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Approved For Release 2001/03/07: CIA Detail Of Paranormal Metal-Bending By J.B. Hasted and. D. Robertson Birkbeck College (University of London) 1 9mm ;-+-- CU t ~I t+ 2cm Based on a paper delivered at the Second International Conference of the Society for Psychical Research at Cambridge, March 1977. Reprinted by permis. sion from the journal of the Society for Psychical Research, March 1979. The detection of dynamic strain signals in paranormal metal- bending 'action' (1) has enabled experimentation to be carried out on the distribution of the action around the metal-bender. A resistive strain gauge is mounted on or in a small metal specimen, which hangs from its screened electrical connections; electrical bridge, amplifier and chart recorder enable dynamic stra to be collected. It is found that the 'action' occurs in is of extension or contraction, rather randomly distributed in time, often at a rate of about fifty per hour. An early result of experiments with several independent embedded resistive strain gauges was the finding (2) that dynamic strain pulses were frequently riSgistered simultaneously on two en- tirely separate metal specimens. The data were interpreted in terms of a crude physical model of a 'surface of action', at points on which strain pulses occur. The configuration and movement of this surface with respect to the metal-bending subject can then be studied. A further series of studies (3) were conducted with several independent strain gauges on a single piece of metal. The linear array of gauges along a thin strip of metal respond simultaneously to the 'action', but the signals are strongest in thecentre of a 'region of action', which extends about ten inches, and can move slightly from event to event. A series of experiments was also con- ducted with strain gauges on apposite sides of the metal strip. For a 'pure bend' the signals should be in opposite directions, but these conditions were only obtained in the limit of infinitely thin metal strip; for strips of thickness in the region of 1 cm, one strain gauge receives a much smaller signal than the other, as though the pe aetration was incomplete. Since there is no very strong reason for expecting the signals to be of magnitude or sense uniformly distributed across the thickness of the metal, it appears important to investigate the profile of strains in thick metal specimens. We therefore mounted six sensors throughout the thickness of a metal sp ciman, and co,;' cter_' them to six separate battery-operated bridges and two t itterent n-,c'rno os tyr rauriCauilh If it ~CI:1 J vrc,c 4 ~cu. ,,, .,, the strain g:~u 7i s were rn t ted i id slots rehired in the metal; in from bottom left to top right. A pu! e extension would be re the other l'i t"PrAlyos 14?~"c ide r ,Qal (i~,~lOt A7Jei~CIA-RW~3flt6~+~i7$S~OC (~90~1 10g 'I`=~5 ica,ly one ath,ve the interleaved with spacers stuck together with epoxy resin; both othher. methods are detailed in Figure 1. tJ t,.i 4 The arrays of signals recorded in experimental sexssior-s are ,,ierc, using two synchronized three-peen chart recorders. ~?? 11?2cm->1 1. Cross sections of metal specimens a) Laminar, and b) Solid eutectic alloy, containing six strain gauges for investigation of dynamic strain profile. Three experimental sessions were held with thirteen- year-old Stephen N., and simultaneous strain signals were re- corded at six strain gauges. The thick metal strip :ras suspended horizontally radially in front of the subject. The subject was seated and was able to reach foovsrd his hand within a few inches of the end closest to him, but part of1he time he did not hold out either hand, and many signals were ob- served during,these periods. One author would superintend the working of the equipment, leaving the other free to witness the action without touch produced by the subject. Members of the subject's family were often present. The normal time for an ex- perimental session was sixty to ninety minutes. When a metal strip is bent, either elastically or plastically, the convex face experiences extension (positive strain), whilst the concave .`ace experiences contraction (negative strain). At the curved neutral surface, in the centre of the strip, there is no ch a nge of strain. If a positive strain were represented by an arrow o?f length proportional to its value pointing to the right and a negative strain by an arrow pointing to the left, then the normal bending situation could be represented by a series of arrows, as shown at the left-hand side of Figure 2. if an array of synchronous paranormal bending signals re- presents a pure bend with the top face convex, then they could be shown graphically as a set of data points extending diagtynaily 44 45 46 47 gauge. A resistive thermal sensor (Micro-Measurements type S },~.~ ,t ~vyas, c J l wi th series the -RAP pe cc am ~Jn l~ p}r~}sr al appearance nce the therr 2. Typical profile of dynamic strain signals across the thickness of a metal specimen. Also shown at the left is the profile that would result from a pure bend. Signals correspond to quasi-forces of about 20 gm weight. more complicated than the above. A selection of typical arrays, actually a series from session S, are shown in Figure 2. A simple classification of arrays may be made on the basis of the number of changes of direction in the line joining the data points. Arrays with no changes are bends; those with one change are symbolized by the letter V, those with two changes by N, those with three by W and those with four by M. In table 1 the numbers of signals arrays of each type are listed. The action inside the metal is more complicated than might have been supposed. The phenomenon might more appropriately be ,described as paranormal 'metal-churning' than metal-bending'. A strain is localized to a depth of less than about a millimetre, and may often be accompanied by a strain in the opposite sense at a eighbouring strain gauge. It is of course important to verify by other expert menu that the signals do riot arise from paranormal action on the electronic equipment or even on the pen of the chart recorder. Two subsidiary experimental programmes were mounted for this purpose. In the first a galvanometer mirror was mounted on a very thin spring steel strip, with strain gauge attached. One end of the spring was attached to a horizontal surface under a glass dome, and an optical beam from a helium-neon laser passed through the dome and was reflected through it again from the mirror and onto a scale. The optical path was about 5 m. Small movements of the light spot were seen to synchronize with strain gauge signals, and some ringing was observed, due to the long-period mechanical resonance of the system. In the second experiment a dummy strain gauge was included with real strain gauges on a metal strip. Typical signals were observed on the real strain gauge chart record throughout the TABLE 1. Numbers of signals sextets of different profile complexity in Stephen. North sessions. irolti. S..s ten Q S T Tn_ --- Ep.c lr.n ? b b r dt. t G r.At.nt ~ryang.? .?, .~ .tr.tch 11 1 0 V 19 10 Z 1 ~~ N 11 11 9 y Appro ved Fo 4 Rele 1B se 11 001/ 7 3/07 CIA- SN,S Approved For Release 2001/03/07 :' CI sensor is very similar to the resistive strain gauge (Micro-Measu ments type EAOG 125 BT 120) but its resistance is insensitivE strain although highly sensitive to temperature. Sudden?ternpe ture changes are unknown to us in paranormal metal-bend sessions, although temperature drifts usually occur, arising fr environmental causes. Paranormal strain signals, on the of hand, are sudden, in that they are sharpfronted pulses. Although these experiments have vindicated the inters tation that the paranormal action is an internal strain in the m, or strain gauge or both, it must be stressed that dummy gay techniques have not been used as standard practice in all the periments reported here. It is our custom to introduce a dun gauge at irregular intervals, averaging one session in ten. We now describe the use of the strain gauge as a deter of directional effects in paranormal metal-bending. The exp ments on the distribution of signals?along the length of a metal s Dr. John Hasted with Will, G. (3) had been conducted using strips of width 8 mm, only jus ficient to mount the strain gauges. The assumption was ma analysing the data that the extensions and contractions directed entirely along the long axis of the specimen (typical cm x 7.5 mm x 0.75 mm). It was decided to test whethe directed assumption would be valid on wider metal strips. We therefore experimented with a strip just sufficiently for a strain gauge to be mounted across its width; the dimen were 13.5 cm x 18 mm x 0.75 mm. Signals were in fact rec( from action on this strain gauge, but they were much smallei those recorded on the strain gauge mounted along the major When a wider strip was used, larger signals were recorded. I therefore decided to experiment systematically on the dire( of the dynamic strain vectors in sheet-metal specimens. On long thin specimens, with high axial ratio, there cot a psychological factor which favours the production of vectors directed along the major axis. This factor, whose errs has not been proven, might be investigated on a subse occasion; but in the first experiments, the safest course woi to inv sti ?ate a round or square disc specimen in which the DP9a iRO02 43tQQ-11,Zientation of the disc w spect to the subject and to the horizontal. y1 AN IMPORTANT PHYSICAL FACTOR Approved For ReIT ~v9 ae Q, e: CIA-R[ P96-007 There is also an important physrca a r _t ' A?_,_ of n ( p ,; strain. When tens on a '.filar disc, an extension (positive strain) will be recorded e strain) will ti v al r:,, that diameter, but an equal contraction (nega Abe recorded along the orthogonal diameter. A more complicated stress produces strains of different magnitudes along orthogonal diameters. The strain tensor has many components, but it is possible with three strain gauges to determine two orthogonal components. Figure 3 shows the arrangement of the sensors and defines the angles and magnitudes of the strains. A solution of the problem of determining the magnitudes and angles 0 and 0+90 of the ex- tension and contraction vestors le and Ic from the vectors 11, 12 and 13 recorded at the 'rosette' of strain gauges has been given by Mr. Jankowski. The equations appear with'Figure 3. Y '7 4. 'Star diagram' for Stephen North session N. Solid lines represent extensions, broken lines contractions. Lengths represent magnitudes, numbers indicate the session numbers of the two corresponding orthogonal signals. Calibrations show that the largest signals correspond to a quasi-force of about 100 gm weight. cx+ 2 CL = 1,+ 1 0 = 2 arctan tX-3 Ic 2 I,+I2 cos2 0 (2I3 - 1,- I2) 11+ I2 3. Directions of strain gauges 1,2,3, mounted in rosette. Equations connect the measured signals t1, l2, l3, with the extension le and orthogonal contraction I. Two different configurations of the disc with respect to the subject have been used. In the first the disc is hung vertically and radially in front of the subject. In the second the disc and electrical connections are strapped upon the bare forearm of the subject, who is presented with another target for his'action'. He normally extends his arm to hold his hand about six inches from the target, and the disc rests slightly above the hairs on the forearm. or iti ve each triplet of dynamic strain pulses represents a pos ,. -- -? -..tai 900. These may be represented on a diagram by two radial lines of ~ it . rtes Bonding to the strain magnitude. The signals during t NO PREFERRED DIRECTION In the sessions with Stephen N. there were no very strong preferences of direction. In particular we note session U, in which a square metal specimen was suspended vertically from one corner. As appears from the histogram of Figure 5, there is no particular preferred direction, neither horizontal, vertical, nor parallel to either side of the square. Similarly, there is no particularly preferred relationship be- tween the magnitudes of the corresponding extension and ortho- gonal contraction signals; for a circular disc suffering a single radial stress vector we would expect the corresponding signals to be approximately equal. The histogram of ratios, shown in Figure 5a, demonstrates the absence of preferred ratio. Indeed there are a certain number of pairs of corresponding signals which are of the same sign, that is, both extensions or both contractions. These are not included in Figure 5a. Such signals arise from a stress more complicated than a single radial vector, and consist of at least a pair of orthogonal vectors (i.e. simultaneous pulling or pushing by two pairs of hands). The proportions of such signals are to be found in Table 2. It would appear from both types of experiment that there is turbulence in the strain, localized to distances of the order of a millimetre orless. Perhaps on some occasions there is action on the strain gauges alone, hardly penetrating intothe metal. As has at ready been noted, the phenomenon might be termed 'metal- churning' rather than 'metal-bending'; and it is possible that the churning takes place on a much smaller scalethan we can resolve with arrays of strain gauges. It requires metallurgical investigatior of the structure to settle the question; but early investigations (4 disclosed no significant differences between paranormally and mechanically bent metal specimens. STRUCTUAL EFFECTS SUBSTANTIATED The first well-substantiated claim that paranormal action ca produce structural change was made by Crussard arid F3ouvaist (I who investigated the adult French metal-bender jean-F'ierr Girard. Probably the most significant report they published "vi that physical change could be induced in aluminium alloy AU4SG-T351 and AU4G-T351, `without actual bending occur ing. However there was some permanent deformation of ti I icrons TF m RRK,9N FsQrFRLelQa8ec2G(MVO3fO7I a OIA-RD a s ssi ,t diagram'. We can see by inspecting such a diagram just what was directional character of the signals in the session. tr I ecame thinner by severa o OT i ors QQ21 at many points of tl u., etcctahJmicrohardness of the metal; an easily dl enhanceme p ip a ~ -T--- 'r- i feaC~1 1' r,Ll~I C 1 5 t tTatMTf1`j M1T11rt ; gfnVed on each o e two _ t e a 'r,--RD,P96-007tR0020001300I scope of the foils from the hardness-enhanced section revealed a 126 - ? ? ?. ? ' 122'x.. ?-co x k Y~y: .r..s. high density of loop and other dislocations. ? ~~? ?? '? c " d ? "'' 11$ 114 oL 1 - I 0 0'2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 R -- SN, O, N, U, Z,CC n SN.U I---------i--------1---j------------- 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 (deg) 5. a) Histogram of ratios of corresponding extension to contraction signals obtained during Stephen North sessions. b) Histogram of directions of signals (Irrespective of their magnitude) obtained in session SNU. s, . ,M C PSI atiy. ?r ? Ear,.R M uo.r ?r I ?..e.r .r? I e~,.n.rc lion lease 20 rgv.e0 b 1/0'3/0 Hardness (takers 130 VPN kg/r m'126 122 118 114 I 80 x(mm) 6. Paranormal hardness variation at centre of either side of aluminium alloy Open data points taken byDr. Desvaux (Lea therhead), closed datapoints t Bouvaist (Voreppe). Solid lines represent mean of pre-exposure data (t) points shown as crosses). This claim is of such significance that it has been a m, of great importance that it be confirmed or disproven. therefore invited metal-bender Jean-Pierre Girard to London under witnessing exposed a similarly prepared specimei AU4G-T351 to his action. A small decrease (3 pm) in thickness of the specimen was monitored during exposure. wards the microhardness of both sides of the specimen independently measured by Dr:"Desvaux at the Electrical search Accociation and by Dr. Bouvaist at the Pechiney laF tories. The comparison between their data is seen to be satisfa< in Figure 6, and a local hardness enhancement is clearly s Similar experiments with metal-bending children are in piog When a metal is bent, physically or paranormally, the v hardening at the bend is associated with new dislocations. 7 are not usually loop dislocations, which can be produce exposure to nuclear radiation. Metals in which dislocations induced do not always bend, but internal strains are set up, it these are of appropriate magnitude. and configuration, p1 deformation can occur. We could make a reasonable supposition that a 'prin event in the paranormal metal-bending process is the formati, loop and other dislocations. These need not necessarily rest actual plastic deformation. In this way both hardness enh~ ment and bending could be classed as the same type of e differing only in geometrical configuration of the action. We have seen that the elastic dynamic strain signals continually in their geometrical configuration (1,2,3). It is that these represent the dynamic strains caused by the produ of the dislocations; when there is a sufficient gradient of res strain, the yield point is reached, and permanent deform occurs. Thus the paranormal metal-bending action, albeit lin macroscopically to a 'surface of action'(2), which is still a i aft q aftq os essentially an ini ac to t c t it was "information v brought about dislocations in the lattice; this 'information' moll ho r-nnnprt with the role of the observer in qu2 mechanics (7) and might be termed 'mentally induced tunnel effect . oApp-G e4c"rsRc,149 2p 01t /07as'CIA-RDP996-00788 R002000130011-5 force field acting on the metal. The detailed structure of the surface of action is a kind of Sin of rainfall', enveloping certain lattice points and causing the onset of loop dislocations. However, these produce hardening and not softening of the metal, and we recall that there is good evidence, both in early observations and in unpublished observa- tions of Crussard and Bouvaist, of temporary and permanent softening, sometimes so extremee that it has been referred to as 'plasticization' of the metal before fracture. If we hypothesise that the surface of action is sometimes capable of specific action at grain boundaries (taking on a kind of irregular honeycomb configuration), then a softening mechanism similar to the well-known quasi-viscous creep becomes possible. In this high temperature process extremely thin layers of atoms at the grain boundaries actually liquefy; but in the paranormal plasticization the temperature rise is unobservable, thus implying extreme specificity of the action, which would have to ensure that only a minute proportion of the atoms ever reached the high temperature phase. Electron micrographic evidence for the lique- faction has been obtained by Crussard and Bouvaist in the paranormal permanent softening process. The direction of work in progress is to test the hypotheses that the dynamic strain signals correspond in number and strength to - the density of dislocations produced in the lattice, and to the degree of liquefaction at the grain boundaries. We are grateful to the New Horizons Research Foundation, and to the Society for Psychic Research for financial support of these studies. 147 ''1 B. MASTED, Ph. D. Professor of Experimental Physics; H 'ad, Department of Physics, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, England. Pioneered research in opening up the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum in communications; specialized training in chemistry, Author of books on atomic collisions, and on dielectrics, and many professional papers, including MY GELLER NOTEBOOKS (to be published). D . *Aluminum with small proportions of copperand magnesium, heat treated in a specified manner, for use in supersonic aircraft 1. J.B. Hasted, "An Experimental Study of the Validity of Meta!-Bending Phenomena". Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Vol. 48, No. 770, 1976. pp. 365-383. 2. J.B. Hastcd, "Physical Aspects of Paranormal Metal-Bending". Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Vol. 49, No. 773, 1977. pp. 533-607. 3. J.B. (lasted, "Paranormal Meta!-Bending". in couuse of publication in New Horizons (1978). "features of Paranormal Metal-Bending" in ~(cme of publication in Zeit. fur Parapsychologie and Grenzgebiete der Fsychologie. (1978) 4. P. Bar,aes, J.W. Jeffery, O. Batemen, T. Gate, T. Southern, Birbeck College, University of London, private communication, 1974. M. Crussare and J. Bouvaist, Memcires Scientifiques Revue Meteflurgique, 1978 y, p. 117. 6. J.R. Hastcd in The Geller Papers. Ed. Charles Panati, Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston. 1976, pp. 183-196, 197-212. 7. E.P. Wig er, Approved EFor BRelease 12001 /03/07li1a Ctes, 1.J. Good,, London, 1961. Symetrres and Reflections, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1967. 788R002000130011-5 One of Peter's Sci.i lures Actually, the first observable thing that ever happer me wasn't cracking or bending an object, it was movir Approved For Release 2001/03/07 :.CIA-RDP96=0i( 7,8R0O2,00ttZO0151w&pened by coinciden lie school, when I was about seven years old. 1. Metal m e 1 1 i t In class I noticed that my watch would show a dif II s which began to happen wa h Controversy in Literature and Lab , at rt rea y hour than w frequently. I complained to my mother about the wrist being broken; she examined it and said that it kept goo< for her. But it continued to happen, so one day in class I 1 off and held it in my hands, watching it very closely. I be; notice that the hands would change their positions instantaneously - very fast - likedematerializing from on to another. When I tried the same thing alone, outside of c wouldn't happen; so I realized I had to be in class - a people - for it to happen. Not long after that, the wristband bent and broke. Th actually the first time I became aware of something be and breaking near me. (1) And then from his autobiography, MY STORY: I soon began to notice other things besides the ha watches moving and bending, which made me feel more freak. One time my mother had made some mushroom There was good white bread with the soup, and I dipp bread into it and ate. Then I started eating the soup w spoon. I'm left-handed, so I held the spoon in my left har took several sips of the soup..My mother was standing kitchen stove. i was lifting a full spoonful up to my mouth, suddenly the bowl of the spoon bent down and spilled h( into my lap. Then the bowl of the spoon itself fell off. I v there holding on to the handle. (2) by SAT BIR SINGH KHALSA 1. INTRODUCTION 11. THE DATA ON PKMB i) Uri Geller a) Anecdotal Observations.. b) Controlled Observations ii) Other Individuals Manifesting PKMB a) Anecdotal Observations b) Controlled Observations III. THE DISCUSSION OF THE DATA ON PtMR i) The Criticisms ii) The Defense IV. THE DEEPER ISSUES i) Pt(MB In Perspective ii) Directions For The Future 1. INTRODUCTION Since a large segment of the published literature on psycho- kinetic metal-bending (PKMB) concerns itself with Uri Geller, the first to "demonstrate" it, it is convenient to consider his material separately in section Il - The Data on PKMB. The majority of the PKMB data has been reported in non-technical journals and is of an anecdotal nature; the attempts at controlled observations are therefore considered separately. Discussion of the data involves issues which, for the most part, are common to both Geller and the other individuals manifesting PKMB and are considered as a whole, with presentation of the pro and con approaches respect- ively. The final section will examine the overall approach to the PKMB phenomenon, the controversy generated, andsome of the conclusions arrived at. The goal of this review is to acquaint the reader with the literature and so consists largely of extracts taken directly from it; it is hoped that this will allow the reader to come away with more of a first-hand experience of the issue. U. THE DATA ON PIWaQ i) UIU GELLER a) Anecdotal M,.-aaerial Geller has had a passion to perform his talents and his pe antes soon drew attention of the local media, of which h As far as my performances in Israel are concerned,) hundred shows and got`neaft all positive reaction frc press, although I was never checked in the laboratorie scientists. Israel is a small place and by that time everyone had seen me. But then a very negative article out accusing me of using laser beams to bend and break that I had pliers, mirrors, and springs hidden on r However, the material on Geller from his time in l: fragmentary at best, and it was not until parapsych Andrija Puharich met Geller and brought him to the States that the published literature on Geller became inous. Nowa celebrity, he demonstrated off stage forscienti journalists which effort has resulted in a large number o dotal reports. The classical anecdote of PKMB is one wherein Gelle, strokes a key or spoon and it then is observed to ben( occasion to fracture. More convincing are those instance. PKMB was reported without physical contact, and exam this will be presented. Alan Vaughan writes of his exp, with Geller and the editor of "PSYCHIC" magazine: Taking a hotel room key, Bolen first attempted to be manual means. He succeeded only in raising a blood He handed it to Geller who, holding it by the handle, ho to me. I grasped the key by the large end and put my oth, on top. Geller put his hand lightly on top of mine. He asl, my hands felt any sensation, but they did not. Then he as to look at it. It was bent about 30 degrees and was still bending as I watched. The whole procedure was wits came to attention via Uri Geller whose stage Bolen. (45) 1 11- performances of his ability in Israel began his rise to worldwide Even more extraordinary was a filmed (movie) exra repsQ edeFeQrs ,easiia,20O,1~/0t3/O7sK,C AbF+ift$P96-OW6i6fZO'ON( 9t 3()69f ren he was visiting C including clairvoyance and precognition, but it was the novelty Ossining, New York. Bolen irst tested a fork to see i; i of PKMB which drew attention. In a 1973 interview he tells us: bend easily manually, but it did nqt. -i he4i Geller took and r olen began to film Geller's actions. "Uri was moving "his bay. with a new toy. He played it like an accordian for a few left thr~8~1)Slt'~f tf~A_R ands then oxocd it up and down four or five times fork as I w/ s fi min rm,says"Bolen, I e 7 n i met C r~i~ ~#tQ ~ ~t$?Qir~r~g~~eel coil dropped off gas becoming soft and that it was beginning to bend. I zoomed onto the floor-all this right before my (and a friend's) eyes. Did i on his hands and the fork. I asked him to open his fingers to Geller have a chance to get at this ahead of time? No, that's the reveal the area. As he did, the prong part began falling away point of bringing a "curveball" device. He doesn't know what slowly, as though the metal had become plastic where he had you've brought; can't prepare duplicates, or otherwise tamper held it. It then came completely apart, with the prong part with the "props" as Johnny Carson calls them, falling down, but as it fell it drew away a short threadlike piece I showed Charlie Reynolds (a Geller critic) another of the of metal I examined both pieces of the fork at the break, which curve balls 1 had thrown Geller - a set of ceramic magnets. looked as though it had melted apart. Uri did not seem to feel Geller had made a crack through one of them and then made any heat. He was excited and I was excited at having captured half of the broken magnet disappear. Reynolds broke one of this on film, apparently for the first time. It was a heady the other magnets by hand. It took two distinct movements and experience." In another experiment, Bolen filmed Geller bend- made a less jagged break: this had also been my experience. ing a key ... (46) Reynolds' response was that he'd like me to arrange a meeting Physicist Wilbur Franklin reported: with Geller. Unfortunately, Reynolds had already accused Dr. Edgar Mitchell and I first observed Geller fracture a Geller of fraud at the TIME. demonstration upon which. TIME ring, after which the ring continued to bend by itself as I partly based its scathing March 12, 1973 story. So Geller observed it lying on the table beside me, on August 25, 1972, in wanted nothing to do with Reynolds. (51) the home of the venerable psi researcher, Dr. Andrija Puharich. A common characteristic of Geller's attempts at PKMB is that Parapsychologist Stanley Krippner observed Geller in one of his he is often unsuccessful, although it is difficult to judge how performances and wrote: often from the literature, since the media prefers to report only While a member of the audience grasped the earpiece of a successes. A brief reference to this is given by Dr. Joseph Hanlon, pair of glasses loaned to Geller by another spectator, Geller after a sitting with Geller and Dr. Bernard Dixon: held the volunteer's hand. I was sitting in the front of the room; I gave Uri my housekey, which he worked with unsuccess- as far as I could see, Geller did not touch the earpiece itself. fully. Soon, the other earpiece began to bend as if tremendous heat Dixon commented afterwards that he was struck by the was being applied. The volunteer removed her hand from the extent to which Geller stressed his failures - constantly saying earpiece and the bending continued over the next few minutes, he did not think he could do it and telling us stories about his even though neither Geller nor the volunteer was touching the failures on TV and elsewhere. Indeed, he talked far more about pair of glasses. (48) failures than successes. (52) In E IENCE NEWS" we have the report: A typical failure of PKMB was reported by Dr. Eldon Byrd: Duting the interview, I held a heavy key between lily thumb and forefinger. The key began to bend-too slightly to be metal alloy called nitinol). I told hiin"'(hat I wanted to see if he perceptible - after Geller rubbed it lightly with one finger. The could alter the block's hardness. Also, I asked him if he would key was then placed on the desk and it continued to bend try to alter the magnetic properties of the material. He said he slowly for several minutes until it reached about a 20-degree would try to do both. angle. There was no obvious way the key 1 supplied could have He handled the block for some time. Finally, he said he been switched. Geller had no chance (by slight of hand or other thought he would not be able to do anything to it because he trickery) to bend the key by force. And he didn't have a laser up somehow did not have a "feel" for the material. in a last his sleeve, as some have suggested. (49) attempt to influence the block, he asked for a piece of metal of and a brass plate was given to him. He placed time any kind , Occasionally, Geller has also been the apparent cause of block on the plate and held his hand over it. Several times he "teleportation" or "dematerialization" phenomena, However pressed dowfi on the block, but gave up, saying that he did not we shall confine ourselves to PKMB, save for this report by think he would be able to affect the material. (53) physicist Thomas Coohill in the company of 2 other physicists, Claims that Geller cheats (uses non-psychic abilities) are not among others: restricted to his time in Israel. We did not ask Geller to bend anything for us at lunch, nor At least five people claim to have seen Geller actually did he suggest that he do so. However, after we had easten cheat. This is a difficult area, because if we cannot trust the Geller and I went into my living room and began talking about reports of observers who say Geller does miracles, why should caving (spelunking). After about a minute we both heard a we give any more credence to those who say he cheated? (56) metallic "clink"; it sounded as though something metallic was dropped on a solid floor. Looking around, I saw a spoon lying behind my desk. It was bent. As I held it in my hand and called the other people into the room, the spoon suddenly began to bend in another plane (at a b) Controlled Observations right angle to the handle ... ). It seemed as if the spoon were observed by all present. (50) Another report reads: There are indeed critics who would argue that there have e can handle curve balls nicely - he likes the challenge. for the purposes of this review we shall consider those tests that kids walk down steps) with the idea that he should try to vation or where they have claimed them to be controlled. One of ~'on r _ s f~~j ~j ~{B - mode by Russell Tang deiniinsion-see Martin Gardner's THE AM11 0 r OL15 - afro llCl/t'tf> P f~ stl~ . s I having published in UNIVERSE). Of course, Geller did not such thing. He was like a NATURE the results of ESP tests with Geller} One of their tests involved Uri's efforts to affect the weight mately a minute. The key was about 15 inches from my e -Ajfpro tl'rift"!! 001E i l7s` l~`1~dP96- I ~, tr leery. (76) covered by an aluminum can, a l-so on the scale, ancTt ten the ltino is a mMb b et oyy ich Aa pa physical memory fo, entire scale with weight was covered by a glass bell jar to shape in which it formed at the time of manufacture." Geller eliminate the possiblity of deflection by air currents. The entire tested for PKMB with nitinol wire by Eldon Byrd and he write experiment was filmed. The first part of our protocol involved his second session with Geller: tapping the bell jar; next tapping the table on which the The diameter of the wire was about 0.5 mm. One r apparatus rested; then kicking the table; and finally jumping on was used as a control and was not taken to Connecticut. A the floor, with a record made on strip chart of what these tape recordings were made during all observations. artifacts looked like. I held one of the other pieces by both ends as I In this experiment Geller's efforts resulted in deflections previously done and Geller stroked it as before. A kink fora correponding to weight gains and losses on the order of one took a second piece of wire, held it by one end, and C gram, well out of the noise level. The signals he produced were stroked it unilaterally. It, too, developed a kink. The third r single-sided pulses of about one-fifth-second duration, unlike of wire was given to Geller to do with as he pleased. He rol the artifacts, which resulted in two-sided ocsillations that between his thumb and forefinger and it kinked share slowly died out. In tests following this experimental run, a Geller had clearly influenced the alloy nitinol in a magnet was brought near the apparatus, static electricity was unusual way: it was as if the kinks he produced had act discharged against the apparatus, and controlled runs of day- been manufactured into the wires, even though it had long operation were obtained. In no case were artifacts ob- conclusively determined before any experimentation the tained that resembled the effects that occurred during Geller's permanent configuration of the wires was that of straight efforts, nor could anyone else duplicate the effects. We have no No explanation has been given by nitinol experts, who ready hypothesis on how these signals might have been been consulted as to how kinks could have been fo produced. (74) without using high temperatures and mechanical stress. Dr. John Taylor in England has reported a test which al- chanically produced kinks in nitinot leave obvious marl though he feels cannot be regarded as "absolutely fraud proof", the surface of the wire. Geller-formed kinks do not. avoids a number of possible fraudulent techniques'available to Byrd concludes: Geller. All of the bends that Geller had produced thus for a n rmanent deformation -the wires c~ n b h pe ee ave ...Geller stroked the upper surface of a strip of metal wire which was screwed down to the top of a letter balance. The crumpled or twisted into any shape by hand, but on I pressure he was applying could be monitored directly by the heated to a temperature of about 2100F. all the wires reti balance dial (accurate to 7 grams) as well as measured the shape Geller had imposed upon them. automatically by a shielded metal plate placed vertically above How did Geller achieve such results? At the pre the metal top of the balance and connected to a quadrant have no scientific explanation for what happened durinf electrometer (sensitive to 5 oz.). A bending of 100occurred in testing periods. I can say that the possibility of fraud on G, one session, which I closely observed, during which no part can be virtually ruled out. (77) pressure greater than 10 grams was applied. In any case the A team of scientists in England consisting of John Ha bend was upwards. This experiment is presently being repeated David Bohm, Edward Bastin and Brendan O'Regan observe with videotape. (75) following phenomenon: The plasticization, by handling, of about 2 cm of the Parapsychologist and magician William Cox is confident of of a stainles steel teaspoon (phenomenon 7) took place his test for PKMB with Geller. He reported in the JOURNAL OF course of informal conversation around a desk. The teas PARAPSYCHOLOGY: which had previously been handled and bent through My hope was to witness static PK under what could be thirty degrees by a child who also displays PK ability, wa