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, Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4 CIth1: On the Strategic Potential of ESP By Dr. Roger A. Beaumont NTEREST iN the military potential I of ESP-extrasensory percep- tion-has grown in recent years. Some of it stems from the search for reliable and jamming-free modes of communication. A popu- lar wave of interest in ESP stemmed from a boom in the occult and supernatural p enomena in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time when ESP research in Eastern Eu- rope and the Soviet Union also attracted popular attention. Claims of success in using ESP in military operations, however, appeared af- ter the First World War'. In spite of all such assertions, a basic question remains unan- swered: does ESP actually work? While many have thought so-and think so-some scientists in the West have feared that the mounting fascination with ESP, in league with the resurgence in the occult and mysticism, threatens science itself. Moreover, such nagging doubt about psychic phenomena is not evident in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The Russians have long recognized that if ESP were an actual effect and could be harnessed, it would have great stra- tegic potential. Are such systems really possi- ble? Many have thought so for so me time-. In this respect, it may be useful to look closely at the differences in approach in ESP re- search in the West, on the one hand, and in the Soviet block coun- tries on the other. In the latter, parapsychology is not considered to be a separate research disci- pline. Instead, articles on "bio- communications" (telepathy) ap- pear in traditional scientific jour- nals, salted in among what Western scientists view as orthodox re- search. The attention of many in the West was aroused in the 1970s, as Soviet authorities brought a heavy hand down on news cover- age of ESP research in Russia3. Western Research L,/r. 1%Uge1 1%. LJG(4641/tvns .....1.? _., _- sor of history at Texas A&M Uni- In the West, psychic research versity and has authored more than has long been tainted by sensation- 40 articles on military history and alism and some charlatanism. man Approved For Release 201tjx FOudCIA- DP 96 0078 3ROOSince the ~~ a5'0OO8a4's u c 1 have 39 SIGNAI JANUARY. 1982 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4 sought links with the supernatural through such means as Ouija boards and seances. The dramatic and the absurd overtones of the popular culture aspect of ESP has led even the more conservative ele- ments of the popular press to treat ESP as a novelty. Also confusing is the fact that the various types of apparent ESP-telekinesis (the projection of force), telepathy (mental transmission), clairvoy- ance (the sensing of remote images) and precognition (foreknowl- edge)-have been lumped together as related phenomena. Major cen- ters of ESP research in the West, at Utrecht, London and Duke Uni- versity, have come under suspicion from many scientists. As a result, researchers like J. B. Rhine, re- cently deceased, have labored to prove an effect which the Soviets accept and attempt to explain-and control. While the enfolding of "biocom- munications" within their central- ized research system may reflect Soviet concern that ESP drifts too close to religion, their closing of public access to ESP research might be a parallel to what hap- pened in the United States and Britain during World War II after work on an atomic bomb began4. When it was still visible, Russian research seemed to be trying to reconcile individual ESP experi- ence with transmission and recep- tion of low-peer low-frequency electromagnetic waves similar to the kind used to transmit radio, television and radar signals-. Much of the work on "biocommunica- tions" dealt with the electrical dynamics of organisms, even back in the 1950s, when, in the United States, the idea that animals and plants and individual cells could be influenced by electromagnetic radi- ation other than heat was rejected in biological research. Soviet Research Since the 1930s, biologists and parapsychologists in the Soviet Union have traced out in ever greater detail a telepathic transmit- ter-receiver ESP model, based on the concept that people with strong abilities as either transmitters or receivers can communicate by sending basic symbols or sensa- tions (but not detailed or precise verbal thoughts or images) at great distance, thus, constituting a "cy- MILITARY SPECIFICATION SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES FROM MODULAR POWER SYSTEMS INC. 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While transmission of data over great distances by ESP was exam- ined in the West from the 1920s on. it was rejected at first, since it was in violation of scientific laws which were believed to govern radio transmission and which decreed that there was a falling-off of power relative to the square of the dis- tance between transmitter and re- ceiver. Later, when unexpected long-range transmission of weak signals due to atmospheric effects was discovered, a theory of analo- gous enhancement and relay through psi-sensitive individuals of ESP "signals" came to the fore,' while other research pointed to the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the body8. Research into the biological ef- fects of electromagnetic waves is, of course, not an exclusive pre- serve of Soviet science. It has been known for almost a century, for example, that magnetic fields in- duce a sensation of light in the human eye, even in darkness9. In the late 1960s, a Russian-born American physicist noted magnetic resonance effects in matter con- taining particles with gyromagnetic properties, observing that "absorp- tion of electromagnetic energy can cause transitions from lower to higher energy levels with resulting absorption of radiation and re-ori- entation of the dipoles."10 Most recently, a British investigator re- ported a relationship between depth of hypnotic trance and the electrical resistance of the skin." While such evidence of overlap between parapsychology and biolo- gy, physics and chemistry falls short of the certainty needed for firm scientific conclusion, the un- certainty poses a problem for de- fense policy makers. It is especially frustrating, considering the history of ESP which is strewn with hoax- es and wishful thinking that even some scientifically-trained para- psychologists have drifted into mis- representation and fudging, as des- perate searches for conclusive re- sults have led to a shaving of research rules. Discovery of such AA proved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788RO01200350008-4 SIGNAL, JANUARY, 1982 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4 "Perhaps ESP is a not-yet-understood sensitivity to subtle cues, or the brain function, as a computer processing information subconsciously. Perhaps those who are most sensitive "print out" slightly before or in :parallel with distant events, thus appearing to be clairvoyant, but having actually calcu- lated probabilities unconsciously from data gathered along the way-also unconsciously." hoaxes further discredits a field of investigation under suspicion. As John Beloff, a parapsychologist, has noted, ESP research has ".. . suffered from its fatal attraction for persons of unbalanced mind who seek in it their personal salvation. "12 Nevertheless, what is to be made out of the evidence that suggests the possibility that there may be something more solid lying behind it?13 That question makes govern- ment funding of ESP-related re- search, at the worst, a ticking bomb and, at best, a quandary. Sponsoring such seemingly wild- eyed studies could well explode back in the face of sponsoring agencies, policymakers or re- searchers-but failure to follow leads might yield great advantages to those less skeptical. Perhaps ESP is a not-yet-under- stood sensitivity to subtle cues, or the brain function, as computer processing information subcon- sciously. Perhaps those who are most sensitive "print out" slightly before or in parallel with distant events, thus appearing to be clair- voyant, but having actually calcu- lated probabilities unconsciously from data gathered along the way- also unconsciously. Are such ran- dom coincidences noticed only un- der stress, as psychiatrist Carl Jung suggested in his theory of "syn- chronicity"? Or is there actually a lining up of electropotential forces in the brain at certain times, creat- ing a low-power long-wave trans- mitter-receiver system of the kind suggested by Kogan? Defense-related Research the Rand Corporation and the Insti- tute for Defense Analyses cropped up occasionally. In the early 1960s, there were reports of telepathy be- tween the submarine USS NAUTI- LUS and a shore-based command post-which was denied forthwith by the Navy.14 in 1973, stories ap- peared - describing CIA-sponsored probing of Soviet and Chinese se- cret installations by individuals with high psi ability.'' By the mid- 1970s, Stanford Research Institute appeared to be carrying the ball. 16 From time to time, some indica- tions of interest on the part of NASA emerged to public view. Following a call for an experiment in the course of the moonlanding programs in the late 1960s," an field of "disinformation." If Soviet research in this area proved to be a spoof, the diversion of money and people to ESP could lead to the overlooking of other develop- ments, as well as serving as a waste of effort. Such cautions do not erase the tantalizing advantages to be gained in harnessing ESP. Given that such phenomena are based on an ele- ment of reality, the strategic use of ESP raises a further series of ques- tions. Are the alignments of people or conditions only random or occa- sional? Is psi ability a by-product of surrounding electromagnetic ra- diations, or of solar radiation or induced by terrestrial magnetism? Is it enhanceable through hypno- tism or drugs? Is there means for testing for psi ability? Or for devel- oping it? Can it be jammed? Is the effect simply explainable in terms of a variation of radio-communica- tions theory? Can "information bits," or code messages really he transmitted by sending combina- tions of basic sensory images? Is foreknowledge and remote-sensing possible? Is it group enhanceable? American defense analysts and policy makers seem to have been hedging their bets in this area for some time. Reports of U.S. de- fense-related ESP research have appeared fairly regularly in the public press over the last quarter of a century. In the 1950s, for exam- ple, news releases and popular fea- tures described the involvement of W~s tin~ghouse Laboratories and thAPAIRYOUSMABIeasle i2 0 ESP research. Later, the names of astronaut, Captain Edgar Mitchell, conducted an experiment using star-cross-wave-square-circle psi cards developed at Duke Universi- ty. In six sessions, he "transmit- ted" 25 card images at preset times, while "recipients" recorded their impressions. While the results exceeded statistical probability, they were not overwhelming.'' NASA was quick to disclaim offi- cial sponsorship. Other cases of NASA involve- ment included a communication project funded through Stanford Research Institute, which generat- ed hostile reaction in some scien- tific circles, and a "previewing" of Jupiter by a well-known psychic researcher-19 Evidence of interest and re- search, however, does not neces- sarily mean serious acceptance or commitment to programs. James Dougherty pointed out how nations involved in disarmament talks may interject "jokers" or "riders" into otherwise serious and rational pro- posals to make sure that their op- ponents will not accept them. Those thus maneuvered into the role of rejectors may then seem in the eyes of technically unaware publics to be the foes of peace.20 A corollary to this is the strategy of mounting shadow programs to draw an adversary's attention- $te3twNT ~r Pt$'8 the essence o Soviet e P6 in the ESP and C3 In a parallel vein, the mounting interest in C3-command, control, communication-reflects concern about the complexities of war in what National Security Advisor Breszinski called the "nucleotronic age." The situation is made more critical not only by a rising curve of innovation but also by anxiety about Russian developments in this area. Contradictions in their pub- lished material do not produce much agreement among Western analysts about where the Soviets are going, but their lines of thought and unorthodox military problem- solving techniques are unique and sometimes strange.21 And so it is not clear at this point if both sides are really just playing with each other, or if there is some- thing really developing in the realm of ESP. Spoofing, deception and I l n t f'W l and pea e. If Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4 ESP does work as a kind of long- wave radio, it could allow reliable, unjammable, unmonitorable com- munication with remote strategic weapons, especially the nuclear submarine force. Is there, then, some overlap between ELF-the extremely low-frequency radio sys- tem proposed by the Navy over the last 10 years under the titles San- guine and Seafarer-and ESP? The congruence of the Soviet model of ESP and the characteris- tics of ELF (Extremely Low Fre- quency) communication occur at several qualitative levels, from the simple aspect of hypothetical-theo- retical overlap of transmission and reception, to the need for an un- jammable and EMP-proof C3 medi- um in post-nuclear exchange envi- ronment modes, from "broken- back war" fighting to conflict termination. One main hypotheti- cal parallel is the problem of slow data rate, a la the age of signal flags and semaphores, and the early era of telegraphy and radio, a problem overcome with codebooks, and imagination. Unhappily, an effec- tive ESP system would, depending on the nature of the phenomena, offer potential to the executor of a surprise attack, from the psychic influencing of targets, through pre- cognition and remote sensing, to message transmission below the detection and countermeasure threshold of a potential victim.22 Thus the anxiety born of the magni- tudes of increase in threat and con- sequence of error tends to overide rationalist skepticism. Threat Perception fight. The anxiety has also been reinforced by the fact that the two nuclear superpowers are the na- tions which suffered the greatest strategic surprises of World War II, Operation BARBAROSSA, the Nazi assault on Russia, and Pearl Harbor, both in 1941, within six months of each other. A principal problem in the realm of ESP stems from the dynamics of political power in an age in which "far-out" concepts have regularly become reality. Those who seek and hold political power often lack technical knowledge about the complex systems on which defense and foreign policy rely, Many mod- ern leaders have come to be as dependent on their scientific advi- sors as ancient kings were on their shamans and soothsayers. The controversial influence of Dr. Lin- demann (later Lord Cherwell) on Winston Churchill in the Second World War is still viewed as cru- cial, since Lindemann's advice led to a major redirection of British bombing toward attacks on Ger- man civilians. In the Nuclear Age, national leaders have often had science ad- visors act as translators of the ar- cane, even though the performance of such modern shamans has been uneven. Albert Speer, for example, overlooked the potential of nuclear research, and the influence of Lord Cherwell on Winston Churchill has Perception and interpretation of threat, after all, has been a growing problem in the age of machine war- fare, a by-product of the rising speed and destructiveness of weap- ons. Since the 1950s and the com- ing of H-Bomb-tipped ICBMs, the nuclear super-powers have wired together elaborate networks of ra- dar screens, electronic computers, radios, telephones and, more re- cently, satellites, fiber optics, fluid- ic computers and lasers. Articles in the Western popular press on the strategic potential of ESP began to appear in the late 1950s, as the first generation of inter-continental bal- listic missiles cut nuclear surprise attack warning time from hours to minutes. Since then, such concern born of increasingly destructive nu- clear power has been a driving .and control" cin shaping such "command Pnt " itaiigR~ to ef 2G01 ciency, systems which are de- signed as much to prevent war as to long been under scrutiny by histori- ans. In any case, science has yield- ed much of use in modern war, and, recently, as World War II secret files have been opened, the electronic warfare and decoding battles of that period, truly resem- ble, as Churchill said, a duel of magicians. When looking at the current plight of policy makers in respect to ESP, then, it is sobering to recall that the vast atomic bomb project of World War II, undertaken in fear of parallel Nazi efforts, was based on an unproven hypothesis in a highly theoretical branch of sci- ence. Nevertheless, two days be- fore Pearl Harbor, President Roo- sevelt committed vast and scarce resources to support the work of scientists who had no firm data in hand, to seek the exotic goal of loosing the electrical bonds of mat- ter. As a result, what was literally science fiction until 1944 became brutal truth in 1945. Effects of Programs face hazardous paradoxes. If too much were spent, and produced a dead-end, the political result could be deadly. But.if the potential were ignored, and an adversary succeed- ed in harnessing ESP, the result would be worse than embarrass- ment. If ESP can, indeed, be mea- sured and controlled, whichever player in the game of international power mastered it might succeed without tipping their hand; it would be hard to keep sealed off. If the effect proved to be a variant in the phenomenon of extra-long wave communication, a whole sub-world of communications research would be opened up, not to mention the impact on geography, meteorology and psychometry. The tendency for those who dwell in corridors of power to over- read threats is proverbial. In view of that, even suspicion that a foe was using ESP could generate tur- bulence in a system in times of stress or crisis. The uncertainty regarding the designs and motives behind Soviet interest in ESP also raises other questions. Is that inter- est merely a spoof, a form of "dis- information," or are they really into pay-dirt and trying to cover up? Did they move their ESP re- search into their first-line scientific research establishment to conceal developments-or to heighten Western anxiety and uncertainty? Do they fear that the West may be active in this area-or even ahead? Perhaps, in the end, all the inter- est and effort in this area will prove wasteful. merely superstitious hndeaalready Or perhaps many glimpsed bits and fragments of an effect-or effects-which will someday be measured scientifical- ly. For those looking out over this strange and blurred landscape, and trying to fit it into a context of policy, operations and technology, it is a very tough call, indeed. Footnotes 'The Czechs, for instance. claimed the use of clairvoyance against the Hungarians in 1918 and in guerrilla warfare in World War II: Sheila Os- trander and Lynn Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain, Englewood Cliffs, Pren- tice Hall, 1970, pp. 312-313: Peter Maddock, "Electromagnetic Induction of Psi States: The Way Forward in Parapsychology." in Mysteries. Colin Wilson, New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1978, p. 632. 21n the 1920s, the British government reportedly funded development of a device to measure psy- chic emanations, Ian Stevenson, "The Uncom- fortable Facts About Extra-Sensory Perception," Harpers, July 1959, pp. 20-25: The military theo- rist, J. F. C. Fuller, a student of the occult, ~slroatAljglfty bejween psychic power and IN d7~~ilhdfv) ~bhn Tythall. "Bone" Fuller: Soldier, Strategist and Writer, 1878-1966. The data at hand hardly suggest isinore.A u a gram mounted in this area would Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4 New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1977. 3See Henry Gris and William Dick, The New Soviet Psychic Discoveries, Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall, 1978, pp. 286-287; R. A. McCon- nell, "Parapsychology in the USSR," Journal of Parapsychology (39:2), June 1976, pp. 129-134: Milan Ryzl, Parapsychology: A Scientific Ap- proach; J. G. Pratt, "Soviet Research in Parapsy- chology" in Handbook of Parapsychology, Benja- min Woolman, ed.. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977; Alfred Douglas, Extra-Sensory Perception: A Century of Psychic Research, Lon- don, Victor Gollancz, p. 345. In 1974. it was announced that E. M. Naurov, a principal Soviet ESP investigator, had been jailed for two years on charges of having personally profited from his work and contacting foreigners, and, in 1977. Russian security police detained an American journalist for questioning who had tried to inter- view Soviet ESP researchers. Reports of Soviet VIPs seeking health treatment from a well-known medium have appeared in the West, e.g., see n.a., "Ober Ihrem ein Leuchten," Der Spiegel (35:17). April 20, 1981, pp. 126-139. ?See Leslie Groves, Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project, New York. Harper and Brothers, 1962, p. 146ff. 'See M. Ryzl, 'Model of Parapsychological Communication," Sdelovica Technika (8), 1964, pp. 299-302, AD-466927, and I. M. Kogan, "The Information Theory Aspect of Telepathy." transl. F. J. Krieger, Rand Paper p. 41-45, 1969. For whatever reason, since Kogan's article appeared, listing of ESP-related research in US unclassified technical report indices has ceased. 6L. Vasiliev. Studies in Mental Telepathy, Mos- cow, Gospoliditzat, 1966. Joint Public Research Service Document No. 10702. p. 175. 'See Adrian Dobbs, "The Feasibility of a Physi- cal Theory of ESP" in J. R. Smythies, Science and ESP, London. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. pp. 230-254. BA. S. Presman, "The Role of Electromagnetic Fields in the Processes of Vital Activity." Bio- physics, 1964. p. 134, also see na.. "Biofields: The Aura of Magic." Washington Post, July 20, 1978. Sec. K. p. 10. 9E.g., see Horace Barlow, Henry 1. Kohn and E. Geoffrey Walsh, "Visual Sensations Aroused by Magnetic Fields," American Journal of Physi- ology (L48:2), Feb., 1947, pp. 372-375; Walter Sullivan, "Finger Tip Regrowth Starts a Study of Regenerating Nerves and Limbs," New York Times, Dec. 30, 1979, Sec. I, pp. 1 & 18. "Alexander Kolin, "Magnetic Fields in Biolo- gy," Physics Today, November, 1968, pp. 39-50. in the early 1970s, the use of very low level currents to aid in the healing of broken bones evolved from research on the electrical aspects of limb regrowth in lower order animals. IIC. Maxwell Cade and Ann P. Woodley-Hart, "The Measurement of Hypnosis and Auto-hypno- sis by Determination of Electrical Skin Resist- ance," Journal of the Society for Psychic Re- search (76:748), June 1971. p. 99. "For a brief critique and description, see Eliza- beth Hall, Possible Impossibilities. Boston, Houghton-Mifflin, 1977, p. 161. 13See Stephan A. Schwartz, "Deep Quest," Omni, March 1979, p. 94ff. 14Gerald Messarie, "Le Secret du Nautilis." Science et Vie, No. 509, 1960, pp. 30-35, and n.a., "L'Armde Americfine titudie le 6 sense," Science et VIE, No. 508, 1960, p. 32. ISNew York Times Index, 1973; and Bris and Dick, New Soviet Psychic Discoveries, Engle- wood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, 1978, p. 293. For a more recent perspective, see Ingo Swann, Ban- quet Address, "Proceedings of the 17th Annual U.S. Army Operations Research Symposium," Ft. Lee, VA, Defense Documentation Center #AD B 0362704, pp. 9-27. "For evidence of a trend in the late 1970s, see Ingo Swann. "The Threat of Possible Psychic Techniques in Future Conflicts. Proceedings of the 17th Annual U.S. Army Operations Research Symposium, 6-9 November 1978, Fort Lee, VA (DDC#AD B 036704); also see Dennis M. Ross, "Hypnosis as a Tool of Military Intelligence," Military intelligence (4:3), July-September 1978, pp. 34-37; and John B. Alexander, "The New Mental Battlefield: 'Beam Me UP, Spock,' " Mili- tary Review (LY: 12), Decemer 1980, pp. 47-54. 17M. Ruderfer, "Note on the Effect of Distance in ESP," Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (63:2), April, 1969, p. 201. 18N.a., "Space Experiment in ESP is De- scribed," New York Times, February 23, 1971, p. 40. 19See Harold E. Puthoff and Russell Targ, "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer Over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspectives and Recent Research" in Mind at Large: IEEE Sympo- sia on the Nature of ESP, ed. Charles T. Tant, Puthoff and Targ (New York: Praeger, 1979). pp. 13-76; n.a., "Techniques to Enhance Man/Ma- chine Communication," Stanford Research Insti- tute, July 1974, Final Report on NASA Project (NAS 7-100). James E. Dougherty. How to Think About Arms Control and Disarmament, New York. Crane and Russak, 1973, p. 52. 21E.g., V. V. Druzhinin and D. S. Kontorov, Concept, Algorithm, Decision. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force, 1974. uSee Clinton Roche, "ELF and the SSN: Data Rate at Depth and Speed Today." SIGNAL (35:8), April 1981, pp. 29-32 loll. 1 1? .+? ~ +? +' I? II 1 1 +.t? '~ .I.t + .1+ 1 1 1? for further information. Portable/ Manpack bile Shipboard/ Mobile If your current or future requirements indicate a need for satellite commu- nication antennas, please contact Thomas J. Nichols or Frank W. Kellerman DORNE and MARGOLIN, INC. 2850 Veterans Memorial Highway 6ehitinia+ N. Y. 11710 Tel. 5115-!!4000 TWX 510228-8502 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4 as? ;qRMO?JR7ianCil sp-Rpf tp 1ps08~1~~ah~sQP;WQ@ T -ology in- Contributions to the Message Cen- ter may be addressed to: SIGNAL, Box QRM, One Skyline Place, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 300, Falls Church, VA 22041. The "Human Factor" inC3 To the Editor: Stephen Andriole and Gerald Hopple's March 1982 article on "Decision Makers in C2" was very exciting reading. As a research manager in the behavioral sci- ences, I was pleased to see SIG- NAL publish such an article be- cause the article stressed orienta- tion which I believe needs to be more broadly appreciated in the C2 world. Namely, the authors showed the need to consider hu- man information processing, cogni- tive styles, psychophysiological factors and belief systems, and put forth the notion that C2 systems ought to be designed from the deci- sion maker up rather than from electronic capabilities down. Es- sentially, they showed concerns for the "humanization of C" (p. 45). The authors also correctly pointed out that C2 programs need an inter- disciplinary approach and one which draws from both basic and applied (behavioral) research. I attempted to achieve similar goals in a paper entitled "Individ- ual Difference Dimensions as Hu- man Factors Considerations in Tactical Communications Sys- tems" which I presented at the Human Factors Association of Canada annual conference in Octo- ber 1981. Starting with generic fea- .,tures of C3 systems, I identified some major impacts of C3 technolo- gy on decision makers: These im- pacts included: because of the real time aspect of terests. He recounted his experi- C3 and the short life of- informa- ences to the membership. The Rus- tion especially at the tactical lev- sians have trained receptor teams el; to receive telepathic messages. In- ? crisis management as the norm in telligence, audio, video or thought operations; energy is transmitted as individual ? decision makers' concerns over pulses. By use of the teams each information accuracy and source receptor contributes his fraction of reliability; the transmission to all the others. ? decision makers' need to be open The integration forms a complete to technological innovation and intelligence. organizational change. Dr. Dean, an adjunct professor Given the generic features of C3 at Newark College of Engineering systems and their impacts on deci- (now New Jersey Institute of Tech- sion makers, numerous individual nology) became Director of the difference dimensions were pro- Dream Institute at Mamoiades posed as useful in the selection and Hospital, New York City where he training of decision makers and in conducted thought transfer experi- the design of C3 systems. These ments with certified results pub- dimensions include: lished in scientific journals. The ? Personality U.S. government granted $25,000 -tolerance of ambiguity to his activity. Professor Al Shu- -risk taking kur, his co-experimenter, I believe, -anxiety/stress is still active in parapsychology at -dogmatism NJIT. The subject is offered in -evaluation apprehension scores of universities. ? Cognitive Styles -field dependance -systematic-heuristic ? Attitudes -toward innovation/change -toward high technology I hope that more and more the "human factor" in its full connota- tion will be taken into account in the C3 world. Robert Loo, Ph.D. Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit Mental Communication To The Editor: Your article in the January 1982 issue of SIGNAL ("C"`19: On the Strategic Potential of ESP," by Roger A. Beaumont, p. 39) was read by me with particular interest. My professional life has been occu- pied in electronic communication, the last 20 years, before retirement three years ago, as an electronic engineer at Ft. Monmouth, NJ. As a member of the New Jersey Society of Parapsychology, I pro- posed that the U.S. Army fund a research effort in mental communi- cation, or telepathy. I failed to con- vince lower echelons of manage- ment to send the proposal up to command authority. I have personally participated in, and have witnessed experiments in this activity. One of our members, Dr. Douglas Dean had traveled to an international symposium in Rus- It can be seen that my interest in your article is based upon my con- viction of unquestioned realism of mental communication. Our gov- ernment had a viable credence in parapsychology during World War 1. Edgar Cayce, an internationally recognized psychic was assigned in an official role to General John Pershing and accompanied him on European missions. Hugh Lynn Cayce, his son, and Director of the Association for Research and En- lightenment, Virginia Beach, VA, has publicly stated his father's role and can be expected to repeat his own experiences in relation to his father in this matter. In the early 1930s when I lived in the Boston area, the Boston Herald published in its Sunday magazine supplement, the results of its ask- ing world famous scientists what they considered would be man- kind's greatest achievement in the 20th century. Independently, six of the 10 replied that man's ability to communicate by thought process would be the event. I advocate that the U.S. govern- ment seriously undertake research in mental communication. There are many young persons in this country who have natural ability and interest in this activity. Those pragmaticists who cite the lack of a scientific basis must be challenged and educated. While the Indians were using smoke signals, radio was in the wings waiting to be discovered and developed. So, too, is mental com- munication waiting. Alfred J. Donovan Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001200350008-4