet technicians to replace the British. Egypt's Tate president, Anwar Sadat, considered Khadafy to be a madman. On the other hand, Kha- dafy is quite aware no doubt that it is just as dangerous (although more difficult) to grab a bear by the tail as it is a tiger. Letting go can be perilous. Even so, the fact that it took the Kremlin one week to announce its position on the British-Libyan con- frontation shows the probability of some Soviet-Libyan consultation. British military action against Libya would be handicapped by So- viet support of Khadafy. The pres- ence of 8,000 British subjects would also constrain British military op- erations. In this column a little more than two years ago, a lesson from the Iranian hostage crisis was cited: "To avoid or reduce the likeli- hood of losing American citizens to hostile capture and thereby pre- serve U.S. freedom of action, an evacuation of Americans from a foreign country (Libya) should be carried out expeditiously...." That is a lesson the British should ponder today. Libya has the smallest military establishment of any nation along the North African coast, except for Tunisia. Why then, Khadafy's continuous pushing, adventuring and threaten- ing? He has three aces up his sleeve. Militarily, he has the largest com- bat air force among those nations. Economically, he has the basis for profitable international trade, i.e., products to export and money to buy imports. Politically, he has ? honed terror- ism into a feared international weapon of blackmail and deter- rence. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 U.5.ON ALE IRAN TERRO, By NILES LATHEM and URI DAN THE U.S. was on the alert today for a new wave of Iranian terror- ist attacks on American military and diplomatic installations in the Mid- dle East. White House sources said the Iranians may unleash another cam- paign.of hit-run violence to keep the U.S. out of the Persian Gulf war that continues to men- ace vital oil shipping lanes to the west. The Iranian' govern= ment-controlled news- paper Keyhan yester- day warned President Reagan that "the only thing he would be able to offer the voters" by intervening "would be the corpses of American soldiers." The paper also urged Iran's air force to bomb power stations in Ku- wait and Saudi Arabia to force them to stop supporting Iraq. These - threats prompted Reagan to ask King Fahd of Saudi Ara- bia to let U.S. Warplanes use airfields In his coun- try if necessary. U.S. and Israeli intelli- gence sources told The Post last night such preparations were nec- port facilities on the Persian Gulf was de- stroyed by Iran. One Mideast expert told The Post last night that there is deep con- cern in the White House that Iranian pilots may begin attacking the Saudi oil facilities in Ras Tanura. Officials say that the air defense system there "leaves much to be de- sired-and that it would take an Iranian pilot only ten minutes to reach targets on the Persian Gulf coast. As fears of an escalat- ing confrontation grew, essary because Iran may launch a seriesof kamikaze attacks against Americans. The sources predicted Iran wants to create an- other Lebanon crisis to prevent the U.S. from stepping into the Gulf war., American military in- stallations in the area are on top alert status, sources said. . U.S. and Israeli intelli- gence officials also fear that unless tensions ease soon. Iran may escalate its Persian Gulf attacks to include Saudi and Kuwaiti oil facilities. Saudi Arabia and "Ku- wait are backing Iraq in the war and have helped the, Iraqis ship their oil after one of its major 22 May 1984 Pg. Reagan sent an urgent letter to F#hd, urging him to allow the U.S. Air Force to use Saudi air bases. Officials said a deci- sion has been made by the National Security Council to approve plans to send in as many as 150 F-15 fighters to a major air base near Dhahran, the oil center of Eastern Saudi Ara- bia, if the Iran-Iraq war continues to spread. The planes would be flown by American pilots who would have T FO WA Gulf if they refuse to heed warnings,to turn away, sources told The Post last night. Senior U.S. officals said that the White House made its first offer of assistance to Saudi Arabia about four months ago. But the Saudi royal family has repeatedly refused to let the U.S. use its bases because of the anti-American senti- ment in the Arab world. The Saudis fear that an overt U.S. presence In the area would inflame the numerous Shiite Moslem communities. NEW YORK POST 28 May 1984 Pg. 4 Similar fears have been expressed in other Persian Gulf states which have large Shiite and Palestinian com- munities.. The Saudi government declared over the week. end that its air force would handle any esea- laton of Iranian attacks. But Israeli and U.S. military analysts be- lieve that the Saudi air force, for all its sophisti- cated equipment, is no match for Iran's fa- natical pilots, who are battle-trained and also use sophisticated U.S. equipment. BRITS. Boor KHOMEINI HIT SQUAD BRITAIN has kicked out four men believed to be members of an Iranian hit squad under orders to kill opponents of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Scotland Yard was, tipped off about the killer team - an Ira- nian, a Moroccan and two Algerians - by a high-ranking Iranian naval officer who wanted to defect.' "The men were de- ported after the Home Secretary was satisfied that they were involved in preparing acts of ter- rorism and that their presence here was not conducive to the public good," the Sunday Times quoted a Home Office spokesman as saying. Post Foreign Desk No direct government comment was available immediately. "Four men suspected of being members of an Iranian hit squad have been deported from Britain," the report said. "It is believed that they had been ordered to kill anti-Khomeini dissi- dents in London." The Times said All Ghorbani Far, an Ira- nian, and Abdel Majed Chraibi, a Morrocan with French identity papers, were deported to France on May 17. On May 18, two Alge- rians, Abdel Liad Djaffar and Hafid Regradj, were deported to Algeria. The Sunday Times said Col. Vahab Zade- gan, head of the naval section at the Iranian embassy in London, con- tacted British intelli- gence about the alleged hit men In February. Zadegan stayed on the job until three weeks ago and now has asked the Home Office for British residence, the paper said. "I am a nationalist, and although I think the coun- try [Iran] needs our help, there is a time when you cannot safeguard your country by sacrificing yourself," The Sunday Times quoted Zadegan as saying. ..It Is better to stay alive and follow your conscience." 39 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved WASHINGTON POST 19 May 1984 Pg. 4 Libyan Allegedly Sought Hit Man From FBI Agent By Joe Pichirallo Washington Post Staff Writer A Libyan student arrested last week on charges of purchasing pis- tols equipped with illegal silencers asked an undercover FBI agent to supply professional hit men to "elim- inate defectors," a federal prosecutor said in court yesterday. Assistant U.S. Attorney Carol Amon also said that Bashir Ali Baesho, 36, a University of Mary- land graduate student, had been im- plicated in efforts by Libyan govern- ment officials to purchase parts for C130 military cargo planes and had. apparently been a middleman in an attempt by Libya to buy 30,000 ma- chine guns. Amon said FBI agents found copies of a C130 parts list last week in Baesho's car and in the apartment of Mathi Hitewesh, who was arrested with Baesho. Amon also said Baesho told an undercover FBI agent that "he was interested in eliminating' defectors and asked [the agent] if he could do a hit in Britain." Baesho and Hitewesh, 37, a Lib- yan graduate student at the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania, were arrested on charges of participating in a plot to purchase three .45-cal. pistols equipped with silencers from an FBI agent posing as an illegal arms deal- er. Baesho and Hitewesh pleaded not guilty to weapons-related charges yesterday in federal court in Brook- lyn and were being held under a $10 million bond each. Richard C. Shadyac, a Libyan government attorney, said in an in- terview that Baesho and Hitewesh were charged only with weapons vi- olations and that any other govern- ment claims about their alleged ac- tivities were "unsubstantiated." Hitewesh, who has been in this country since 1980, is a member of the Libyan military, and the Libyan EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WASHINGTON TIMES 1 JUNE 1984 Pg.6 Terrorism controls endorsed MADRID - European justice ministers yesterday backed a proposal by Britain for action against for- eign diplomats who abuse their diplomatic immunity and take part in terrorist activities in host countries. The proposal was included in a general resolution calling for cooperation against terrorism and orga- nized crime that was approved by the ministers at the end of a conference in Madrid organized by the 21- nation Council of Europe. It recommended setting up an ad hoc commission to urgently study the problems of terrorism and organized crime. Britain's Home Secretary Leon Brittan had specifi- cally urged European nations to bar diplomats expelled from other countries for links with terror- ism. NEW YORK NEWS 19 May 1984 Pg. 6 Can't close borders to Libyans: U.S. By JOSEPH VOLZ and BARBARA REHM the United-States." Officially, 1,722 Libyans, mostly stu- dents, were given visas to enter this country last year. U.S.. intelligence reports in the past have claimed that Col.. Moammar Kha- dafy was sending hit squads to this country to kill American officials. The FBI has not been able to pin down the reports, and there have been no attacks on American officials by Libyans. An. - FBI official said that because Libya "has been identified as a state that sponsors and utilizes terrorism the FBI actively has been investigating terrorist activities by Libyan-spon- sored groups and will continue efforts to discover these activities:." Washington (News Bureau)-De- spite Libya's announcement that it would set up suicide squads to kill Libyan. dissidents overseas, the State Department. said yesterday it was.not possible at= present to' close U.S. bor- ders-to all Libyans. ' One official stressed that Libyan visa applications to travel to the Unit- ed"States were examined "very close- ly," but added: "Those who qualify are getting them. We are trying to be as prudent as pbssible,. but- pretty significant num- bers of. Libyans are 'still coming into government is prepared to post his bail, Amoh said. In another development yester- day, the State Department con- demned threats by the Libyan gov- ernment Thursday that suicide squads were being created to hunt down and kill Libyan dissidents abroad. The U.S. government will "deal vigorously" with any such acts in this, country, a department spokesman said. ACCORDING To the official Libyan press. agency,,IANA, the Libyan gov-, ernment 'is setting up hit squads to kill dissidents overseas, presumably in- cluding the United States and Western. Europe. The masses have decided to form suicide commandos to chase traitors,, fugitivesandst ay dogs wvherever:they' are and liggldate them physically and without any hesitation," a dispatch from, Tripoli said. In an unusually strong response,. the State Department Warned that the United Stites. "is' prepared"to deal vigorously with any such acts in the The pin tb eliminate' opposition tff" Ifhadafy followed last week's abortive upr i w~} .. a reed gueririllais fought' th Zibyan trogps rn an'appa; eat atte t ssa;;sinat r l~hac~afy Tik poll `STATE DEPARTMENT spokesmani John Hu hes called the threats "another ;indication that Kh A rs prepared`to use terrorism';as an tru me y aqi cyx Khaiafv has a;- loii uI{ - g ENV intie ,' y, Carney internal 40 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 STREET JOURNAL 11 MAY 1984 " Pg. 30 Qadhafi's Not Always to Blame By JERROLD D. GREEN And AUGUSTUS RICHARD NORTON By attempting to demonize Muammar Qadhafi are we not running the risk of canonizing him? Without a doubt, Col. Qa- dhafi, the unguided missile of the Middle East, is an attractive devil. His record is replete with involvement in international terrorism, anti-U.S. agitation, and gross disregard for the norms of acceptable be- havior. His current outrage in London is only the most recent example of Libya's tendency to trample on the inviolable stan- dards of accepted international diplomatic practice. Yet to allow the form and flavor of Col. Qadhafi's actions to obscure their content has proven to be a dangerous and self-de- ceiving pitfall. Mr. Qadhafi may be a bad actor, but he is a "normal" political actor all the same. His goals are rational and self-evident-the pursuit of the Libyan na- tional interest at the expense of those whom he views as his competitors. Given Libya's splendid isolation, the list of these competitors is very long indeed. The obvi- ous ones include Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq and Libya's immediate neighbors on all sides-Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Algeria, Niger and Chad. But rather than directly challenging for- midable states like Egypt, for example, Col. Qadhafi astutely prefers to mount challenges by proxy. To bomb Khartoum is to indirectly bomb Cairo. But why pick on the Sudan? Unlike many in Washington who still attribute Middle East dust storms to computers in Moscow, the colonel recog- nizes the challenges confronted by Gaafar el Nimeiri in his own backyard. Mr. Qad- hafi does not create turmoil, he exploits it. Sudan is a country rife with ethnic and re- ligious cleavages-the north, largely Mus- lim, and the south, predominately black African and animist, subsist in an environ- ment of active hostility and mistrust. Col. Qadhafi's intervention may exacerbate the existing situation, but it also threatens to mask the very real contradictions that plague the Sudan and countries like it in the Third World. While the visitor to Khar- toum is regaled with tales of Col. Qadhafi's barbarous challenge to Sudanese sover- eignty, this sovereignty is being much more seriously eroded by the Sudanese themselves. Although the road to Omdurman is lit- tered with sightseers eager to witness bomb craters emplaced by a Libyan jet, the South continues to fester and Islamici- zation is blithely pursued. An Islamic pe- nal code will not bring an end to insurrec- tion in the South, nor will curtailment of Libyan adventures. Rather, the situation demands the same type of resolution that has eluded the hapless Lebanese. Ethnic problems are political. They are elusive and frustrating. Looking for Libyan MiGs is far easier than sharing political power. But the stakes for which Gaafar el Nimeiri is playing demand genuine concessions mnd negotiations rather than demon-mon- ;ering and mythologizing. In a perverse fort of way, Mr. Qadhafi may have done he West a favor by highlighting a tenuous situation in the Sudan that will not go away. The tragedy is that we may be so incensed by the activities of this North Af- rican colonel that we end up perceiving the region in his terms rather than in a context that realistically reflects the situation on the ground. Mr. Qadhafi's actions cannot be ig- nored. Given the will, there are remedies for the "Libyan problem," ranging from heightening the country's diplomatic ana political isolation to curtailing purchases of Libyan oil and restricting sales of irre- placeable oil-extraction equipment. How- ever, Col. Qadhafi's penchant for exploit- ing existing social and political problems should not so infuriate us that they make Libya one of the centerpieces of American foreign policy. This fear seems reasonably realistic given the born-again prominence of terrorism in U.S. foreign policy formula- tion. That terrorism is never far from the utterances of policy makers in Washington reveals a sad tendency to substitute pot- )oiler plots for the real world that is much nore complicated than the terror-czar sce- narios that seem to proliferate during elec. toral campaigns. Terrorism is a significant international problem. But to elevate it to a position in which it is a primary determinant of our foreign policy benefits terrorists as much as those who rail against them. At a time when the American image in the Middle East is a source of derision and even con. tempt, it is doubly important that our pol- icy reveals an interest in real problems and concerns rather than chimerical ones. Genuine problems like the plight of the Palestinian people, the future of Lebanon, the viability of Israel, the stability of Jor- dan, the Gulf war and Afghanistan deserve at least as much attention as the deadly mischief of the isolated Muammar Qad- hafi. Messrs. Green and Norton are political scientists at the University of Michigan and the U.S. Military Academy, respec- tively. Mr. Green recently returned from a visit to the Sudan. The opinions expressed are solely their own. MANCHESTER GUARDIAN 13 May 1984 Libyan threat to, British expats By our Diplomatic Staff A LIBYAN newspaper, Green after it had crossed the frontier into March, organ of the country's revolu- tionary committee, this,week threat- ened violent reprisals against British people in Libya if the British au- thQrities did not release a number of Libyan students being held in Lon- don and Manchester on charges of being involved in bomb attacks in Britain against anti-Gadafy Libyans. At the same time the official news agency said that a terrorist gang which it claimed had British Govern- ment backing had been intercepted the gang were said to have been captured and one killed., Green March is normally more hectic in tone than the other official newspapers in Libya but the fact that its pronouncements were given international publicity by the official news agency, Jana, seems to indicate a hardening of position by Colonel Gadafy, who at the time of-.the Libyan Embassy siege in London promised that the 8,000 British people now in Libya would be completely safe. The newspaper said that "If Brit- ish courts bring false charges against Libyan students and tourists and imprison them, it will make the revolutionary committees react vio- lently against English people resi- dent in the Jamahiriya. If Libyan tourists and students studying in Britain are not released, the British Government will bear responsibility for any act the revolutionary com- mittees carry out against the English." Armed police guarded Manchester magistrates' court last week when three Libyans were remanded on bombing charges and there were similar precautions at Lambeth CONTINUED NEXT PAGE 41 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 WALL STREET JOURNAL 17 May 1984 Pg. 35 Libya May Resume Killings of Dissidents Overseas By YOUSSEF M. IBRAHIM Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL TRIPOLI, Libya-Libya is threatening to revive death-squad activity against dis- sidents living in Western Europe and the U.S., a prospect that is causing alarm among Western diplomats and business ex- ecutives here. In announcements broadcast over state- run radio and television over the past three days, the Libyan government said it is pre- paring to recruit and train assassination teams to eliminate all opposition to the re- gime of Libyan leader Muammar Qad- hafi. The resumption of such suicide squads, after a three-year lull in attacks against dissidents abroad, appears to be aimed partly at avenging last week's fighting between 20 armed dissidents and Lib- yan security forces here in the Libyan capital. The fighting open rebellion in %, since it came to Muammar Qadhafi power 15 years ago. Libya's determination to resume death- squad activity abroad threatens to worsen an already difficult relationship with West- ern governments doing business here. Many West European nations continue to resist calls by the Reagan administration for a political and economic boycott of Libya. The U.S. itself may be vulnerable be- cause, despite its boycott on Libyan oil im- ports, American companies still produce and market half of Libya's crude-oil out- put, estimated at 1.1 million barrels a day. In addition, European diplomats say there are nearly 1,000 Americans living in Libya, despite a Reagan administration ban on travel there. Libya has in the past resorted to the ar- bitrary arrest of business executives living here to force the release of Libyans ar- rested abroad. This campaign of intimida- tion is widely expected to be revived if death-squad activity resumes and some of the assassins are arrested overseas. By all accounts, the severe reaction of the Libyan government to last week's fighting here is the most virulent cam- paign in years against opponents of the Qadhafi regime. Diplomats here believe that the government fully intends to liqui- date all opposition, including dissidents who live in places such as Egypt and Su- dan. The Libyan media also is openly call- ing for the overthrow of Sudan's president, Gaafarel Nimeiri, whom Libya accuses of having helped train the dissidents involved in last week's fighting in Tripoli. Internal Opposition U.S. officials in Washington said that the fighting underscored what they consid- ered to be growing internal opposition to Col. Qadhafi. At the same time, Britain's decision to sever diplomatic relations af- ter a British policewoman was killed out- side the Libyan Embassy in London indi- cates Tripoli's increasing political isola- tion. Yet Col. Qadhafi apparently isn't wor- ried that Libya's image abroad might be tarnished further by the revival of death squads. "I don't think he cares at all about world opinion," one Western diplomat here said. "This is an armed challenge. (Last week's fighting) has had too much atten- tion here in Tripoli and he cannot let it go at that." Col. Qadhafi also doesn't appear to be concerned that Western companies will pull out of the country. Western European executives continue to populate Tripoli hotels because of lucra- tive business opportunities here. Although the country's oil revenue has plunged 50% since 1980 because of the world oil glut and lower production, Libya still has about $10 billion in revenue a year from oil. That is more than enough to trigger competition among Europeans to sell goods to this country. Despite official antagonism to- ward the West, Libya has shown a distinct preference for buying Western goods and food. West European diplomats here said they prefer to maintain relations with Libya as long as possible. "We don't want to push them to the edge as long as we can help it," one ambassador said. He added that unless there is flagrant resumption of killing Libyans living in his country, his government isn't prepared to heed the Reagan administration's call for an eco- nomic boycott. "The Americans should practice what they preach first," the ambassador said, referring to the continued presence of some U.S. oil companies here, including Occidental Petroleum Co. of Los Angeles and Marathon Oil Co., a unit of Pittsburgh- based U.S. Steel Corp. Both Exxon Corp. and Mobil Corp. have pulled out of Libya in the past 2% years, although Mobil still is attempting to obtain compensation for its operations in the country from the Libyan government. Libya appears to be making a broader more determined effort to train assassina- tion squads than it did in 1980 and 1981, when dozens of Libyan dissidents were shot to death on the streets of London, Rome, Paris and other European capitals. Government broadcasts here described the formation of "suicide incubators" to re- cruit and train volunteers willing to die in order to "exterminate the enemies of the revolution abroad and confirm that Britain and America will never be able to protect (dissidents)." Such suicide tactics have been used by Iran and Syria, most notably in Beirut and Kuwait last year. Mobilizing .Support Public support in Libya for the death squads has been mobilized through so- called peoples congresses, which have been held throughout the country to adopt resolutions calling for the elimination of Libyan dissidents abroad. The campaign has reached such a frenzy that most nor- mal activity has stopped-many markets and other businesses have been closed-so Libyans can attend the congresses. The government also has launched a media campaign detailing the alleged con- spiracy that led to the fighting between dissidents and government forces last week. Libyan officials asserted that the 20 dissidents were funded and trained by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Brit- ish security forces with the connivence of Egypt, Sudan and "Arab reactionary re- gimes" to destabilize Libya with a cam- paign of bombing and armed assaults. The alleged plot reportedly was uncov- ered when three infiltrators were caught at the Libyan-Tunisia border on May 6. One of them confessed that they were supposed to link up with a group of armed men holed up in an apartment building in central Tripoli. Security forces then raided the building, and at least 12 of the dissidents were killed. LIBYAN THREAT... Continued when two others were remanded on charges of conspiracy to cause explosions. Two British people are already in detention in Libya. No charges have yet been brought against Mr Douglas Leddingham, British Caledonian's manager in Tripoli, and Mr John Campbell, who works for an oil company. Scotland Yard 'is believed to be close to naming the person suspected of killing WPC Yvonne Fletcher, who was shot from the Libyan People's Bureau in London. Commander Bill Hucklesby, head of the anti-terrorist branch, was reported to be confident that he would soon have enough evidence to name the killer. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-P96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER 28 May 1984 Pg. 5 Americans in Beirut threatened rrOm Inquirer Wire Services .BEIRUT, Lebanon - More gguards were posted at the American Univerr, airy here as foreign teachers and U.S. Embassy workers were warned about a kidnapping threat from a funda- .mentalist Muslim Shiite group, sources said yesterday. In eastern .Lebanon,. three Israeli soldiers were killed and two were wounded in an ambush of their vehi- cle near the Syrian-Lebanese border. The Israeli military command in Tel Aviv said the killers fired machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades as the patrol approached the village of Kamed el-Loz. The deaths brought to 14 the number of Israeli soldiers killed in Lebanon this year.. The threat to American University faculty members came from an Irani- called Hezbollah, or Party of God, and. was transmitted from intelligence sources to the U.S. Embassy, according to university sources who asked not to be identi- fied. One said the communique from the embassy indicated that the kidnap operation was to be carried out by guerrillas,' some with explosives wrapped around themselves, and "in case these elements are hit by fire, they and the'people they have kid- napped will be killed by the.explo- sion." About 50. Americans and other Westerners are employed at the uni? versity. U.S. Embassy spokesman John Stewart said, ' I can confirm that there was an intelligence report that there was some. sort of threat" against American University teach- ers "and other Americans." Although no increased security ar- rangements were noted at, the U.S. Embassy, which is already guarded by. 100 Marines, a professor said extra guards were posted at faculty hous- ing units on the American Universi- ty campus. He said that the embassy communi- que said the kidnap operation was to coincide with an "occasion of cele- bration" and that faculty members were advised against attending the university's annual "field day" of athletic contests on campus yester- day. The threat to Americans in Beirut came at a time when many were already concerned about security in the mostly Muslim. western sector of the city. Since the area was taken over by Muslim militias on Feb. 6, four Americans have been kid- napped. Only American University engi- neering professor Frank Regier has been released. Still missing are Jer- emy Levin, Beirut bureau chief for Cable News Network; William Buck. ley, a political officer at the embassy, and the Rev. Benjamin Thomas Weir, a Presbyterian minister. Responsibility for the kidnappings was claimed by Islamic Jihad, a shad- owy Shiite Muslim movement that is believed to have ties to Iran. Hezbollah, with headquarters in the Bekaa Valley in eastern Lebanon, supports Iran's spiritual leader, Aya- tollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and has militia units stationed along the Green Line, which separates the Muslim and Christian sections of Beirut. The ambush of Israeli troops, con- firmed by the Israeli army, occurred early yesterday near ,the Israeli-Syri- an cease-fire line in the Bekaa Val- ley. Three soldiers were killed and two were wounded in the attack. It took place in a region in which Israeli and Syrian occupation, troops are posi- tioned less than a mile apart. The soldiers were traveling in two Jeeps when they were attacked south of the town of Kamed el-Loz, 20 miles southeast of Beirut, an Israeli gov- ernment spokesman said in Tel Aviv. Israeli forces occupying southern Lebanon have come under repeated attack since their invasion in June 1982 to drive Palestinian guerrillas from Israel's northern border. Syria has occupied northern and eastern Lebanon since putting down the 1975-1976 Muslim-Christian civil war. Yesterday's deaths' brought to 14 the number of Israelis killed in Leba- non this year and to 580 the number killed since June 1982. OMAHA WORLD HERALD 16 May 1984 cep ?1984 Copler N, . S. . 90E 43 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 R.O.A. NATIONAL SECURITY REPORT May 1984 The Ten Lessons of Lebanon I n assessing U.S. involvement in Lebanon the true significance is being obscured by the political turmoil sur- rounding the withdrawal of our Marines from Beirut. Stripped of political demagogy, Lebanon is a classic example of what a re- cent Pentagon study called warfare "on the cheap." There are at least 10 lessons to be learned from the Lebanese ex- perience: 1. The slaughter of our Marines in Beirut is directly attributable to our underestimation of international terrorism. Terrorism is not an abberation but "a new kind of warfare." Most ter- rorist attacks are planned, financed and coordinated by communist and Islamic governments as an instrument of national policy. The new strain of terrorism is no longer random, but carefully or- chestrated. The Kamikaze-type assaults demonstrated that the attackers worked from detailed operational and intelligence plans. 2. For the Soviet Union terrorism is a low-risk operation that holds greater promise of accomplishing their goal of world domination than direct confronta- tion. Syria has become a Soviet surrogate and has apparently chosen the same path as Cuba did 15 years ago. The Soviet Union and radical Arab states have no in- terest in a unified Lebanon unless that country is under their complete domina- tion. The ultimate outcome of this policy is fragmentation and division. The slaughter in Lebanon will not only con- tinue but accelerate. The Christian population is in mortal danger and is already furning to Israel for protection. 3. Moderate Arab states do not dare to Dome to an accommodation with Israel. Professor 0. Rechtschaffen is professor and Chairman of the Public Justice Depart- ment at St. Mary's Univer- Associate Professor of Political Science at the Air Force Academy when he retired after 23 years in the Air Force. This is his second article for this report. He wrote on terrorism in the last issue. Pages 11,12 President Sadat of Eygpt was gunned down. Jordan's King Hussein has been repeatedly threatened with assassination and war. Even Arafat has become a target because Islamic radicals consider him "too moderate." Terrorists have failed to destroy Israel but have succeeded in im- posing a reign of terror over the entire Arab world. Dr. Helms of the Brookings Institute correctly points out that "the greatest fear of the moderate Arab leaders is not that Iran will attack the oil fields with airplanes but that the Ayatollah Khomeini will undermine their political legitimacy." Radical countries such as Iran, Iraq, Syria and Libya are intent at spreading their particular strain of Islamic extremism with fire and sword over the entire region. The perception that these countries could be persuaded to pursue policies of moderation is wishful thinking and dangerously illusionary. 4. Terrorism can be defeated as the Israeli pre-emptive strike of 1982 clearly demonstrated. As a result, the world's most violent terrorist group, the PLO, is in disarray. Unfortunately, misguided Western nations in coordination with leftist-oriented and communist govern- ments coerced Israel into abandoning its imminent victory over Soviet-supported and Syrian-directed terrorism in Lebanon. The lack of support for a country that was CONTINUED NEXT PAGE 44 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 TEN LESSONS OF LEBANON... Continued American medical students greeted 82nd Airborne sergeant with relief when troop landed at Grenada to topple Soviet-backed regime. Courtesy of Department of Defense Still Photo Collection. willing to sacrifice its soldiers to eradicate the spectre of international terrorism in Lebanon resulted in the dispatch of U.S. Marines, with tragic results. In an open letter to President Reagan (The New York Times, February 27, 1983) more than 130 retired generals and admirals correctly noted that ". . . Israeli ports and bases would be open instantly to U.S. forces in the event of a serious strategic threat to the Middle East. Israel constitutes the only U.S. ally capable of immediate parry to a serious thrust against free world interests in this theater. And, Israel's continued sharing of vital in- telligence on Soviet operations constitutes the other essential element of U.S. securi- ty in the Middle East." 5. Terrorist tactics, as employed in Lebanon, permit radical countries to attack the free world in a manner if done overtly, would ordinarily constitute war and justify a military response under international law. As a result the U.S. must be prepared and willing to retaliate by bombing vital targets of nations in- volved in organizing terrorist outrages. According to Washington sources the Ad- ministration is now asking the Joint Chiefs of Staff to find military answers to terrorist attacks. 6. If the Beirut attacks are any indica- tion, terrorists will be employing more lethal weapons in the future inflicting heavy casualties and causing massive destruction. A recent Pentagon study correctly points out that combating terrorism "requires an active policy. A reactive policy only forfeits the initiative to the terrorists." No precautions, regardless how elaborate, can assure com- plete safety if terrorists are willing to die for their cause. The best we can hope for is to reduce the potential destructiveness of terrorism. A victim of terrorist kidnapping, Brigadier Genera! James L. Dozier displays newspaper announcing his release by Italian forces. Courtesy Department of Defense Still Photo Collection. 7. Our experience in Lebanon is a dire warning that the U.S. must adopt new strategies and tactics to fight terrorism. The pre-emptive strike in Grenada and our support of counter-insurgency forces in Cental America, Southeast Asia and Africa are the beginning of a long overdue change in U.S. policy. 8. The aborted Iranian rescue mission and the debacle in Lebanon also raise serious questions about the ability of the United States to conduct successful military missions. U.S. News and World Report (Feb 27, 1984) charges that "a confusing command structure . . . sometimes leaves everyone and no one responsible for the success or failure of a military operation." Newsweek (Feb 27, 1984) raises disturbing questions about the "absence of decision making" in Washington. The United States must: ? Prepare "U.S. military forces to defend against and counter terrorism." (Pentagon Study, Dec. 1983) ? Streamline the military command structure. ? Increase the authority of the chair- man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in order to reduce and eventually eliminate in- terservice rivalries in combat situations. ? Provide for a more integrated in- telligence service. 9. Events since World War 11 - in China, Korea, Vietnam and now Lebanon - clearly demonstrate that American military intervention will fail unless two basic conditions prevail: ? The clear and unquivocal support of Congress and the American people. ? A total commitment by the people of the countries under attack. We cannot and should not commit U.S. military per- sonnel to fight the battles of other people who themselves are unwilling to make sacrifices and carry the major burden of such conflicts. The only exceptions would be in cases where vital U.S. security interests are at stake. 10. A major terrorist objective is to create an atmosphere of chaos, confusion and fear. Regardless how intense and ruthless terrorism becomes, we must not panic. If we do, terrorists will have accomplished one of their major goals. In many ways terrorists are weak and vulnerable. Their defeats far outnumber their victories. Many groups like the Red Brigades, Baader-Meinhof, Turkish terrorists, the PLO and others have been weakened or neutralized. Terrorism cannot destroy a powerful nation like the U.S., but it may cause mass paranoia and give rise to a siege mentality. The success or failure of terrorism will be largely determined by the willingness of the free world to confront and combat it. A policy of appeasement, as events in Lebanon clearly demonstrated, will give impetus to an acceleration of terrorism on world- wide basis. ^ 45 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R000100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 Middle East Policy Survey a confidential biweekly report from Washington and the Middle East IIIIIIIIIIllllx IIIlIN1 1111111 IINIII~luuuuly NII II41111XNIIIIIIIIaItl~11 rlxlI1111Ia11Il xmuu txllull' dllnh Illl xI, ~I1 TAWS tllltllu ,,11IXaI~ll Illihplq NINxxNHI IIIIIaa~~XaXaII II,Iy~I~Ilp~ll Ilxp~pyyppXa, ~~,~IppJJppaaI1II I IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIx11HXIIXIIIInaIIxIi1111Xa11110111xpI111111NIi111111 aallllaly,l ....X11111 '1??k1k1 1111una4 In an V 11 y, I~ aaal dM~Nll';la aa~N April 20, 1984 No. 102 MOVING AGAINST IRAN Two recent National Security Decision Directives (NSDD) signed by President Reagan are seen as preparing the groundwork for a more confrontational US stance against Iran. NSDD 138, which underscores the Administration's renewed concern about "state supported" international terrorism is aimed at the two major practitioners of it, Iran and Libya, according to senior Administration officials. While Libya's role in international terrorism continues to be a source of major concern - as evidenced again this week by events in London - it is potential Iranian direct and indirect aggression in the Gulf arena that is of far greater concern to Administration policymakers. Administration officials insist that NSDD 138 provides only an outline for a long- term effort aimed at confronting the growing terrorism problem. As such, they argue it should be viewed as separate and apart from attempts to counter Iranian military moves in the Gulf. However, they admit since Iran looms large in both NSDD's, it is a natural focal point of both. For example, the other earlier NSDD, which provides the basis for enhanced US cooperation with Gulf states, contains specific reference to the Administration's new anti-terrorist posture. Moreover, it is the specter of possible military action against Iran that has caused a number of State and Defense Department officials to dissent from both NSDDs. "McFarlane and his people at the NSC are motivated by a desire for revenge against Iran," claims one State Department insider. Another argues, "They [the NSC] are looking for an excuse to take military action against Iran." In fact, according to aides close to George Shultz, the Secretary of State firmly sides with McFarlane in the latter's "get tough" approach with Iranian-backed terrorism. "I have no doubt that if Iran launched a terrorist attack against a US facility, both Shultz and McFarlane would recommend a military response," says one Shultz aide. This aide traces Shultz' "profound change in attitude" to last April's terrorist bombing of the US embassy in Beirut. It was this attack more than the October bombing of Marine headquarters that affected Shultz' outlook. However, Shultz was further motivated when the French responded to the simultaneous attack on their military post in Beirut while the US did nothing. To drive the point home within the State Department, Shultz had Ambassador Robert M. Sayre, Director of the Office for Combatting Terrorism, lecture a recent senior staff meeting on the perils of state supported terrorism. At the same time, key State aides began receiving daily terrorism reports which, according to Department insiders, mark the first time US intelligence on world-wide terrorism has been brought together in one. place for their information. [Recent reports showing a direct link between Libyan strongman Qaddafy and a series of terrorist attacks in Britain have caused some State Department officials to question why London had not taken preemptive steps that could have averted this week's siege.] Not surprisingly, these reports show preponderance of Middle East based terrorism. According to informed sources, recent reports have begun to relay information on terrorist training centers in Iran. This has buttressed the view already held by some State Department officials that a direct military response to an Iranian terrorist attack has become more likely. Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : Clk- DP96-00788R000100330001-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788ROO0100330001-5 SPECIAL EDITION -- TERRORISM -- 26 JUNE 1984 LOS ANGELES TIMES 24 May 1984 Pg. 1 25 Indicted in Israeli Probe of Jewish Terrorist Group By NORMAN KEMPSTER, Times Staff Writer JERUSALEM-Twenty-five Is- raelis were indicted Wednesday on charges of murder, attempted mur- der, conspiracy to destroy religious shrines and a variety of lesser crimes resulting from a four-year campaign to terrorize and intimi- date Arabs. The national prosecutor's office filed the charges 27 days after police made their first arrests of members of a. Jewish underground that oper- ated primarily in the Israeli-occu- pied West Bank of the Jordan River. Six of the suspects were accused of first-degree murder, which car- ries a maximum penalty of life in prison here. All 25 were charged with belonging to a "terrorist or- ganization, an offense usually in- voked by Israeli authorities against Arabs belonging to the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Jerusalem magistrate who presided over the indictments re- fused to lift a court order prohibiting publication of the names of the suspects. However, the group is known to include several prominent West Bank settlers and at least a few, high-ranking officers in the Israeli army reserve. ` -Rabbi Moshe Levinger, a leader of the 17-year campaign for Jewish settlement in the once all-Arab 1 Eest Bank city of Hebron, has been jailed since May 13 . q? n' .. ? ... - . __ _ _ _ -.- off. k i f tigat I was n nown ninal acts with the aim of inflicting revenge on the population and frightening it." 4he case has. touched off a bitter debate in Israel. Most , vnment officials and many Jewish settlement lrs have condemned the actions of the under- nd. But other Israelis, including a deputy Speaker of Knesset (Parliament) have argued that Jewish ,ke on Arabs are a proper response to PLO-spon s4e1'~d terrorist assaults on Jews. least some of the accused have announced plans to i for the Knesset in the July 23 elections on a ticket ded "The Underground" as a ,test of public sentiment. I%w technique is reminiscent of one used frequently by tap Irish Republican Army' in Northern . Ireland. The murder charges resulted from a submachine-gun and hand-grenade attack last summer on the campus of the Islamic College in Hebron in which three students were killed outright and 33 injured. One of the wounded died later. Other charges included planting bombs in, the cars of tee elected mayors of West Bank cities on June 2, 1B 0. Two of the mayors were maimed, and an Israeli pg'liceman was blinded while trying to defuse the third bntnb. The Maariv newspaper quoted unnamed suspects an, saying they had intended to attack three other mayors but were unable so for a variety of reasons. .Targeting of Shrine and Mosque ; ':*Potentially the most serious charge is conspiracy to blew up the Dome of the Rock shrine and Al Aqsa 1- isque on Jerusalem's Temple Mount. The site is cQhsidered the third-holiest in Islam, and any attack on it)surely would have produced a wave of violence troughout Muslim countries. The indictment accuses the suspects of stealing large q ntities of arms and explosives from the Israeli army a1it1 storing them at various locations throughout the country. the Maariv interview, published just hours before tlI indictments were announced, the suspects said they famed the. underground because they did not believe .tifat the Israeli government was adequately protecting Ji