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SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10: CIA-RDP96-00788R001a0 0.2Q0 5T-052161-169-72 DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONTROLLED OFFENSIVE BEHAVIOR - USSR (U), PREPARED BY U.S. ARMY OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL MEDICAL INTELLIGENCE OFFICE CONTROLLED DISSEM NO DISSEM ABROAD CLASSIFIED BY CHIEF, MIO, OTSG EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFICATION SCHEDULE OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORY 3 DECLASSIFY ON 31 DECEMBER 1990 NO FOREIGN DISSEM SECRET J14(4-157- 7S-' Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 SECRET CONTROLLED OFFENSIVE BEHAVIOR - USSR (U) AUTHOR JOHN D. LaMOTHE CAPTAIN, MEDICAL SERVICE CORPS SHORT TITLE ST-CS-01-169-72 DIA TASK NUMBER T72-01-14 DATE OF PUBLICATION July 1972 Information Cut-off Date 31 January 1972 WARNING This document contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 18, U.S.C., Sections 793 and 794. Its transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. This is a Department of Defense Intelligence Document prepared by the Medical Intelligence Office, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, and approved by the Directorate for Scientific and Technical Intelligence of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Classified by Chief, MIO, OTSG EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFICATION SCHEDULE OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORY 3 DECLASSIFY ON 31 DECEMBER 1990 CONTROLLED DISSEMINATION NO DISSEMINATION ABROAD NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION DA SG NO. 223906 SECRET CY N 0 ..//io f 2" CY S (This page is UNCLASSIFIED) (.93VE-13-7-7r Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 SECRET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 PREFACE (S/NFD) This report summarizes the information available on Soviet research on human vulnerability as it relates to incapacitating individuals or small groups. The information contained in this study is a review and evaluation of Soviet research in the field of revolutionary methods of influencing human behavior and is intended as an aid in the development of countermeasures for the protection of US or allied personnel. Due to the nature of the Soviet research in the area of reorientation or incapacitation of human behavior, this report emphasizes the individual as opposed to groups. (U) It is not within the realm of this report to make an in-depth study of research and utilization of the multitudinous aspects of psychology and psychiatry. It is strongly suggested that these subjects, and the military use thereof, should be established as separate studies. The importance of basic and applied research in these areas should not be overlooked. (U) The information reported covers the period from 1874-1972 and has been drawn from scientific, medical and military journals, intel- ligence reports, magazines, news items, books, conferences, and other reports as referenced. The information cut-off date for this report was 31 January 1972. (U) The author of this study is Captain John D. LaMothe, Medical Intelligence Office, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington, DC 20314. Constructive criticism, comment and suggested changes are invited from readers. These should be sent to the author through the Defense Intelligence Agency, ATTN: DT-1A, Washington, DC 20301. iii (Reverse Blank) NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 CONFIDE/111AL TABLE OF CONTENTS ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Page No. Preface Summary PART I - INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR MANIPULATION ------------ SECTION I - Background xi 1 1 SECTION II - Current Events 2 Part A - Events in Northern Ireland 2 Part B - Events in the Soviet Union 3 Part C - Soviet Response to Events in the USSR 8 SECTION III - Soviet Psychology and Psychiatry 9 Part A - A General Review 9 Part B - Soviet Military Psychology 13 Part C - Soviet Use of Psychology for Behavior Manipulation - 15 SECTION IV - Psychological Phenomena/Psychological Weapons 15 Part A - Temperature 16 Part B - Atmospheric Conditions 16 Part C - Olfactory Phenomena 17 Part D - Light 17 Part E - Sound 18 Part F - Electromagnetic Energy 18 Part G - Deprivation 19 PART II - PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE SOVIET UNION SECTION I - Background SECTION II - Significance of Parapsychology in the USSR SECTION III - The Apport Technique SECTION IV - ESP and Psychokinesis SECTION V - Summary and Military Implications CONFIWENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 21 21 24 27 31 39 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300,020001-6 CRIFIWIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 PART III - MENTAL SUGGESTION AND CONTROLLED BEHAVIOR SECTION I - Part A - Part B - Part C - Part D - SECTION II Part A - Part B - Part C - Hypnosis The Use of Hypnosis in Medicine - USSR Hypnosis and Controlled Behavior Artificial Reincarnation Through Hypnosis Telepathic Hypnosis - Conditioning Through Suggestion Hypnopedia Subliminal Perception Suggestology PART IV PROPAGANDA AND MASS MEDIA PART V - PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY IN THE USSR SECTION I - General -- SECTION II - Main Psychotropic Substances - USSR SECTION III - Psycho-Warfare Agents Part A - Diethylamide Lysergic Acid (LSD) and Psilocybin Part B - Piperidyl Benzilate and Piperidyl Glycolate Part C - Countermeasures SECTION IV - Current Research Interest in Psychopharmacology - USSR Part A - Bioamine Research Part B - Other Areas of Soviet Page No. 41 41 41 43 45 47 49 49 51 53 59 63 63 64 66 66 69 70 71 71 Research in Psychopharmacology 74 PART VI - LIGHT AND COLOR AS A MEANS OF ALTERING HUMAN BEHAVICIP - 77 SECTION I - Psycho-Optics 77 Part A - Background 77 Part B - Soviet Research in Photic-Flicker 79 SECTION II - Color and Light SECTION III - Concluding Remarks and Countermeasures 84 82 OTFITETPL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 caunuacAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Page No. PART VII - ODOR AND THE ALTERING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 87 SECTION I - Background 87 SECTION II - Behavioral Altering Possibilities 88 PART VIII - SOUND AS A MEANS OF ALTERING BEHAVIOR 91 SECTION I - General 91 SECTION II - Infrasonic Noise 92 SECTION III - Sonic Noise 93 SECTION IV - Ultrasonic Noise 96 SECTION V - Conclusion 99 PART IX - SENSORY DEPRIVATION 101 PART X - ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS 107 APPENDIX I - PERSONNEL AND INSTITUTES 113 Current Events 113 Part A - Affiliation Known 113 Part B - Affilitation Unknown 114 Part C - Important Institutes - No Personalities Available 114 Soviet Psychology and Psychiatry - Research 114 Part A - Affiliation Known 114 Part B - Affiliation Unknown 116 Parapsychology - USSR 116 Part A - Affiliation Known 116 Part B - Affiliation Unknown (1972) 118' Mental Suggestion and Controlled Behavior 118 Part A - Affiliation Known 118 Part B - Affiliation Unknown 119 Psychopharmacology in the USSR 119 Affiliation Known 119 vii NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2 ritthlif&-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Page No. Lights and Color as a Means of Altering Human Behavior --------120 120 Affiliation Known Odors and the Altering of Human Behavior Part A - Affiliation Known Part B - Affiliation Unknown Sensory Deprivation (non-aerospace) Electromagnetic Effects APPENDIX II - Intelligence Gaps APPENDIX III - Future Trends APPENDIX IV - The "1961 Directives" - Hospitalization of Mentally I11 APPENDIX V - 121 121 121 121 121 123 125 127 APPENDIX VI - Milan Ryzl, Biographic Data Bibliography Non-Cited Bibliography Data Handling Distribution List 143 145 169 175 177 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration One -,Photograph of Professor L.L. Vasilev 31 Illustration Two - Photograph of Edward Naumov 32 Illustration Three - Photograph of Kirlian Photography 34 Illustration Four - Photograph of Doctor G.A. Sergeyev 37 Illustration Five - Photograph of Mrs. N. Kulagina 37 Illustration Six - Photographic Sequence of the PK Phenomenon 38 viii NO FOREIGN DISSEMNATION CONFIDENTIAL mppruveu rur- merecrbe LuuaTuur ru . LA/A-rcuruo-uur-uarcuu rJUUUwU i-17 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 CONFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Page No. LIST OF TABLES Table I - Soviet Instruction Courses - Psychiatric Specialization 12 Table II - Soviet Psychiatrists - Comparison 1962 and 1967 13 Table III - Basic Types of Biocommunication Phenomena 21 Table IV - Relation of Psychoactive Drugs to Amine Activity 73 ix (Reverse Blank) CCNFIEENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approvedi For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 SECRET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 SUMMARY (S/NFD) Controlled offensive behavior as defined within the scope of this report includes Soviet research on human vulnerability as it applies to methods of influencing or altering human behavior. There is an ever increasing amount of information emanating from the USSR (samizdat or underground press) that suggests that certain authoritarian institutions in the USSR are engaged in the practice of "mental reorientation" of numerous individuals who are classed as political dissenters. The "mental reorientation" is being accom- plished through various means including confinement, isolation and psychopharmaceutical administration. This treatment of so-called insane individuals is causing alarm among an international cross sec- tion of psychiatrists. The literature contains sufficient data on human mental manipulation and, therefore, warrants surveillance by interested parties. It appears that the USSR stresses physical and medical "treatment" of its political detainees under the guise of psychiatric-care rehabilitation. (S/NFD) The Soviet Union is well aware of the benefits and applications of parapsychology research. The term parapsychology denotes a multi- disciplinary field consisting of the sciences of bionics, biophysics, psychophysics, psychology, physiology and neuropsychiatry. Many scientists, US and Soviet, feel that parapsychology can be harnessed to create conditions where one can alter or manipulate the minds of others. The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics, and bionics are said to come from the Soviet military and the KGB. Today, it is reported that the USSR has twenty or more centers for the study of parapsychological phenomena, with an annual budget estimated at 21 million dollars. Parapsychological research in the USSR began in the 1920s and has continued to the present. Based on their "head start" and financial support, it could be concluded that Soviet knowledge in this field is superior to that of the US. (S/NFD) Methods for controlling behavior of the human being are numerous. Not all of the possibilities were included in this report, but an attempt was made to elaborate on those areas where there is intensive research by the USSR. The use of sound, light and color, or odors have been determined to be possible means for Soviet exploi- tation in order to alter human behavior. In the area of color and lights, usually in a flickering mode, there have been reports of actual "trials" by the Soviets (Air Force and Navy) on US or allied personnel. The Soviets have shown an in-depth knowledge in the effects of sound and light on biological systems. It appears that with their xi NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECI-T Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 200s3M : CIA-RDP96-00788R0013000200.01-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 knowledge, it would be a rather simple procedure to make the transfor- mation (from scientific research to the applications phase). The area of pheromone research has interested the Soviets; however, their data is sketchy and it is conceivable that they are not yet aware of the tremendous potentials that these substances provide for causing human behavioral changes. It is also a possibility that the USSR has realized the military benefits and are not rublishing or conversing about their research and development efforts concerning pheromone synthesis and uses. xii NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SETT Approve-a ror etease LUUSTUUTTU . -CAM -UU/OOKUU falAluz-cruv-r-tr Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 SECRET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 PART I INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR MANIPULATION SECTION I - BACKGROUND 1. (S/NFD) Methods for manipulating or influencing the human mind exist and are being thoroughly researched by members of the Soviet scientific community. For background and introductory information it would be best if some of these methods were briefly mentioned. Techniques studied by the Soviets include biochemicals, sound, light, color, odors, sensory deprivation, sleep, electronic and magnetic fields, hypnosis, autosuggestion, and paranormal phenomena (psycho- kinesis, extrasensory perception, astral projection, dream state, clairvoyance, and precognition). Paranormal phenomena have caused great excitement in recent years in the Soviet Union; so much so, that it has been reported (1) that the Soviets had 20 or more centers in 1967 for the study of this area. It was also reported that the annual budget for 1967 for paranormal research was approximately $20 million 2. (S/NFD) The purpose of mind altering techniques is to create one or more of several different possible states in the conscious or unconscious area of the brain. The ultimate goal of controlled offensive behavior might well be the total submission of one's will to some outside force. It is more realistic to assume that lesser degrees of mental aberration would be the purpose of Soviet research in this field. Some areas of human mind manipulation that apply to this report are morale lowering, confusion, anxiety, loss of confidence, loss of self reliance, fatigue, persuasion, disruption of social cohesion, or complete incapacitation. Since the desired end product of this type of research is some change in the human mind, only the non-lethal aspects are discussed in this report. It should be remembered, however, that some techniques have lethal thresholds. 3. (S/NFD) The purpose of this study is to portray the Soviet research in mind manipulation and its possible use on US or allied individuals (e.g. PW's) or troops. Controlled offensive behavior, however, has other connotations. Certain methods of altering mental or physical states of man may have application on one's own individuals. The apport technique and astral projection are examples which will be discussed in this report. These two methods allow the enemy to impart certain behavioral characteristics on its own people to the detriment of US or allied personnel or missions. 1 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 20TEO : CIA-RDP96-00788R00130Q020001-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 SECTION II - CURRENT EVENTS PART A - Events in Northern Ireland 1. (C) The following discussion is based on 1971 and 1972 literature dealing with the manipulation of human behavior. The events:that have been reported to have occurred are not Soviet originated but provide an excellent example of the type of efforts that this report is expressing. 2. (U) Recently there has appeared in the press some discussion elaborating on the techniques and procedures for detaining, treating, and interrogating prisoners in Northern Ireland (2,3). According to the report, once the detainees are in prison, they come under three types of regime which create in men a state of great confusion, suggestibility, and distress. The first regime contained various methods to produce sensory isolation. The men were made to stand still against a wall with their hands in the air for four to six hours at a time. The total length was 43 1/2 hours. Hoods were placed over the men's heads to further abolish visual input. Sensory input was further decreased by having loud noise generators turned on in order to mask meaningful sounds. The detainees were, therefore, isolated from their sensory world. 3. (U) The second sensory regime has the effect of increasing confusion and disorientation. Some men were rushed out, hooded and doubled up, past barking dogs, loaded into a helicopter, doors closed, engine revved up, then unloaded, then reloaded, with the procedure repeated three times. In another incident, detainees without shoes were made to move quickly over rough ground by military police. 4. (U) The third type of treatment has the effect of increasing stress and anxfety and reducing resistance to the disorientiag effect on the two types described above. It appears that dietary intake was restricted to bread and water at six hour intervals. Maximum weight loss was achieved it appears. One detainee lost eight pounds in seven days. To accompany the diet restrictions, no sleep was allowed the first two or three days. Forty-eight hours sleep deprivation, in certain individuals, has been known to precipitate psychotic-like states. 5. (U) Psychological torture and physical abuse has been used on Catholic detainees in Northern Ireland. High-frequency sound waves (range not given in report) and sensory deprivation - research methods that have been outlawed for use on humans by the American 2 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET (This page is CONFIDENTIAL) Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 CRIFITETTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 Psychological Association - were being used to undermine the dignity and destroy the effectiveness of the Catholic minority of Northern Ireland. The case of one 40-year old released prisoner has been reported. Upon release, the man's mental and physical condition suggested senility - a condition inconsistent with his health at the time of his internment. The man walks like he is 65, whimpers in the dark and has an attention span so short he cannot carry on a conversation. 6. (U) The Northern Ireland procedure can be expected to greatly increase the pliability of detainees under interrogation since sensory deprivation increases suggestability and lowers intellectual competence. Stress-isolation techniques can reach the extent of eliciting false confessions where both prisoner and interrogator are convinced the statements rendered are true. It is hoped that the above examples impart to the reader a feeling for the type of mind manipulating procedures that will be discussed later in this report. 7. (U) Since it appears that the research behind sensory deprivation has been put to current use on humans, the interested reader might peruse Biderman and Zimmer's 1961 publication entitled "The Manipulation of Human Behavior" (4). The book represents a critical examination of some of the conjectures about the application of scientific knowledge to manipulation of human behavior. The problem is explored within a particular frame of reference: the interrogation of an unwilling subject. Attention has been focused on interrogation because of the central position this topic has had in public discussions of prisoner of war (PW) behavior. PART B - Events in the Soviet Union 1. (C) The use of psychiatric detention to silence political dissenters appears to be a method being utilized by the Soviet Union. There is extensive documention from "samizdat" (self- published) sources in the Soviet Union, notably "A Question of Madness" by Soviet geneticist Zhores Medvedev, excerpts from which were published in the Sunday New York Times Magazine of November 7,1971 (5). British Sovietologist Peter Reddaway asserts that the number of such political detainees in the USSR has grown sharply in the last two years, perhaps to several hundred (6). Peter Reddaway has published several articles that give brief accounts of several political detainees as well as publishing letters received from the Soviet underground (7,8,9). 3 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2NO/M5r-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 2. (C/NFD) On the surface, the fact that the Soviet Union has been subjecting political dissenters to psychiatric institutions may not appear relevant to this report. However, as one probes into this area, he discovers that the medical and physical treatment of these prisoners borders on the subject of controlled offensive behavior. Since the techniques are reportedly being applied to Soviet citizens, it is simple enough, as the researchers gain knowledge and expertise in this area, to assume that alien personnel could someday be subjected to it as well. 3. (U) From the many reports, some coming from the Soviet Union underground press, the article that best relates some of the medical and physical treatment to political detainees is discussed below (10). The article was written about Vladimir Bukovsky who is frequently quoted in the feature story. Bukovsky has spent six of his 27 years in Soviet prisons, asylums and labor camps. (On January 5, 1972, Bukovsky was sentenced to a 12-year confinement to include prison, hard labor camp, and internal exile.) In 1962, Bukovsky organized an illegal exhibition of paintings by abstract artists not approved by state censors. In May 1963, Bukovsky was arrested by the KGB. He was declared insane by the Serbsky Psychiatric Institute. That December, he was transferred to a prison asylum in Leningrad (name not mentioned) where he spent, in his own words, "15 months of hell." "There were about 1,000 men in the asylum, political prisoners and insane murderers," says Bukovsky. "The sick raved, the healthy suffered." Doctors were technically in charge of the inmates, but the real masters were brutal turnkeys and prisoner trustees. "Only the crafty survived, you had to be nice to the guards.... you had to bribe them. Otherwise, they can beat you until you are nearly dead and tell the doctors you mis- behaved. Or they could recommend medical punishment." 4. (U) The worst, according to Bukovsky, was medical punishment. The three methods of medical punishment known to Bukovsky are described as follows: a. On the recommendation of a trustee or turnkey, doctors would inject a drug (not mentioned) that produced severe stomach cramps, fever, intense pain, and a temperature of 104. The sickness lasted two or three days and left the inmate very weak. b. Another drug reserved for serious misbehavior induced sleep and dulled the brain. Inmates were punished with ten days of daily injections. They woke up as human vegetables. Some regained their senses after two months, others did not. 4 NO FOREIlpIDISSNNATION C(i A:wry-vet! ror elease Lotion; VU %JUT-00TC 1.7 1 JUUUZUVU Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 I INCLASSIFI ED ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 c. The third punishment was the canvas bandage. An inmate would be tightly swathed in wet canvas from neck to toes while others in his ward were forced to watch. "The canvas shrinks as it dries. It is not a pretty sight. They usually only do it for two or three hours. A nurse is always in attendance, and the bandages are loosened when the pulse grows weak." 5. (U) A thousand-word telegram by Andrei D. Sakhaiov to Colonel Nikolai A. Shchelokov, Minister of the Interior, relates further information on the use of drugs to alter mental behavior (11). Sakhaiov, a physicist and civil-rights Champion, charged that a violation of human rights and medical ethics is occurring in the Soviet Union. The contention is that drugs are being administered forcibly to inmates in an effort to have them change their political beliefs. In addition, some prisoners are threatened with the possible use of electrical-shock "therapy." According to Sakhaiov, medicine, one of the most humane of the professions, is thus being turned into a servile handmaiden of the regimes correction agencies. It is further reported that with the help of medicine, an attempt is being made to make people literally lose their minds by chemical and physical means if they refuse to adapt their mind to the standards of the regime. 6. (U) One of the few references that mention a drug by name is a London Times feature by Richard Preston (12). In several cases, Soviet authorities forced political prisoners to submit to the use of mind-bending drugs, specifically aminazine and haloperidol. Aminazine is the Soviet brand of a phenothiazine derivative known as chlorpromazine. Haloperidol is a butyrophenone. Both drugs are in the tranquilizer class of therapeutic agents. An excellent discussion on both of these drugs has been prepared by Goodman and Gilman (13). 7. (U) Information on the plight of political prisoners in mental wards and other examples of internal Soviet repression is contained in Issue 18 of "A Chronicle of Current Events." The chronicle has just passed its third anniversary despite the increasing efforts of the KGB to shut down this underground publication. The last issue discusses the case of Vasily I. Chernyshov who was arrested in March of 1970. The chronicle quotes Chernyshov.... "I am terribly afraid of torture. But there is an even worse torture - meddling with my brain with chemical substances. I have now been informed of the decision that I shall be given treatment. Farewell!" Chernyshov's compulsory "treatment" was prescribed after only a five minute interview with the authorities. The concluding statement from the panel of doctors was, "The main thing for us is that you shouldn't think at all." 5 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2003/Met1796-00788R001300020001-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 8. (U) A document that contains several case histories of political detainees has been prepared by Abraham Brumberg (14). The article summarizes the procedure that is used in the Soviet Union from arrest to confession. According to the report, the KGB performs the search, arrest, and initial investigation. The medical "experts" cooperate in furnishing bogus diagnoses and the court confirms the findings of the doctors. The victim is then sent off to a prison asylum to languish until "cured" (which in most cases consists of the patient's confession that he is indeed guilty of some form of mental aberration). 9. (U) The legal procedures involved in detaining an "undesirable" have been drastically reduced by the "1961 Directives" (15). V.N. Chalidze (16), in an underground document, explains how the "1961 Directives" allow for the immediate detention of a sane individual who is not a criminal in the legal sense. Chalidze sums up his argument by noting that the viciousness of the present-day practice, not based on the law, of psychiatric preventive measures is due to the absence of any public means of defense for the patient. The "1961 Directives" are included in this report in Appendix IV. 10. (U) The office that prepared this study has copies of various reports from the Soviet Union that deal with some of the more celebrated political detainees. There are three reports available that illustrate the forensic-psychiatric examinations of I. A. Yakhimovich. Two of these documents list the names of the psy- chiatric teams that carried out the examination (17-19). By reading these reports, one can trace the fate of YakSimovich up to early 1970. No further reports were available so the ultimate fate of the individual is unknown. e 11. (U) A report is available on A. Volpin (20) that was apparently prepared by the individual while in detention. There have been several cases where these documents have been "smuggled" out of the asylum. An outpatient report on V.E. Borosov is available (21). This report condemns Borosov to compulsory psychiatric treatment. Reports are available on the plight of N.E. Gorbanevskaya (22,23) as well as several letters that she wrote while interned (24). An appeal for human rights written by V. Feinberg while he was incarcerated is on file (25) as well as documents relating to the sanity proceedings for General P.G. Grigorenko (26-28). 12. (U) The possible use of drugs by Soviet psychiatrists in order to manipulate behavior can be emphasized by an account from Vladimir Gershuni, a Soviet idealist. The event that follows occurred at the Oryol Hospital which is some 170 miles 6 UNC,LASSIFIED ? ? ? V ? ? 1111 ?? WY VOW VIP ? ? Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 CRIFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 southwest of Moscow. Mr. Gershuni gives a description of the conditions in which mental patients (both genuine and political) are held. "Eight people to a 16 or 17 meter cell. . . . (Comment: This seems large enough for eight people if figure is correct.) There is no room to move. One is allowed to go along the corridor, but only if it's absolutely necessary - to the toilet, or to get some food from the nurse. . . The toilet is a cesspit: four holes in the ground and two taps for 54 people. . . . From 7 to 8:30 in the evening we're allowed to use the dining roam for writing letters, or to play dominoes and chess. The bedlam is indescrib- able." Mr. Gershuni talks about the use of drugs, one of which is aminazine, a powerful substance, administered orally or by intramuscular injections, which causes depressive shock reactions and frequently malignant tumors. Sometimes drugs are given as a form of punishment. "Any phrase spoken incautiously to a doctor or nurse can serve as a pretext for a series of aminazine injections. Sometimes these injections are prescribed without any pretext, simply because of some doctor's whim . . . without any medical examination. . . . This medicine makes me feel more horrible than anything I've ever experienced before; you no sooner lie down than you want to get up, you no sooner take a step than you're longing to sit down, and if you sit down, you want to walk again - and there's nowhere to walk." Mr. Gershuni finishes his account by describing the fate of a young man, once brilliantly "alive and alert," who as a result of repeated doses of aminazine, "and God only knows what else," had been reduced to a vegetable: "his head on one side, his speech languid and indistinct, his eyes glazed." "He was thus," concludes Mr. Gershuni, "cancelled out for five whole months. Hail to Soviet 'special psychiatry'! I kiss you all." 13. (C) To belabor this subject of political detention is not the intention of this section. However, it is believed to be of sufficient importance that this much material had to be presented. It is difficult to judge the overall validity of much of the ref- erenced material because of its source (primarily samizdat and letters), but if true, it bears watching and possible investigation for future developments. Portions of this material contain sufficient data on human mental manipulation and therefore warrants surveilance by interested agencies. From the information available at this time, it appears that the Soviet Union stresses physical and medical "treatment" of its political detainees under the guise of psychiatric-care rehabilitation. No data is available an the use of sound, lights, or hypnosis as methods of obtaining confessions or reorientating the beliefs of these prisoners. For a listing of personnel and institutes involved in political- psychiatric care, see Appendix I. Many personalities involved 7 CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 25f9rlit ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 ?Olt-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 in the maltreatment of detainees are not listed but can be found in the references listed. An attempt was made to list only the top professional personnel. PART C - Soviet-Response to Events in the USSR 1. (U) The Soviet government, quite naturally, has denied the charges made in the USSR and abroad that mentally stable persons were being detained in psychiatric hospitals because of dissident activities. The Soviet authorities had said little about the accusations until an article written by S.P. Pisarev was obtained by Western sources from the Soviet underground (30). Pisarev, 69, member of the Soviet Communist party since 1918 and minor party official, in 1970 directed a letter to the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences protesting the Soviet police practice of sending political prisoners to "psychiatric institutions" such as the infamous Serbsky Institute in Moscow. 2. (U) Disputing the type of charge mentioned by Pisarev, Soviet authorities contended persons remanded by a legal psychiatric commission to special mental institutions were those "who committed socially dangerous acts while not responsible for their actions Or became ill during a pretrial investigation, during actual court proceedings or after the passing of sentence." According to the Soviet government such cases are reviewed every six months and committed persons are released if sufficient improvement is found in their mental health (31). 3. (U) A.V. Snezhnevskiy (32), USSR Academy of Medical Sciences academician and director of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences Psychiatric Institute says: "Yes, I, too, have read these absurd reports that in the USSR healthy people are put into psychiatric hospitals. Like all my colleagues, I cannot express my feelings of profound indignation at this wild fan- tasy. Soviet psychiatrists - a detachment of Soviet medical workers consisting of many thousands - do not, of course, need to be defended from insulting attacks of this sort. In our country and abroad fame and deserved authority are enjoyed by such psychiatrists as A.D. Zurabasvili, V.M. Morozov . . . ." etc. (Snezhnevskiy mentions eight other psychiatrists). Snezhnevskiy continues his argument by listing the members of a US mission that toured Soviet psychiatric facilities. The mission says in its conclusion . . . . "It appears that the Soviets are leading." 8 CONFIDENTIAL ? ? ?Y-s ase Is I A '? '? ? ? I ? ? I SIP III Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 OFIDENTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 The US guests stressed the high degree of effectiveness of the Soviet psychiatric first aid centers, and the better quality of their staffs compared with US centers. The US delegation did visit the Serbsky Institute. As for compulsory treatment, the mission stated . . . . "It is possible that people who need treatment should be compulsorily hospitalized for their own good." 4. (U) Snezhnevskiy, in another document (33), said that when mentioning "brainwashing" many absurd allegations have been made, such as the talk of injecting a substance which paralyzes a person's will. Snezhnevskiy contends that "brainwashing," from a scientific point of view, is absurd. He further believes that the people dedicated to this sort of propaganda have very few scruples and direct the propaganda to laymen who know nothing about medicine. Interviews with Snezhnevskiy and Lebeden, chief of psychiatry at the Pavlov hospital in Leningrad, were obtained just prior to the Fifth World Psychiatric Congress in Mexico City which was held in early December 1971 (34). 5. (U) The literature from Soviet authorities denying the mal- treatment of detainees or other charges does not mention any of the more celebrated prisoners with the exception of Zhores Medvedev who was released after a very short stay. One can draw some obvious conjectures based on the avoidance of such personalities as Gershuni, Grigorenko, Bukovsky, Feinberg, and Borisov in the Soviet statements. The issue of inhumane treatment is usually responded to with the use of platitudes and counter-propaganda. If the Soviets have nothing to conceal, then it would seem that one could expect more scientific and concrete responses as to the actual situation in political detention and behavior manipulation with drugs. SECTION III - SOVIET PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY PART A - A General Review 1. (C/CD/NDA) The past fifteen years have witnessed a definite acceleration of growth in Soviet psychology (35). It has been observed by some American psychologists that an upward trend in the quality and quantity of Soviet published research began around the middle of the 1950's. Research designs improved, greater experimental controls were employed, and the level of sophistication in laboratory techniques started to rise perceptibly. Many new people are entering into the area of psychology and the increase has been (1966) as much as a factor of 2,3, or 4 (36). According to this source (36), Soviet 9 CONTROLLED DISSEMINATION NO DISSEMINATION ABROAD OFIDENFIAL Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 CONFIDEIVTIAL ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 psychology is in a growth stage which appears to have sprung up coincident to the man-in-space program. Contrary to the reference above (36), this source (36) believes that despite the growth and acceptance by the Soviet scientific community, the Soviets are merely duplicating or extending to some degree the research that is already known. In the opinion of this source, there is definitely a tie-in between the Soviet engineers, psychiatrists and psychologists. It must be remembered that the Soviets are presently in a growth stage and, therefore, are merely making their investments at this time. According to this source, once they have reached the level off period then this coordination of the disciplines will pay off handsomely in returns to the Soviet psychological society. The source believes that in the area of human engineering the Soviets are moving very rapidly and at least in many respects are close to US levels. In behavior studies, the Soviets are stagnant. They lean too heavily on the conditional response approach of Pavlov. In the neurosensory areas, source believes that the Soviets are considerably behind the US and accept the US as the leader in this field. 2. (C/CD/NDA) According to one report, there is apparently classified psychological research work going on in the area of cyber- netics. One area that surveillance would appear fruitful is Soviet research in the area of artificial intelligence. This report contains a substantial number of institutes and personalities which is reflected in Appendix I (37). 3. (U) It is concluded that, in spite of their ideological resistance to theoretical psychology, Soviet behavior scientists share a distinguished experimental tradition and possess the ability to incorporate and Combine the principles of biocybernetics, physiology, learning, memory, and transfer under a common group of laws (38). 4. (U) The following brief discussion of Soviet psychiatry is based primarily upon a report by Persic (39). The report contains a brief history of psychiatry in the Soviet Union followed by a section that relates to the scientific and investigative work in psychiatry. Also included is a section on the organization of psychiatric care including statistics on the number of patients, beds, and medical personnel in the Soviet Union. 5. (U) According to Persic there are 94 medical institutes and a greater number of medical research institutes. The following research institutes in psychiatry exist in Moscow: the Psychiatric Institute at the Academy of Science; the Psychiatric Institute at the Ministry of Health for the Russian Federation, and the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of the Ministry of Health 10 CONTROLLED DISSEMINATION NO DISSEMINATION ABROAD CONFIERTIAL -00 10,-0 ? IF Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 I fin ASSIFIEn ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 of the USSR (Serbsky Institute). The research institutes are either of a general type or of a specialized type which study certain mental diseases e.g. schizophrenia, epilepsy, or alcoholism. The psychiatric research institutes have similar organizational schemes: clinical departments, laboratories, and methodics departments. The Psychiatric Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow is the post-graduate school for psychiatrists. At the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow (Serbsky) are clinics for schizo- phrenia, psychoorganic disorders, and alcoholism. (Naturally there is no discussion in this report of some of the more infamous areas of the Serbsky Institute.) 6. (U) The task of psychiatric institutes is to deal with the educational matters of students, and physicians specializing in psychiatry. This work is conducted in the form of seminars and in the form of continuous education. The psychiatric research Institutes are connected with psychiatric hospitals, departments and dispensaries in advancing psychiatric work and the organizing of psychiatric service. Great attention is devoted to health education in the USSR. A great network of institutions devoted to health instruction exist. They are affiliated with many groups which dispense health advice. Included in the general health education is also education concerning mental health. There are 360 health institutes in the USSR. which are devoted to teaching health. The Central Institute for Health Education in Moscow Is engaged in research in the field of health education, education of experts, training in the methodology of health education and organizing health training. This Institute employs a method of providing health education for schools, students of medicine, for workers in industry and hospitals. There is also cooperation with physicians concerning public health and seminars are held where practical matters are discussed. There is also a functional connection with health agencies so that officials of these agencies cooperate with the Institute and attend seminars. These health agencies also receive support from the Institute in the form of trained help and literature which the Institute publishes through its own printing outlets. Table I depicts the instructional requirements for psychiatric specialization. These figures were prepared by Persic. Table II illustrates statistics on the number of neurologists and psychiatrists in the USSR in 1962 (Persic) and 1967. The 1967 data was compiled by Fry (40). Fry, in his report, combined neurologists and psychiatrists into one figure. 11 INCLASSIFIFD Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 'Approved For ReleasoN2M1ECIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 TABLE I Plan of Instruction and Stages in Psychiatric Specialization-USSR Subject Hours of theoretical training Hours of practical training Psychopathology 16 60 Clinical psychiatry Schizophrenia 16 Manic depressive psychosis 6 Infectional psychosis 16 Toxic psychosis 6 Epilepsy 6 Noninfectional symptomatic psychosis 8 Brain trauma 4 400 Arteriosclerotic psychosis 6 Brain tumors 2 Presenile psychosis 4 Senile psychosis 4 Oligophrenia 2 Psychopathy 4 Psychogenic reaction 4 Organization of, 4 Psychiatric Service Total 108 460 12 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 SECP.FT ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 TABLE II Comparison of the Number of Psychiatric Specialists in USSR-1962 and 1967 1962 1967 Population 220,000,000 230,000,000 Physicians 400,000 480,000 Psychiatrists 6,140 Combined Psychiatrists and Neurologists total: 24,000 Neurologists 9,850 One physician per 520 people One psychiatrist per 35,835 people One neurologist per 22,335 people 480 people Combined Psychiatrists and Neurologists total: 20,000 people 7. (U) The figures in Table II, if valid, represent a substantial growth in the number of specialists in mental health care. The number and quality of both psychology and psychiatry research reports is increasing, especially in the behavioral fields. There appears to be an ever increasing link between the psychology and psychiatry fields with the pharmacology, human engineering, bioelectronics, physics, and parapsychology disciplines. Some of the multidiscipline aspects of Soviet research will become evident later in this study as it relates to the subject of this report. The above information on psychology and psychiatry was intended to be a review because it is believed that there is a definite relationship between the two disciplines and mental manip- ulation. It is not within the scope of this report to delve into basic psychological research and discuss its military implications. PART B - Soviet Military Psychology 1. (S/NFD) The purpose of this report is to make determinations and report findings on methods of controlling human behavior. One aspect of this subject is the possible use of certain novel techniques to disrupt or confuse combat troops. Based on Soviet literature dealing with military psychology, it appears that the Soviet military authorities might well suspect their potential enemies as already being able to do this. The available Soviet literature on military psychology emphasizes the protection of their troops against such possible attempts e.g. demoralization and confusion. 13 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2ggNstio : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 2. (U) In 1967; a book entitled "Military Psychology" was published in the Soviet Union. The authors, Colonel Dyachenko and Major Fedenko, are Candidates of Pedagogical Sciences (41). This book is primarily intended for commanders and military doctors. The book deals with the various aspects of the personality of the soldier including his cogni- tive, emotional, and volitional processes, his fighting skill, and his psychological readiness for battle. All of the psychic phenomena are based on the service, training, and fighting activity of enlisted and commissioned personnel. One of the more interesting areas is found in Chapter 8 which is entitled "Will Power." The chapter contains infor- mation on will power as a psychic process. The chapter continues by discussing the qualities of will power necessary to a soldier AA well as methods of training will power. The discussion on will power appears to be a very important topic because if one's will power is suificiently developed, the use of techniques to demoralize or confuse could well be nullified. Part one of the book describes the general problems of military psychology, followed by a discussion on psychic processes of the soldier and concluding with the psychological analysis of the activity of Soviet soldiers. 3. (U) The group of people most susceptible to offensive behavior manipulation appear to be rear-zone troops and small patrol groups, The Soviets again seem to recognize the fallibility of such groups. Lieutenant General Tyurnev (42) reports that the moral-psychological training of administrative support troops in operations under conditions of modern war is a quite urgent and complicated problem. The report suggests training and propaganda methods to increase the morale-psychological condition of rear-zone troops. The training, to include evening seminars, propaganda sessions, political indoctrination and field exercises is suggested in Tyurnev's report. The word moral and morale seem to be interchanged frequently in the report. It seems to be a problem in translation, because the author's thoughts are still meaningful. 4. (U) Two further reports from the Soviets have appeared recently. One report (43) discusses the role of medicine and military medical personnel in the psychoprophylaxis in morale-psychological preparation. A 1970 report by Stolyarenko (44) reinforces the thoughts of Tyurnev. From the above discussion and a thorough perusal of the documents referenced in this section, it could be stated: if the Soviets practice what they preach, the psychological training of Soviet troops is as good as or better than US soldiers. This does not include the Special training afforded to US pilots on anti-interrogation methods. 14 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET (This page is UNCLASSIFIED) Approved For Release zuu-iTuurru TIAK-KLA-"Jb-UU UU1JUUU -CV Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 SEGET ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 SECTION IV - PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA/PSYCHOLOGICAL WEAPONS (S/N111) One of the purposes of this report is to evaluate research in the field of influencing human behavior in order that the US may be in a position to develop certain countermeasures. Therefore, before beginning specific sections in this report on Soviet research, it is desirable to review some of the more feasible areas of exploitation in the development of a technique that might alter human behavior. Some of these characteristics will be studied in depth in later sections of this study. 15 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 Approved For Release 2004/Mpr: CIA-RDP96-00788R001300020001-6 ?r-Nr. ST-CS-01-169-72 July 1972 PART A - Temperature 1. (U) An increase in body temperature decreases the body -water level and creates a salt-water imbalance. With a large intake of water, but little replacement of sodium chloride, painful spasms of the skeletal and abdominal muscles may develop as may also faintness, weakness, nausea, and vomiting. With an internal temperature above 41 degrees C or below 31 degrees C, brain function is usually impaired. Irreversible damage to the skin occurs at about 44-45 degreea C (46,47). 2. (U) The sensitivity and tolerance for temperature chanies is different for certain races. Negroes have a greater tolerance for humid heat than Caucasians, and conversely, Negroes are more susceptible to injury from cold stress than Caucasians. 3. (C/NFD) It is believed that the use of temperature manipulation as a technique to influence human behavior is practical. In order to he effective it would seem necessary to apply this technique to individuals or small groups that are already under one's influence such as prisoners'of war. The application of unnatural temperature in field situations appear to be most difficult. Further, there appears to be very little applicable research in the USSR in this area other than some isolated work in the areospace field. It may be concluded that temperature fluctuations could be used for altering human behavior, but would probably not be as useful as other available methods. PART B - Atmospheric Conditions 1. (C/NFD) There has been some work reported on the physiological or psychological effects of atmospheric or geophysical parameters (48-51). The works referenced here are free world but there is little doubt that the Soviet Union has investigated similar effects especially in relation to their space program. The utilization of any of the techniques to alter human behavior by changing atmospheric conditions seems remote for field application. These techniques, like temperature effects, are more suitable for controlled groups or individuals. 2. (U) An increase of 0.2 percent carbon dioxide doubles the volume of air breathed. Breathing becomes deeper, more rapid, and eventually violent. Depletion of oxygen or the increase of carbon dioxide decreases auditory sensitivity as well as visual sensitivity. 'Ten percent of oxygen for 15 to 30 minutes sometimes 16 NO FOREIGN DISSEMINATION SECRET (This page is CONFIDENTIAL) Approvea t-or Release 200 /09/10 . LIA-F