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Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 United States Department of State aPQp Libya's Continuing Responsibility for Terrorism November 1991 DOS review(s) completed. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 United States Department of State Libya's Continuing Responsibility for Terrorism November 1991 DOS review(s) completed. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Libya's Continuing Responsibility for Terrorism This White Paper is designed to provide context for the allegations in the US and Scottish indictments of Libyan nationals for the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in December 1988. To this end, the Paper discusses the attitude of the Qadhafi government toward terrorism and outlines Libyan responsibility for terrorist acts. Based on analysis of Libyan behavior over many years, on the results of investigating the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 since 1988, and on the structure of the Libyan regime and the relations among leading officials in that regime, we conclude that the bombing of Pan Am 103 was not an aberration and was an action authorized by the Libyan Government. Libya's support for terrorism began in the earliest days of the Qadhafi regime. As early as 1972, Libyan leader Mu'ammar Qadhafi publicly offered to help extremist movements-including the Provisional Irish Re- publican Army and the Black Power movement in the United States-and to support any group in the Middle East willing to attack Israel. Qadhafi dispatched terrorists to Italy in '1973 to shoot down an Israeli airliner and at least as early as 1975 ordered the murder of Libyan dissidents living abroad. Although dissidents historically have posed little-if any-threat to Qadhafi's rule, the Libyan leader has concentrated on eliminating them. Assassinations took place in the early and mid-1980s and included two attempts (one of them successful) against Libyan students in the United States. Libyan involvement in and support of terrorism expanded throughout the early 1980s. Tripoli provided passports to Abu Nidal organization (ANO) members who attacked the El Al ticket counter at the Vienna airport in December 1985. Libya also sponsored the bombing of the La Belle disco in Berlin in April 1986 that killed three people, including two US servicemen. Over the years, even as Libyan agents and their proxies planned and carried out terrorist attacks, Qadhafi regularly sought to calm international concerns through public denunciations of terrorism. For example, in 1977, Qadhafi plotted to assassinate a US Ambassador, just after assuring President Carter that he sought good relations with the United States. Moreover, Qadhafi periodically has issued public denials of his involvement in terrorism while his intelligence apparatus was preparing for acts of terrorism (see inset on page 3). Libyan action has not been limited to Israeli and Western targets. In the mid-1980s Libya backed plots against President Mubarak of Egypt, former President Nimeiri of Sudan, President Mobutu of Zaire, former Tunisian Presi- dent Bourguiba, and former President Habre of Chad. In addition to using and supporting terrorism, Qadhafi also has a long history of trying to subvert governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The 1986 airstrike on Libya by the United States, com- bined with other international pressures, did not end Tripoli's support for terrorism. Following the air attack, Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 The hollowness of Qadhafi's rhetoric is best illustrated by Libya's longstanding involvement in kidnapping, despite his regular denunciations of such acts. In 1978, Libyan intelligence officers kidnapped Imam Musa Sadr, the spiritual leader of the Lebanese Shia community, just after he arrived in Tripoli. Musa Sadr eventually died in Libyan captivity. Throughout the 1980s, Qadhafi publicly denounced the illegal detention of hostages by extremist groups in Lebanon. Yet in April 1986, Libya bought and arranged for the murder of three Western hostages in Lebanon, including American Peter Kilburn. More re- cently, in November 1987 the Abu Nidal organization (ANO) hijacked the yacht Silco in international waters. The hostages-Belgian and French nationals-were released in stages, with the last detainees freed in January 1991. The yacht was seized by ANO elements under the direction of the Libyan intelligence service, and some of the hostages were even held on Libyan soil. Qadhafi began to use front companies and other organiza- tions to hide Libya's hand (see inset on page 4). In addition, Qadhafi has placed a premium on masking Libya's support for terrorism in an attempt to avoid jeopardizing Libya's economic links to his African neigh- bors and major European trading partners. The Libyans sponsored a series of anti-US operations immediately after the US airstrikes in April 1986. Tripoli was responsible for the shooting of a US Embassy communicator in Sudan on 15 April 1986 and for the shooting of another Embassy communicator in Sanaa, North Yemen, on 25 April 1986. In addition, two Libyans were apprehended on 18 April 1986 as they attempted to attack the US Officers Club in Ankara with grenades obtained from the Libyan People's Bureau there. The Libyans confessed that they were ordered to cause the maximum number of casualties, particularly women and children. We believe that Libya was responsible for the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, on 21 December 1988 and that senior government officials involved in previous terrorist attacks around the world orchestrated the operation. Forensic evidence indicates that the bomb's timer was unique to Libyan inventories, and an official of the Libyan national carrier, Libyan Arab Airlines, used his credentials to circumvent security proce- dures in Malta to assist in the operation. Over the past several years, Libya has provided assistance to Palestinian terrorists, enabling them to launch attacks against Israel and Western targets: ? In May 1990, Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) members attempted a seaborne raid on Israel; the operation failed, and four terrorists were killed and 12 captured. Libya provided the group with training, sophisticated equip- ment, weaponry, and the mother ship used in the operation. ? In July 1988, ANO operatives attacked the Greek cruise ship The City of Poros, killing nine and wounding over 100 people. Libya provided the weapons used in the operation. Libya has regarded Africa as an attractive environment for its operations and is responsible for several attacks there: ? On 30 October 1991, a French judge issued international arrest warrants, charging four Libyan officials with involvement in the bombing of UTA Flight 772 in September 1989. ? In March 1990, Libyan diplomats were expelled from Ethiopia after a bomb exploded in the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, in an apparent attempt to kill the Israeli Ambassador who was staying there. ? In February 1988, two known Libyan terrorists were arrested in Dakar, Senegal, in possession of explosives and weapons. ? In October 1987, a bomb exploded in the office of World Vision, a private relief organization operating in Moudou, Chad. Libyan diplomats based in Cotonou, Benin, assisted the terrorists who carried out the attack. ? In March 1987, a bomb exploded at the cafe "L'Historil" in Djibouti, killing 11 and wounding 50. The Libyans ordered a Palestinian group, the Popular Struggle Front, to conduct the attack or risk losing Tripoli's financial support. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Comparing Qadhafi's Public Statements on Terrorism With the Facts The Fiction: Libya "rejects terrorism, including the killing of peaceful, innocent old men, women, or children anywhere, be it on board a plane or anywhere else," Tripoli Domestic Service, 5 September 1986. The Fact: Libya provided financial and logistic support to the Abu Nidal organization hijacking of Pan Am Flight 073 in Karachi, Pakistan, in which 21 passengers were killed and 120 wounded, 5 September 1986. The Fiction: Libya denounces the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) bombing in Enniskillen, North- ern Ireland, in which 11 died and 65 were injured. JANA, 10 November 1987. The Fact: French authorities intercepted a ship carrying 150 tons of arms and explosives provided by the Government of Libya and destined for PIRA in Ireland, 31 October 1987. Four earlier shipments successfully arrived at their destination. The Fiction: "The Great Jamahiriyah does not practice terrorism, nor does it support it. " Colonel Qadhafi, 11 February 1988. The Fact: Pan Am 103 exploded over Scotland, 21 De- cember 1988, killing 259 persons on board and 11 citi- zens of Lockerbie on the ground. Libyan involvement is certain. The Fiction: Libya "has affirmed and continues to affirm that it denounces and opposes terrorism. " JANA, 9 April 1989. The Fact: Libyan agents, under the direction of senior officials in Tripoli, sabotaged UTA Flight 772, which exploded over Niger, killing all 171 people aboard, 19 September 1989. The Fiction: Referring to the PLF raid on Israel, Libya said that it "has no connection and no relation with that operation." JANA, 6 June 1990. The Fact: Libya materially assisted the 30 May 1990 raid by the PLF on Israel, which was launched from the Libyan coast, by providing the operatives with extensive training, military hardware, and navigational equipment. The Fiction: Qadhafi told the Egyptian press in June 1991 that "Abu Nidal is not operating at all. The world hasn't heard anything about him for years ... Abu Nidal is not in Libya." The Fact: The ANO remains headquartered in Tripoli, and Abu Nidal himself is known to meet with Colonel Qadhafi. November 1991. The Libyans have supported terrorist groups in Europe, particularly the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) , which Colonel Qadhafi has called a popular national liberation movement. Throughout the mid-1980s, Libya provided the group with arms. Libya's hand was openly revealed in October 1987, when French authorities inter- cepted a freighter, the Eksund, off the coast of France and seized 150 tons of weapons and explosives destined for the PIRA. Libya has also provided financial support to the PIRA. Since April 1986, Libyan assassins have murdered three anti-Qadhafi Libyan dissidents residing in Greece, Italy, and France. Tripoli has continued to target other exiles deemed "opponents" of the Libyan Government. Despite the efforts of the international community, Libyan involvement in terrorism today remains extensive. Tripoli is one of the largest financiers of terrorists worldwide, and it continues to permit terrorist groups to operate at camps throughout Libya. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 The Libyan Use of Terrorist Fronts Because of public exposure of the role of Libyan People's Bureaus (LBPs) in international terrorism in the early 1980s, Libya has over the past few years shifted some of its terrorist support operations to other institu- tions. These institutions include the Islamic Call Society, student organizations and friendship societies, and Libyan front companies. By using multiple organizations, Libya is able to continue its activities even if one group is exposed. Even Libyan businessmen not readily identified with the Libyan intelligence service or a front company have been used in operations. For example, in January 1991 the Chadian Government arrested two Libyan agents posing as businessmen who were apparently attempting to smuggle explosives into Ndjamena. We have reason to believe that many other Libyan businessmen and busi- nesses worldwide are linked to the Libyan intelligence service. Front companies provide Libyan operatives with cover and deception capabilities. Some of these companies probably were established as legitimate corporations, but they have been blackmailed into cooperating with the Libyan intelligence services. The front companies typi- cally establish a partnership with local nationals to enhance their cover. The companies' partners rarely know that they are dealing with Libyan intelligence officers or Libyan businessmen taking orders from the Libyan Government. Libyan front companies known to have been directly or indirectly involved in terrorist operations over the past decade include Exo-Commerce and Sarra or Sarrah. For example, under the guise of a "legitimate" business, the Benin-based Sarrah company infiltrated arms and explosives into neighboring African countries for terrorist acts in the late 1980s. Another front company, the Greek- based Germa Shipping and Stevedoring Company, owned the Tiny Star, the mothership used in the 30 May 1990 PLF attack on Israel, launched from aLibyan port. In addition, other businesses are surrogates of the Libyan intelligence service. Neutron International is run by Musbah Warfalli, an architect of Libyan attacks against Libyan dissidents in the early 1980s. The Libyan Arab Foreign Investment Company, or LAFICO, is wholly owned by the Libyan Governmentand is some- times used by the Libyan intelligence service for cover purposes. The General Arab African Company is a major trading company serving as a front for Libyan intelligence throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Libyan Arab Airlines (LAA) is the government-owned national flag carrier, providing scheduled passenger and cargo service to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Although it conducts legitimate activities, LAA has been used to transport arms, explosives, and terrorists. Among the Libyans implicated in supplying arms to the PIRA from 1985 to 1987 was an LAA employee. An LAA flight was used in the August 1986 escape of six terrorists believed to be responsible for the 3 August attack on the British base at Akrotiri, Cyprus. The six were disguised as airline crewmembers, and the captain made false state- ments to airport authorities about the crew's size to disguise their presence. The airline remains well posi- tioned to assist in an attack, particularly since at least 30 percent of LAA employees posted abroad are Libyan intelligence officers. The Islamic Call Society (ICS), created by the Libyans to propagate Islam, is used for legitimate religious purposes, but Qadhafi also exploits the organization's philanthropic reputation to advance his terrorist agenda. The ICS office in Curacao assisted separatists who bombed a government office in Cayenne, French Guy- ana, in January 1987. For much of the 1980s, Tripoli used its Call Society office in Cotonou, Benin, to recruit and fund terrorists in the region. The Libyans also use travel agencies around the world to facilitate the movement of local terrorists to Libya for advanced training. The agency normally books dissi- dents/ terrorists for travel through third countries so their ultimate destination-Libyan terrorist training camps-goes undetected. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Abd al-Salam Jallud, number-two man in the Libyan Government In the Middle East the Libyans continue to support a wide range of terrorist groups: ? The ANO-which has conducted over 100 terrorist attacks resulting in the deaths of more than 280 people and the wounding of over 650 since its founding- continues to receive significant Libyan support. The group is headquartered in Tripoli, and Libya provides the ANO with major training facilities and several million dollars annually. ? Qadhafi provided well over $1 million to Ahmed Jabril's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command in 1990. The group was responsible for the bombings of two US military trains in Germany in 1987 and 1988. ? Elements of the PLF remain based in Libya and receive fi- nancial and logistic support from the Libyan Government. The group has a long history of terrorist attacks, including the hijacking of the cruise ship Achille Lauro in October 1985, which resulted in the murder of a wheelchair-bound American tourist on board, and the previously mentioned attack on a Tel Aviv beach. ? Libya also funds Sa'iqa and elements of the Palestine Islamic Jihad. Libyan support for non-Palestinian groups has become increasingly selective. The main criterion appears to be the degree to which a group demonstrates a capability and willingness to attack Libya's enemies worldwide, including US and other Western targets. In Europe, Libya maintains ties to the PIRA, despite Qadhafi's claim earlier this year to have ended support for the group. The Libyans have contact with the Kurdish separatist group, the PKK, which has conducted numerous terrorist attacks against Turkish targets. A principal recipient of Libyan financing in Asia is the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and its military wing, the New People's Army (NPA), which has killed 10 Americans since 1987. The Libyans have provided at least $7 million to the CPP/NPA since 1987. In Latin America, the Libyans continue to search out groups willing to kill Americans. For example, last year Tripoli paid the Haitian Liberation Organization over $20,000 to carry out an attack against the US Embassy in Port-au-Prince; the group, however, failed to accomplish its mission. Libya has unsuccessfully tried to recruit the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front in El Salvador to conduct anti-Western attacks in return for money. The Libyans also maintain contact with other terrorist groups in the region, including the Costa Rican Juan Santa Maria Patriotic Organization, Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement in Peru, and the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front in Chile. The Anti-Imperialism Center (AIC) -also known as Mathaba-is used by the Libyan Government to support terrorist networks and thus plays an important role in Qadhafi's terrorism strategy. Established in 1982 to sup- port "liberation and revolutionary groups," the AIC has Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 sponsored a number of stridently anti-Western confer- ences in Tripoli. At the same time, the AIC's mission is to identify and recruit revolutionaries for ideological and military training in Libya. During their training at AIC camps, individuals are selected for advanced training, including in weapons and explosives, and indoctrination. The AIC is headed by Musa Kusa, a Qadhafi confidant who is also Libya's Deputy Foreign Minister. With represen- tatives in many Libyan embassies worldwide, the AIC runs its own independent clandestine operations and disburses payments to terrorist, insurgent, and subversive groups. Training Colonel Qadhafi continues to train Middle Eastern, African, Asian, and Latin American terrorist and dissident organiza- tions at camps in Libya, including Tripoli. The largest training camps include: ? Al Qalah. About 100 kilometers southwest of Tripoli, it is the principal ANO facility in Libya. Over the past year the ANO has significantly expanded the size of the camp. ? Seven April Training Camp. Located about 9 kilometers from Tripoli, the facility provides training in terrorism and subversion to Africans and Latin Americans, as well as to Libyan military personnel. ? Sidi Bilal Port Facility. Terrorists who carried out the May 1990 seaborne attack against Israel were trained here. ? Bin Ghashir. Just south of Tripoli, it has been used to train dissidents from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in terrorist/guerrilla tactics. ? Ras al Hilal. Palestinian terrorist groups have trained at this facility. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 On 30 October 1991 a French magistrate issued interna- tional arrest warrants against four Libyan officials for their role in the bombing of UTA Flight 772 in September 1989. The flight, which was bound from Brazzaville, Congo, to Paris via Ndjamena, Chad, exploded over the desert in southeastern Niger, killing all 171 passengers and crewmembers. Seven Americans, including the wife of the US Ambassador to Chad, were among the passengers. In addition to the warrants against Abdallah Sanussi (a relative of Qadhafi and second in command of Libya's intelligence services), Nayli Ibrahim (one of Sanussi's subordinates), Abd Al-Azragh, and Abbas Musbah (a representative of the Libyan services in Brazzaville), the judge issued international lookout notices against Musa Kusa (head of the AIC and Deputy Foreign Minister) and Abd al-Salam Zadma. According to the charges, Al-Azragh, the First Secretary at the Libyan People's Bureau in Brazzaville, Congo, recruited three Congolese to plant a suitcase bomb on the flight and provided them with the device. Two of the three are now in jail-one in Congo and one in Zaire. Terrorism is an important instrument of Libyan foreign policy. Libya will use terrorism to further its agenda, particularly when Colonel Qadhafi believes he can plausibly deny involvement. Qadhafi's use and support of terrorism as an instrument of policy belie efforts to persuade the world that he does not sponsor terrorist acts. Libyan officials responsible for acts of terrorism remain in senior government positions. Last year Qadhafi appointed Ibra- him Bishari, the head of the Libyan intelligence service and a key player in Libyan terrorist attacks in the 1980s, as Libya's Foreign Minister. Musa Kusa, Director of the Anti-Imperialism Center, which organizes Libyan support for radical groups worldwide The Libyans use a variety of mechanisms to finance terrorist groups: Tripoli frequently passes money to terrorists who train in-country. Virtually all terrorist oper- atives who are trained in Libya receive, at a minimum, travel money and a small stipend for personal expenses. Libyan People's Bureaus and the Anti-Imperialism Centers are used to transfer funds to terrorists. ? Radical Palestinian groups often receive Libyan funding through bank accounts, particularly in the Middle East. ? On rare occasions the Libyans have used couriers to deliver money to terrorist organizations; the transfer usually occurs in a third country. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Libya has trained Palestinian and other terrorists in- country since the early 1970s. In addition to the principal facilities in and around Tripoli, over the past two decades, the Libyans have operated smaller training camps dispersed throughout their country. On some occasions, terrorists are trained at Libyan military bases. For example, in 1988 members of the radical Palestinian group, the Popular Struggle Front, trained at an Air Force base in the Aouzou region. Members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command also are known to have trained in Libyan military camps. Non-Palestinian groups that have received training in Libya in recent years include the Ecuadorian Alfaro Vive, Carajo organization, Colombia's M-19, the Haitian Liber- ation Organization, the Chilean Manuel Rodriguez Patri- otic Front, the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, and the Japanese Red Army. Trainees from Asia, Latin America, and Africa often go to Libya legally, usually pretending to be students. Some- times, Third World nationals travel to Libya for what they believe to be legitimate schooling, such as technical or religious training. When they arrive, however, they find themselves met at the airport by soldiers, placed on a truck, and transported to a terrorist/dissident training camp. Those students hostile to Libyan overtures are summarily deported and branded as unworthy students. Extremists travel to Libya using other methods as well. For example, radicals from Mauritius traveled to Tripoli in 1987, ostensibly to attend a youth conference. Instead, they went to a terrorist training camp. Foreign Minister Ibrahim Bishari. As head of the Libyan External Security organization- Tripoli's primary external intelligence service-in the 1980s, he oversaw Libyan acts of terrorism. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Appendix Libyan Support for International Terrorism Since 15 April 1986 Summer 1990 Libya provided the Haitian Liberation Organization over $20,000 to carry out an attack against the US Embassy in Port-au-Prince. Haitian officials arrested two of the oper- atives before they could execute the attack. Palestine Liberation Front members attempted a seaborne raid on Israel; four were killed and 12 captured. The Libyans were involved in all aspects of the foiled operation, providing sophisticated equipment, navigational aids, ex- pert planning assistance, and weapons used in the attack. March 1990 A bomb exploded on the second floor of the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The blast occurred about 50 meters from the suite occupied by the Israeli Ambassador. The Ethiopian Government subsequently expelled two Libyan diplomats for their alleged involvement in the incident. September 1989 UTA Flight 772 exploded over Niger, killing all 171 passengers and crew on board. The French investigation concluded that Libya masterminded the operation, which was carried out by the LPB in Brazzaville, Congo. The French have issued international arrest warrants for four Libyan Government officials for their involvement in the attack. Five people-including two Americans-were injured and several vehicles damaged when a bomb exploded near the main entrance of the US-Costa Rican Binational Cultural Center in San Jose, Costa Rica. The Santa Maria Patriotic Organization carried out the attack, and its members were trained in Libya. December 1988 Pan Am Flight 103 exploded over Scotland, killing all 259 persons on board, including 189 Americans. Eleven were killed on the ground in Lockerbie, Scotland. Abu Nidal organization (ANO) terrorists attacked the Greek cruise ship The City of Poros with machineguns and handgrenades. Nine people were killed and nearly 100 injured. The weapons used had been provided by Libya, and one terrorist had entered Greece using a Libyan passport. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Libyan-supported terrorists were involved in the bombing attack against a US Air Force communications facility near Humosa, Spain. Two known Libyan terrorists, along with a Senegalese national, were arrested in Dakar, Senegal, in possession of explosives and weapons. December 1987 The USO lounge in Barcelona, Spain, was bombed, resulting in the death of one US sailor and the wounding of nine others. A fictitious group claimed responsibility for the attack. The investigation, however, implicated Libya as having sponsored the operation. November 1987 The ANO hijacked the yacht Silco in international waters in the Mediterranean; the Silco carried eight Belgian and French nationals. The last of the hostages was freed on 21 January 1991. The Libyan intelligence service directed the ANO action. October 1987 French customs intercepted the Eksund, a French ship carrying 150 tons of arms and explosives to the Provisional Irish Republican Army. The shipment included surface-to- air missiles and the plastic explosive Semtex. Four earlier shipments to PIRA, in 1986 and 1985, arrived at their destinations successfully. October 1987 A bomb exploded at the office of World Vision, a US private voluntary organization in Moudou, Chad. No one was injured. The bomb reportedly was placed by terrorists assisted by the Libyan People's Bureau in Cotonou, Benin. Two Libyans gunned down a Libyan dissident in Rome, Italy. The hitmen were captured, and they identified themselves as members of the "Libyan Revolutionary Committee." May 1987 Two gunmen attempted to assassinate a prominent Libyan dissident in Vienna, Austria. One of the gunmen dropped his Libyan passport as he fled. Two Arabs shot and wounded a British Army warrant officer and his companion traveling In a car near Limassol, Cyprus. Two Arabs later arrested for the attack were identified as Libyan-supported terrorists. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 A bomb exploded on the Kousseri Bridge, which links Cameroon and Chad. The timer was prematurely set, killing the operative, a Chadian working on behalf of the Libyans. A bomb exploded at the cafe "L'Historil" in Djibouti, killing 11 and wounding over 50. The Libyan-supported Popular Struggle Front carried out the attack under threat of losing Tripoli's financial support. A bomb exploded in a government building in Cayenne, French Guyana. The Libyan-run Islamic Call Society in Curacao assisted Guyanese dissidents to carry out the attack. A Libyan businessman and vocal critic of Colonel Qadhafi was shot and killed by two gunmen outside Athens, Greece, by suspected Libyan hitmen. Libya provided explosives used in the ANO attack against the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, Turkey, which killed 21. September 1986 During an attempted hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 in Karachi, Pakistan, ANO terrorists killed 21 people, includ- ing two Americans; 120 people were wounded. The Libyan People's Bureau in Islamabad assisted at least one of the hijackers by providing him with travel documentation. Gunmen attacked the British Air Base at Akrotiri, Cyprus, using mortars, rocket-propelled grenades, and small-arms fire, wounding two British nationals. The six terrorists escaped by pretending to be members of a Libyan Arab Airlines flight, and the captain made false statements to airport authorities about the crew's size to disguise their presence. In addition, markings on mortar parts recovered from the attack showed the weapons to be part of two separate shipments delivered to Libya in 1976 and 1977. June 1986 A Libyan businessman opposed to Colonel Qadhafi was shot dead in Versailles, France, by Libyan hitmen. April 1986 Libya was behind the shooting of a US Embassy officer in North Yemen. Two Libyans were apprehended as they approached the US Officer's Club in Ankara, Turkey, to attack it with six Soviet-made fragmentation grenades they had received from the Libyan People's Bureau. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9 April 1986 Libya arranged for the murder of one American and two (continued) British hostages in Lebanon. Libya was linked to the shooting of a US Embassy officer in Khartoum, Sudan. Approved For Release 2004/12/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R001001430004-9