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Approved For Release 2003/09/09 : CIA-RDP96-00788RQ01200060019-4 organism at some level. Perhaps therefore we should look directly at changes in psychophsioiogical aspects themselves as indicators of the presence of a psi mes- sage. By so doing, we may be able to look crudely at the psi information during relatively early stages of its processing within the organism. Although the data will lack the richness of experience, they may be more consistent and may addi- tionally eventually tell us a great deal about the processing elements themselves. Targ and Puthoff (1974) flashed a strobe in the eyes of a sender and observed the response of the receiver's occipital EEG. One agent-receiver pair was selected for more extensive work, on the basis of preliminary success plus the monochromatic EEG spectrum of the receiver. During Strobe periods, the aver- age power and peak power of the receiver's alpha rhythms significantly de- creased, indicating partial alpha blockage to remote visual information. At the same time, the subject was unable to guess with any accuracy above chance which periods were strobe periods and which were control. Tart (1963) found that subjects in a soundproof room showed a faster and more complex EEG pattern plus more active GSR and plethysmograph responses when a distant agent was receiving strong shocks than during control times. At the same time, receivers showed no behavioral evidence of responsiveness to these distant events, in terms of frequency of key presses made during shock vs. control times. Kelly and Lenz (1976) employed a similar procedure with a re- ceiver selected for monochromatic EEG, but without an agent. The receiver re- laxed, eyes closed, and simply tried to visualize the target area and whether or not the strobe was on. No attempt was made to guess when the strobe was on or off. Using a variety of preliminary procedures, they obtained suggestive evi- dence that the EEG responded differentially to stimulus vs. control conditions + and that the nature of the response may be dependent upon such parameters as alpha in a remote identical twin, but the overall results were not significant. The Research Committee of the A.S.P.R. (1959) found no significant EEG changes in receivers during times in which agents were being emotionally stimulated. Loyd (1973) employed an averaged cortical evoked potential as a measure of responsiveness to the sudden onset of a distant stimulus. An agent was instruc- ted to send a visual image each time a light flashed. During a run, 60 such flashes were entered on the EEG record in such a way that the EEG output be- fore, during, and after the flash onset could be averaged to see if a coherent sig- nal emerged in response to the onset of the remote stimulus. By visual inspec- lion, such a cortical response seemed to be present. Lack of a control condition prevented statistical analysis, however. Millar (1976) repeated this procedure wing control periods and found no d f. ' ev n r o ce r psi. f n Important variable in stilt studies is the recording site front which the EEC is taken. The best record ~ . , , me its are well known for various k' ,.t) ~r 7f~ir' Sii t " r">;' 2 N'sn,1967) found additional ev;d?.-mce that receivers vasomotor activ- Approved For Refease 1'f ?7&9: ' ~ 3!~ i5P9-00788IR0012000}6~0' PARAPSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGY, AND ANPS1 psi information, we have no a priori reason to assume one site more important than another. To make evoked potential studies work for psi messages. expiora- tion of a variety of potential sites would seem to be mandatory before the ef- fectiveness of evoked potentials as psi responses can be assessed. Another EEG measure that could be used as an indicator of psi processing is the contingent negative variation (CNV), a negative shift in cortical potential re- corded by surface electrodes from the frontal portion of the brain. Also called the expectancy wave, it is generally regarded as a sign that t _'-e organism is im- minently expecting some specific form of stimulation to which it must respond. Levin and Kennedy (1975) employed a reaction-time procedure to see whether or not the presence of a CNV could serve as evidence for anticipation of a yet-to- be determined event. Subjects were told to press a key when a green light ap- peared but not when a red light appeared. Which light appeared was determined by an R.`NG immediately before the light came on. In a preliminary study, sub- jects' CNV's showed significantly more evidence of expectancy just before the RNG selected green, the color to which the subject was to respond, than before red. A confirmatory study produced chance results, however. This procedure is very important, nevertheless, because the CNV represents a time-locked, precise event in central nervous system information processing. Several other studies have employed psychophy?sioiogical measures other than the EEG. Tart's GSR and plethysmograph results have already been mentioned. Dean (1965), using a dream telepathy paradigm, found that active sending on the part of an agent significantly influenced the abundance of rapid eye move- ments during dream periods, even on occasions in which the subjects dream de- scriptions were unrelated to the target. Beloff. Cowles, and Bate (1970) found no evidence that subjects' galvanic skin responses (GSR) were affected by mildly emotionally interesting messages sent by a remote agent. nor did Barron and Mordkoff (1968), Dean (1969), or Sanjar (1969). Rice (1966) found strong GSR deflections in receivers when the agents were exposed to startling stimuli, e.g., sudden immersion of feet in cold water, or hearing a blank cartridge fired. Hettinger (1952) claims that a group of pre- selected sensitives showed increased GSR activity when agents several miles away were stimulated or made to exercise, but does not provide sufficient details. Figar (1959) measured peripheral vasomotor activity with a plethysmograph and found sonic indication that a receiver's vasomotor activity increased when a .emote agent performed mental arithmetic. Unfortunately, no real attempt was made to analyze the data blind, nor was any precise statistical evaluation carried out. Esser, Etter, and Chamberlain (1967) found some indication that receiver' vasomotor activity increased when agents attended to sentences or names of emotional importance to the receivers, as opposed to control sentencosfbut the authors did not attempt --ny statistical analysis. Dean (e g Dean 1962 1969; Approved For Release 2003/09/09 : CIA-RDP96-007jp8R001200060019-4 'gin 'i crc r5 a ei iargi: nti;ni)er ,f tar'e's, such "! -~ as a the urlttia4u: words to renthe cs FSou! i6t d ' u ata are best cvauat hl ,edfy a specia fn ntnta developed by R. A. Fiher Carington, 1944). The baseline for chance expectation is determined by rk nummtr of responses for a word (or other item) when it was nor the target. 'je meth thus requires many test administrations with diverse targets, to pro- e alarge espanse pool. (Having a large response pool is especially important pause Carit ton, after years of working with the technique, found that it is visabie to u narrow categories for scoring a hit. For example, he reports a abstantiallr hig r -tit ratio when "elm" was scored correct only for the target 'tn' than when elm, along with oak, maple, poplar, etc., were all classed ether as hits for ny kind of tree.) A problem here is that any particular aa1ogue of response requencies, such as the one Carington prepared, may be propriate for subj is drawn from a different population or tested at a n.ended Responses. Wh :he target is complex, no response is likely to be Tharapiately ri ht or wrong , stanCard way o scoring such data is to use blind !de h s w o score each response st may try on ten nights to d eainst each of the targets. For example, a sub- , am about wht aever target picture an agent ppened, that night, to select fro tees (whose scores will be average) a target pool. Then each of three blind s presented with a 10 X 10 array. Along 'e top are listed the ten pictures, in ral ?tats. The judge rates (for example door Oder; down the side are the dream earl reports for the f us! night correspor n a scale of 0 to 10 if how well the to each of the ten pictures. He then !-tin'es with ratings for each of the subse e array shows whether the ten correct Large rferent from the 90 incorrect pairings. tent nights. Analysis of variance of response pairings are significantly An alternative with the same general approach\is to have the blind ;udearcrrIt ,,, response for how well it matches the various'4 rgets. With ion Possibilities, would enter into the array 1, 3 , 10 fore h response. Some experi? raters choose to class all high ranks together, and a' low ranks together, but :h pooling of scores discards so much information th it seems inadvisable. imilar ratings or rankings can be used to judge the curacy of "readings" histories). Good research must be double blind. The rson for whom the ding is held is absent. The proxy sitter (a blind not aker) asks for the ding and records it. The best judge of the accuracy of a re ding is ordinarily absent sitter for whom the sitting was held. Each absents ter is then pre- ted with the entire set of readings, coded so that he does not k w which was traded for him, and is asked to rate or to rank them. The exile ' enter puts se ratings or rankings into an array for analysis of variance: read gs are the irnnc and `{'."'' - - scores I scoring, an alternative to such global ranking or ratin re i h g qu res t a n erintenter put a pair of parentheses after each scorable item in the res d, for example., itticr thi is ali;m {1 has h about 50 or 55 { j who is going to race air}t of happiness in his future. 'le some troubles in his past, but things will go better for him soon. He is very cld () button to someone named Anna O. He wears a green ( 'jacket O with brass " }. The subject is asked to respond to each item ~ingiy. so far as possible, so should respond jacket, or button theses with a check ! Lion mark if it is ambig .and crosses.) Checks are reading is entered into the pr The items on any of these p set up for each division. Dream aced separately for responses that Readings for absent sitters may have tions of the sitters, references to !ivin viduals, etc. 'ere or were not associated with color. nts subdivided for personality descrip- indi'dduals, references to dead indi- O,den-ended Responses Scored as Forced Choic A method for retaining both freedom in the subject's resp unse and also rile sung, -ity of forced-choice scoring is to use complex material for the target but lake on,, prespecified categories as the scorable responses. Sciuneidler and Lewis e('96 prepared a set of 81 pictures which showed all combinations of three levels four variables: sex (tsvo .,tales, two females or one male and one female): age (y g, adult but not old, old); activity (passive, normal. active); and emotion (u ` appy, neutral, happy). Subjects were told that each picture showed two poop : they were asked to describe the picture: and responses were scored for acc-r. ~~y un the four variables. lionorton (1975) has recently prepared an assembly - 01 24 pictures which permits binary scoring (present or absent) for all cr,mbi ati '-s of Physiological Measures. When targets are preselected as emotionally neutral or emotionally charged, the subject's physiological changes can appropriately be used as the response measure. Tart (1963) applied painful electric shoe- to the agent on some trials of a GESP experiment and measured subjects' responses by GSR, EEG, plethysmograph, and key taps (conscious report). Each of the phys- iological measures showed a significant difference between shock and nonshock trials, but the key taps did not. Another example is research reported by Dean (1966), who made use of only a single physiological measure. In his procedure, the subject lay quietly in a darkened roost. A plethysmograph record showed changes in his finger's fluid volume (a measure of autonomic activity). The agent in another room looked at names, randomly ordered, of three types: persons important to the subject but not to the experimenter; persons irnportarit Approved For Release 2003/09/09 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200060019-4 at a woman of 55 who wore a red sweater with a brass clasp rmativel t thdh b yoe age an terass, but not to the man, green, Responses typically consist of entering each pair of paren- the item is clearly right, a cross if it is wrong, and a ques- us. (Subjects find this easier than entering only checks then summed.. and the frequency of checks for each cols may be sup ivtdcd, and a different array otocols, for example, may have items evalu- r, tnp ,xA,pproved For Release 2003/09/09 : CIA-RDP96-00788 R001200060019-4 tee Su,~ t; and persons known to neither. "a d g s c or eu Jr the pleth ysmokrapn record. Scoring of plethysmograpli changes was blind. Dean's data, and those of several similar experiments, showed increasc in autonomic activity when the agent contemplated a name personally relevant to the subject. Typically, as found by Tart, the subject reported no awareness of the target. Other possibilities are obvious but have not as yet been adequately explored. No controlled research has been published on the wave form of the cortical evoked potential, e.g., for auditory vs, visual ESP targets. Only preliminary in- vestigation reports similarity in the timing of alpha waves as the ESP response in paired subjects. Selection of Appropriate ESP Targets The experimenter, obrious,y, need not restrict himself to using ESP cards as targets. There is an infinite number of possibilities, and for some subjects or e hypotheses. other target possibilities are preferable to a set of five symbols. The ge of choice might be suggested by the following list, called from 5 years of reports in a single journal. The Journal of the American Sociel.' for Psychical Resecrch;Vn 1970-1974, published ESP research with these targets: cards that were green bQ one side and white on the other; the inner containers that con- cealed these cards; ESP cards; multiple-choice questions, each consisting of four items relevant to'a,story? that the subject had heard: elaborate pictures (usually art prints or magazihe illustrations); slides of patterns and faces (including the subject's own face); Homes (including the subject's own name); the sex of a person in a concealed ph~tpgraph; a particular square within a 5 X 5 matrix; red vs. black papers; Identi?Kit c mponents to match the face of a target person; a multisensory environment whic the subject would soon expos once; erotic pic? tures affixed to some ES? cards the timing of radioactive emissions liom a Schmid: machine; several sets of f -.nature cards; the 12 positions of a 'clock face: audio-visual programs of slides altd music; geometric symbols; the five vowels; a pool of 100 simple line drawirbs of objects, with their names; char- acteristics of the persons who would sit in' ecified auditorium chairs; word associates; relevant statements about individuals "concealed photographs;scrics of thematically related -1-1 Selection of Appropr, to Subjects Spears. Humans are not necessarily the subjects of choice."T~bough no syste- matic work has been done in comparative parapsychology, ext chance data have been reported for such diverse animals as cockroaches, lizar rodents, Approved For Release 2003/09/09 : CIA-RDP96-00788 * t worker are: (a) to study psi in the species where he is himself most expert at experimenta schedules list; and (b) to set up the laboratory conditions and reinforce rig which most sensitively elicit meaningful data m other types research, Cats ogs ho se s, and humans. Probably the two best di'ectives f +' - ~ The three conspicuous virtues of this approach are: (Xi) the subject's goal during the selection trials is to do well enough for later lei ratory work, acid thus the later work comes as no surprise to him; (b) the expo 'menter effect is controlled, since it is the experimenter for whom the subject oduced earlier high scores who works with him later; and (c) test conditions become Increas- in,h. -1------ F'eselecriai of Subjects. If the experimenter wants to study the relation of to some other variable; such as imagery, creativity, extroversion, or psychos; he may choose to use preselected criterion groups. It may be even more nece sary in psi than in other research, however, to do careful pretesting to ensur that such special conditions-as the choice of targets, the setting, or the connot Lions of the wording of the instructions do not in themselves have a differenti effect upon the groups. In the more common case of preselection, the experimenter may choose to u? gifted subjects. Here he can fail into a trap. The natural way to find gifted su