Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 4, 2016
Document Release Date: 
December 2, 2002
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
May 8, 1992
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9.pdf2.84 MB
SPJCMP92 Approved For Release 20AFDQW-'EIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 COPY -0F 2- 01-0187-92-0930-003 Phenomenological Research and Analysis Technical Volume (U) 8 May 1992 "ff A1NNWA1r__ am 0 Science Applications International Corporation An Employee-Owned Company Authors: Edwin C. May, Ph.D. and Wanda L. W. Luke U. S. Government Contract MDA908-91-C-0037 Submitted by: Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory 1010 El Camino Real, Suite 330 Menlo Park, California 94025 Classify by: Contractor Security Procedures Guide DT-S-1040-S Declassify on: OADR 1010 El Camino Real, Suite 330, P.O. Box 1412, Menlo Park, CA 94025 ? (415) 325-8292 Other SAIL Offices: (heantrovi?f tcFdQ o ft fgi_gea' '1''47 f U Ve~af. AosrA~rea~s~~4cL~q, q,~Qr gr~Q.P~/g91tA~`e~tt/~ Tucson 5v vv~ c>rcvva ~vU ~UUv NN SECRET/NOFORN Technical P @wd For ReleastMO0( (, nif3 P96-00789R003100170001-9 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. OBJECTIVE (U) ............................................................ 1 II. APPROACH (U) ............................................................ 2 6. Specific Tasks (U) ........................................................ 2 7. Quick Reaction Capability (QRC) (U) ...................................... 8 III. GLOSSARY (U) ............................................................. 9 IV. REFERENCES (U) ......................................................... 10 V. MOSSBAUER BACKGROUND (U) .......................................... 11 VI. RESUMES (U) ............................................................. 22 Approved For Releases,0(SSWfMP96-00789R003100170001-9 i Technical p, gjed For Release) M13S P96-00789R003100170001-9 1. OBJECTIVE (U) (U) The objective of this effort is to continue the work being conducted under contract MDA908-91-C-0037 by extending the analysis of the data and adopting approaches that were devel- oped to conduct specific experiments. Approved For Releas &AgSoi,MP96-00789R003100170001-9 1 Technical PPggp ed For Releases9S F P96-00789R003100170001-9 II. APPROACH (U) (U) For convenience, the section numbering matches that of the Statement of Work (SOW) from re- quest for quote RSQ-4. 6. Specific Tasks (U) (U) The specific tasks are modest extension of those that are currently being investigated. In most cases, they involve analysis of existing data or involve the implementation of experiments that were de- signed under the current effort. 6.1 Basic Research (U) (U) Basic research of anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) is defined as that activity that is primarily designed to understand the parameters of and theoretical basis for AMP. r 6.1.1 Biophysical Measurements (Follow-on to SOW 6.3.1) (U) Magnetoencephalograph / Electroencephalograph Correlation (U) (U) The trend in some magnetoencephalograph (MEG) laboratories has been to collect magnetic and elec- trical data simultaneously. Thus, for some measurements, it may be possible to correlate the results from the two techniques. We propose to conduct a literature search for such studies and conduct a meta-analysis on the pertinent papers to determine the degree to which EEG may be substituted for MEG. In particular, we will examine experiments that do not involve precise source localizations within the brain. Magnetoencephalograph Data Analysis (U) (U) The magnetoencephalograph database consists of 11 blocks of data obtained from an earlier pro- gram and an additional 80 blocks obtained in the current program. Altogether there are brain-wave data for over 9,000 remote stimuli (i.e., stimuli that are sensorially and physically isolated from a receiv- ert), a similar amount for pseudo stimuli (i.e., randomly placed time markers generated during the ex- periment), and additional 9,000 stimuli of each type that were collected as a control (i.e., identical cir- cumstances as in the experiment, but without a receiver being present). We propose to apply the following analysis techniques to this substantial database. a. Efficient Phase-Shift Calculations (U) (U) The primary purpose for the collection of magnetoencephalograph data is to determine the degree to which remote stimuli affects the phase of the primary alpha rhythm. There is a vast literature dating back to the 1930s suggesting that a relaxed brain, which is producing sustained alpha bursts, reacts to weak external stimuli with a phase shift of that alpha activity. All follow-on SOWs refer to the current contract PR330/012Z/91. t Please refer to the Glossary (Section III) for a definitions of terms. Approved For ReleastMt;(MSEifIFMP96-00789R003100170001-9 2 Technical r opaul?d For Release( MLA'SSCREOP96-00789R003100170001-9 (U) To study alpha-phase shifts in an efficient way, it'is important to present stimuli only when the sub- ject is producing alpha; however, the effort under SOW 6.3.1 in PR 330/012Z/91 was an attempt to repli- cate a similar experiment conducted in 1988. The protocol for data collection was constrained to match that study, and therefore presented stimuli randomly. J* (U) We propose to reevaluate the alpha-phase shifts for all the data collected under PR 330/012Z/91. In this new analysis we will compute the phase shifts for only those stimuli that happen to occur within an appropri- ate alpha burst. We will use pseudo stimuli that meet this constraint as within-run controls and generate Monte-Carlo stimuli only within alpha bursts during which no other stimuli occurred. Standard statistical methods will be used to compute effect sizes and evaluate the observed phase shifts. b. Higher Order Spectral Processing (U) (U) Fourier-based spectrum estimation techniques have proven valuable for the analysis of signals in the frequency domain. These techniques use only second-order statistical information; thus, they as- sume that the signals are Gaussian. In fact, most real-world signals are not Gaussian; hence, there is usually much more information in a stochastic non-Gaussian or deterministic signal than is conveyed by its autocorrelation or spectrum. Higher-order spectra are defined in terms of the higher order statistics of the signal; therefore they can proved non-linear information.2,3 An additional benefit is realized because all Gaussian noise vanishes, and thus any non-linear signals are more easily detected. (U) One such higher-order technique is the bi-spectrum. Preliminary application of the bi-spectrum of the MEG data has produced promising results. It appears that remote stimuli produce significantly different bi-spectra than those observed in non-stimulus intervals. c. Wavelet Analysis (U) (U) Recent work has produced techniques for representing signals in terms of a set of orthogonal basis functions with local support. While such a method was thought impossible for many years, recent re- search has shown that an infinite number of such basis function sets exist 4,5 These basis functions con- sist of dilations and translations of a "mother wavelet" function which is zero outside of some range. Since they are an orthogonal and complete set, the wavelet transform is information preserving, that is, the original signal can be reconstructed from the wavelet coefficients without error. (U) The wavelet coefficients are generated by correlating these functions with the signal at every posi- tion, with wavelets on every scale. In this way, features in the signal can be located in time with great precision; hence, these methods could prove highly effective in clearly indicating the discontinuity which is thought to occur at the time of the remote stimulus. d. Time-Frequency Distributions (U) (U) Time-frequency distributions describe how the spectral content of a signal changes over time. They consist of a set of methods which represent the energy or intensity of a signal simultaneously in time and frequency. The spectrogram, which used windowed short-term Fourier transforms to produce a local estimate of the spectrum, was an early method of this sort. It had a severe disadvantage: small windows provided good time localization put poor frequency resolution; large windows produced the opposite problem. The Wigner distribution was developed to alleviate this problem, but was found to introduce serious artifacts with certain signals. Approved For Release FMM1,qSfMgBP96-00789R003100170001-9 3 Technical PAppoeabd For Release U04O SMEDP96-00789 R003100170001-9 (U) More recent methods showing better performance include the Wigner-Ville distribution6 and the Choi-Williams distribution.? Both of these improve time and frequency resolution while suppressing unwanted artifacts. Since these distributions are complex, their transfer functions provide both gain and phase information. e. Cyclostationarity (U) (U) Most conventional signal processing methods treat random signals as if they were statistically sta- tionary. If the parameters of the underlying signal-generating mechanisms are time varying, as they are in brain-wave data, then this assumption is invalid and other techniques must be used to extract impor- tant properties of the signal. For example, a signal whose autocorrelation function fluctuates periodi- cally with time is said to exhibit second-order cyclostationarity. A number of signal processing methods can extract information from such signals.8 (U) By constructing time intervals that are symmetric around the remote or pseudo stimulus, we can produce pseudo periodic signals that are likely to exhibit properties that can be extracted by cyclosta- tionary processing methods. f. Conclusion (U) (U) Since the underlying physical process which produces signals is poorly understood, it is impossible to predict which of these signal analysis techniques will yield the best results. However, a systematic program of applying these methods to the MEG data will greatly increase the probability that a genuine physiological response can be detected and measured with much higher confidence levels. 6.2 Data Patterns/Correlations (Follow-on to SOW 6.3.2) (U) (U) The search for patterns or correlations within anomalous cognition (AC) is part of basic research. 6.2.1 Sender/No-Sender Analysis (U) a. Sender/No-Sender in the Ganzfeld (U) (U) Under the current contract, we initiated two investigations of whether the quality of AC depends upon a sender. We let a subcontract to Psychophysical Research Laboratories (PRL) to perform a meta-analysis of the pertinent literature to determine the appropriate parameters for a Ganzfeld study of the sender condition. The Ganzfeld is a protocol for conducting a type of AC experiment. PRL was also tasked to design an appropriate experiment using the results from the meta-analysis. Unfortunately, the number of previous Ganzfeld experiments was insufficient to determine heuristic parameters. Instead, PRL drew from its 20 years of Ganzfeld experience and designed an appropriate experiment. (U) We propose to continue this effort by tasking PRL to conduct approximately 70 Ganzfeld trials with novice receivers (i.e., first-timers) as screening/selection for the multi-condition sender-environment ex- periment. One of the most important elements in any AC experiment is to identify individuals who can demonstrate high quality results. This is particularly important if, as in this case, the primary experiment is designed to examine the effect of an independent variable. Thus, this preliminary screening effort is critical to understanding the role of the sender in AC experiments. (U) Besides the usual judging and analysis implied by the Ganzfeld protocol, the data from the screen- ing/selection experiment will also be examined with regard to six facets of extroversion. Honorton et al. have shown that the degree of extroversion is important in quality AC, and, thus, this variable is impor- tant to the success of the main experiment .9 Approved For Releases 9S P96-00789R003100170001-9 4 Ap rov?d For Release f4 11gSJ '96-00789R003100170001-9 Technical ProDosa a. Sender/No-Sender with Static and Dynamic Targets (U) (U) Using the AC database that was obtained under the existing contract, we will apply fuzzy set theory to search for target/receiver properties that yield higher quality AC. Under an earlier program, we applied fuzzy set theory to the analysis of AC. In particular, we developed fuzzy set representations of all the static targets used in the current study. They were encoded with 131 separate visual target elements; therefore, to capitalize on this earlier work, we will examine our AC result from this particular viewpoint.10 (U) Under the current program we have developed an "adaptive" fuzzy set algorithm that will be able to determine which, if any, of these 131 target elements were responsible for receivers' improved AC qual- ity. In the adaptive method, fuzzy sets are modified in accedence with a receiver's historical perfor- mance, and the modified version is applied to new data. The historical record is then updated to ac- count for the results of that additional analysis. (U) We propose to apply these techniques to approximately 250 AC trials. This analysis will cover the four combinations of sender/no-sender and static/dynamic targets that were used in the current study. 6.2.2 MEG/EEG Parameter Search (U) (U) During a previous program, we tasked Psi Sources of Information Center to place the literature of all English language parapsychological technical journals into a computerized database. From that time, Ms. Rhea White has maintained that database, which now includes abstracts of all technical articles dating back to the early 1900s. We propose to use this database to examine all relevant MEG/EEG data and worldwide AC research to identify key performance and target pattern parameters (e.g., physical, psychological, bio- physical). If enough studies identify a specific parameter, we propose to conduct a formal meta-analysis of that parameter to determine its effect upon performance quantitatively. 6.3 Applied Research (Follow-on to SOW (U) (U) Applied research of AMP is defined as that activity that is primarily designed to improve the quality of experimental results. 6.3.1 Long Distance AC Experiment (U) (U) Under the current contract, we developed a two-by-five error-correcting block code, which we applied to an AC experiment. The objective was to increase the reliability of detecting AC and to explore its poten- tial for communications. In that effort, receivers were not monitored and target feedback was sometimes significantly delayed. In addition, the receivers were allowed to respond to an intended target at any time during a one-week interval. (U) We propose to improve upon this protocol and apply the techniques to testbeds that are similar to potential applications. Specifically, each AC trial will be monitored at a site designated by the contract- ing office's technical representative, and each AC trial will be conducted in real time. Feedback and a portion of the analysis will be provided immediately. (U) We plan to explore a number of analytical techniques to determine the optimal technique for po- tential applications. They will include "crisp" answers (i.e., either "yes" or "no" to a predefined set of questions) for the input to the two-by-five block code and "fuzzy" answers (i.e., receivers express the degree of confidence in their answers to each question) to the same questionnaire. In the latter case, we will use a rich set of standard fuzzy set mathematical techniques in the analysis. Approved For Release 20g11M6-00789R003100170001-9 5 Technical Prgooosapd For Released~~f 44 1 s P96-00789R003100170001-9 6.4 Theoretical Issues (Follow-on to SOW 6.2.5) (U) (U) As part of basic research, theoretical issues address potential underlying mechanisms for AMP. 6.4.1 Nuclear Mossbauer Effect (U) (U) We propose to construct an anomalous perturbation (AP) experiment using the nuclear Mossbauer effect. Sometimes referred to as gamma raw resonance spectroscopy, using the Mossbauer effect is an extremely precise way of measuring the electromagnetic environment at the nuclear site within an atomic lattice and measuring the structure of the nucleus, itself. The nuclear environment is impervious to external factors. Experiments that use the Mossbauer effect are also exquisitely sensitive. Because it is inherently controlled, a Mossbauer set-up is ideal for the study of AP An overview of the Mossbauer effect can be found in Section V, Mossbauer Background. (U) In a Mossbauer AP experiment, an individual watches a dynamic display of gamma ray absorption as feedback. He or she is instructed to use mental strategies to affect the absorption, and thus the nu- clear properties, in predetermined ways. For example, the instructions might suggest to increase or de- crease or shift the location of the maximum absorption. Random control periods (i.e., no human effort to modify the absorption) are intermixed with effort periods. Statistical comparison is made between these periods and both are compared to long-term, stable measurements of the unattended apparatus. (U) To our kno)yledge, no other AP experiment has exclusively attempted to modify nuclear properties; therefore, this exploratory experiment must be considered a pilot effort. Should we observe potential AP effects, we will recommend an extension to verify that the effects cannot be accounted for by known interactions. 6.4.2 Theoretical Models (U) (U) We propose to explore at least two theoretical approaches toward understanding the physics of AC. The heuristic observables are the following: (1) Information, albeit noisy, "propagates" from point A to point B regardless of the spatial or tempo- ral separation. (2) The quality of the reception appears to be proportional to target complexity. (U) The first of these suggests that a four-dimensional, non-electromagnetic model is appropriate. The second implies a relationship to thermodynamic entropy, but at the present, there is no known propaga- tion mechanism for "pure" information. (U) All theoretical approaches to these two questions will be constrained toward testable hypotheses. We suspect that if a reasonable theoretical model can be developed, that it will entail physics implica- tions that can be tested by traditional experimentation. 6.5 Research Methodology (Follow-on to SOW 6.4) (U) 6.5.1 Committees (U) (U) As a continuation of the current program, we propose to the use the three existing committees, which are in place, as support and quality control for methodological and policy issues. These commit- tees are: Approved For Release 2p 8%196-00789R003100170001-9 6 Technical pobppgQVed For Release 20 MEq'IA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 (U) The Scientific Oversight Committee (SOC). The five voting members of the SOC are respected scientists from the following disciplines: physics, astronomy, statistics, neuroscience, and psychology. Since the time of the original proposal, we have added Professor of Neuroscience Steven A. Hillyard of the University of California at San Diego. His resume is include in Section IV. (U) The SOC is tasked with three major responsibilities: o Review and approve all experimental protocols prior the collection of data. o Critically review all experimental final reports as if they were submissions to technical scientific jour- nals. All remarks are in writing and are included in the technical final report to the sponsor. ? Suggest directions for further research. (U) In addition to these three responsibilities, the SOC members are encouraged to exercise un-announced drop-in privileges to view experiments in progress. (U) Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB's responsibility is to assure the safety of human sub- jects in experiments and to assure the sponsor that all research involving the use of human subjects is in compliance with all appropriate federal regulations. The IRB members represent the health, legal, and spiritual professions in accordance with government guidelines. The membership is as follows: ? Gary R. Fujimoto, M.D. Occupational Medicine, Palo Alto Medical Foundation ? Byron Wm. Brown, Jr., Ph.D. Biostatistics, Stanford University ? John Hanley, M.D. Neuropsychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles ? Robert B. Livingston, M.D. Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego ? Robin P. Michelson, M.D. Otolaryngology, University of California, San Francisco ? Ronald Y. Nakasone, Ph.D. Buddhist Studies, Institute of Buddhist Studies, Berkeley, CA ? Louis J. West, M.D. Neuropsychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles ? Garrison Rapmund, M.D. Air Force Science Advisory Board (S/NF) Policy Oversight Committee (POC). The POC's responsibility is to advise SAIC and assure the Defence Intelligence Agency that the activity under this contract fulfills the requirements of the Intelligence Community (IC) and the Department of Defence (DOD). In addition, the POC recom- mends policy for the establishment of a long-term program for the application of anomalous mental phenomena to problems of interest to the DOD and the IC. 6.5.2 Management and Research Support (U) (U) We will provide technical, management, and administrative support for all research activity. SG1 B Approved For Rel?NP96-00789R003100170001-9 7 Technical PIyed For Release 20E1A-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 7. Quick Reaction Capability (QRC) (U) (S/NF) We propose to reserve approximately five percent of the program effort in order to respond rap- idly to the sponsor's request for briefings, conference attendence, or unanticipated experiment or ap-. plication requirements. Approved For ReleSEORE~/lf FOR$96-00789R003100170001-9 8 Technical Pi6ppeaPed For Releas4'QO(Q lFl P96-00789R003100170001-9 M. GLOSSARY (U) (U) Not all the terms defined below are germane to this report, but they are included here for complete- ness. In a typical anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) task, we define: 41, A_Q-A form of information transfer in which all known sensorial stimuli are absent. That is, some individuals are able to gain access, by as yet an unknown process, to information that is not available to the known sensorial channels. o Receiver-An individual who attempts to perceive and report information about a target. o Agent-An individual who attempts to influence a target system. o Dr get-An item that is the focus of an AMP task (e.g., person, place, thing, event). o hrget Designation-A method by which a specific target, against the backdrop of all other possible targets, is identified to the receiver (e.g., geographical coordinates). o Sender/Beacon-An individual who, while receiving direct sensorial stimuli from an intended target, acts as a putative transmitter to the receiver. o Monitor-An individual who monitors an AC session to facilitate data collection. o Session-A time period during which AC data are collected. o Protocol-A template for conducting a structured data collection session. o Response-Material that is produced during an AC session in response to the intended target. o Feedback-After a response has been secured, information about the intended target is displayed to the receiver. o Analyst-An individual who provides a quantitative measure of AC. o Sp-edialify-A given receiver's ability to be particularly successful with a given class of targets (e.g., people as opposed to buildings). Approved For ReleasU BSIFIEDDP96-00789R003100170001-9 9 Technical l6Md For Release / 16811FILU96-00789R003100170001-9 IV. REFERENCES (U) (U) All the following references are unclassified. 1. E. C. May and W. L W. Luke, "'Ixchnical Protocol for the MEG Investigation," Protocol Submitted to the Scientific Oversight Committee, Science Applications International Corporation, The Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (August 1991) UNCLASSIFIED. 2. J. M. Mendel, "Signal Processing and System Theory: Theoretical Results and Some Aplications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 278-305 (March 1991) UNCLASSIFIED. 3. C. L. Nikias and M. R. Raghuveer, "Bispectrum Estimation: A Digital Signal Processing Framework," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 7, pp. 869-891 (July 1987) UNCLASSIFIED. 4. 1. Daubenchies, "Orthonormal Basis of Compactly Supported Wavelets," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. XLI, pp. 909-996 (1988) UNCLASSIFIED. 5. E. C. Heil and D. Walnut, "Continuous and DIscrete Wavelet Tkansforms," SIAM Review, Vol 31, No. 4, pp. 628-666 (December 1989) UNCLASSIFIED. 6. L. Cohen, "Time-Frequency Distributions-A Review," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 77, No. 7, (July 1989) UNCLASSIFIED. 7. H. I. Choi and W. J. Williams, "Improved Time-Frequency Representation of Multicomponent Signals Using Exponential Kernals," IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol 37, No. 6, pp. 862-871 (June 1989) UNCLASSIFIED. 8. W A. Gardner "Exploitation of Spectral Redundancyh in Cyclostationary Signals," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, (April 1991) UNCLASSIFIED. 9. C. Honorton, D. C. Ferrari, and D. J. Bern, "Extraversion and ESP Performance: Meta-Analysis and a New Confirmation," Proceedings of the Parapsychological Association 33rd Annual Convention, Chevy Chase, MD (August 1990) UNCLASSIFIED. 10. E. C. May, J. M. Utts, W. L. W Luke, T. J. Frivold, and V. V.11?ask, "Advances in Remote-Viewing Analysis," Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 54, pp. 194-228 (September 1990) UNCLASSIFIED. Approved For Release f`6 f/ q ftiEW96-00789R003100170001-9 10 Technical pQ Qgpd For ReleaseU ' 1 SSU P96-00789R003100170001-9 V. MOSSBAUER BACKGROUND (U) (U) This Section is entirely unclassified. Gamma Ray and Gamma Ray Resonance Spectroscopy by Jon J. Spijkerman Frank J. Davies Kah Nee Ona Tamara L. Steele May 17, 1991 Ranger Scientific, Inc. 7101 Stephenson-Levey Road Burleson, TX 76028 Approved For Releas M9S P96-00789R003100170001-9 11 Technical Fkppcxi*d For Release Q> $ PM[)P96-00789R003100170001-9 INTRODUCTION Resonance phenomena are today a very direct part of our lives. They are used in radio, tuning in a station or selecting a TV channel, in microwave cooking and heating, store security and many other daily uses. It was Lord Rayleigh who, a century ago, first suggested that resonance scattering should occur in atomic systems. Gamma ray Resonance Spectroscopy (GRS), also known as The Mossbauer Effect, was discovered by Rudolf L Mossbauer in 1957, at the time a graduate student at the University of Heidelberg in Germany. Mossbauer was interested in the line shape (profile) of gamma radiation. It was a known fact that gamma rays, photon 'particles', would give a recoil to the nucleus which emitted the gamma ray. The gamma ray would therefore have a lower energy. Similarly, if the gamma ray were to strike another nucleus its energy must be higher, in order to be absorbed and also to provide the absorber recoil energy. This energy can be provided by heating the gamma ray source, since this raises the average velocity of the atoms in the source and therefore the energy. Both positive and negative velocities will be present and thus the line shape of the gamma ray will be broadened. This line broadening is known as a Doppler broadening. The energy lost to recoil could now be compensated for by raising the temperature. Mossbauer's initial experiment was very straightforward, consisting of a gamma ray source? an absorber, and a counter to detect the gamma radiation. As the temperature of the source and absorber was raised, the count rate of unabsorbed gamma rays went down since the increase in thermal energy compensated for the energy lost in recoil. This is shown in figure 1. To obtain a reference count rate, Mossbauer cooled the source and absorber to liquid nitrogen temperature. There the count rate should have been the highest, but to his amazement, it was not. Mossbauer interpreted this effect as a recoil-free emission and absorption at lower temperatures. This obviously violates the principles of conservation of energy and momentum and was, at first, not well accepted. Mossbauer continued his work at the University of.Munich, Germany, and his experiments were soon confirmed at other laboratories. R. L Mossbauer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1961. Within a decade (GRS) became a standard tool, with applications in Physics, Chemistry, Metallurgy, Mineralogy, Geology, and Biology. Figure 1. Increased overlap of source and absorber line profiles, moved apart as a result of recoil, due to Doppler broadening with temperature. Figure 2. Classical analogy of a boat firing a cannon in a choppy lake, then 'freezing the lake.' Approved For ReleasU $$IFJ,E?DP96-00789R003100170001-9 12 Technical PPopposaeld For Release 2 t?if EU96-00789R003100170001-9 The Mossbauer Effect is a quantum phenomenon. However, some of its basic characteristics may be easily understood through a classical analogy. The analogy developed by Frauenfelder in Ref. 1 is particularly apt. He likens the gamma ray source to a cannon firing at a target. The statistical spread of the impacts is the natural line width. If the cannon is firing from a boat, it will recoil so that the center of the impact distribution is shifted to a shorter range (lower value of energy for the gamma ray), as in Fig. 2a. Doppler broadening can be represented by placing the boat in a choppy sea Since the aim is much less accurate, the distribution of impacts is broadened (Fig. 2b.). The Mossbauer Effect is made possible by 'freezing the lake,' so that recoil and Doppler broadening are eliminated (Fig. 2c). In the actual source and absorber, this is done by locking the atoms in a crystal lattice. To observe the Resonance Effect, we must change the energy of the gamma ray by a small amount. We can use the Doppler shift to our advantage. Instead of Doppler broadening, we can use a coherent Doppler shift, or Doppler modulation, by giving the entire source a known velocity. The line width of the source and the line width of the absorber overlap by a differenct amount for each velocity. If total transmission is plotted against velocity, the absorption curve will be observed to have a line width twice that of either source or absorber. (See Fig. 3). Aj~ THEORY As was pointed out in the introduction, eliminating the recoil given to the nucleus by the emitted gamma ray Is the first prerequisite for the Mossbauer Effect. If the nucleus is initially at rest, its momentum after emission is P12 ='P'r =E1 / c. The recoil energy imparted to the nucleus by the leaving gamma ray is then 2 EY (1) ER=pn/2M= 2Mc2 Here M is the mass of the nucleus. For a gamma ray of 14.4 keV, this recoil energy is 2 X 10" eV. To explain the Resonance Effect, we must not use the mass of the nucleus in equation 1, but the mass of the crystal to which the nucleus is bound. This recoil free process is also demonstrated in X-rays by the Bragg reflection from a crystal. The recoil energy then becomes vanishingly small. The binding energy plays a very important role in the Mossbauer Effect. If the recoil energy ER is larger than the binding energy, the recoil-free process will not take place. Thermal vibrations due to higher temperature can also destroy the recoil-free emission and absorption. Equation (1) therefore places limits on when the Mossbauer effect will take place. We must have a solid or very large molecule so that ER becomes vanishingly small, and the gamma ray energy must be low so that ER is LESS THAN THE BINDING ENERGY OF THE NUCLEUS. Many Isotopes have shown the Mossbauer Effect, but Fes' has the best properties for our purpose. The source used for Fes' Resonance spectroscopy is Co", with the radio-active decay scheme and the corresponding radiation emitted by this source is shown in figure 3. Cobalt has a positive nuclear charge of 27. The nucleus captures an electron, to reduce the charge to 26, and balances the energy by emitting three gamma rays, 14.4 keV, 122 keV, and 136 keV. The electron capture leaves a hole in the elctron shell, which is promptly filled producing 6.3 keV and lower energy X-rays. The 14.4 keV gamma ray shown in the energy level diagram of figure 4 is used in Transmission Spectrum Figure 3. Doubling of observed linewidth Approved For Release $6r138M?C96-00789R003100170001-9 Technical I pgp*1aedd For Release OUA$SIFFEQp96-00789R003100170001-9 67Fe 441 5/, (1/2) - 10 9 sec INTERNAL CONVERSION 57Co (radioactive, t112 = 270 days) ELECTRON CAPTURE Ore,) MAIN /elln.i, M, rsar,MM &/ At +'Fe .mien. G d c&tL Mr nlalri ,rn~bert a/~he~au and a/rrirU.U p.Ircrl the Mossbauer Effect. The 122 keV transition ~~ r z _ [ 3 ] does not go to the ground state, and the 136 keV gamma ray is too energetic for a usable effect. Where 1h is Planck's constant divided by 2 R. The lifetime of the 14.4 keV level can be The line shape of the recoil free 14.4 keV determined by measuring the 1.4 X 10"7 second radiation is a Lorentzian profile, or delay between the 122 keV and 14.4 keV radiation, because the lifetime of the 122 keV L (x) = A ? = E-E? [21 level is 50 times shorter than that of the 14.4 keV 1 +x2 ' x r level. This corresponds to a line width of 4.670 X 10"9 eV. The resolution required to observe Where Eo is the gamma ray energy and r is this line is Ejr or about 1012. the halfwidth. The halfwidth or line width can be calculated from the uncertainty principle, and the To distinguish this narrow band of recoil free lifetime of the excited state. The uncertainty radiation from non-recoil free radiation using a principle states that gamma detector is hopeless, since the detectors have at the best a 10% resolution. Gamma ray Approved For Releas4MOLMgSI(FfP96-00789R003100170001-9 14 Technical Ppt 88bd For ReleaseUb BASS EP96-00789R003100170001-9 spectrometers using a diffracting crystal can do a thousand times better, but this still leaves a factor of 10?. However, we can use the source and absorber technique with the Doppler effect. This time we do not raise the temperature, but move either the source or the absorber at various velocities. The Doppler effect is given by v =vo(1+ v) c Where v, Is the transition frequency of the stationary absorber and v the frequency of the source moving at a velocity v. Re-writing equation 4, [4] V=V'O+VO C and Av=v-v0=v0 C ~vddE=v Vo EO C [5] Since E = l,v. E. is the basic transition energy, 14.4 keV. If we use the values for 57Fe, the velocity required to shift the line by one line width is 0.191 mm/sec. Plotting the count rate as a function of velocity gives the familiar absorption pattern, as shown in figure 5. The recoil-free emission and absorption was not the only surprise of this new effect. When an iron foil was used for an absorber, a six line absorption pattern as in figure 6 was observed and identified as a nuclear Zeeman effect brought about by the iron's internal magnetic field. Iron compounds used for absorbers gave a variety of spectra, and the simple energy level diagram of figure 4 could no longer explain the observed results. There were other interactions (forces) present, previously completely obscured. With the ultra precise energy measuring capability of the Mossbauer Effect it was possible to determine the energy and derive the nature of these interactions. For this analysis we must first look at the nucleus and its electron cloud. There are three electron-nuclear (hyperfine) interactions: Figure 6. Magnetic splitting of nuclear levels. (Nuclear Zeeman Effect). Approved For ReleasU pt("6Sl FI?DP96-00789R003100170001-9 15 / :.o..r :hut Quesvpcle splitting a - 0 ? . 0 a-0 I.0 4n) 105, 151-153. 10/91 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 CURRICULUM VITAE February 1985 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 John Hanley, M.D. SGFOIA3 Years 1957-61 1961-62 School Boston University Loma Linda University Rotating Internship White Memorial Hospital Location Degree Boston, Mass. M.D. Los Angeles, Calif. 1963-66 University of California at Los Angeles Psychiatric Residency PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE: 1956-57 Research Assistant Mas9achusetts General'Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, Mass. 1962-63 General Practice Los Angeles, Calif. Kaiser Permanente (Compton Clinic) 1963-66 Member, Neuroendocrine Clinic and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinic, UCLA 1965-66 Postdoctoral Fellowship Award USPHS MH-6415 Brain Research Institute, UCLA 1966-present Member, Brain Research Institute, UCLA 1966-71 Assistant Professor in Residence, Dept. of Psychiatry,'School of Medicine, UCLA; Assistant Research Psychiatrist, BRI, UCLA Associate Professor in Residence, Dept. of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, UCLA Joint Appointment: Associate Professor in Residence, Computer Science Dept., School of Engineering, UCLA Joint Appointments: Professor in Residence, Dept. of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Computer Science Dept., School of Engineering, UCLA 1978-present Joint Appointment: Professor in Residence, Dept. of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, UCLA Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 UNIVERSITY COM~SITTE%vease 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Data Processing Laboratory Advisory Committee Telemetry Consultant to Brain Research Institute Mountain Campus Committee Representative for the Dept. of Psychiatry on Mental Health Training Program Committee Mental Health Training Program Subcommittees on Budget and Education Brain Research Institute Committee on Future of Brain Research Institute The Next.Ten Years Brain Research Institute Committee for BRI 10th Anniversary Hospital. Intensive Care Committee Appointment and Promotion Committee, Dept. of Psychiatry (two years) , Ad Hoc Committees CONSULTATION SERVICES: a. Consultant to Dept. of Urology, University of Rochester, School of Medicine, for hyperbaric research b. EEG Consultant to NASA for Biosatellite III Program, 1967 to present c. Consultant to AMPEX Corporation, Redwood City, California, for advanced EEG research d. Consultant to Aiza Corporation, Stanford, California, on computer analysis of EEG data e. Consultant to Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), on space terminology f. Consultant to Jet Propulsion Laboratory Biomedical Group on the use of ultrasonics g. Consultant to the Behavioral Research Foundation, St. Kitts, British West Indies, on animal telemetry systems h. Consultant to the Behavioral Science Foundation i. Consultant to the Sleep Laboratory at the Southern California Neuropsychiatric Institute, La Jolla, California j. Consultant to Assessment Systems, Incorporated, Houston, Texas k. Consultant to the Sleep Disorders Clinic (John Andrews, M.D.), Provo, Utah 1. Consultation service to the N.I.H. Neurology Study Section (sleep) 1957-61. Leopold Schepp Foundation Scholar (in medical school) 1957-58 Johnson Wax Foundation Scholar Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For f42803/WftyCM DP96-00789R003100170001-9 Curriculum Vitae . PERSONAL DATA EDUCATION B.S., California Institute of Technology, 1964. (Biology) Ph.D. Yale University, 1968. (Psychology) POSITIONS SGFOIA3 Professor of e'Neurosciences, Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego (U.C.S.D.) 1980 - present Lecturer through Associ4te Professor, Department of Neurosci- ences, U.C.S.D. 1968-1980 USPHS Traineeship at Yale University in Physiological Psychol- ogy with Robert Galambos. 1964-1968 Research Assistant at Caltech in Psychobiology with C.R. Hamil- ton and R.W. Sperry. 1963-1964 TEACHING AREAS Basic Medical Neurology Sensory Processes: Neurophysiology of Vision and Audition Human Information Processing: Attention and Perception Psychophysiology Neuropsychology HONORS and AWARDS Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science MERIT Award from National Institute of Mental Health UCSD Neurosciences Department Outstanding Teacher Award Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 ADVISORY AND REVIEW PANELS NIMH Study Section: Mental Health Small Grant Committee, 1976-1980. NIMH Study Section: Neurosciences Research Review Committee, 1986-1990. Advisory Council: International Association for the Study of Attention and Performance 1978-1983; 1985-present. Advisory Panel to NIMH Neurosciences Research Branch. 1982-1983. EDITORIAL BOARDS Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1977-present. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 1988-present. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1974-1979; 1985-1988. Consciousness and Cognition, 1990-present. SOCIETY MEMBERSHIPS American Association for the Advancement of Science. Society for Neuroscience GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Principal Investigator: NIMH 2 RO1 MH 25594. "Electrophysio- logical Studies of Selective Perception." 1974-1995. Principal Investigator: Sloan Foundation Grant B1980-35. "Event-Related Brain Potentials and Semantic Processing". 1980- 1982. Co-Principal Investigator (with M. Kutas): NSF BNS 80-05525. "Semantic Processing and Event-Related Brain Waves." 1980-1986. Principal Investigator: NINCDS 1P01 NS17778. "Event-Related Potentials and Cognition: Program in Cognitive Neuroscience" Cor- nell Medical School (M.S. Gazzaniga, Program Head) 1982-1994. Principal Investigator: Office of Naval Research Contract, N00014-86-K-0291. "Electrophysiological Studies of Visual Atten- tion and Resource Allocation." 1986-1992. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Brief Curriculum Vitae, 1991 Robert B. Livingston,M.D. aluCation: Stanford University (AB, 1940); Stanford University School of Medicine (MD, 1944); (Residency, Internal Medicine [under Professor Arthur L. Bloomfield], Stanford University Hospitals, 1943-1945). Academic Appointments: Stanford University (Instructor in Pathology [under Alvin Cox], 1943-44); Yale University School of Medicine (Instructor to Assistant Professor of Physiology [under John F. Fulton], 1946-52); (concurrently) Harvard Medical School (Assistant Professor of Psychiatry [under Harry Solomon], 1946-47); U C L A School of Medicine (Associate Professor to Professor of Anatomy and Physiology [under H. W. Magoun and John Field], 1952-57); Adjunct Professor, Mid-Career Course, U.S. State Department, 1957-1964; Founding Chair, UCSD School of Medicine, Department of Neurosciences (Professor of Neurosciences, 1964-1989 [with Theodore H. Bullock, Robert Galambos, Reginald Bickford, John O'Brien, Marjorie Seybold, Fred Gage, Robert Terry, and Robert Katzman]; Guest Professor of Neurosciences, at the Hirnforschungsinstitut d e r Universitat Zurich [under Konrad Akert], 1971-72). Science LMsultant. [under His Holiness, the Dalai Lama], 1991--). [Aim of this academic career has been to investigate combinations of nervous and mental functions, using a variety of neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, behavioral and clinical techniques and disciplines.] Advanced Trainin : Universite de Geneve (National Research Council Senior Fellow in Neurology, [under Oscar Wyss],1948-49); Universitat Zurich (ditto [under Walter Rudolph Hess], 1949); College de France (Wilhelm B. Gruber Fellow in Neurology, [under Alfred Fessard], 1949-50); Oxford University (ditto [under F.S.C. Little and Paul Glees], 1950); Universitet Goteborg (US Public Health Service Senior Fellow in Neurology, [with Bo Gernandt a n d Holger Hyden], 1956); Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Research Associate,. Neurosciences Research Program, [under Francis O. Schmitt], 1961-1973). Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 National Service: US Navy Medical Corps (Reserve), World War II: [Established and directed the hospital for wounded Okinawans and Japanese POWs throughout the battle of Okinawa, (awarded U.S. Navy Bronze Star for this contribution), 1945]; ["Interpreter" for surrender of Japanese Army in North China, (U.S. Marine Corps needed people with even modest Chinese and Japanese language training), 1945]; [Chief, Medical Battalion Laboratory, 2nd Marine Division, Tiensin and Peking, throughout "Cease-Fire" between Kuomintang and Chinese Communists, 1945-46]; U.S. Public Health Service representative -- First Life Sciences Committee, NASA, advisory for life support systems, safety, communication, selection of Astronauts, etc., 1958-63]. International Diplomatic Contributions: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), winner of 1985 Nobel Prize for F5eace, IPPNW Emissary, [with Lars Engstedtj to Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Kuwait, Bahrian, and Saudi Arabia, to persuade Arab physicians to contribute internationally to prevention of nuclear war; IPPNW Ambassador. to Tibetan Government-in-Exile, Dharamsala, India. Contributed to three successive tutorials 1987, 1989, 1990 on Mind and L.L. [under Tenzin Gyatso, His Holiness, The Dalai Lama, winner of the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize],). Participant, two international diplomatic missions conducted by the Center for the Study of the Person [under Carl Rogers] in Rust, Austria, [with Gay Swensen after Roger's death] in San Jose, Costa Rica, [under President Arias], to establish dialogue between governments of Nicaragua and United States. Research Contributions: Neocortical representations of visceral functions in monkey and chimpanzee [with Ernest Sachs, Jr., Sam Brendler, and Jose Delgado]; Human frontal and cingulate cortical representations of visceral functions [with William P. Chapman, William H. Sweet, and Kenneth E. Livingston]; Plasticity of muscle synergy in humans [with Alfred Fessard, Jean Paillard, and Auguste Tourney]; Eye movements controlled by frontal eye fields and occipital visual fields in monkey; Frontal motor representations in deep sulci of cats [with Jose Delgado]; Localization of frontal eye fields in cats; Head turning and eye deviation elicited by stimulation of frontal cortex in freely moving cats [under Walter Rudolf Hess, with Donald A. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 MacDonald]; Explosive decompression at high altitude [with Samuel Gelfan and Leslie Nims]; Use of biological potentials to warn of anoxic anoxia [with Harold S. Burr]; Segregation, origin and destination of first- order sensory dorsal column axons [under Paul Glees]; Central control of ascending sensory pathways [with Raul Hernandez-Peon and Harald Scherrer]; Cortical influences on brain stem conduction systems, and on brain stem arousal mechanisms [with John D. French, Raul Hernandez Pekin, W. Ross Adey and Jose Segundo]; Cerebrospinal fluid equilibria; Somatic functions of the nervous system [with Raul Hernandez-Pedn]; Differential seizure susceptibility in monkey cortex [with John D. French]; Prevention of seizures in monkeys by intravenous procaine injections [with John D. French, Bruce Konigsmark, and K e n Richland]; Vestibulo-spinal motor projections [with Bo Gernandt, Sid Gilman, and Magdolna lranyi]; Brain mechanisms and behavior; Neurophysiology of brain stem reticular formation [with Frederic G. Worden]; Neurophysiological contributions to internal medicine [with Frederic G. Worden]; Longitudinal spinal and brainstem reflex systems relayed through the bulbar reticular formation [with Muneo Shimamura]; Dynamics of acoustic pathways under control of middle-ear muscles [with Arnold Starr and Peter Carmel; What makes the sloth so slothful? [with T.H. Bullock, Donald B. Lindsley, and Robert Galambos] ; Central control of receptors and sensory transmission systems; Role of central nervous mechanisms relating to reinforcement; Ultrastructure of myelin glial-axonal junctions, and functional dynamics of synaptic boutons [under Konrad Akert]; Cinemorphology of whole human brain serial surfaces, in registration, exposed at microscopically thin intervals throughout the entire brain in 68 "normal" human brains [with Roy Mills and Thornton Egge]; Three-dimensional reconstruction of one whole human brain, using interactive computer graphics [with Kent Wilson, Bill Atkinson, and Bud Tribble, 111]. A film on this subject [produced under Sy Wexler] won sweepstakes awards at all major international documentary film festivals in 1976/7 and has been shown repeatedly on NOVA, National Geographic Society, BBC, OMNIMAX, and many other television programs, worldwide, since then. Undernourishment affecting human brain development in the U.S. [under Doris H. Calloway, with Helen Ross, and Elisabeth Stern]. Expeditions include: Ship's Physician and Chief Diver, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Expedition CAPRICORN [under Roger Revelle and Walter Munk], 1951-1952; Alpha Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Hellix Expedition to the Amazon [with Theodore H. Bullock and Donald B. Lindsley], 1968; Expedition to Panama [with Theodore H. Bullock and Robert Galambos] 1970. RB. search Publications: Some 200 research publications including a few research monographs. Chapters on Neurophysiology in a textbook for psychologists; Chapters on Neurophysiology in a textbook for psychiatrists- -these latter were republished as a separate monograph, Sensor Processing, Perception, and Behavior. 1978, Section on Neurophysiology consisting of a dozen chapters in Best and Taylor's Physiological Basis of medical Practice. 11th Edition,1985, and 12th Edition, 1990. Lectureships: AAAS Holiday Science Lecturer, for State-wide honor high school students: Florida, 1958, Oregon, 1959; National Sigma Xi Lgc:turer, 1960 and 1961;, Queen Kamehameha L urer, University of Hawaii School of` Medicine, 1965; AAAS Chautauqua Lectureship [shared with Elisabeth Stern], 1978 and 1979; Sachs Memorial Lecturer, Dartmouth Medical School-1981. Extra-Curricular Activities: Co-Incorporator [with John F. Fulton], the Journal of the History of Medicine, 1951. Participated closely with Leo Szilard in founding the Council for Abolishing War, which became the Council for a Livable World, 1962. Co-Incorporator [with Richard J. Barnet, Marcus Raskin, and Christopher Jencks], of the Institute for Policy Studies, 1962. Co-Incorporator [with Fritjof Capra] of the Elmwood Institute, 1979. Active [under Bernard Lown] in Ian grnational Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, as Emissary and Ambassador; Deputy Council representative for U.S. Physicians for Social Responsibility; House of Delegates, 1986-88, U.S. national Physicians for Social Responsibility, President-Elect 1991, [to serve as President, 1992, Past-President 1993; Co-President, San Diego Chapter, 1989-91. Robert B. Livingston, M.D. Professor of Neurosciences Emeritus University of California San Diego dress: 7818 Camino Noguera, San Diego, California 92122-2027. Telephone: (619) 455-0306; Telefax: (619) 455-1874. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 CURRICULUM VITAE NAME: ROBIN P. MICHELSON, M.D. BORN: EDUCATION: 1932-1934 University of California Berkeley, Calfiornia 1934-1936 ,Stanford University Stanford, California 1936-1940 Stanford-'lJniversity School of Medicine Stanford, California B.S M.D. POSTGRADUATE TRAINING: 1940-1941 Assistant Resident, Pathology San Francisco General Hospital 1946-1948 Otolaryngology Resident Veterans Administration, San Francisco MILITARY SERVICE: 1941-1946 Captain, U. S. Army (MC) LICENSURE AND CERTIFICATION: 1940 Appro iftqft lease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 1950 American Board of Otolaryngology SGFOIA3 CURRICULUM VIT rovWA;PRelbWci hsi 1:%IA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-92 HOSPITAL AFFILIATIONS: 1945-1956 St. Luke's Hospital, San Francisco 1946-1956 St. Mary's Hospital, San Francisco 1968-Present University of California Hospitals 1958-Present Sequoia Hospital, Redwood City, California University of California Hospitals, San Francisco POSITIONS HELD: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO Department of Otolaryngology 1968-1974 Associate Clinical Professor 1974-Present Clinical Professor OUTSIDE THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA: 1948-1952 Clincal Instructor, Stanford University School of Medicine 1952-Present Assistant Clinical Professor, Stanford University School of Medicine 1955-1958 Chief, Stanford ENT Service, San Francisco General ' .ospitai 1960-10-63 Chief of ENT Service San Mateo County Hospital 1940-1980 Private Practice, Redwood City, California MEME3ERSHIP IN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES AND THEIR COMMITTEES: 1945 American Medical Association 1945 ApproteAl%rr /MjEt:Q &pP96-007898003100170001-9 Approved For Relna27RItX/Wd/??l'?' `rQ=T21112965-00789 R003100170001-9 SGFOIA3 EDUCAT'I ON : MEDICAL LICENSE: EXPERTISE: A.B. Harvard, 1949 M.D. Columbia, 1953 George Washington University School of Government and Business, 1973-1974 Army War College, 1976 New York #77729 California #G-4697 Certified, American Board of Pediatrics, 1961 Health and Performance Research Technology Transfer Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Senior Executive Management PRESENT POSITION Consultant to Systems Engineering and Management Associates, Falls Church, Virginia Responsible for facilitating commercialization of Strategic Defense Initiative technologies to the health care industry and the life sciences research community. PAST EMPLOYMENT 1987-1990 Chief Scientist (Biomedical Operations) Flow General Inc., McLean, Virginia Advised the CEO on health-related activities of the six subsidiary companies world-wide. Also served as Director, Biomedical and Veterinary Services Division, Flow Laboratories, Inc., owned by Flow General, Inc. (Left company when health-related activities were sold.) 1957-1986 Active duty, U.S. Army 1957-1986 Continuously involved in research and development (R&D) throughout Army service; retired 1 September 1986 in the grade of Major General as Assistant Surgeon General (R&D) and Commander, U.S. Army Medical R&D Command. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 GARRISON RAPMUND SGFOIA3 EDUCATION: A.B. Harvard, 1949 M.D. Columbia, 1953 George Washington University School of Government and Business, 1973-1974 Army War College, 1976 MEDICAL LICENSE: New York #77729 California #G-4697 Certified, American Board of Pediatrics, 1961 EXPERTISE: Health and Performance Research Technology Transfer Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Senior Executive Management PRESENT POSITION Consultant to Systems Engineering and Management Associates, Falls Church, Virginia Responsible for facilitating commercialization of Strategic Defense Initiative technologies to the health care industry and the life sciences research community. PAST EMPLOYMENT 1987-1990 Chief Scientist (Biomedical Operations) Flow General Inc., McLean, Virginia Advised the CEO on health-related activities of the six subsidiary companies world-wide. Also served as Director, Biomedical and Veterinary Services Division, Flow Laboratories, Inc., owned by Flow General, Inc. (Left company when health-related activities were sold.) 1957-1986 Active duty, U.S. Army 1957-1986 Continuously involved in research and development (R&D) throughout Army service; retired 1 September 1986 in the grade of Major General as Assistant Surgeon General (R&D) and Commander, U.S. Army Medical R&D Command. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2@9?'JUl*IPE96-00789R003100170001-9 Garrison Rapmund, M.D. Major General (Retired), United States Army DATE OF BIRTH CITIZENSHIP MARITAL STATUS HOME ADDRESS PRESENT POSITION Consultant to Systems Engineering and Management Associates, Falls Church, Virginia Responsible for facilitating commercialization of Strategic Defense Initiative technologies to the health care industry and the life sciences research community. SGFOIA3 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100170001-9 SGFOIA3 Philip D. Wasserman EDUCATION Study leading to Ph.D. in Computer Science and Engineering MS Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Santa Clara University BS Mathematics, Sununa Cum Laude, College of Notre Dame PROFILE t]F EXPERIENCE Over 2S years experience in the field of artificial neural networks. Author of two books and several papers on theory and applications. Successfully applied artificial neural networks to solve a wide range of real world problems. More than 30 years diversified experience as an Electronics Engineer, heavily involved in the detailed design of electronic instrunatnts, analog and digital circuits, computer software, computer hardware and computer systems. Exte