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LUXURY CARS FOR LESS: Premier and Dynasty vs. Ciera and Sable Approved For R~I,a~~lT.*flMe~RP9~~0~~33tT0E~UOII9 Approved For,Release 2000/08/08: CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 What's News Finally: Stealth! So we're finally going to get a look at a real stealth airplane. We're pleased that it will look pretty much the way we showed it on our September 1986 - cover. We've dug up a good many new details on the B-2, as you will find in the piece starting on the next page. Video ball and chain climbed into the pilot's seat. A few minutes later the 140-foot rotor blade lay on the floor, smashed beyond repair. Scott Larwood, student director of the project, says the problem was that Ito weighs 15 pounds less than Eulate. That apparently changed the helicop- ter's balance, so? it pitched forward when ground-crew members let go. Now the team is evaluating whether to rebuild the single wing or change the design to a three-bladed rotor. In March POPULAR SCIENCE'S cover showed the Mitsubishi VisiTel-a new low-cost videophone that transmits pictures on ordinary phone lines. So I was fascinated recently to spot the same piece of equipment in a photo- graph in The New York Times, espe- cially because the accompanying piece was about keeping jail crowding down in Anne Arundel County, Md. It told of a man who had been convicted of drunk driving for a third time. He was sentenced to two months of night- time house arrest and was also told not to drink. How do authorities make sure he is at home-and sober? Twice nightly, at random times, they call him on the videophone. He answers with his VisiTel: Not only can authorities see that he's home, they can also watch as he uses a hand-held breath ana- lyzer, which displays blood-alcohol levels in bright red numerals that can be read over the VisiTel. So far seven people under house arrest in the county have been issued the units. For the county it's cheaper than keeping some- one in jail. And the customers are rea- sonably happy. One unidentified user complained that he was sometimes awakened at night by the call from the county. "I'm. not happy about it," he said, "but., it sure beats going to jail," Pedal-powered ,plunge The Da Vinci II finally got off the ground-maybe. The pedal-powered helicopter built by students at Califor- nia Polytechnic State University [May] Energy roundup ? More news on the coal front: A decade ago, a way of burning coal called fluidized-bed combustion received con- siderable attention, most recently in this magazine in December 1981 ["Multi-fuel Combustor"]. In such a system coal and crushed limestone are mixed, then fed to a furnace in which they burn while suspended in a churn- improve performance and durability of car engines, the SAE says. They will soon be available, and you can tell when you're buying the new lubricant by checking the doughnut-shaped symbol on the can. What's different about SG oils? Tom McDonnell, chairman of the SAE fuels and lubricants division, says SG oils have significantly more disper- sants, detergents, oxidation inhibitors, and anti-wear agents. An Audi 12-banger? BMW has one [Feb.]; Daimler-Benz is developing one, as is Cadillac. Now the (unofficial) word is that Audi will have a 5.3-liter V12, or maybe a V10, in a limited edition, four-wheel-drive, active-suspension, high-priced super coupe. Audi won't confirm the rumor. Metric again? The count is down. Now only Burma and the United States still use English measure. Even England has scrapped this system. You may remember that ing mass on a column of air. As the coal burns, the limestone absorbs the sulfur dioxide it produces, ending or reducing the need for costly wet scrub- bers. Now two major fluidized-bed plants have come on line-a 110-mega- watt plant at Colorado Ute Electric Association's Nucla station and a 130-megawatt installation at Northern State Power's Black Dog plant. The technology could later be useful in reducing 'acid rain and other air pollution. ? The British. have put another $15 million into a long-range project to develop dry-hot-rock geothermal power. Engineers are investigating a site in.. Cornwall and hope to start building a plant in 1991 when preliminary en- gineering work has been completed. They calculate that the site contains enough heat to generate between 750 and 3,000 terawatt-hours , of energy, enough to supply power to southwest England for the foreseeable future. Better oil The Society of Automotive Engineers has recommended that car owners start using a new type of engine oils, labeled SG. The new oils have been compounded to reduce engine wear. SG oils should quivered briefly as pilot Andres Eulate-1 pedaled furiously and may-just may -have lost contact with Earth briefly; Nobody is sure. Then bicycle racer Ted Ito, fresh and burning to make history, the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 set up the goal of slow conversion in the United States, and envisioned a slow fading away of feet, pounds, and quarts. What faded- instead was the act. Now the Defense Department is go- ing to give metric another nudge. Any- one bidding on a defense contract must now use metric specifications. The reason: simple economics, says the Department. The move will end NATO's expensive dual inventory sys- tem and make it easier for foreign companies to get involved in joint development programs. One Pentagon official recalling the distinct lack of enthusiasm with which the country-- received the general metrification attempt in the mid-70s quipped, "We're not trying to change the way people live just the way they fight." Editor-in-chief JULY 1988 145 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 What the Air Force isn't saying-critical elements not shown CONDUCTIVE INNER WING STRUCTURE MULTI-LAYER ABSORBENT COVERING ing edges of the wing (C) are constructed to minimize radar covareitl muldlavered mat :: S d ' eto s rials that absorb radar sigma , % exa naI ? ne comb ,,:...: strutted of a series of thumb->fize :h, INCOMING- .. _..~~.,. -^:+'? ;?.y,r c: ::.!~ ma SIGNAL' -.;': tubes: Each hexagon is, Slid ywitLirdar- bs~- from the outermost edge to the m- it d ens y sing in 04 increaC RADAR ABSORPTION RADAR-ABSORBENT MATERIAL nermost. An incoming radar signal first strikes and is partly ultilayered covering. The rest goes into h e m rbed by t ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER abso a hexagonal cell. AS it penetrates, it continues to be pro- strikes the sorbed. The a zigzag pattern official painting of the B 2re released by.the Air Forcei ___angled surface at the rear is reflected remaining signal (above) dshowsabw ing ge atop ` h p e wing, Two.. back through the cell, continuing to be absorbed along tthis y ; ' toolobvi usl edge:and wised pods o t11 er path. Such a.techn14410960, gue radar reflectiion from the wing edges. "It's a Roach Motel bly e obvious weapons. y fo sreengines, the third is for crew and pr ar the re of nyveral shown r, Experts gu don't check said one it is not shown in the onbuatl that in n the absence of any vertical stabilizer, directional _ the radar control (A) might be achieved with 7elevons bn tfie wingtips... y Spoilers raised on o`i'l V emd not the other might intro- Air Force versi some eperts think the win` top pods' Initiating a turn. ap duce drag d in the most forward parts of the serrated trail- a radar signal strikes a normal - contour d surface (D). oft be mounted he, target is Iran trant seesmitted back in in ing?edke; because that would put them closest to the center, kind'found on most aircraft, a lint of gravity, whore they would have minimum effect on pitch. almost any direction, making the easy on radar. gh e- l it "`is critical (B). Air probably flows through A faceted surface, on the other hand, tends to reflect sig-Tpp direction from from lightly directions not retu n to ethe o ginating the. takes,hu s the -engine wing through an stS-duct rong pote tial which they came,eso theyddoifferent in strong p coa sources. Thus compressor-a d wit source of radar echoesoes-is hidden idden from incomin radar sig. radar-abormterial to reducer effectlone inteany dh , might dais. A> vaned diffuser flatten eY exhaus a `' a t ` heat rection applie w bistatic radar,~in which the trans- One wide s, A thin inlet called a bo ndary-layer gut- against a stew thossiaircrable tens ran be seen additional t can rp seen below each main Inlet. These ri ear the top signal trap mitted byoiher ground or satellite transmitter surface of;the"wing can liebled' off, through this inlet, can ricochet off tAnothertadvantage of thisbayrrangemea smoothing the flow into the engine. Second,o: additional ground receiver. lane. Ulping to cool lt, further The listening ground station is passive; because it is radar-si- air mixed v-?ith llle jet exhaust; e ing and trail- lent, its location cannot be determined by the attacking plane. CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 48 1 POPULAR SCIENCE Approved ForRelease 2000/08/08.: CIA-RDP96-00789ROO0300810001-9 frog the next generation of manned bombers directly into the world of stealth. The Reagan administration later re- instated a revised B-1 program, now the B-1B. The B-1B, now going into operation, is scheduled to serve as a bridge to the time when the B-2 will be brought into operation- the 1990s. Engineering secrets of the plane radar can't see A daunting task-building an airliner-size flying struc- ture that even super-sensitive. military radars can't find. First job: reduce what engineers call the RCS--radar cross section. The smaller the RCS, the smaller the echo re- turned from a radar signal of a given, strength. tly A clue as to how this might be done appeared shortly after World War II, when radar had changed the rules of the military game. Engineers noticed that some planes returned far larger radar images than others of essen- tially the same size. "The problem is that an aircraft, or parts of it, can act like an antenna, reradiating radar sig- nals that strike it," said M. William Frasca, an expert in radar-absorbent materials. Some planes were better natural reradiators than oth- ers. In particular, experts pointed to the Russian TU-95 The TU-95, with bomber l . can Bear and the British Vu huge eight-bladed propellers, a tall vertical stabilizer, and many sharp angles, returned a massive radar echo. The Vulcan, by contrast, was a wedge-shape flying wing with the engines buried inside and small vertical fins. At some angles it virtually disappeared from radar, and at no angle h The 2 and B-lB,. might lte used together in a scenario 74- such as this: he B- B co nes in'at treetop level, becom ing i islble briefly as it rises above - oh t releases approach to the target. poring its approach, an intense barrage of radar jamming. With the ground radar operators thus distracted, the B-2 sneaks in at high altitt de, a on from which it can detect mobile tar- -posit - being e r move dose, and destroy targets tho observed:. ~~ u . did it return an intense ec o. with an ever I Over the yengineers have come;'up differ- paints to make airplanes German srhad their clearer idea years why the Bear and Vulca looked so invisible to radar in World War ent to radar-and how they could design a stealth air- II. At the same time, submarines n ed had their e to keep British cti craft to take advantage of these principles. For example, send snorkles pain ed i th h a similar sub stance radar from the spinning compressor blades of a turbo jet inlet back radar echoes like a beacon. Sharp edges and abrupt surface. angles tend to act like antennas. So do tall vertical sta- Absorbent coverings first came to public notice in Janu- equip- bilizers. , "The more you make something into a smooth ary com an 1982, a when well- the U.S. knownEmbassy in manufacturer of Tokyo e called lectronic the TDK says the better off you are from a radar point of view," p y, strange were the events says R. John Hausman, an aeronautical engineer from the ment, with a strange e request. . The Embassy wanted to all-out of Technology. buy one gallon paint. So August for Japan's Massachusetts Institute But ut designers desighan just shape. 1Thematerialare concerned rounding the s used in the Min st y of Trade and Industry to until lve an OK. with more than just the it turned out, had been developed stop structure are also selected to help with the job . arhin- T,. fiber materials, for example, are e8dri Tby e heir aulan m> - containing ompoun s end was PP eri yointerest to radar absorptive terial is of rongn in steel epoxy bans the export of molecules tend to absorb mat- coatings researchers for planes. Because J pan design waves strong as waves well. Its carbon-based oven One p a energy, as crowave lane food does n fiber11was the Lear Fan parently wanted for the stealth project, the Ministry took crowav plane built largely of carbo company-Nippon. ["Advanced-Design Lear Fan 2100," June '811 which had the matter under advisement. pwas nearly invisible to Electric Co. (NEC) had also developed a a mils painthat to carry two radar led, transponders. rarasponder failed, the plane had been used to coat towers and buildings in sensitive gle radaar. Some versions of such including a ti fi have been locations to eliminate TV ghos and rgla s wanted radiowaves. NEC had worked ? outt a ltechniqe carbo -n considered for the B-2, including m electronic rs ndw ch, ated composite developed for the Hound g s stealth fighter dielect is-a a insulator.of the Such anaterial the muc absorb fiber-reinforced graphite skin. Lockheed's could m is reported t be made Chemical. glasafibere embedded in eresearchers nergy striking found, over a frequency rage of 3.5 to 120 gigs- plastic - made by Dow Chemicall. ahertz range. Special coatings also help suppress radar reflections. The hertz. And, most significantly, most military and commer- , SR-''3 for example, is said to be_ painted with radarcial radars operate in the 10- to 30-gig ret the f mean errite con cts it over the e does not absorb he structure, coolinghoff airr craft, howe er. For one th ng~ it was too thick and heavy conducts t over tsurface of R. Birge at edges, the strsuch hot spots that may develop thcorners, and other e SR-71 is called toAbwork o t a year ago a researcher named Robert continued. announced y in places. The substance used ewlclasstof radar absorbing materials a11fQ e "iron-ball" paint, apparently pparently because it contains micro- ca ery of Syracuse scopic iron articles to increase conductivity d it r'a retinyl Schiff base salts. The salts were bl ack 80 percent a fl. sanbRW tt but MOO ss l i@P 8?N ''~?' Appr da Luftwaffe experiment Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 late that a technique called thrust _-vectoring-selectively in the official release. increasing and decreasing thrust to various engines-could help in steering the plane. Or it could use reaction' control -squirting jets of high-pressure air through nozzles to change the plane's attitude-a technique used in space- craft. It might even have wings with inner mechanisms that could actually change shape, with trailing edges bend- SATELLITE TRANSMITTER picture was generally right, a defense-industry aircraft designer told the paper that "Many times when we put artist renderings together, we take a great deal of liberty fo And that'~t11y have one here." A Los Angeles air the 240,000- to 275,000 pound category with a wingspan craft executive pointed out that important features such of 130 to 140 feet. Others have predicted that it would be as control surfaces had been left out, adding, "I wouldn't bigger and heavier. Various reports have guessed that speed bet my grandmother's diamond ring on the accuracy of would be_ ut.Macfi" $-,-about the swan airlin- that picture. er's, and range without refueling some 600 mites But informed guesses as to the actual plane's details An old idea can be made. Everyone agrees that the.fiy pg-wing shape is::right., That first became reliable news in 1985 when The concept of undetectable planes goes back to 1912, Sen. Barry Goldwater, then chairman of the Senate when the U .S. Army built a heavily mufflered plane with Armed Services Committee, who had seen a full-scale a carefully camouflaged paint job. The magazine Aerial mock-up of the plane, confirmed that it was a flying wing. Age noted that the new development "opened up a won- The picture shows that the wings.are, swept -bacl about, derful field in aviation, making it possible for a biplane 30 de.;grees, which, as one expert points out, puts the or monoplane to sail over cities unheralded and unseen" wingtips far enough behind the center of gravity so that Stealth became compelling for military planners u 1973, you could put effective control surfaces there-surfaces The Arab-Israeli war broke out, and 40 US.-built planes that would operate with moment arms similar to those were shot down by Soviet-built SA-6 radar-guided mis- you get by having a tail at the end of a boom. The pointy siles, despite advanced electronic-warfare equipment that nose suggests that therec ish-ghaLpe radar an# 1Lnq,, was supposed to protect them. Sweetman guesses that by If the B-2 has a large radar antenna, it more likely"is a 1975 the Air Force had asked Lockheed's famous skunk.,, . phased-arrayrada ;in which the antenna is made up not works" run by the legendary Kelly Johnson to produce a of a single dish, but umeroi s small elements th t p l i, stealth aircraft, and that several flying versions-including be.-distributed along thewing; the apparently now-operational, but not yet public,. F-19- There is precedence as well. When the original-B-1 was have since been flown. modified to its present version-the B-113-its dish-shape A short time later-probably in 1981-Northrop was antenna was replaced with a phased array, a modified ver- tapped to develop what was called the ATB-for advanced sion of the APG-66 radar developed' for the F-16 and used technology bomber-which has since come to be called in that fighter for terrain following and general naviga- the stealth bomber and lately the B-2. Almost immedi- tion. A yet more advanced version probably appears in the ately a battle broke out in Congress over whether the B-2, ------- --- ..,. .. country could afford to develop the ATB and also keep The, in9j t?surprising omission; The s drawing ahQw.s nog developing the B-1-then already underway. control surfaces at all. Some experts guess that there are With budget pressures building, the Carter administra- movable wing surfaces, probably placed as shown in the tion canceled the B-1 program, apparently hoping to leap- drawings that accompany this article. Some also specu- Continued JULY 1988 (49 ing subtly up or down. This would avoid the radar reflec- tions that can be generated by gaps formed by regular hinged control surfaces. One expert speculated that the strange sawtooth trail- ing edge could accomplish two purposes. First, if flaps were mounted in the notches, those flaps would be quite far forward and near the plane's center of gravity. Thus they would not greatly affect attitude or pitch. Second, straight lines tend to reflect radar signals. By breaking the trail- ing edge up into many lines-no two of them parallel -radar reflections would be minimized. And finally, all agree that the plane undoubtedly uses fly-by-wire tech- niques. Like the famous wrong-way-wing X-29 [April '80] the flying wing is a fundamentally unstable design. There- fore a computer constantly monitors its actions, rapidly and continuously applying small corrections to keep-it flying straight and level. "I would bet a nice cold beer that it has four engines," said an engineer at a competing aircraft company. The shape of the inlets supports this: The double-scoop design indicates that two pairs of side-by-side engines lurk in- side the wing. The drawing is vague about size. Some experts say the cockpit may be deliberately too large to disguise the true size of the plane. Reasons Bill Sweetman: He has heard that the plane has f our ' F-10 & gins,r-the same power plants used on t e -1B bomber. Each gener- ates 17,000 pounds of thrust, a total of 68,000 pounds. Assuming a standard 0.25 to 0.28 thrust-to-weight ratio r a large four-engine plane, the weight would fall into Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 JULY 1988 J51 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789ROO0300810001-9 760 feet down on the bottom of the chored 1 A , n Gulf of Mexico, this record-setting tension-leg plat- lik U e n form will tan oil from beneath the sea floor. conventional platforms that sit atop underwater skyscrapers, this newest engineering marvel is anchored by gigantic steel mooring lines. By?NAOMI J. FREUNDLICH d h s ar trations by Linda Ric rom a distance the new platform will look just like the ~__..,.. ,.;{? .,f h?ve underwater skyscrapers ^ : that tap tne.ou-rich it-- ??, ,,. ----- _ ,,.If these platforms tap reserves in depths of water ut aiuwrn boats haul Conoco Inc.'s platform into the Gulf, its destination ' The platform with its four huge , n l . esg will explain its unusua th water will move past the urban hull columns churning sprawl to new frontiers: the Green Canyon Block 184 oil field, N Orleans where water depths about 170 miles southwest of ew , st 9 100 feet. When the platform is installed in 1,760 1""' 1 mo a rose , feet, its will be the world's deepest-ever r dellynnew kind of oil This, Gulf of Mexico pionee production'platform designed by Conoco to tap deeper reserves economically. Connected to the seabed by 12 tubular steel moor- . natural buoyancy creates an upward ing lines, theplat orm force, keeping the legs under tension and al pension leg plat in place in water up to 6,000 feet deep. form (TLP) is stable and cost effective: It requires far less steel 'than fixed platforms; and with the help of agile remotely oper- ' to maintain. But perhaps the ated vehicles (ROVs), its easy most important aspect of the tension-leg design is its portabil- ity. Once a TLP's work is done in one oil field, it can be un-oved s another ite. b /08 :CIA-RDP96-OO IN PM mgn will require few ch' es in .e r MID) Approved For Release 2000/08/08: CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9 NordicTrack is the Best... Here's the evidence.. A major university performance laboratory con- O cluded NordicTrack users burned more calories and.obtained sig- nificantly more cardiovascular exercise than from any other machine tested* More complete workout than an exercise bike The efficient arm exerciser on the NordicTrack pro- vides upper body exercise missing when sitting on a stationary bike. Safer, more thorough exercise than a rowing machine Unlike rowing machines, NordicTrack's arm and leg resistance can be adjusted Bill Koch Olympic Silver Medalist independently so you can set the tension ideally for your arms and legs. No lower back pain with NordicTrack. *Scientific test results included in NordicTrack Brochure 01988 Nordicitack A CML Company Stealth! [Continued from page 511 Such figures show why there has been such a drive to produce stealth airplanes for many years. Some, in fact, hypothesize that more has been spent on stealth than on the much more highly publicized Strategic De- fense Initiative, or "Star Wars," proj- ect. But while a stealth bomber would have many important advantages, it would have to give up a lot of desir- able features as well. "The more stealthy you make an air- craft, the less efficient will be its per- formance," says Anibal Tinajero, a defense analyst with the Congres- sional Research Service. The experts agree: Design a plane for maximum 94 I POPULAR SCIENCE Best way to lose weight Aerobic exercise is the most effective way to lose weight. Because no other exercise machine burns more calories than NordicTrack, you can lose weight faster without dieting. Easiest way to the best workout Exercise in the comfort and conven- ience of your home. Easy and fun to use. Stores in only 17x23 inches floor space and unfolds in seconds. Duplicates the world's best exercise-cross country skiing Even if you've never skied, in a few minutes you'll be "tracking." FREE BROCHURE AND VIDEO N0rd1Pck Call Toll Free: 1-800-328-5888 In Minnesota 1.612-048,987 In Canada 1.800.433.9582 141 Jonathan Blvd. N., Chaska, MN 55318 ^ Please send free brochure ^ Also free Name videotape 0 VHS ^ BETA Street City State Zip 2socs stealth, and you give up performance, range, and payload. First, stealthy shapes have rela- tively low inherent stability and con- trollability. Remember Hansman's remarks about the best stealth shape being a blob? Unfortunately, blobs don't have very efficient aerodynamic shapes. For best directional control and stability, for example, control sur- faces are on the tail-well behind the center of gravity. To gain stealth, the B-2 gives up its tail entirely. While the shape of the Lockheed fighter has never been revealed, it is generally agreed that several have crashed during testing, the last of which was on July 11, 1986, when mil- itary authorities cordoned off vast areas of the California mountains in which a plane-never identified-had gone down. Other threats Most speculation concerning the B-2 has involved hiding it from enemy radar, because radar is clearly the prime military sensor used today. Yet the plane would be worthless if it could be easily detected and tracked by other methods. For example, sat- ellites with infrared sensors have been highly developed. They're used, among other things, to track-test missile fir- ings by both the United States and the Soviet Union. If stealth put out a hot exhaust trail, it might be tracked by satellite infrared sensors. Three techniques will probably be used by stealth to mask IR. First, the exhaust is apparently below the wing, hidden from direct view by a satellite. Sec- ond, it will probably use a broad diffuser that will change the concen- trated jet exhaust into a wide thin wedge of gases. And third, a small auxiliary inlet beneath the main engine inlet-engineers call it the boundary-layer gutter-may gather air to mix with the exhaust, cooling it and thus reducing the probability of it being seen by an IR sensor. Finally, the B-2 will be equipped with the latest electronic countermea- sures available. Because it will have such a small RCS, it will be possible to use forms of ECM spoofing not gen- erally available. "Radar cross section is only one aspect that's going to make a super penetrator," said one officer who would not speak for attribution. "The other half is the avionics. When you get the radar visibility down very small, you can start manipulating the radar signals so the enemy doesn't see you. 11 Such a combination would be able to confuse the enemy even if he picked up a stealth echo. "With a very small target, it's easy to spoof at a low power," says Sweetman. "So you can send back a doctored return. You broadcast something that imitates the return on the first pulse, but then you gradually feed in an error that says you're where you're not. The second pulse is a little bit later than the real pulse would be. The third is still a lit- tle more separated, and so on. By this time the radar's logic is locked onto this wrong pulse train, and before you know it, the enemy has got the wrong range." Although there is no evidence to re- veal just where it may stand, there is the possibility of an even more exotic approach. It is a technique called ac- Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R000300810001-9