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Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 *USAF Declassification & Release Instructions on File* AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY PSYCH. EC WARFARE: EXPLORING THE MIND FRONTIER by Dolan M. McKelvy Lieutenant Colonel, USAF A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY IN FULFILLMENT OF THE RESEARCH REQUIREMENT Research Advisor: Colonel Donald N. Panzenhagen MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA May 1988 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE DISCLAIMER ................................... ii ABSTRACT ..................................... BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................ iv I INTRODUCTION ...:............................. 1 II DEFINING PARAPSYCHOLOGY ...................... 4 ? r III DISCOVERING THE MINDS GREAT TREASURES ........ 6 SOVIET THREAT .............................. 1"11 U.S. RESEARCH .............................. IV POTENTIAL MILITARY USES ...................... 21 INTELLIGENCE ............................... 22 PERSONNEL .................................. 24 COMMUNICATIONS ............................. 26 ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ....................... 27 WEAPONS .................................... 28 V FEASABILITY OF OPERATIONAL EMPLOYMENT........ 30 CONTROLABLILITY ............................ 30 LEARNABLILITY ............................. PRACTICE ................................... 34 OPERATIONAL AVAILABILITY ................... 34 VI SELF IMPOSED OBSTACLES ....................... 37 MIND SET ................................... 37 EXTREME SECRECY ............................ 42 NO FOCAL POINT ............................. 44 VII RECOMMENDATIONS .............................. 45 VIII CONCLUSIONS .................................. 49 LIST OF REFERENCES ........................... 51 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 i Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789ROO1001420001-3 DISCLAIMER. This research report represents the views of the author and does not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Air War College or the department of the Air Force. In accordance with Air Force Regulation 110-8 it is not copyrighted but, is the property of the United States Loan copies of this document may be obtained through the interlibrary loan desk of Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 35112-5564 (telephone: [2051 293-7223 or AUTOVON 875-7223). Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 ii Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Psychic Warfare: Exploring The Mind Frontier AUTHOR: Dolan M. McKelvy, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF Mans greatest potential remains a prisoner of man. Vast untapped mental capabilities create an entirely new battlefield dimension which, if ignored, pose a threat to self and country mor. than nuclear weapons. This more ~ serious threat starts from within. Our fears and cynical attitudes towards psychic capabilities make us our own worst enemies. The Soviets, on the other hand, take psychic research very seriously at all levels, particularly for its military application. ' Exploring the mind. frontier is essential and the key to successful exploration is a greater psychic awareness. The mind is rich in unfathomed resources ripe for exploration, a limitless source of treasures for advancing all mankind, and a serious threat to those who ignore its potential. We must overcome our psychic inhibitions, stop denying the existence of paranormal events, and start trying instead to understand the nature of these phenomena. We must shed the super secret cloaks and educate our leaders at all levels on the real psi military potentials and threats so we can adequately focus and prioritize national resources. Only thru greater openness and awareness to the truth can we adequately prepare. Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 iii Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lieutenant Colonel Dolan M. McKelvy, USAF, received a B.S. from the United States Air Force Academy and a M.S. from Kansas State University. His extensive computer science and systems engineering background have ..- taken him from vacuum tubes to integrated circuits, from slide-rules to world-wide computer networks, and from human senses to high tech space based sensors. He recognizes the existence and tremendous potential. inherent in extended mental capabilities and is concerned that their potential impact on the military and a computer-dependent world is grossly underestimated in Western society. He is a graduate of the Air Force Squadron Officers School, the Air Command and Staff College, the Armed Forces Staff College (Class 75), and the Air War College, class of 1988. Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 iv Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00769R001001420001-3 PSYCHIC WARFARE: EXPLORING THE MIND FRONTIER Man's greatest potential remains a prisoner of man.. Only a fraction of the human mind is currently used. Limitless mental capabilities are just waiting to be accepted, developed and understood. With this tremendous power comes an entirely new battlefield dimension which, if ignored, poses a threat to self and country more serious than nuclear weapons. This tremendous threat starts froaL- within. Our fears and cynical attitudes towards psychic.. capabilities make us our own worst enemies. Coordinated military exploration of the mind frontier is essential. And key to successful exploration is a greater awareness of psychic phenomena. To support this thesis I will examine some of the mind's great treasures, discuss their potential use and feasibility as instruments of power, highlight major self-imposed obstacles to developing extended mental capabilities, and recommend future actions. INTRODUCT ION In December 1980 Lieutenant Colonel John B. Alexander, US Army, authored an article in Military Review entitled r "The New Mental Battlefield: Beam Me Up, Spook." In this article he challenged the imagination of his readers when he stated, "To be more specific, there are weapons systems that operate on the power of the mind and whose lethal capacity has already been demonstrated"(3:47). He discussed psychotronic weaponry and provided eye-opening, unclassified information on both Soviet and American Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 research into parapsychological phenomena. He concluded: The impact that psychotronic weaponry and other paranormal applications will have in the future is difficult to determine at this time... whoever makes the first major breakthrough in this field will have a quantum lead over his opponent, an advantage similar to sole possession of nuclear weapons... The intent here is to emphasize the need for more coordinated research in the realm of the paranormal. Additionally, there is a need to provide leaders at all levels with a basic understanding of weapons systems they may encounter in the not too distant future (3:52). A response came almost immediately. In January 1981, columnist Jack Anderson of The Washington Post was quick to demonstrate American skepticism of psychic research in an article entitled "Pentagon Invades Buck Rogers' Turf." Anderson's one-sided derogatory prose was filled with terms like ''futuristic fantasies," "hogwash" and warfare" (4: D16) . A month later Anderson was back reinforcing psychic skepticism. This time he began, "The brass hats are, indeed, dabbling in the dark arts." Other carefully chosen phrases included "evil eye," "comic- strip," "Ouija board warriors" and "voodoo warriors arsenal'(5:DC11). Within weeks he returned to the subject by referring to "wacky projects" of the CIA, or studies "like a Haitian witch doctor might try"(6:B13). Maclean's magazine reported in 1981 that President Reagan and Defense Secretary Weinberger had to decide: Whether to continue funding the top-secret project which, according to Jack Anderson of TJi Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Washington Post, is currently allotted $6 million annually (30:38). Between 1981 and 1984 numerous articles appeared in periodicals revealing an astonishing amount of research in the psychic field and reflecting great skepticism amongst the scientific community. In January 1.984, columnist George Hebert wrote an article entitled ". . . but a peek at ESP is justified" in a Norfolk, Virginia, newspaper. He focused attention on U. S. Defense Department denials tha't' the government was supporting psychic research. He? suggested and hoped the denials were based on security concerns. Even as a skeptic he noted: If, on the other hand, the denial reflects a true military disinterest in the psychic possibilities--our own and the Soviet Union's- -that would be reason for worry (25:A8). An NBC Nightline program in February 1984 discussed the possibility of "mind wars." Researchers, scientists and government consultants were interviewed. Especially noteworthy was the general skepticism of government advisors compared with the positive convictions of researchers. And most recently, in the 11 May, 1987 issue of Newsweek, Senate Foreign Relations Committee chairman Claiborne Pell invited psychic Uri Geller for a reception and dinner in Geneva during Soviet arms negotiations. He had previously arranged for Geller to give a briefing on Capital Hill--in a special bugproof room. Most of the spectators were Hill and Pentagon aides. House Foreign Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Affairs Committee chairman Dante Fascell came away impressed (22:5). Was Lt. Col. Alexander's message taken seriously? Is the Defense Department conducting more coordinated parapsychology research? Do leaders at all levels have a basic understanding of these psychic weapons systems we may soon encounter? What is the potential threat to the electronic components which form the basic foundation ofr all our sophisticated weapons systems? In light of future Defense Department funding limitations, does parapsychology (the mind frontier) really offer a new battlefield dimension which warrants continued military exploration? This paper attempts to answer these questions by providing an unclassified status update on LT. COL. Alexander's 1980 concerns. It is not a research report to identify everything the government is doing. By researching events and literature in the 1980s, particularly those involving military personnel and government programs, this paper shows that too much is happening in the parapsychology field to ignore, and too little information is disseminated to know how to treat it properly. DEFINING PARAPSYCHOLOGY Paranormal phenomena are observable facts or events which are not scientifically explainable at this time. Psychic research includes such phenomena as telepathy (mind-to-mind communication), precognition (knowledge of future events), dowsing (clairvoyant ability to find water, Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789 R001001420001-3 minerals, and so on, by means beyond known sensory or perceptual faculties), remote viewing or out-of-body experiences (seeing locations, objects or events shielded from ordinary perception in a spatial location separate from one's physical body) and psychokinesis (movement of matter by mental means without using any known physical force). These types of psychic functioning are also referred to as psi, which is frequently preferred by researchers to dispel the misconception that these capabilities are outside the realm of normal human experience. Researchers contend psychic functioning "occurs naturally in the everyday experiences of many people" (41: 11). Psi is further subdivided into two categories. The term extrasensory perception (ESP) refers to telepathy, dowsing, precognition and remote viewing, while the term PK refers to psychokinesis (33:27). Psychotronics is the term used to describe the amplification of psychic energies by electronic devices " (33: 125) . The first recorded experiment of psi involved a military intelligence application of remote-viewing. Back in 550 B.C. King Croesus of Lydia felt threatened by the increasing power of the Persians. He needed to know what they were planning. Historians give us a detailed account of just what happened. Croesus sought an oracle who could somehow perceive his enemies plans; an oracle with proven psychic abilities. So he devised a simple test. He dispatched messengers throughout the ancient world to visit Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001104/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 different oracles and ask for a written description of Croesus' activities at a specified time and day. The oracle at Delphi responded: I can count the sands, and I can measure the ocean; I have ears for the silent, and know what the dumb man nameth; Lo! On my sense there striketh the smell of a shell-covered tortoise, Boiling now on a fire, with the flesh of a lamb, in a caldron-- Brass is the vessel below, and brass is the cover above it (41:12). Only the Delphi oracle provided the correct response for on the specified day, Croesus did something he thought most impossible for anyone to conceive of his doing... He took a tortoise and a lamb, and cutting them in pieces with his own hands, boiled them both together in a brazen caldron, covered over with a lid that was also brass (41:12). Croesus' 550 B.C. experiment convinced him remote- viewing worked (for the Delphi oracle), and provided him a significant intelligence force multiplier against his Persian enemies. How far have we advanced since then? DISCOVERING THE MINDS GREAT TREASURES In over 2500 years since Croesus' first psi experiment, it is amazing that people still know so little about this subject. Paranormal experiences occur daily throughout the world: they are nothing new, nor are they limited to particular types of individuals. Our mind contains boundless capabilities just waiting to be recognized, used and understood. We all accept and share at least some common understanding of this vast mental potential. We have all heard statements such as "Think positive." Sayings such as this are based on our acceptance of the Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 6 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 notion that our mental attitude can directly affect the outcome of events. Opinions vary, however, on just how great an impact mental attitude can have and under what circumstances it can have such an impact. When we look around us, we can all recall personal experiences or those of others who have experienced some type of paranormal event. These events demonstrate the reality of the untapped potential of the human mind. "The truth is that most people are interested in psychic experiences because they" are having them" (41: 156). Have you ever heard about dowsing to find water? An old dowser used a tree branch to help some friends determine where to drill for water on their mountain property. Contrary to geologists' recommendations, he not only picked the right spot but accurately predicted how deep the drillers would have to drill and how many gallons of water per minute the well would provide. Are you skeptical? According to a June 1983 Congressional Research Service Report, The Soviets claim that scientific studies of dowsing have yielded significant results. Accordingly, dowsing is taught to professional mineralogists and geologists at Tomsk Polytechnical Institute (17:CRS-14). The report goes on to say, "Dowsing or divining for water, oil, and other minerals is an established practice in this country and abroad, particularly in the Soviet Union"(17:CRS-24). And what about the "healing" stories? Researchers and Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 ordinary people around the world are witnessing and experiencing faith healings, psychic surgery, and miracles. Of course there are frauds, but at the same time countless numbers of people have been helped. Practitioners of holistic medicine and other health care specialists are exploring and using many of these dormant mental capabilities. The mind frontier is rich with. resources beyond our imaginations. Many adventurous and courageous_ people have already penetrated portions of this region and are using their newly developed talents; a scientific understanding of how these gifts work continues to elude us. Soviet researchers and a few Western researchers think innate signals are transmitted via some type of radio wave, perhaps extremely low frequencies (41:33). U.S. physicist Russell Targ invented the ultra-high- power carbon dioxide laser and is a specialist in microwave and plasma research. He also conducted psychic research at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) for years and is known as one of the prominent experts of psychic research. He thinks The reasons more people have not actively explored their psychic capabilities are clear. Everywhere we look, we find images of psychic functioning that are confusing, intimidating, misleading, and terrifying... Meanwhile, critics of psi, who often know next to nothing about psi research, condemn the scientific work in this field out of fear of its philosophical implications (41: 119). To date, paranormal events are unexplainable in man's view of nature. Much controversy exists as organized science and Western society quickly try to explain away Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 very real paranormal events. The scientific community needs proof based on logical, analytical and quantitative analysis. Such scientific approaches to psychic research always leave room for skeptics to question the validity of conclusions. Yet, as someone once succinctly noted, "Just because it can't be proven doesn't mean it isn't so." Croesus was convinced! He didn't let lack of understanding prevent him from taking advantage of the capability. This highly skeptical Western attitude has greatly affected research efforts. Western researchers credibility is jeopardized because of the spiritual undertones associated with psychics. Jack Anderson's 1981 columns on "voodoo warfare" clearly demonstrated a cynical attitude by labeling such research as crazy. But in response to his columns, letters poured in from the general populace supporting the research (33:xix). Through greater public awareness, by 1984 even Jack Anderson was changing his tune. But there are legitimate laboratory projects that may eventually unlock the mysteries of the human mind. One of the most promising is the testing of "remote viewing"--the claimed ability of some psychics to describe scenes thousands of miles away (7:B14). Much of the skepticism and cynicism is generated from within the scientific community itself. In Ronald McRae"s 1984 book, K]r, Wars, the author describes several examples of the scientific communities inability to deal with the unknown--and how in our society Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 The prevailing concept defines what research is acceptable and what isn't, which laboratories will enjoy the patronage of the pope in Galileo's time or the government today, who is published and who isn't. Parapsychology, for the most part, is an "isn't"...Publication of parapsychology papers in the major scientific journals is rare (33:21). Of course not all scientists are skeptics constrained by "prevailing concepts". Captain Edgar D. Mitchell, an astronaut on the Apollo 14 space flight to the moon, holds a Doctor of Science Degree in Aeronautics/Astronautics .fron, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He conducted ESP tests on that space mission in February 1971. In the early 1980s, during an interview with Martin Ebon, author of Psych.LQ war ,a Threat or T1 1 union?, Captain Mitchell commented: During the intervening years, my work, as well as the work of parapsychology in general, has convinced me that the human organism is capable of all of the events we study in parapsychology. . . [I have] established this to my own satisfaction--if not fully to the satisfaction of all skeptics (18:166). Within the exploding technological revolution "The eminent computer scientist A. M. Turing considers the question that the only discernible difference between a human being and a computer may be that the latter cannot experience psi"(41:261). Similarly, pioneer computer researcher Dr. Jacques Vallee stated: My contention is that machines will be able to "think" by any human standard that can be precisely defined. But as the machines get "smarter" by these rational standards, it is the definition of humanness that will change... I think we will discover, beyond these rational Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 standards, that the human race has many other psychic talents we had previously been afraid to recognize, talents which constitute our truly genuine existence as humans. They are the only part of us worth talking about (41:261). Dr. Robert Davies is medical director of Fair Oaks Hospital in Summit, New Jersey, where he has studied neurologic and psychiatric illness for many years. In 1986, when discussing ESP he said, "Too many things like this happen for it to be .just coincidence... Th commonalities that appear in many of these reports suggest that there may be some common physical basis"(36:88). This common physical basis is what researchers are trying to determine. But to develop a scientific explanation of these events may require new principles in physics. Skeptics and cynics will. always be present. Some skepticism is crucial to the scientific study of parapsychology. Skeptics are valuable when they recognize the reality of psychic phenomena, help expose con-artists, and provide objective criticism to help us better understand paranormal events. Cynics, on the other hand are biased and close-minded, trying to make nature change itself to conform to their concept of the universe. In spite of personal skepticism, McRae points out "the-opinions of the many eminent scientists in both nations who believe parapsychology research may lead to fundamental new discoveries cannot be ignored"(33:68). The other nation he is referring to is the Soviet Union. SOVIET THREAT Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 11 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RD:P96-00789R001001420001-3 With these tremendous expanded mental capabilities comes an equally awesome threat -Co both self and country, one which stretches the imagination far beyond its normal boundaries. Martin. Ebon cites a U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report entitled "Controlled Offensive Behavior-- USSR'' which was declassified eight years ahead of schedule. The report states: The Soviet Un-ion is well aware of the benefits and applications of parapsychology research... Many scientists, U.S. and Soviet, feel that parapsychology can be harnessed to create conditions where one can alter or manipulate the minds of others. The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics and bionics are [sic] said to come from the Soviet military and the KGB (18:12). Ebon uses extensive research to provide an in-depth account of parapsychology research in both the Soviet Union and the United States. In noting the dramatic increase in KGB security and control of Soviet parapsychology research, he concludes that "psychic warfare is something to fear" (18: 219). After returning from a visit to the Soviet Union as a guest of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in September 1983, Russell Targ wrote, "Many Soviet laboratories appear to be conducting experiments in which their main goal is the modification of the behavior and feelings of remote humans and animals by psychic means"(24:78). In summarizing his travels from Moscow to Leningrad to Yerevan and his discussions with Soviet researchers, he notes, They universally expressed the feeling that Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Qr Releae 2001104/02 .,;.CIA-RDP9}6 00789R001 001420001-3 psi 's importance lies 'in the development of human potential, notin. its possible military or intelligence applications. But everyone we talked with also made some oblique reference to what we were not being shown (24:79)(41:89). In 1978 Henry Gris and William Dick, in The New Soviet Psychic Discoveries, provided a wealth of first-hand data on Soviet breakthroughs in parapsychology and related fields. From this information they presented an eye- opening, inescapable conclusion that the Kremlin was rea.dR to adopt psychic knowledge for military use. They also reported on tests conducted by the CIA in 1973 involving two noted U.S. psychics. In controlled tests, the psychics projected their minds over long distances, apparently accurately describing supersecret military installations and even the contents of confidential files in these bases. During one experiment Price described in minute detail a Soviet installation hidden in the Ural Mountains. CIA agents in Russia confirmed his description. The two psychics "spied" on China and once again, "ground truth" agents--CIA contacts in the People's Republic--were able to confirm their accuracy (23:292). Retired Army Lt. Col. Thomas E. Bearden has a Master of Science Degree in Nuclear Engineering with over 29 years experience in air defense systems, tactics, and operations, technical military intelligence, nuclear weapons employment, antiradiation missile countermeasures, tube artillery and air defense missile systems. He also directed the production of U.S. Army technical intelligence on Soviet surface-to-air missile systems. In his 1980 book, Excalibur Briefing, he describes psychotronic weapons in detail, along with a mindboggling hypothesis. He Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 believes "that by psychotronics, the minds of all men. can be linked into a great supermind having absolute psychokinetic mastery over time and space"(10:5). The basis for his sense of urgency lies in a nonconventional interpretation of two important statements. Like Gris and Dick, he points to a statement made by Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev on 13 June 1973. He [Brezhnev] urged the United States to agree to a ban on research and development of new kinds of weapons more terrifying" than existing nuclear weapons. The reason and conscience of humanity dictate the necessity of erecting an insurmountable barrier to the development of such weapons (23:289). Bearden also cites a comment made in the mid 1970s by former Air Force Chief of Intelligence Major General George J. Keegan: The Soviets are working on dramatically exotic new weapons, twenty years ahead of anything ever conceived in the U.S.--so awesome as to lead the Soviets to believe that in the coming decade they would be capable of total neutralization of our ballistic and submarine missiles (13:24). Bearden feels these terrifying weapons are psychotronic or paraphysical in nature. In 1986 he wrote a book entitled FER-DE-LANCE: Q.Briefina Q Soviet Scalar Electromagnetic Weapons. He named the book after the deadly South American pit viper snake which unexpectedly strikes its prey with great agility and lethal effects. In this book he indites the orthodox Western scientific community for its bureaucratic smugness and arrogance. He compares the current Soviet secret development of psychotronic weapons with U.S. secret development of the Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 We have assumed that it certainly could never happen to us, and that the "secret weapon" scenario will never be repeated. On the contrary, it has happened again, someone else has done it, and it has happened to us_ (9: 7). The equivalent of about seven Manhattan projects has been poured into FER-DE-LANCE by the Soviets and the program has been successful almost beyond imagination. The eery weapons are now developed, deployed, and tested. The ambush has been completed; FER-DE-LANCE is coiled and ready to strike (9: 1). Bearden's book provides a detailed theory with supporting evidence which he and others who share his convictions have been compiling for years. He has ventured beyond the "prevailing concepts" of our scientific community to find answers to real paranormal events which have been occurring around the globe. His evidence specifies dates, times, and places where these weapons have been tested and how they were detected. His theory of scalar electromagnetic waves (electrogravitation) and Jules Verne-type weapons is overwhelming, as well as the ramifications. He notes that, the results of psychotronic research extend into every field of military application" (10: 221) . Almost every weapon system we presently have -- or are developing -- is totally vulnerable to scalar EM weaponry . This includes personnel, electronics (including fuzing and warhead), explosives, propellants, fuels, ordnance, ships, submarines, torpedoes, aircraft, helicopters, missiles, drones, rockets, tanks, armored vehicles, weapons carriers, self-propelled and towed artillery, communications, satellites, radars, command and control, directed energy weapon systems, surveillance and sensor systems, mines art 1 o d dd m P Approved For Release .b 774/0Y :u8fA-F P9r-66Tg4 bb 100 ~ Uabi1-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-007891R001001420001-3 warheads, etc."(9:84). Whether the Soviets have developed all of these weapons is not the crucial point. What is apparent, however, is the tremendous potential threat of psychotronics as an instrument of power. The crucial point, therefore, is that the Soviets apparently are aggressively pursuing researc..h to control this instrument. In 1977 Soviet parapsychology research finally became an issue the Carter administration could not ignore, no matter how skeptical some officials remained. On June 11, the KGB arrested Los Angeles Times reporter Robert C. Toth in Moscow and charged him with obtaining a "secret" state document, which revealed the existence of ongoing research in parapsychology at. several laboratories in the Soviet Union...[Soviets] admitted for the first time current official Soviet interest in the military potential of parapsychology (33:74-75). This incident focused presidential attention on a science which some of his advisers claimed did not even exist. Carter ordered a new definitive intelligence estimate of Soviet psychic research and its military potential, using all the intelligence resources available to the CIA, the first such report ever done at the pinnacle of the U.S. national security establishment (33:76). The, report was completed in 1978 but only partially released under the Freedom of Information Act in 1980. Rather ambiguously, they "found no evidence of a massive Soviet 'psycho-warfare'...Nor did the CIA dismiss entirely the most apocalyptic allegations of secret Soviet psi research... the evidence is fragmentary and contradictory at best" (33:78) . Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 A June 1983 Congressional Research Service report to Congress says, It is also speculated that the Soviet Government is firmly committed to the funding of psi research and that much of this funding, variously speculated to amount to tens of millions of dollars, is directed toward military research (17:CRS-14). What makes the Soviet research effort such a threat is the United States' apparent lack of interest. The same report to Congress also mentions that "total funding for psi research in the United States probably does not greatly exceed $00,OOO per annum, and most funding originates from private sources and foundations"(17:CRS-13). Attempts to identify more recent and accurate funding levels have been to no avail. U. S. RESEARCH Any lack of interest in psychic research in the United States is an outgrowth of personal fears, sensationalism, and restrictive scientific mind-sets. We are our own worst enemies. Through cynicism, biased criticism, and ridicule the scientific community and society as a whole have suppressed exploration of the mind frontier. Greater psychic awareness is the key to opening our minds and discovering the hidden treasures. Dr. Roger A. Beaumont, professor of history at Texas A&M University, has published more than 40 articles and three books on military history and strategic studies. In a 1982 article in Signal magazine he points out: In the West, psychic research has long been Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 tainted by sensationalism and some charlatanism.... The dramatic and the absurd overtones of the popular culture aspect of ESP has [sic] led even the more conservative elements of the popular press to treat ESP as a novelty.... Major centers of ESP research in the West, at Utrecht, London and Duke University, have come under suspicion from many scientists. As a result, researchers... have labored to prove an effect which the Soviets accept and attempt to explain--and control (12:40). Dr. Beaumont's comments are certainly proven true when one considers the continued skepticism of the scientifiQ_ community in view of the extraordinary potential Soviet.. threat. According to Russell Targ, one of the reasons psi research has suffered is that critics suggest any acceptance of scientific data in the field of psychic research would be inherently irrational (24:77). A survey of America's elite scientists, which elicited 353 responses from 497 council members and. committee members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), was published in June 1982. The study states: Although recent studies hint that belief in ESP may be increasing among the general population and among the scientific community, the elite scientific group polled by this study demonstrated the highest level of skepticism of any major group surveyed within the last twenty years (32: 127). Also mentioned in this report was a movement started in 1979 that sought to disaffiliate the Parapsychology Association from the AAAS. It is interesting to note that "among this elite group, believers in ESP tend to cite personal experience as grounds for their belief. Skeptics tend to cite I priori reasons as grounds for disbelief" (32:128). The "prevailing concepts" and negative peer Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789RO01001420001-3 pressure within the scientific community is best shown by the 1984 award of a $750,000 endowment for parapsychology research to the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Leading British universities, including Oxford and Cambridge, "decided not to apply for the endowment, primarily on the grounds that it would throw doubt on the credibility of other research programs"(16:1274). Obviously this is an example of the "suspicion" Dr Beaumont was talking about; it is an indication that major self-imposed obstacles continue to impede psychic research. The first great battle of any "mind race'' must be fought within ourselves. If each of us becomes more aware and open-minded to the reality of paranormal phenomena, we can learn to use these treasures rather than fear them. This greater psychic awareness has perhaps already begun. A survey by the president of the American Society for Social Psychiatry revealed in 1981 that 58 percent of medical faculties polled felt that "understanding of psychic phenomena is important to future graduates of psychiatry programs", and that the American public accept the reality of psychic phenomena with 51 percent believing in ESP and 37 percent believing in precognition. The June 1983 Congressional Research Service report says, All polls of both the public and the scientific community in recent years have yielded evidence of a generally positive attitude toward the existence and relevance of psi phenomena as a class and research into them. The general public accepts the concept of psi, often based on personal experience (17:CRS-21). Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 But given such great controversy within the scientific community, what should be the military attitude, what are the potential military uses, and how feasible are they? Thirteen of the fourteen best-known parapsychology laboratories in the United States responded to a questionnaire in 1979 giving us part of the answer. Four considered ''ESPionage" possible, five likely, and the remaining four certain. Similar proportions of the researchers believed psychic powers might be used to physically harm, sicken, or kill individuals, or to interfere with the operation of physical equipment such as computers (33:53). Ronald McRae, an investigative reporter for Jack Anderson, spent over a year sifting through a "sea of conjectures, rumors, and confusion", studying conflicting reports, competing interests groups and conjectures of psychic researchers to compile the most accurate record of facts he could find. His 1984 book, Mind Wars: The True Story at Government Research into the Military Potential of 2sychic Weapons, provides startling insights into numerous government projects involving psychic functioning. So much so that professor Marcello Truzzi, Director of the Center r for Scientific Anomalies Research in Ann Arbor, Michigan, said, He has given us enough pieces of the puzzle so that we can now at least see some of the areas filled in enough to make a preliminary assessment and recognize that government psi efforts have been grossly publicly underestimated (33:xii). Similarly, Russell Targ and Keith Harary authored a 1985 National Bestseller entitled Mind Race, where they Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-007898001001420001-3 discuss the unclassified portions of over ten years of government sponsored psi research at Stanford Research Institute. They note, In laboratories across this country, and in many other nations as well, forty-six experimental series have investigated remote viewing. Twenty-three of these investigations have reported successful results and produced statistically significant data, where three would be expected (41:5). Psi research is definitely alive in the United State and Internationally. In 1983 the Fifth International Conference on Psychotronic Research was held in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. The founder and president of the 15 year old International Association for Psychotronic Research (IAPR) was Dr. Zdenek Rejdak, from Czechoslovakia. Russell Targ points out that several speakers at this conference expressed "a clear desire for openness and cooperation-- rather than for developing military uses of psi"(41:85). Targ agrees. But I contend that government and the military have a responsibility to determine what kinds of military uses/threats might exists. POTENTIAL MILITARY USES It should not be hard for anyone to envision potential military uses of the powerful psi capabilities discussed thus far. Telepathy, precognition, dowsing, remote viewing and psychokinesis offer an endless list of possibilities. In 1984 Charles Honarton, Director of the Psychophysical Research Laboratories in Princeton, said, "There is potential for military and other uses but ' h s not Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-0078OR0010u Is4~1000` -3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-0078980.01001420001-3 reached the application stage"(38:38). Let's look at some specific military uses before addressing the implementation issue. INTELLIGENCE Just like Croesus in 550 B.C., remote viewing and precognition can break through barriers of time and space to perhaps eliminate the word "secrecy" from vocabulary. In 1976 CIA director George Bush enthusiastically gave retired astronaut Edgar Mitchell "permission to organize high-level seminars at the CIA to discuss possible intelligence applications of parapsychology"(33:103). Although interest waned in 1977 when Admiral Stan.:afield. Turner replaced Bush, it shows there are others who see definite psi applications for the intelligence community. As mentioned earlier, four of the best-known U.S. parapsychology laboratories are certain that psi can be used for espionage. Those four labs must of known about Project Scanate! In a previous section of this paper I quoted Henry Gris and William Dick's 1978 book where two U.S. psychics described supersecret military installations and even the contents of confidential files at the installation. Ronald McRae's 1984 book gives more details on this actual test: Psychics versus the CIA, extrasensory perception against the most sophisticated codes known to the U.S. National Security Agency, remote viewing against satellite photography and top U.S. agents behind the iron curt he Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R0010014~00U1-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 whole of the U.S. national security apparatus cooperating to make cheating impossible. The .test was dubbed "Project Scanate"--an impossible test with impossible results... Puthoff, Targ, and the psychics won" (33:92). The following example demonstrates some results. On impulse, Puthoff gave Price the coordinates for the latest series of targets selected by the CIA, including an area in Virginia approximately 135 miles southwest of Washington, D.C. Three days later, he got Price's five-page written response in the mail, "beginning with a dnscription of the area from an altitude of 1,500 feet and ending with a tour through building interiors. The tour was complete with descriptions of equipment, names from desks, and--just to show he was serious--a list of a dozen labelings on file folders locked in a file cabinet."...Three weeks later, the CIA informed him [Puthoff] that Price was right. Exactly right (33:100). The other psychic, Swann, although sometimes ambiguous or off the mark, also was rr marka.hle v. hen he, described A previously unknown Soviet installation, sketching buildings and rail lines, and noting an "unusually high proportion of women" among the personnel. A U. S. spy satellite verified Swann's report three months later (33:101). Another example involved Navy Captain Joseph L. Dick, the leader of the Defense Intelligence Agency office responsible for gathering evidence on potentially live MIA's. Ue used psychics and said, "Some of their leads have checked out... They've been able to visualize aircraft crashes, and we've found the wreckage where they indicated" (33 : 18) . Remote viewing is obviously a capability well suited to the intelligence business, and unobstructed by distance limitations. Remote viewin showed t t hh Approved For Release 2001/04/02 :gCIA-RDP96-0 9R'0?001421661~-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Jupiter had faint rings like those of its neighbor Saturn. Astronomers scoffed at this claim; Carl Sagan called it "ridiculous." Nine years later, Voyager 1 sent back pictures of the Jovian rings (33:29). In addition to remote viewing, map dowsing could be used to pinpoint the locations of soviet submarines or find underground tunnels in the Korean demilitarized zone. Before discussing potential personnel applications of psi let me remind you that at least four of the U.S. best- known parapsychology research laboratories are certain psychic powers might be used to physically harm, sicken, or kill individuals." Their confidence is probably based on experiments like that done in 1975 at San Francisco medical research institute with psychic healer Dean Kraft. He was to try, psychically, to lower the blood pressure and heart rate of a laboratory rat in a Plexiglas cage... The observers, however, had an opportunity to watch for twenty minutes, and record the steady decrease of the rat's heart rate, all the way to zero (41:81). He mentally killed the rat without any contact. Similarly, Nina Kulagina of the Soviet Union is known for her,psychokinetic abilities. After just 40 seconds of focusing her mental influences she was able to completely stop an isolated frog heart from a distance of about a meter and a half..."When we [Soviet Professor Gennady Sergeyev] examined it, we found that it was torn apart, as if bombarded by lightning balls of microscopic size. The energy flow can reach incredible intensity!" (41:269). From these examples we see the lethality of this type of psi. Soviet interest in these capabilities is nothing Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 new. Targ notes "Experiments that feature induced pain or behavioral manipulation at a distance have been the distinguishing characteristics of almost all official Soviet psi research since the early 1920s"(41:77). From the mid-sixties until the mid-seventies the KGB beamed mysterious microwave radiation at the U.S. embassy in Moscow. This bombardment did not exceed U.S. health standards but did exceed much more rigid Soviet standards. Why are Soviet standards more rigid than ours, and why were they putting U.S. embassy personnel at greater risk than they would allow their own personnel--for no apparent reason? (33:72) From a more positive view, psi could be used to monitor and even restore health from great distances. A doctor could diagnose and treat many patients via remote control. Or better yet, experiments in biofeedback have shown that our minds have the ability to control much of our own physiology. When discussing the interaction of mind and matter, Alexander said, "The functions of the autonomic nervous system, previously thought to operate r independently of the conscious mind, can be controlled." With training, we can develop this ability to control stress, fear and even bleeding (3:50). Another potential area for psi use is personnel training. In 1982 at Fort Hood, Texas, the Army tested a program where soldiers practiced visualizing their combat tasks to improve their human performance. An expanded Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 contract was then initiated to train Green Berets meditation skills so they could adapt to long hours behind enemy lines (20:69). What about executive decision making and stress management? In todays analytical and statistical world we tend to underdevelop our "gut instincts". But good leaders and visionaries recognize the value of a highly sensitized intuition. Albert Einstein said the really valuable facto.,_ attributing to his theory of relativity was intuition (41:181). Targ says through psi "you can learn to evaluate the reliability of your intuitive impressions"(41:182). COMMUNICATIONS Just think of the possibilities telepathy provides in the area of communications. Direct mind-to-mind link ups could eliminate security problems and provide direct access anywhere--without equipment dependencies. Soviet researcher, Paul Naumov, described an experiment where a mother rabbit was placed in a laboratory with electrodes implanted in her brain to monitor activity. Her baby rabbits were taken aboard a submarine which then submerged deep in the ocean. At synchronized times the baby rabbits were killed and at each precise moment the mother rabbit's brain reacted (33:33). This innate form of communication which traversed great distance and ocean depths may be the source of many "natural instincts". When asked in an interview about the limits to man's extended mental awareness, Targ responded: Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 One of the conclusions of our decade of research at SRI is that we found no bounds for psychic functioning. As physicists, we always try and look for the limits of phenomena, b>it what we found is that electro-magnetic shielding does not interfere with psychic functioning. We even went to the extent of having remote viewing experiments conducted with the viewer submerged in a submarine under 500 feet of sea-water. That greatly alters even the lowest frequency of electro-magnetic waves. But we found the viewers perfectly able to do remote viewing from the submarine, just as they had done on dry land. We also found that they were to look across distances up to thousands of miles. So from our experiments we found that neither distance nor electro-magnetic shielding interfered with psychic functioning (39:86). Bearden goes even further. He postulates that through the use of psychotronic electromagnetic scalar weapons all forms of electronic communications are vulnerable. He supports an emerging theory of local general relativity (LGR), which does not assume that local spacetime is always flat, but rather allows the individual conservation laws to be violated locally. "The major implication of this startling new engineering physics is that one can -P-r physical reality itself... communication faster than light speed is possible"(9:10). ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT Many researchers are concentrating on tests of low- energy psychokinesis, called micro-PK. "Typically, the psychic subject tries to influence a simple mechanical or electrical system, such as a sensitive thermometer or computer microchip, which can be affected by a very low level of energy." Robert Jahn, Dean of the School of E ne ring and Applied Science at Princeton University, Approved-For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-007.89R001001420001-3 says such tests have shown consistently positive'. results (33:54). If a microchip and other electronic equipment can be mentally manipulated, the new high-tech information revolution has just been handed a deadly setback. Financial institutions, businesses, governments, and those dependent on computers are suddenly very vulnerable. This apparent capability has created a paranoia amongst talented psychics in the parapsychology field--perhaps with some justification. "Researcher Jeffrey Mishlove believes that anyone with the ability to jam computers "would probably have to be destroyed""(33:55). How big of a step is it from being able to mentally stop an elevator at will, to manipulating the computer or electronics of a weapon system? WEAPONS Through psychotronics Bearden says "almost every weapon system we presently have -- or are developing -- is vulnerable to scalar EM weaponry." Once again we see existing weapons and technology possibly falling prey to a new weapons generation, called psychotronics. He developed this weapons list in 1980. The following list enumerates all the probable Soviet psychotronic weapons that I am aware of: (1) Electromagnetic Field Canceler; (2) Electron Current Canceler; (3) Death Radiator (De-inceptor); (4) Free Energy Generator; (5) Psychotronic Bomb; (6) Brain link; (7) Brain Probe; (8) Disease Radiator Ray; (9) Emotion Radiator Ray; (10) Antisubmarine Systems; (11) Teleporters (Prototype); (12) Force Generators; (13) Orthoframe Generators; (14) Quark/Antiquark Rays; (15) Distant Telepathy; (16) Nuclear Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Radiation Inhibitors; (17) Mental Implantation; (18) ABM Systems, Midcourse and Terminal; (19) Materializer Shields; (20) Sweeps for Nuclear Debris; (21) AAA Systems; (22) Antisatellite Systems; (23) Tesla-effect Weapons; (24) Earthquake Generators; (25) Antivehicle Systems; (26) Weather Control Systems (10:220-221). He and others have continued monitoring and documenting instances where they believe these weapons have been tested, theorizing the possible effects and matching them up with real world paranormal events. Typicaar incidents he describes include, a Tesla Weapon at Saryshagan (Scalar Potential Interferometer), "Nuclear" Flashes off the Coast of Africa, the 15 April, 1.979 Yugoslavian Earthquake, a Tesla Shield sited in. August 1980, a Continuous Tesla Fireball in Lithuania on 10 September, 1976, a Continuous Tesla EMP Globe in Iran, East Coast Aerial Blasts (High Burst Registration?) in 1977 and 1978, Booms in Delaware in 1982, and "Laser" Blinding of U.S. Satellites in 1975,(11:26). More recent incidents include abnormalities during Titan launches, shuttle launches, and even associated weather anomalies. Think, the ability to manipulate the weather would allow you to literally control the fog of war. But Bearden's 1986 apocalyptic message foretells of an ultimate destructive power, There is a special time bomb ticking away for all of humanity. For the first time, the total destruction of our entire biosphere -- and perhaps our entire solar system -- is only moments away from the finger on the trigger (9:86). Just how feasible are these potential military uses Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 of psi? FEASIBILITY OF OPERATIONAL EMPLOYMENT The experiments of the 1970s should more than convince you of psi's potential military uses. But why did Charles Honarton say in 1984 that, "psi has not reached the application stage?" (38::38) Probably because to use psi capabilities operationally requires: 1. the ability to ? r control. psi so it can be repeated on demand. 2. the ability to teach it and learn it. 3. the ability to practice it, gain confidence, improve our understanding, and increase reliability. How close are we to satisfying these requirements? CONTROLLABILITY Psi is frequently criticized because it is so unpredictable. Psychics are not always successful, experiments are hard to replicate, and therefore use upon demand is unreliable. But is that reason to exclude it all together? We see it used mainly in situations where there are no,other alternatives. "The Defense Department used psychics in an attempt to find General Dozier, kidnaped by the Italian Red Brigades in January 1982." All attempts were unsuccessful and unrelated to his eventual rescue (33: 16). But if 100 percent reliability is required, then no technique used today is acceptable either. A CIA commissioned independent evaluation following P ct cana 11 de "manifestations of extrasensory Approvia`ror Release ~b0~9~` /0' . IA-RDP96-00789RO01001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 perception [were] sufficiently sharp and clear-cut to justify serious considerations of possible applications"(33:102). However, it cautioned that existing ignorance of the basis of paranormal phenomena together with the capricious and unreliable nature of the channel dictate that information derived from this source can never stand alone and must be used with caution (33:102). Who said ''never say never?" Psi could be routinely, used to compliment other systems we have--and as a last resort when and where appropriate. Remember, a 1983 Congressional Research Service Report says "Dowsing for water, oil, and other minerals is an established practice around. the world." Similarly, other professionals are using psi functioning to assist them in their businesses. Police seek help identifying clues and suspects in criminal investigations. Mr. Price frequently used his talents as police commissioner of Burbank, California (33:100). Health care specialists utilize psi techniques for determining and improving patients health. Companies and individual property owners use dowsers to locate water for drilling, wells. But where do you find people like the Delphi oracle or Mr. Price? LEARNABILITY After years of study Targ says We are certain that psychic abilities are a totally normal aspect of human awareness, and that you can learn to develop this potential Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-007.89R001001420001-3 sanely and rationally"(41:5). "Anyone who decides for himself that it is safe to experience paranormal functioning can learn to do so" (41: 125) . The key to learning appears to be acceptance and support, rather than skepticism and criticism. Since Western society has repressed these psychic abilities, most people experiencing psi also tended to ignore their potential and usefulness. In our society, a person who is beginning to experience emerging psychic abilities, or who is interested in doing so, has almost nowhere to turn for guidance....They can admit their interests and risk being branded as social deviants, or they can deny their interests in psychic functioning and thereby become alienated from what might be an important aspect of their own lives and experiences (41:1.22). However, as people hear more about these capabilities and realize psi functioning is a normal experience, there is a greater sharing and exchange of personal experiences. People from all walks of life are attending personal awareness and assertiveness seminars to learn how to take control of their lives. Instructor Robert Robbins teaches a seminar entitled "Fear into Power: The Firewalk Experience" where Iundreds of people learn to walk barefoot over hot coals in a four hour seminar. Their whole concept is that mind and will can control the world. Norman Cousins, and adjunct professor at the UCLA School of Medicine has written two books on the subject of self-healing. He is certain that the mind has the power to affect "physical" processes (21:48). I Russi professional mineralogists and geologists Approved For telease 2d01 104/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 are taught dowsing at Tomsk Polytechnical Institute. Similarly, the U.S. National Dowsing Association teaches classes at annual conferences to anyone who is interested. After using many untrained individuals in remote- viewing experiments, Targ concludes, "The best scientific research suggests that the capacity for developing genuine psychic abilities lies latent in many, or perhaps most, people" (41:4) . In 1984, the U.S. Army initiated a two-year study to evaluate the potential of certain unconventional methods to enhance human performance. That study recently concluded, Sleep learning, mental imaging and accelerated learning programs are among the unconventional techniques which may improve soldier performance... [however], the committee rejected parapsychological techniques such as extrasensory perception and psychokinesis as scientifically unsupportable (19:75). Note this study rejects psi because it is not scientifically supportable. But does it work? During Vietnam the Marine Corps trained a platoon of dowsers to locate hidden tunnels and weapons caches in I Corps clear Hue. They were withdrawn after five months "because the successful use of dowsing appeared to require "special skills that cannot be taught to the average marine""(33:15). The commander of the Training and Development Command did not discredit dowsing, but merely pointed out it is a special skill his marines hadn't mastered. Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 PRACTICE Given that psi can be controlled, taught and learned, it probably requires more than a four hour short course for use operationally. Many skills require specialization, long term training and extensive practice to master. The experienced psi practitioners of today are those people who have spent years developing their individual talents. With those years of experience comes the increased confidence of how to use their talents. Like other "normal" skills, practice and training improve performance, understanding, and reliability. And those who have learned the most about psi are best suited to begin training a new vanguard to carry on and improve their skills. But in the hostile environment of Western society, the history of psi has been one of independent research and independent findings, held closely to prevent the scorn of organized science and society. Consequently, we continue to lose the knowledge and experience of past masters, rather than building on their understanding to improve our own. The one historic thread of commonality is a belief that psi exists and can offer much more for the future of mankind. In 1983, Targ said that "our understanding has reached the point where we can seriously consider transferring the remote viewing technology from laboratory research to real world applications"(24 78). Are we ready? Approved l 2~ease 86 / 4/02. IA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved ForReleasc 2~ 14-102' 4E -O&789RD01001 There are three avenues that parapsychologist have long since recognized as possible routes to general acceptance of psi: 1. Through experiments which produce psi upon demand in laboratories so skeptics are convinced that all conditions are correctly controlled. 2. Through mainstream sciences acceptance of new theories which explain psi phenomena. 3. Through finding practical applications that "work" regardless of our limited understanding (33:xii-xiii). Researchers have traditionally tried to use method one to convince the scientific community, but "prevailing concepts" reign supreme. Method two is also directly dependent on the scientific community and is very unlikely given the limited understanding of.psi today. That is why psi practitioners and many researchers have gone to method three in the 1980s. Through practical application they can develop their skills, leaving "prevailing concepts" behind, along with the scientific community. Many researchers point to how the scientific community was the last to accept hypnotism--so too researchers feel psi will gain acceptance from society long before the scientific community comes to grips with it. Operational use of psi is up to the user. King Croesus was content after one test to use the Delphi oracle. World famous psychic, Edgar I. Cayce, advised General John Pershing and accompanied him on European missions. Even General Patton used the psi talents of a Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved F. or Release 2001/04/02: CIA-RDP96-007819ftb01O'D14200613 water dowser while in North Africa (33:42). More recently, according to Barbara Honegger, who worked three years in the White House office of Policy Development for the Reagan administration, parapsychology played a major role in one of the administration's most controversial defense decisions--abandoning the.Carte.r administration's 'shell-game' deployment for the MX missile... In other words, U.S. studies show Soviet psychics could beat the shell game and pinpoint the missiles (33: 17). These examples show. how operational use depends,.. equally on someone taking the risk to try unorthodox techniques. Congressman Charlie Rose (D-N.C.) is a respected long-term congressman and member of the House Select Committee on Intelligence. He takes psychic weapons seriously, but in 1`84 didn't think we had the technology to build them. The congressman's personal experience has convinced him such breakthroughs are on the horizon. He has attended classified demonstrations of remote viewing arranged by the CIA. Says Rose, "I've seen some incredible examples of remote viewing--so much so that I think we ought to pay close attention to developments in this field, and especially to what the Soviets are doing. If they develop a capacity to have people mentally view secret centers within this country, we could come to the point where we didn't have any secrets"(33:47- 48). Bearden thinks those breakthroughs have occurred. He has documented evidence that the Soviets are beyond the speculation and research stages, and have deployed psi weapons systems ready to strike. With the threat so near, why are we so unprepared? Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Despite extensive evidence of psi and its tremendous potential use as an instrument of power, we continue to impede our own progress. Our mind set, extreme secrecy, and disjoint research fuels skepticism and criticism rather than seeking truth. The history of psi in Western society is filled with distinguished scientist from diverse fields who became maligned and professionally ridiculed for their psychic research. People feared that science would undermine traditional religious beliefs. Even electricity was considered to be an occult and mystical force in the 1850s. Robert Hare, a major American chemist, Alfred Russel Wallace, the cofounder with Darwin of the theory of evolution by natural selection, and Sir William Crookes, the chemist and physicist who discovered thallium and invented the radiometer, were the first of a continual succession of eminent scientists who endorsed paranormal claims based on their own research (27:825). Even today, the 130 years of controversy over psychical research is impeding progress. Robert Jahn, Professor of Aerospace Sciences and Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Princeton related one experience. I confess that I [discuss parapsychology research] with some trepidation, borne of previous unpleasant experiences. For example, a lighthearted article in the Princeton alumni magazine, in which I attempted to share some of Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For-Re lease 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 ?` ! _.. A?.t k*:4'~~ ~ ? ~~,: a: ~~ , Ma.e~Ya}q"4m'~r~~:,.~it...._ ~ {. ::~t~?>s ,+.:'.,. ..... , [my] experiences in this field with the university community at large, brought an intensity and breadth of reactions for which I was totally unprepared, ranging from irresponsible and categorical condemnation on one extreme, to equally irrational messianic accolades on the other. Rather than precipitating further such distracting outbursts, I have largely avoided opportunities for 'public presentation (33:22). As long as the scientific community continues to challenge the existence of psi, experiments to improve our understanding of it are limited. "Few Soviet style experiments are done in this country because it is difficult to obtain funding to explore the mechanism of psi when its very existence is politically controversial in the scientif is community" (33:6 1). This mind set is best describe by one eminent physicist who read SRI's report on years of remote viewing research, "This is something I won't believe even if it turns out to be true." Even author Ronald McRae, after his investigation into government psi research, is plagued with the Western culture mind set, "Personally, I cannot accept the reality of remote viewing..."(33:109). .Bearden says "...even when Western scientists are confronted with the actual Soviet tests of these [psychotronic] weapons directly over their heads, they do not recognize the weaponry nor the nature of the effects produced" (9: 2). How can this kind of atmosphere promote the search for truth? It won't--it retards it. In 1977 a group of prominent self appointed people such as Carl Sagan and Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA,RDP96-00789 R001001420001-3 astro physicist -Dennis Rawlins, formed the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) to refute all claims of paranormal events. This committee was later rebuked by Rawlins himself, a co- founder of the committee, because of the integrity of some of those who make a career of opposing anomaly research. He said, I now believe that if a flying saucer landed in the backyard of a leading anti-UFO spokesman, he might hide the incident from the public (for the public's own good, of course). He might swiftly convince himself that the landing was a hoax, a delusion, or an "unfortunate" or mundane phenomena which cotu.l.d be explained away with "further research" (33:171). This mentality is even more disturbing when we see the debilitating affects it can have. Case in point--A February 1987 article in OMNI states: In one strange incident CSICOP official Philip J. Klass, learning of a forum on anomalies research that the University of Nebraska was sponsoring, called the school to protest that CSICOP's views were not being represented and that, moreover, in questioning the United States government's word on the nonexistence of UFO's, speakers at the conference were seeking "what the Soviet Union does--to convey to the public that our government cannot be trusted, that it lies, that it falsifies.... As a patriotic American, I very much resent [this]." After Klass threatened legal action against the university, it canceled its sponsorship of future conferences of this kind. Klass withdrew the threat and pronounced himself satisfied with the university's action. Since then satellite groups of debunkers have proliferated all around the country, determined to do battle with "pseudoscience" real and imagined. Not content simply to argue the issues on their merits, they have harassed colleges and universities into dropping (usually noncredit) courses in parapsychology, conducted vituperative campaigns against anomaly proponents, and done--in the words of Philadelphian Drew Endacott, one of Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 .Approved` Fc$Y"zelea" 4/02 . CIA=RDP9S-0078 8001001420001-3 their number--"anything short of criminal activity" to get "the point across to- . people who have no. demonstrated facility to reason"(14:33). Given this obstacle which many in the scientific community create, the military is confronted with a similar situation, both personal and professional. Can the military risk association with the scorned psychic community? Can a military officer? I stated earlier that operational use of psi iz.. equally dependent on the user as well as the psychic. What.., is the military mind set when dealing with parapsychology? I began this research because I was concerned the military establishment was unaware of psi potential applications, or not taking Lt. Col. Alexander's message seriously. As my research indicates, the government, or at least some individuals, were well ahead of me. They have been involved, daring to try unorthodox techniques, and helping demonstrate the existence of psi by using it when all else failed. But the military and government is a reflection of its society, so the controversy exists there also. Congressman Rose thinks skeptics in the Pentagon and CIA are hindering U.S. research in remote viewing and wonders openly about their motives. Some of the intelligence people I've talked to know that remote viewing works, although they still block further research on it, since they claim it's not yet as accurate as satellite photography. But it seems to me that it would be a hell of a cheap radar system, and if the Russians have it and we don't, we are in serious trouble. This country wasn't afraid to look into the strange physics behind lasers and semiconductors, and I don't think it should be afraid to look at this (33-104). Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04102 :--GIA+f20P'96 0 $ R00'i'Ofl1420001-3= Samuel Koslov, 'the assistant secretary of the Navy who tried unsuccessfully to eliminate psychic research, dislikes even the mention of so called psychic weapons (33:66). Navy research in the mid-seventies determined that psychics could detect remote electromagnetic sources, indicating perhaps they could also detect submerged submarines. The Navy also sponsored research to see if psychics could influence the magnetometers used to detectr the magnetism of submerged substances. Dr. Joel Lawson, once head of the Naval Electronic Systems Command, said "I have always believed that ESP is the only way to fight submarines. The magnetometer tests were designed to prove the principle." Once willing to discuss psychic warfare openly, now he has been officially silenced (33:106). My own research experience demonstrates leaders at all levels do not have a basic understanding of psychic weapons systems. I questioned many general officers on the subject of parapsychology and only one was even aware of what I was referring to. That one senior officer said, "If you are interested in that you need to have your head examined!" He refused to even discuss which service or organization I could 'contact for more information. The total nonfamiliarity of senior officers I questioned and similar indications from my Air War College classmates is a. poor response to Alexander's 1980 message. Further, the hostile response I received from the one general who had some familiarity indicated either a "closed-mind" or "stay away" attitude. You can imagine my surprise when I later found Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-0`0789RU01'001'420901-3 his name in a 1984 Washington Post article as one Pentagon general who was impressed with some of the psi results, and concerned about the Soviets lead in psychic research (8:C13). So I take it he meant "stay away." EXTREME SECRECY Through additional research I was surprised to discover the 1982 Air War College research paper presented the Most Significant Contribution award was on this same topic; an unclassified paper, later up-graded classified, and then completely withdrawn. Contacts with the intelligence community for information brought back a resounding--NO, regardless of clearance or willingness to make this research effort classified. Discussions with previous DOD psi proponents warned it might be all right to do research in this academic situation, but forget it afterward or it could be unhealthy for your career. From this study and these experiences I will assume the government is pursuing psi research. I'm convinced psi has tremendous human/military applications which can be used operationally. I'm also convinced that relatively few military leaders at any level are aware of the threat. But most of my original questions remain unanswered:. How much research? How well coordinated? How well funded?. What priority in impending funding cuts? In addition, I've developed some new concerns. I expected to learn the truth about military applications of psi and current research so Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 I could help identify impacts within my area of specialization--computers and space systems. Instead, I only confirmed Alexander's warning, and found that super secrecy in this area is shrouding the truth, promoting skepticism within society and the military, confining military strategic thinking, and ultimately may he more harmful. I, like Congressman Rose, have to wonder the motive. I've felt like an investigative reporter in my ow-,_ backyard. When talking about the electronic warfare (EW) area, experts emphasize how in the past our services treated EW as a "Black Art" far too long. The result was improper resource allocation which left us with our pants down. I contend psi research has been locked on the same course--with significantly greater risk. Many senior leaders have been quick to point out that "Intelligence is too important to leave to the Intelligence community." I would add "psi capabilities" are too important to leave to the Intelligence community. Marcello Truzzi goes one step further. Psi is too important to become the exclusive property of governments, either at home or, abroad, who might become interested in exploiting these abilities for their own purpose (41:8) . Discussions with classmates on this subject demonstrated a reflection of Western societies mind set. Most of the highly technical scientific community didn't even want to discuss it, "they may laugh too hard" or, "if there were any possibility of psychotronics then the entire sci ti c community would be jumping at it." Others were Approved or Release 200104/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 CIA-RDP96-00769RO01001420001-3 caught off guard by its possible reality. And the few who were not surprised (mainly Intelligence backgrounds) new something about it but had no idea if we were still actively pursuing psi applications. NO FOCAL POINT The establishment has apparently gone underground and is using titles other than psi, ESP or parapsychology to,- contract'out research. Targ feels "Reliable, undistorted.. scientific information about psychic functioning must be made more easily available and indentif iable" (41:139) . McRae suggest it is fear of ridicule that makes DOD so sensitive to this subject. Any CIA report mentioning psi is automatically classified top secret or higher." He also suggest that parapsychologist not spend a significant portion of their effort on military-related research. The failures of psychic warfare projects in military laboratories, the record shows, have often been among the most irresponsible experiments ever reported: The seances with dead Soviet agents, the multispectral image analyzer that supposedly detects submarines with a photo, the hyperspatial nuclear howitzer, and the antimissile time warp over the North pole, to rec iew only a few (41: 133). His book Mind Wars, gives an excellent introduction to the broad range of government projects attempted, and what's ridiculous to one may not seem so ridiculous to another. In response I would suggest he is burning the wheat (those examples used in this paper) with the chaff. Opponents of psi research use the failures to justify r~~e r Jahn says the failures merely Approval MPW$Igase 2d 0 1oz : CCIX-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 pia eda FrX61 ase. 2001/04102-`:''C IA-RDP96-007,89 R001001420001-3 }t. "}i5 ,lil yr; , E Ah,ii*y~S The :'difficulty of the task, not in justifying its abandonment. Historical examples abound of far more frustrating and costly routes to ultimate attainment of difficult scientific and engineering aspirations (e.g., transmutation of the elements and manned aerospace flight, to name but two) (28:525). The less focused the initiatives, the slower the progress and the smaller the knowledge base. The less information, the more destructive misinformation. Targ says "Reliable, publicly available information about psi research can help protect us all from the damaging effects of misinformation " (41:9) . RECOMMENDATIONS Seven years after Alexander's article appeared in the Military v e , I can only concur with his message--and more so. The implications of a distant US second place in the parapsychology mind race with the Soviet Union are unthinkable--total vulnerability. Yet this appears to be a real possibility. We are no better or stronger than our weakest link. And our total dependence on high tech sophisticated. electronic weapons systems may become our Achilles heel. Continued coordinated research is imperative for rapid advancement. Psi smart leaders at all levels are essential for necessary resource support, strategic thinking, and acceptance of the threat/potential we might soon encounter. Targ would argue that "The mind race should not be seen as a psychic competition between Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved Fd R:eI`e a ?~.uW^ 2200 . -. r..?-:'. ~ r tia;.' _ s+,:.:.w\iadf -r'au~5't6a "r'k~('i. C.IA RDP96-Q07$9RO01001420001-3 nations. Rather, it is a race to develop our own innate potential for extended awareness"(41:9)?. While I can agree with this in theory, I agree even more with Marcello Truzzi when he says Our government has a responsibility to achieve security and military parity, if not superiority, in relation to our potential enemies. Thus, even if the probabilities for psi research producing anything practical are small, it would be negligence for our guardians in government to ignore such matters especially when others are pursuing such avenues. Long shots have paid off in the past. Atomic energy was once a "wild idea" (33:xi). Opponents to psi research today are similar to the late Admiral William Leahy, Chief of U.S. Naval Operations from 1937 to 1939. He said, "The A-bomb is the biggest fool thing we have ever done. The bomb will never go off, and I speak as an expert on explosives" (30:39). To accomplish these objectives means: 1. Opening the super secret door to allow broader classified knowledge of psi's true capabilities, where we are, and where we are going. 2. Focusing military exploration resources and start targeting capabilities/defenses like we did for the Strategic Defense Initiatives. 3. Doing strategic thinking on a totally new type of warfare. Opening the super secret door is necessary to begin acclimating the military community to psis true capabilities. "It is past time for bringing psi into the open, where everyone can benefit from a realistic awareness of it" (41:262). Otherwise, how do we expect people to accept and use psi capabilities? Let's learn from our Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 C i =RbP$ bO 89F 0 10`0,'1420001-3 R t..4: personal experiences with computers. We are still trying to get leaders accustomed to hands-on computer systems. Changing attitudes takes time. The sooner we begin using psi to compliment other systems, the sooner we will build a reliable psi force and gain managements confidence. Targ said, We believe the question of psi's usefulness and importance may be settled in the next decade. Settling this question will not require another century. It will probably be settled in the marketplace and in the everyday lives of millions of people and not, alas, in the corridors of Cambridge (41: 189). The military community needs to be poised on this leading edge, lest it fall behind the society it is sworn to protect. Focusing resources and targeting capabilities is the cornerstone to knowing the true picture. Otherwise, who has the stick? Who really knows where we are, and what it will take to get where we need to be? How else can we present accurate, reliable information to senior leadership for prioritizing resources? Targ notes that The popular view of our relationship to space and time is inadequate... One possible conclusion is that there is something incomplete about our understanding of the space-time continuum in which we exist (41:5). This is Bearden's position also. So the.military needs to force the scientific community of open their eyes.and minds to better understand paranormal events and the new physical principles which explain them. Renowned Soviet physicist and Nobelian P. Kapitsa Approved For 6elease iaaIU4/61'4S eRvD~J9 07t~JK6OT66f426U0 -o3tal Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00100142,0001 neutralization of foreign missiles was to be found, it could only come from a group of new principles in' physics which was called "energetics"(9:106). The term "energetics," was contracted from "psychoenergetics," and is essentially the expanded physics/electromagnetics that Bearden has dubbed scalar electromagnetics. The military needs to find young blood in the scientific community who don't know all the reasons why something can't be done. They are the ones with fresh minds to evaluate Bearden's evolving concept of scalar electromagnetics, and to find new physical principles explaining psychic phenomena. August Stern is one person in the West who actually worked in top-secret Soviet military laboratories searching for a physical key to psychic phenomena. He warns, the Soviets will emerge with a completely new view of man--not of muscle and bone but of quantum physics, magnetism, and electromagnetic waves. When that day comes, he asserts, they won't need to scour the countryside for psychics. They'll just build machines for manipulation of the mind (40:108). He goes on to remind us, "But remember how surprised you were when they launched Sputnik. You'd better ? prepare" (40:108). Strategic thinking is essential to preparing a solid foundation for a totally new type of warfare. The Air War College should incorporate this subject in its curriculum, and present it and other futuristic technologies early in the overall curriculum. Knowledge of history must be combined with knowledge of future weapons systems (space Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release 2001/04/02: CIA-RDI'96-00789R001001420001-3 technology, directed energy, psi etc.) to most effectively study war, challenge current leaders, and prepare future warriors. This is the place and the time to stimulate military visionaries. In the words of Edgar Allan Poe, "Those who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night"(44:144). In addition, speakers such as Bearden, Alexander, and others should be invited to a forum similar to thQ- Aerospace Power Symposium, where the issues are put on the table, controversies explained, and the students really understand the weapons and threats they may soon employ or confront. CONCLUS ION Man's greatest potential remains a prisoner of man. Exploring the mind frontier is essential to unlock our innate capabilities, and the key to successful exploration is a greater psychic awareness. The mind is rich in unfathomed resources, ripe for exploration, a limitless source of treasures for advancing all mankind, and a serious threat to those who ignore its potential. We must overcome our psychic inhibitions, stop denying the existence of paranormal events, and start trying to understand the nature of these events. Alexander's message is still valid and needs repeating. We are at risk! We need to open the security doors and open our minds to educate all levels within the military community. We need a well coordinated ongoing Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 Approved For Release .2b~01'/04/02: CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 military exploration of psi. Since the basic electronic components which form the foundation of our weapons systems appear to be vulnerable, we need psi strategic thinking to chart the course for entering this entirely new battlefield dimension. In the words of James Thurber, "Let us not look back in anger, nor forward in fear, but around in awareness. Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 F6- ,Rele` as4 2001/04102 C1A-RDP96-00789R001001420001-3 1. "A Psi Gap?" Discover, February 1984, p. 8. 2. "An E.S.P. Gap: Exploring psychic weapons." Time, 23 January 1984, p. 17. 3. Alexander, John B. The New Mental Battlefield: "Beam Me Up Spock.-" Military Review, 60, Pt.2 (December 1980), pp. 47-54. 4. Anderson, Jack. "Pentagon Invades Buck Rogers" Turf." Washington Post, 9 January 1981, p. D16. 5. ---------------, "Yes, Psychic Warfare Is Part of the Game." Washington Post, 5 February 1981, p. DC11." 6. ---------------, "CIA Toys with Extrasensory Weapons." Washington Post, 30 March 1981, p. B13. 7. ---------------, "Psychic Studies Might Help U.S. Explore Soviets." Washington Post, 23 April 1984, p. B14. 8. ---------------, ""Voodoo Gap' Looms as Latest Weapons Crisis." Washington Post, 24 April 1984, p. C13. 9 . Bearden, Thomas E. FER-DE-LANCE: A Briefing Q SoviQt Scalar Electromagnetic Weapons. Ventura, CA: Tesla Book Company, 1986. 1.0. -----------------, Th Excalibur Briefing. San Francisco, CA: Strawberry Hill Press/Walnut Hill Books, 1980. 11 -----------------, Star Wars Now! Thy. Bohm-Aharonov Effect, Scalar Interferometry. =d Soviet Weaponization. Millbrae, CA: Tesla Book Company, 1984. 12. Beaumont, Roger. "Cnth? On The Strategic Potential of V ESP." Signal, January 1982, pp. 39-45. 13. Benjamin, Milton R. and Lloyd H. Norman. "Cassandra Of The Cold War." Newsweek, 5 January, 1977, p. 24. 14. Clark, Jerome. "Censoring The Paranormal." Omni, February. 1987, p. 33. 15. Crypton, Dr. "The Mathematics of Self-deception." Science Digest, January 1986, pp. 72-73. z~ r ~~ -~~r f~,~.eA josJJ_lr~~a y c Fj~l~ Cry -- ss s.l1 ,VZ A Z, ArQz--AS od tAR~~sc~c~a~o l~clr ~~~ ~Ursuv~ ~~~ Ci~s~,uc,,/ iE Ness ~QC Q a/J l /h ~wC+~'.H IS " Nartut%3 crN~ .f } CrecIV4 { 4s ~,..c