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SG1A Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Reactions of the Central Nervous system to Peripheral Effects of Low-Intensity EHF Emission Natalia N. Lebedeva Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the USSR Academy. of Sciences Abstract The study of reactions of human CNS to peripheral effects of EHF emission, created by therapeutic apparatus Yav-I (the wave length is 7.1 mm) revealed restructuring of the space-time organization of biopotentials of the brain cortex of a healthy individual which indicate development of a non-specific activation reaction in the cortex. The study of sensory indication of EHF field with these parameters showed that it is can be reliably detected at the sensory level by 80% of the subjects. Introduction In the process of study of reactions of living systems with a different level of organization to millimeter waves, non-thermal (informational) effects were discovered [1-3]. The distance from the place affected by the emission to the location of appearance of the biological reaction may be hundreds and thousands times larger than the distance at which the emission decreases one order of mag- nitude. This fact demonstrates participation of the nervous system in perception of millimeter-range emission by living organisms. There is a wide-spread opinion that biological effects of EMF are realized in humans at a subsensory level. However, in the recent years there is interest to their sensory detection in the Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 - form of radiosound, magnetophosphenes, or skin sensations [4-9]. Changes in EEG to EMF effects were most often observed in the form of an increase in the slow waves and spindle-shape oscillations in reptiles, pigeons, rats, rabbits, monkeys, and humans [10-12]. We have not found studies devoted specifically to the effects of millimeter waves on the central nervous system in the available literature; thus, the current study has been undertaken. This study employed electrophysio logical and psychophysiological methods for the evaluation of the state of the central nervous system while affected by EMF. Methodolouy Twenty healthy subjects aged 17 to 40 years participated in the experiments. Apparatus Yav-I with the wave length of 7.1 mm was used as the EMF source. A flexible waveguide with the power of 5 mW/cm2 at its end was directed at He-Gu [4 Gi] acupuncture point in the right or left hand of the subject. Two experimental series have been conducted. In the first one (10 subjects, 10 tests with each subject, 20 instances of field action in each test), sensory detection of the field was studied. The length of the EMF signal or control trial without the signal was 1 minute. To evaluate the subject's EMF sensitivity, the indicator of response strength (RS) was used, i.e., the ratio :between the number of correctly identified trials and the total number of EMF signals. Another indicator used was the level of false alarms (FA), i.e., the ratio between the number of false Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 positives to the total number of control trials. The significance of the difference between RS and FA was evaluated by using the Mann-Whitney test. The analysis of latent time (TLat) included total histograms of true responses and false alarms. In the second series (10 subjects, 11 tests with each, including placebo tests) the exposure to the field was equal to 60 minutes. EEG recording was conducted before and after the EMF influence by using EEG-16S (Hungary), with 4 paired leads, located according to 10-20% system (in the frontal F-F, central C-C, parietal P-P and occipital 0-0 areas). As the reference electrode, a joint ear electrode was used. Together with EEG recording on paper, the data were fed for on-line processing into an IBM-PC Amstrad computer using spectrum coherent analysis by means of rapid Fourier transformations with plotting power spectra and computing mean coherence levels. Selected for the study were frequencies from 2 to 30 Hz in major physiological ranges of the EEG spectrum. Results and discussion In the first experimental series, the subjects showed a division into two unequal subgroups according to their RS and FA indicators. The first subgroup (8 individuals) could reliably (at a statistically significant level] detect EMF: the differences between :RS and FA were significant according to Mann-Whitney test, the means for RS and FA being 64.3% ? 10.5% and 20.6% ? 11.2%, re- spectively. The second subgroup (2 individuals) could not reliably Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 distinguish between EMF effects and control trials, the means for RS and FA being 59.0% ? 14.25% and 43.53% ? 16.5%, respectively. From the eight individuals who could detect the EMF well, two could reliably distinguish it from control trials with both hands, one could do this only with the left hand and the others only with the right hand. An analysis of distribution of TLat of true responses and false alarms showed single mode distribution in both instances. The mean of latent time for eight subjects was 46.1 ? 5.8 sec. The prevalent sensations were pressure (46.7%), tingling (36.3%), itching (8.9%), warmth-coolness (5.3%), and other sensations (2.8%). All the sensations were experienced either in the palm of the hand or in the fingers, each subject having his own set of sensations. An analysis of the data obtained experimentally justifies the assumption that humans are capable to perceive sensorially the EFM in the millimeter range, similarly to their capacity of perceiving the ELF fields [4-6], which is in accordance with the results obtained elsewhere (9]. Interaction of any physical factor with biological systems of complex organization begins on their surface, and the skin is the first receptor. Unlike other analyzers, the skin does not have absolutely specific receptors. This was confirmed in experiments conducted by A.N. Leontiev and his associates [13], who conducted similar studies with non-termal emission in the visible range of spectrum and found that their subjects were capable of reliably Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 distinguishing the emission effects from control trials. The modes of perception were similar to those observed in our tests. Thus, our results as well as data of other authors indicate the importance of the skin analyzer in EMF perception. Study of the modes of perception which occur in the process of EHF field reception makes it possible to assume that EMF stimuli are perceived either by mechanical receptors (sensations of touch or pressure), or by pain receptors, i.e., nociceptors (tingling and burning sensations). From mechanical receptors, only Ruffini's and Merkel's endings and tactile disks may be involved in the process, according to the depth of their location in the epidermis, their adaptation speed and their capacity to spontaneous activity. The assumption that nociceptors may be responsible for the reception of EMF signal is based on the following: their polyspecificity in relation to stimuli; the kind of sensations, i.e., tingling and burning, which are considered precursors of pain; experiments which showed complete disappearence of EMF sensitivity in individuals whose skin at the place of influence was treated by ethyl chloride that turns off pain receptors; facts from medical practice that the EHF influence on the respective dermatome [dermatome means the areas of the skin supplied with sensory fibers from a single spinal nerve--LF] causes sensory response in the afflicted organ of the body which may be the result of convergence of nociceptive afferents from the dermatomes and the internal organs on the same neurons of pain pathways. With this, skin hypersensitivity occurs because visceral impulses increase the excitability of inter- Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 stitual neurons and facilitation takes place. The latent time of EMF responses (to both ELF range and millimeter range EMF) is unusually large. While the reaction time of visual and auditory sensory systems is from dozens to hundreds of milliseconds, the perception of EMF takes dozens of seconds. This is in a good agreement with theoretical calculations by I.V. Rodshtat [14] who made an assumption that a single time cycle of microwave sensory reception, including detection of sensory sensation, is within 40 to 60 seconds. This is explained [according to him] by a complex structure of the reflex arc which includes both nervous and humoral links. An analysis of inter-central EEG ratios is one of the approaches to the study of regulation mechanisms of functional states of the human brain. As known from the literature [15], the indicator of coherence level (COHm) is the most significant of EEG correlates which characterizes the peculiarities of the human brain functioning. Major changes of the cortical EEG with regard to both inter- central and intra-hemispheric connections in placebo tests can be characterized either by a decrease in COHm, especially in the range of delta and theta, or by maintaining the background level. A power spectrum analysis shows a decrease in the brain waves magnitude, especially in the alpha range (Fig. 1). Thus, as a result of placebo (control) tests, a kind of "expectancy reaction" with specific space-time organization of the cortex biopotentials takes place. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 A different EEG pattern is observed after the individual is exposed to EMF. There is a significant power increase in the alpha range, especially in occipital and parietal areas in both hemispheres; in other parts of the spectrum the power remains close to the background level (arrows 2 and 3 in Fig. 1). Unlike in placebo tests, an increase in the mean of the coherence level COHm takes place practically in all the subjects resulting from exposure to EHF. It mainly occurs in the frontal and central areas of the cortex and is mostly expressed in slow wave spectrum range (delta and theta). A similar pattern of brain waves is characteristic of the state of an increased brain tone, i.e., it occurs in non- specific activation reaction (16]. This kind of response is characteristic because it is known that frontal areas of the cortex are sensitive to various external factors. These zones have broad bilateral connections with other cortical and subcortical structures which determine the involvement of frontal areas in many functional response systems. Conclusions 1. Peripheral effects of EHF (7.1 mm wave length, 5 mW/cm2) with a 60 minute exposure causes restructuring of the cortical brain waves in a healthy individual; this points to the developments of a non-specific activation reaction, i.e., to an increase in the tone of the cortex. 2. The study of sensory detection of EMF in EHF range showed that the field with the above parameters is detected at a statistically significant level by 80% of the subjects. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 References 1. Devytakov, N.D., Betsky, O.V., Gelvich, E.A., et al. Ftadiobiolo i a, 1981, Vol. 21, 2, pp. 163-171. 2. Devyatkov, N.D., Golant, M.B., & Tager, A.C. Biofizika, 1983, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 895-896 [English translation: Role of synchronization in the impact of weak electromagnetic sygnals in the millimeter wave range on living organisms. Biophysics, 28 (5), 952-954]. 3. Sevastiyanova, L.A., Potapov, S.A., Adamenko, V.G., & Vilenskaya, R.L. Nauchnyye Doklady Vysshey Shkoly, 1969, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 215-220. 4. Lebedeva, N.N., Vekhov, A.V., & Bazhenova, S.I. In: Problemy plektromagnitnoy neirofiziologii [Problems of Electromagnetic Neurophysiology]. Moscow: Nauka, 1988, pp. 85-93. 5. Lebedeva, N.N., & Kholodov, Yu.A. Materials of the 15th Congress of I P Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society. 6. Kholodov, Yu.A. In: Materials of the 7th All-Union Conference can Neurophysiology. Kaunas, 1976, p. 395. 7. Andreyev, Ye.A., Bely, M.I., & Sitko, S.P. Vestnik AN SSSR, 1.985, No. 4, pp. 24-32. 8. Lovsund, P., Oberg, P.A., & Nilsson, S.F.G. Med. Biol. Eng. .'omput., 1980, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 758-764. 9. Kholodov, Yu.A., & Temnov, A.A. Materials of the 5th-All-Union Seminar "Study of the Mechanisms of Non-Thermal Effects of EMF on 13iological Systems." Moscow, 1983, p. 8. 10. Anderson, L.Ye. XXIII General Assembly of URSI, Prague, 1990, p. 12. 11. Semm, P. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1983, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp- 683-690. 12. Kholodov, Yu.A. Reaktsii nervnoy sistemy na elektromagnitnyye polva [Reactions of the Nervous System to Electromagnetic Fields]. Moscow: Nauka, 1975, 208 pp. 13. Leontiyev, A.N. Problemy razvitiva psikhiki [Problems of the Development of the Psyche]. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 1981, 582 pp. :L4. Rodshtat, I.V. Preprint No. 20 (438). Moscow: Institute for Radio Engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, :1985, 4, pp. 24-32. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 15. Livanov, M.N. Prostranstvenno-vremennaya organizatsiya :otentsialov i sistemnaya devatelnost golovnoao mozga [Spatial and Temporal organization of Biopotentials and Systemic Activity of the :Brain]. Moscow: Nauka, 1989, 398 pp. 16. Sviderskaya, N.Ye. Sinkhronnaya elektricheskaya aktivnost :mozga i psikhicheskiye protsessy [Synchroneous Electrical Activity of the Brain and Mental Processes]. Moscow: Nauka, 1987, 154 pp. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 BOCnpLIs3- iO-CTxMy- eHMH, .LIH no- 3 TOM K Tax- CxOpOc- zeHme 0 [rHaJla !HM H KO TOpble .BIIIMe pa6oTxe ;bie pe- KBLI- LlxaeT ;LIM HO- HOB Ha ae T e MM- HLlxae T Mana3o- 3pM- CO THLI xopO IIO i4J, aHCOp- I(yueHYIFf, rieM ,43 IIOA- ,DC coc- q Ho- ?eJtsr- 'Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-731 TOM, XapaKTepM3yfoEgmI oCO6eHHOCTb ( yHKIVMOHLIpoBaHMH MO3ra i eJIo- BeKa. OCHoBHble nepecTpOkKM KopKOBO2 pmTMHKM xaK no Me,KI7eHTpa3Ib- HbIM, TaK M no BHyTpMno3lymapMI CBH3HM B OnbITax c njiai e6o MO}K- HO oxapaKTepm30BaTb cJIeAyIOfl 4M o6pa30M: JIL160 3T0 cnw eHMe KOI'cp., oc06eHHO B o6JIaCT1 AeJIbTa-, TeTa-AMana3OHOB, JIM60 coxpaHeHLIe (OHOBOI'O ypOBHH. AHaJIMS cne}TpOB MOqHOCTN nOxa3bt- BaeT, c;TO npOMCXOAHT CHLI7KeHLIe MOU HOCTH p 4TMOB 6MOnOTeHqMaJIOB Moira, 0006eHHO BbIpaxeHHoe B aJIbC1a-AMaIIa3OHe (CM.pzc.). Fem. t Od Taxxm o6pa3oM, B pe3yJlbTaTe OnbITOB c n3laj4e6O BO3HMHaeT COCTOFIHMe cBoeo6pa3HOri "peaKIXMLI o?KLIAaHMH c OCO6oYI npoCTpaH- cTBeHHO-BpeMeHHOg opraHM3aLLMen 6LMonoTeHi;x&iOB Kopbl rOJIOBHOr0 M03ra. MHaSi KapTHHa Ha6JnoAaeTCH B 33P nociie 3KCn03NqLIM M. B CnexTp3JIbHOM COCTaBe OTMeLiaeTCfi 3Harn'LITe3IbHoe nOBbImeHMe MOU;- HOCTLI B aJIb(ba-AYIana30He, oco6eHHO B 3aTblJIo iIiw LI TeMeHHbIX o6JIacTHx o6omx nonyulapI4t , B Apyri AMana3oHax cneKTpbI MOll - HOCTN OCTaIOTCH 6JILI3x1MLI K ()OHOBb1M (CTpeJn 2,3). B oTJILILILIe OT OIIblTOB c nJIaqe6o B pe3yJlbTaTe. B03AekCTBLIH no3iH KBU npaKTLiuec- Ku y Bcex MCnbITyeMbIX npoLTCX0 MT noBbIIIIeHMe cpegHero ypOBHH Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 TAB Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R0031002 Biophysics Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1086-1098, 1989 Printed in Poland 0006-3509/89 S10.O is Pk 0 1991 Pergamon Prey Dk BIOPHYSICS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS RESONANCE EFFECT OF COHERENT ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS IN THE MILLIMETRE RANGE OF WAVES ON LIVING ORGANISMS * (Received 10 June 1987) The results of Soviet and foreign theoretical studies furthering understanding of the mechan- ism of the acute resonance action of extremely high-frequency coherent electromagnetic ra- diations of low power on live organisms and the significance of these radiations for the func. tioning of the latter are analysed. REFERENCE [1] presents a systematic review of experimental work promoting under- standing of the mechanism of the acute resonance effect of extremely high frequency (e.h.f.)t low power irradiations on living organisms. The results of these studies show. in particular, that the cells of live organisms generate coherent acousto-electric vibra- tions of the e.h.f. range used in the body as control signals of its functioning. As fol- lows from experimental research, the influence of the external e.h.f. radiations on the body is apparently connected with the fact that at certain resonance frequencies the signals coming from without imitate the control signals generated to maintain homeo- stasis by the body itself. External radiations may make good the inadequacy of the func- tioning of the control system of the body in conditions when the formation by it of signals of these frequencies in arrested or becomes less efficient for one or other reason. Acquaintance with.the data outlined in reference [1] greatly simplifies the review of theoretical work allowing one not to deal with the investigations in which the initial premise is the assumption of the impossibility of generation by live organisms of cohe- rent vibrations.: It also becomes possible to reduce to the limit the exposition of the essence of the first theoretical studies seeking to prove the possibility, in principle, of the mechanism of generation of coherent e.h.f. vibrations in living organisms but not tying the mechanisms considered to the features of their functional use: in such a complex system as the living body one may imagine a number of different mechanisms of genera" ? Biofizika 34: No. 6, 1004-1014, 1989. t The frequency range corresponding to the millimetre range of wavelengths according to SoviCl standard GOST 24375-80 is called the extremely high frequency range. t See reference [21 to acquaint oneself with the conclusions of such theories and the resultin(i insurmountable difficulties of squaring their conclusions with the results of experiments. bn [3] but one may sele the functional rcle. Since the present re ere remains outside it: iference [4]) although ng them in a very gene control. At the same time, a r _tical notions is required notions does not a :b conclusions significan eriments to elucidate changed as compared ~ which, as is known, is: ults of the action of e daptibility of the organ: Link between the effic oiling signals. Living or ery developed system o ystems as the mammalia Us) but confines oneelf riety indirectly characte thor of reference [7, (F all types of form and The field of effective u quency range of the cc rtially matching ideas e control of processes in ust exist, i.e. in the volur for the formation of s aintain homeostasis in ar information must be e: ay?be excited in a nartict ngtn. Consequently, to ei t the excited waves must b e possible degree of the brations f is limited by th sufficient for the effective traviolet frequency range But the wavelength in tl y the velocity of propagai i d For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 standing of the rent electromagne radiations for thefi 'ork promoting ui tremely high free ien of these stud1ei.,' acousto-electri6 is functioning,. h.f. radiations lance frequencies d to maintain homed. adequacy of the fnuG_ ie formation by it, of one or other reason. simplifies the r(lew ' e or ganiStns f ie exposition1 y, in prince Ie,; p Of'ie anisms but not tying in such a cotnplez chanisms of Sena* the according to Sorkt N't Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations lion [3] but one may select those actually existing only starting from their correspondence to the functional role. Since the present review is concerned with the biophysical aspects of the problem there remains outside its scope a wide range of biocybernetic studies (see, for example, reference [4]) although devoted to the control systems of living organisms but consid- ering them in a very generalized form difficult to tie to analysis of the specific mechanisms of control. At the same time, a review of theoretical work necessary for the formation of theor- etical notions is required not only for the completeness of the picture: absence of theoret- ical notions. does not allow one to stage correctly experimental investigations leading to conclusions significant in practice. For example, one widespread error is the use for experiments to elucidate the influence of e.h.f. radiations of organisms with a character unchanged as compared with normal of the ongoing functioning (the ongoing functioning of which, as is known, is not influenced by e.h.f. radiations [5]) and also evaluation of the results of the action of e.h.f. radiatio Al' n adaptibility of the sregarding the parameters characterizing the organism to particular conditions of existence [6]. Link between the efficiency of the control system and the frequency range of the con- trolling signals. Living organisms are exceptionally complex and accordingly require a very developed system of control. Even if one does no consider such ultracomplex systems as the mammalian organism or th e human body (the latter includes 1014?-lots cells) but confines onself to a single cell, its reactions are extremely varied and this variety indirectly characterizes the complexity of the system controlling them. Thus, the author of reference [7, (Russian transl ti a on)] writes: "...that to give a full description of all types of form and movement of eukaryote cells one book would not suffice". The field of effective use of a particular control system is largely determined by the frequency range of the control signal. This problem was analysed in reference [8] and partially matching ideas are contained in reference [9]. Where the question concerns the control of processes in a single isolated cell the possibility of "writing" in its volume must exist, i.e. in the volume the mean size of which ..10-16 m3, any information neces- sary for the formation of signals exercizing adequate control of the processes helping to maintain homeostasis in any conditions of the vital activity encountered, i.e. "the writing" of information must be extremely economical. The number of different signals which may be excited in a particular resonance system is primarily determined by its electrical length. Consequently, to ensure the necessary diversity of the control signals the lengths Of the excited waves must be very short as compared with its geometric length. Naturally, the possible degree of the contraction of wavelength by increasing the frequency of the vibrations fis limited by the fact that beyond a certain limit the energy of the quantum hf is sufficient for the effective destruction of biological bonds, i.e. is actually limited by the ultraviolet frequency range. But the wavelength in the system d is determined not only by the frequency but also by the velocity of propagation v: : Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280 1088 M. B. GOLANT If the magnitude v corresponds to the velocity of propagation of acoustic waves (hun- dreds of m/sec) then at frequencies equal to or exceeding 10 GHz the A values become less than 10-8 m which ensures the possibility of accomodation in the cell volume (the mean linear size of which N 10-s m) of resonance systems of large electric length. The velocity in hundreds of m/sec is peculiar not only to purely acoustic waves but also to acousto-electric waves which will be considered below. Further substantial (by 1-2 or- ders of magnitude) contraction of the wavelength would lead to its commensurability with the size of the atoms a consequence of which would inevitably be the thermal in- stability of any informational structures the size of the informationally significant ele- ments of which would be of the order of one wavelength. The contraction of A to the same values for smaller f through further fall in v would lead to mechanical instability of the wave-guide structures (cell membranes [1]) as a result of decrease in the elastic modulus (see below). The ideas presented make it clear why the influence of coherent radiations of low (non-thermal) intensity on live organisms has been particularly often observed in the millimetre* and even shorter wave ranges. As shown in reference [8] in terms of use in the information system of living organisms the millimetre waves possess two further advantages. I. The energy losses associated with the propagation in lipid membranes of an elec- tric e.h.f. field are relatively low (in the longwave part of the millimetre range -0.25 dB/cm [10]). From the data of reference [1] it is clear why the water surroundings of the lipid membranes do not influence the size of these losses: the aqueous medium is separ- ated from the hydrophobic layer by a space - 10 A in which the density of the flux of e.h.f. power falls by an order. Apparently (judging from the width of the resonance bands given in reference [I]) the acoustic losses are also low which is also probably explained by the feature already noted in reference [1] of the structure of the membranes: the acoustic link through the 10 A-slit separating the hydrophobic layer from the cytoplasm is greatly weakened. 2. The energy expenditure on the formation of a certain volume of information in the millimetre range is relatively low as compared both with the longer wave and the far shorter wave ranges. This is connected with the difference in the character of noise in these ranges as compared with the millimetre. In longer wave ranges noise of a thermal nature dominates. Since in this region hfkT. Here the quantum noise associated with the discrete nature of the radiation dominates. Reliable transfer of a certain volume of in- formation requires that the corresponding signal is formed by the number of quanta * We would recall that the millimetre range of waves corresponds to the frequencies of the vibra- tions of 30-300 GHz-e.h.f. frequency range. deeding a cettain I imal the energy c ratio of the volur on where hf>>k2 rgy resources mir the millimetre and Aeousto-electric e es the results of ex e cells is connected nes. A theoretical r 0.45 N/m, thickr lien of the velocity c Pere p is the density al to 800 kg/m3. TI may one may calm equency shift between g to change per unit e membrane: * ere d is the diameter The Af values calcu ctral characteristics receding section that ti coustic waves. Separati to the form ce the number N of equal for the cells in N "eds or thousands ther ological membranes c t03-104. As is known [3], cell 11 the strength of the 107 V/m. Therefore, or embrane thickness) in eld changing with the fr * Although excitation o: rent d, this is of no import, ues corresponding to dif_ oved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 oustic way e A values ' ie cell volunait" lectric lengthj, waves but ai tantial (by: commens be the then lly significa rction of 4 hanical inset ease in the; radiatiojj ,i observed in terms' cranes of an elec. Are range.,(} groundings of the medium is. M ity of Inc flwit obably explained?;:' Y ? membranes::th : ,m the cytoplasm. .formation in the lave and the far'. acter of noise in rise of a thermal -f which exceeds tuber of quanta,,:';; since the neon- volume of infor- Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1089 exceeding a certain level minimal for this volume of information. The higher f the more minimal the energy of the signal determined by the given number of quanta. Therefore, the ratio of the volume of information to the energy expenditure on its formation in the region where hf>>kT falls in proportion to f. For living organisms with their limited energy resources minimization of the expenditure of the latter determined by the use of the millimetre and shorter wave ranges nearest to it is quite substantial. Acousto-electric e.h. f. waves in cell membranes and their resonances. Reference [1] gives the results of experiments showing that the resonance effect of e.h.f. radiations on the cells is connected with excitation of the acoustic-electric waves in closed cell mem- branes. A theoretical analysis of the problem is outlined in references [5, 11]. In this work on the basis of the data on cell membranes presented in reference [12] (elastic modulus K,:0.45 N/m, thickness of the hydrophobic region dm.: 3 x 10-9 m) an evaluation is given of the velocity of propagation of acoustic waves in the membrane: vp `(Ke/pdm)??S, (2) where p is the density of the lipid (fat-like) layer which for the calculation is taken as equal to 800 kg/m3. The magnitude vp calculated from (2) is -400 m/sec. Using (1) and (2) may one may calculate the wavelength in the membrane for diff d erent f an also the frequency shift between the centres of the neighbouring resonance bands df correspond- ing to change per unit of the number of wavelengths accomodated at the perimeter of the memb rane: Idf I ?(KeIpAm)? s (7rd)- t, where d is the diameter of the membrane. The df values calculated from (3) satisfactorily agree with those presented for the spectral characteristics of different cells [1]. This confirmed the ideas discussed in the preceding section that the information signals in the cells must spread at the s d f pee o the acoustic waves. Separating the right and left parts of (3) into f and using (1) we transform (3) to the form f/df=7rd/4. (4) Since the number N of wavelengths A at the perimeter of the membrane equal to 7rd/2 is equal for the cells in which the value d lies within the limits 0.5-10 pm to several hun- dreds or thousands then relation (4) indicates that the sharpness of the resonances in biological membranes corresponds to that of the contours with the quality factor 103-104. As is known [3], cell membranes are polarized and during normal functi i f h on ng o t e cell the strength of the electric field in the membrane perpendicular to it f i s sur ace s x4" - 10" V/m. Therefore, on propagation of acoustic waves (producing periodic changes in )ciated with the membrane thickness) in the polarized membrane there appears an alternating electric n volume of 1U .. field changing with the frequency of the acoustic vibrations exciting it. For vibrations of nber of quanta Although excitation of the vibrations may occur in membrane sections corresponding to dif- ucies pf the viitorg~ ferent d, this is of no importance in evaluating the magnitudes since as a rale the differences in the d SVi values corresponding to different sections are insignificant. 1090 M. B. GotaNr low amplitude considered here the membrane represents a linear system and hence for a certain size of the constant electric field in the membrane the ratio of the amplitudes of the acoustic and electric vibrations remains constant regardless of the amplitude of the spreading wave, i.e. an acoustic-electric wave is considered in which the variable electrical and acoustic parameters cannot be regulated independently. It should be noted that unlike electromagnetic waves (the slowing of which in the membrane would be insignificant) the length of the acoustic-electric wave in the mem- brane is - 104 times less than the wavelength in free space and, therefore, the energy of the electric e.h.f. field in the course of the vibrations in the main is transformed not to the energy of the magnetic field but to the energy of the acoustic e.h.f. vibrations and back. This is similar to the transformation of energy in some low frequency parametric systems in which the vibrations are maintained through transformation of the mechanical energy expended on increasing the distance between the charges on the condenser plates to the energy of the electric field. To the different resonance frequencies f corresponds a different number of standing waves at the perimeter of the membrane. Therefore, the character of the distribution of the e.h.f. field also changes with f both at the surface of the membrane and in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces lying next to it and, consequently, so does the character of the controlling action of the e.h.f. field. But for a large total number of wavelengths accomodated at the perimeter of the membrane, change in this number per unit cor- responding to the neighbouring resonarces introduces a slight change in the character of the field distributions. As a result the character of the controlling action connected with the spatial structure of the field gradually changes from one resonance to another. At the same time the controlling action of the external radiations may be connected not only with the spatial field distribution but with the resonance frequencies of particular protein molecules or intracellular elements. These last changes are more weakly connected with the structure of the field of the acoustic-electric waves. In reference [5] it is also noted that since different membrane systems literally pierce the whole cell the acoustic- electric waves branching off from the resonating membrane may penetrate to any region of the cell, the direction of propagation and action depending on the type of vibrations in the resonating membrane and the character of the membrane network changing configuration in different conditions [7]. The theoretical evaluations and ideas presented above applying both to acoustic- electric waves and their controlling action in the cells did not touch upon the problems of excitation of such waves. The question of excitation is trivial neither for the case when it operates under the influence of external radiation nor the autonomous generation of vibrations by the cell itself. Discussion of the problems connected with the excitation of vibrations in the membrane directly leads to analysis of the mechanism of generation by the cells of coherent vibrations. Therefore, it appears desirable before starting such a discussion to go briefly into some hypotheses on the character and nature of the mechanism of action of coherent vibrations on living cells put forward even before clarification of their functional role in living organisms and the careful experimental treatment of the problems associated with these mechanisms. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280 t theoretical n g the theoretic: f coherent vibt ich already begi first to express olic energy coh brations possil: the thickness that the action tic vibrations wi c vibrations i '8hlich came to t All these and a stain their value anisms of genera radiations. He p. S similar to the v ,citation. Therefor gh to initiate gene on. e vibrations acct. Iarization waves i ervoir and are systems with lo or phenomena of stribution of ener w frequency forms d conformational -, a mechanism of ge ypothesis the role also its need for M Ously assume that ency range discuss ccordingly, in wor on of organisms t, aviation from norrr variety of the specs nor were questic ;e signals generated .study of the probI cal use of e.h.f. it ow far the hypott- ear. Probably it is oved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1091 m and hi of the'a "the anipl ,hich the ~ya $ 9 of which wave in this.,, the energy ormed not" rations aria arametric sys' lechamcalra en nser plates mber of f the dish e and in thi the charade r of wavelesij ber per unit'+ in the charade action cone lance to anti cies of part weakly cow :rice [5] it cell the acoustic- ate to any region ype of vibrations,6. etwork changing' ,on the problii the excitation' m of generation ~? ti e starting su yard even beforezr ful experime~ First theoretical models of the mechanisms of excitation of coherent vibrations in cells. Voong the theoretical studies aimed at validating the possibility of generation by living .lls of coherent vibrations a special place is taken by the numerous investigations by rohlich already begun in 1968 and summarized by him in 1980 [13]. Frohlich was one ,f the first to express the conviction that in living organisms thanks to the presence of yetabolic-energy coherent vibrations may be generated with the energy of random ther- $al vibrations possibly being transformed to the energy of coherent vibrations. Com- %ring the thickness of the membrane with the length of the acoustic waves he postu- 'ted that the action of radiation may be the cause of excitation in the membranes of o;oustic vibrations with which following polarization of the membranes the appearance electric vibrations is connected. Firohlich came to the conclusion that the resonance frequencies may lie in the e.h.f. .atge. All these and a number of other ideas, in somewhat modified and refined form, X11 retain their value today. Frohlich theoretically also worked out one of the possible occh,anisms of generation of vibrations by the cells on exposure to external electromag- jetic radiations. He postulated that the mechanism of generation of vibrations by the xlls is similar to the work of a regenerative amplifier brought to the face of the regime of excitation. Therefore, a very low external signal (he did not discuss other cases) is :Hough to initiate generation of coherent vibrations the power of which approaches?sa- uration. The vibrations according to Frohlich [34] are connected with the strong interaction ,f polarization waves in a certain band lying in the frequency region - 1011 Hz, with a peat reservoir and are ensured by the inflow of energy from metabolic sources. In bio- ?cgical systems with low frequency collective vibrations favourable conditions are cre- ited for phenomena of the Bose-Einstein condensation type in the course of which there sredistribution of energy between the different degrees of freedom and the concentration a low frequency forms of vibrations. Condensation determines the possibility of goal-di- .ected conformational conversion. Frohlich was unable to demonstrate the presence of ,uch a mechanism of generation (see below). Moreover, in the period when he advanced he hypothesis the role of coherent e.h.f. vibrations for the functioning of the cell and ience also its need for them was not known. Only in one of his late papers [14] did he autiously assume that biological systems "...themselves somehow use radiations in the requency range discussed and are, therefore, sensitive to the corresponding radiations". Accordingly, in working out the hypothesis questions connected with the different :eaction of organisms to radiation as a function of the initial state of the organism and .its deviation from normal were not raised or solved; nor were questions concerned with he variety of the spectra generalized by living organisms in particular cases raised or -ulved; nor were questions of the significance for the organisms of the degree of coherence )f the signals generated raised or solved as is also true of a host of other problems under- :ying study of the problem today when answers to specific questions associated with the practical use of e.h.f. influence are required. How far the hypothesis presented may be adapted to solve the questions arising is ot clear. Probably it is simpler to validate the theoretical construction of the mechanisms 1092 M. 2- Gorarv2 of action isolating oneself from model concepts corresponding to the results of experi. mental research. In this connexion of interest is the many years of discussion between H. Frohlich and M. A. Livshits and other supporters of their views [15-18]. The point is that to describe the mechanism of excitation of coherent vibrations in the cell Frohlich proposes [19] a kinetic equation including second order terms ("two-quantum" terms) characterizing the redistribution of energy between the different vibrations as a result of interaction with a thermostat. Livshits considers that "two-quantum" terms are not completely written in the Frohlich equation. But if this omission is removed then the mechanism of excitation of coherent vibrations worked out by Frohlich will not work. Objecting to M. A. Livshits, H. Frohlich writes that the "unusual physical properties of biological systems developed b lo y ng evolution cannot be predicted by simple model calculations but call for direct harmonization with the experiment". Can one choose be- tween these two mutually exclusive views? At first sight the experimental detection of generation by the cells of coherent vibra. tions [1] favours the correctness of Frohlich's kinetic equation. But such a conclusion would be illogical: generation may not be connected with that mechanism which reflects this equation. But in such a case the subject of discussion would be peripheral to the real problem. The only way to isolate the true mechanism among the hypothetically possible is to establish its correspondence to the whole body of know facts (including the facts outlined above). Therefore, the view of the author of the review will be formulated below after ending the discussion of the published data. Frohlich's hypothesis was not the only approach to the problem; there are others stemming from th id e ea of the existence in living organisms of coherent vibrations but not solving the real problems listed above. Thus, for example, the author of reference [2] in 1984 advanced a hypothesis based on the assumption of the existence of a still un- identified molecule taking part in the intermedate stages of development of biochemical reactions and present in the triplet state in which two unpaired electrons interact with their magnetic fields. The molecule has three possible initial states to each of which cor- responds its course of chemical reactions. It is assumed that the initial state may be in- fluenced by e.h.f. pumping so regulating the course of the processes. Naturally, this hypothesis, too, cannot give concrete answers to the real problems of using e.h.f. sig- nals in medicine and biology if only because of the unidentified nature of the molecules the existence of which is taken as its base. Effect of external e.h. f, radiation on the process of excitation of acoustic electric vibra- tions in cells h , c aracter of the influence of external radiations on the functioning of the cells. In many experimental studies it is emphasized (1] that a single external e.h.f. exposure does not act on the ongoing functioning of healthy cell;. In reference [5] it was shcwn that this may be due to the absence of a link between the retarded e.h.f. waves in the mem- brane and the unretarded or weakly retarded waves of external radiation. From electro- dynamics it is known [20] that the link between delayed and undelayed waves may be established by one or more coupling elements (antennae, slits, etc.) located at points the vibrations in which occur approximately in the same phase, i.e. shifted relative to each other by a whole number of delayed waves. And, in fact, reference (I] presents published Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00310 to on the formatic disturbed (and ext uctures which ma} But how do these mponent of the wi shorter than the ler litude of the field on by the exponential 1i e action of the po uch a rapidly changii where the aqueous it exposure to these rface and adhere tc Armed. In fact, the pc fined not only by the embrane pulsating it e square of the field erms of smallness the ng on the protein r 'A) where El is the ai ane;1 is the ongoing membrane. Conseq ngth of the retarded w hick in line with the fo ;Optimally the link betw, From the photogra uctures described for. # curvature or in nano 'f the fields where their many cases lead to de n of these temporary e cells with disturbed n the membrane on exp y of the linking eleme ation of stable informa so after arrest of irradi It should be noted th oted by such cell defo ctures described but pone of the cells to rep, '0 a single exposure cann To conclude the expo L4nd the external e.h.f. fief ) oved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 r the iesj iscussion' 15-181..m in the ce[i+, wo-quan ,ibrations -i _ ntum" teA 3hlich wilt!" physical. P ;ted by sini Can one c1 ils of coke ut such av ianism peripheral to-1 fpotheUCauY F105Sitye s (including thex "ices be formulated belop em; there-". Serent vibratfii uthor of ref.-. )ment of bioclite'mii aI ectrons interact with to each of which cor? ,itial state maybe in. esses. Naturally; this ns of using e.h.L siig- ture of the mo! ?ties zcoustic electric unctioning of MW ternal e.h.f. exposure [5] it was shown Vb ilt n- f. waves in the. .elayed waves nbe located at pinin the iifted relative t; [1] presents pub Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1093 data on the formation at the membrane surface in periods when normal cell functioning is disturbed (and external radiation is capable of acting on its recovery) of temporary structures which may also act as coupling elements. But how do these temporary structure form? Since the membrane for the electrical component of the waves excited in it is a retarding system the wave length in which A is shorter than the length of the electromagnetic waves in the surrounding space, the am- plitude of the field on moving from the surface of the membrane decreases approximately by the exponential law exp (-2nx/A) where x is the distance from the surface [21]. The action of the polarization forces on the excited protein molecules (see below) in such a rapidly changing field, especially at the surface of the lipid layer of the membrane (where the aqueous medium does not penetrate), is always directed to the surface [22]. On exposure to these forces protein molecules and aggregates move to the membrane surface and adhere to it [I] from which the elements of the temporary structure are formed. In fact, the polarization forces acting on the molecules and aggregates are deter- mined not only by the variable but also by the constant components of the field in the membrane pulsating in response to the acoustic wave. These forces are proportional to the square of the-field strength. As shown by calculation, if one ignores second order terms of smallness the variable component depending on the coordinate 1 of the forces Fl acting on the protein molecules at the membrane surface is proportional to El sin2 (27r// :2A) where E1 is the amplitude of the variable component of the wave field in the mem- brane; I is the ongoing coordinate read off along the perimeter of the excited section of the membrane. Consequently the Fl maxima are shifted relative to each other by the length of the retarded wave A (but not A/2 as in the standing wave), i.e. by the distance which in line with the forgoing is necessary for the temporary structures formed to ensure optimally the link between the waves in the membrane and surrounding space. From the photographs given in reference [23] it will be seen that the temporary sti uctures described form not over the whole perimeter of the membrane but at points of curvature or in narrow gaps between the membranes, i.e. in regions of concentration of the fields where their amplitude is maximal. The factors disturbing cell functioning in many cases lead to deformation of the membranes which apparently causes the forma- tion of these temporary structures. Therefore. the effect of the external e.h.f. signals on the cells with disturbed functioning grows. At the same time amplification of the field in the membrane on exposure to e.h.f. fields leads to acceleration of the formation not only of the linking elements of the cells with the external e.h.f. field but also to the for- mation of stable information structures ensuring generation by the cells of e.h.f. signals also after arrest of irradiation [1] (see also below). It should be noted that strengthening of the link with the external field is also pro- moted by such cell deformations still not leading to the formation of the temporary structures described but such a link must be weaker. This probably determines the re- sponse of the cells to repeated exposure to external e.h.f. irradiation where the response to a single exposure cannot be detected [24]. To conclude the exposition of the question of the link between the cell membranes and the external e.h.f. field we would mention that the literature quoted in reference [1] 1094 M. B. Gor.Arrr describes the possibility of enhancing this link by adding to the nutrient medium in which the cells are present long-fibre molecules in a concentration corresponding to their posi- tion close to the surface of the plasma membrane at distance A from each other [5]. The nature of the attendant strengthening of the link is understandable from the fore- going remarks. In reference [25] the authors discuss the nature and character of the influence of low intensity external e.h.f. radiation on the cells which is linked with synchronization by co- herent low intensity radiations of th ib e v ratory pr ih ocessesn te cell. With synchroniza- tion is linked the strengthening of these vibrations determined, in particular, by the co- herent summing of the vibrations previously dephased or excited at different frequencies of the intracellular sources and the formation of a highly effective controlling signal capable of orienting in a definite way or reorienting the processes in the cells (see above). Since ionic and molecular transport takes place across the membrane ensuring the vital activity of the cell and the membrane takes an active part in its regulation [3] in reference [25] it was assumed that external e.h.f. radiation must influence it. It is important to emphasize that external e.h.f. radiation is not an energy source for the established coherent vibrations in the cells but merely synchronizes them. The question of the transformation of the random energy of metabolism to the energy of cohe- rent vibrations demands special analysis. One of the later sections is concerned with this question. Excitation of the vibrations ofprotein molecules in the cell. The published data outlined in reference [I] referring to experimental studies indicate that the living cell as an auto- nomous system is controlled by e.h.f. signals generated by the cell itself. A major role in this process is apparently played by the protein molecules. In the literature the prob- lems of excitation of vibrations in protein molecules have been explored reasonably fully both experimentally and theoretically. The most detailed experimental investigations [26-30] were undertaken under the di- rection of Didenko on a specially designed apparatus permitting use of spectra obtained by the method of nuclear gamma resonance spectroscopy. The apparatus permitted various measurements in conditions of e.h.f. irradiation both of crystalline and lyophyl- lic haemoglobin samples including measurements in a strong magnetic field ensured by the use of superconducting solenoids with change in the temperature of the samples from room to helium. Haemoglobin was used as protein, although the results of measurement probably apply more generally. As shown by the measurements, e.h.f. exerts a resonance action on the haemoglobin molecules expressed in changes in the Mossbauer spectrum; the width of the resonance bands at room temperature is only 3 MHz. Several series of resonance bands were detected. From analysis of the changes in the Mossbauer spectra Didenko concluded that on e.h.f. irradiation the haemoglobin molecules pass to new confcrmational states distinguished by the distribution of charge of the electrons and by the electric field gradient on the iron nucleus; at resonance frequencies the tertiary struc- ture is rearranged in the globin part of the molecule and its dynamic properties change. These problems have also formed the subject of numerous theoretical investigations in the recent period. Among them we would note the work of Frauenfelder et at. [31-33] Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00310028 o developed the lecules perform y of these state es (nitrogen level rcoming the potz rgy of the transit ilibrium. The co glecules of their bi is averaged distrib The e.h.f. signal is ,na] states in those chronizing signal. the electromagnet lecules are distrib e moments [35] ce [36] at differen cularly effective i the membranes wi ustic (see precedin Lein molecule. As c 'es are drawn to the Cr surface of the mE a result informatic of them was giver Didenko relates th the Mossbauer spec quencies of acoustic ustic resonators Q,, with polymers is q lecules the effects of one to isolate the a oise. Mechanism of genes evious sections allow eady noted the actio mitates their autovib Probably it is ration the autovibrations. L g to anomalies in its i itation are created in s leads to svnchroni. e membrane and the r aedium ia" ng to their, each other. from the .nfiuence of )nization th synchror Aar, by: tha? -ent freque Ztrolling ?11s (see aria". P iai gulatiort .? it. iFw(fj1' ti energy so zes them',` nergy of cohi oncerned tviij" I data outllll 4- A major:; Lure the;W1 ed reasonm under the di. ctra obtained tus permitted and lyophyl- id ensured by samples from measurement,. s a reson ier spectrnnw;'_- 'eral series of )auer spectra pass WOW;: trons and by ertiary struo4' rties change:.. tvestigatiois et al. (314s.. .V V 01 roved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1095 who developed the model of the dynamic behaviour of proteins according to which the molecules perform fluctuations passing from one conformational state to another, many of these states being energetically very close to each other. At reduced tempera- tures (nitrogen level and even lower) the probability of such transitions associated with overcoming the potential barriers falls in proportion to exp [-E,/k7'J where Et is the energy of the transition [34]. At rocm temperature most of the substates are in thermal equilibrium. The conformational mobility is important for the fulfilment by the bio- molecules of their biological function. Accordingly thermal equilibrium leads to a cer- tain averaged distribution of these functions between the molecules. The e.h.f. signal is capable of synchronizing the vibrations is l i o at ng certain conforma- tional states in those molecules with r esonance frequencies close to the frequency of the synchronizing signal. The possibility of excitation of the vibrations in protein molecules by the electromagnetic signal is determined by the fact that ions as part of the protein molecules are distributed in them unevenly so that these molecules have considerable dipole moments [35]. In line with the model of biomacromolecules developed in ref- erence [36] at different frequencies the e.h.f. field interacts with their different portions. Particularly effective interaction of the e.h.f. field with protein molecules must occur close to the membranes where the e.h.f. waves are retarded and their lengths are equal to acoustic (see preceding section) the length of which is commensurate with the size of the protein molecule. As made clear above, on exposure to an e.h.f. signal the protein mole- cules are drawn to the membrane surface, the character of the process of drawing to the inner surface of the membrane being similar to that of molecules to its outer surface [23]. As a result information structures may form on the membrane surface (an example of one of them was given in reference [1]). Didenko relates the results obtained by her in study of the action of an e.h.f. signal on the Mossbauer spectra of protein molecules to excitation in the latter at the resonance frequencies of acoustic vibrations. The quality factor of the haemoglobin molecules as acoustic resonators Q,? according to the evaluation made by her (on the basis of the ana- logy with polymers is quite large: - 10'. The magnitude hfQ,,> kT and, therefore, in such molecules the effects of accumulation of the energy of many quanta may operate allow- ing one to isolate the action of even very weak coherent signals against the background of noise. Mechanism of generation by the cells of coherent e.h. f, signals. The material of the previous sections allows us to pass to an exposition of ideas on the mechanisms of auto- generation of e.h.f. vibrations in the cell [5]. This is a very important question since as already noted the action of the external signals on the cells is effective only to the extent it imitates their autovibrations. Probably it is rational to outline as follows the sequence of the process of excitation of the autovibrations. In conditions when as a result of certain actions on the cell lead- ing to anomalies in its functioning its symmetry is disturbed, conditions of preferential excitation are created in the cell membranes at certain resonance frequencies (see above). This leads to synchronization of the vibrations of those rot i l p e n mo ecules adhering to the membrane and the resonance frequencies of which coincide or are close to the fre- Approved For Release 2000/08 M. B. GOLANT quencies mostly excited in the membranes. Synchronization and the associated summing of the vibrations ensure rise in the efficiency membrane and radiation to the ensure of transfer of their energy a the surrounding space. coherent tion on frequency begins to differ from that observed in the case of equilibrium Asa result the dependence of rdia. radiation at the temperature of the cell: at resonance frequencies it rises. rise in the energy thermal of radiation occurs through the ener Naturally, the rise in the energy losses on radiation (but not through c olin compensating Transformation f f o g o energy thell) ce. apparently occurs as follows. Disturbance of equi- librium through increase in radiation at certain resonance frequencies bution of energy between the protein molecules taking thermal tween them and directed at restoring the equilibrium state leads t red be. place during energy exchange preferential transfer of energy to the molecules s nchro zed brocess is linked with the he membranes since the radiation at their resonance frequencies is more intense at the frequencies of the vibrations of other molecules, by the vibrations of the of the cell is ensured by fall in the removal of ener gy of Maintenance of the tempe ature In the initial period after disturbance of the symmetry metabolism into the external space. eration of coherent vibrations, the number of protein molecules adhering brave is relatively low t as compared with the of the cell giving rise to the em. to the periods h b e mem w en pi rane f srom the cytop lasm roten molecules aredrawn ( of v at surface which undergo the sharpest ldistortions [113? With increase those ur ace adhering the membrane and the formation of information structures the brave and emitted into space (the energy transmitted by the protein molecules to the mem- grows. gY of the coherent vibrations generated by the cells) The process of rise in the Power of the coherent vibrations generated is not The limitations are connected with the non-linearity of the process_ Wherein eF its source? In reference I limitless. [ ] attention was drawn to the fact that enlistment of protein mole- cules further from the surface to form information structures on the me quires energy expenditure exponential) growing mbranes re d~o once. This inevitably leads to y of the attainable power of the vibration The hi i i h g s e er the ll eve of disturbances and the Passage to stead y generation. greater the invaginations of the membrane it produces [37] the higher the maximum level of the vibrations generated. The reaction of the systems present in the state of stable equilibrium to the forces Perturbing them (but not leading to irreversible changes) always boils down to fall in the effect of the action of the latter (le Chatelier principle; in relation to living same meaning is attached to the concept of homeostasis). In this case this means that the the effect of the control e.h.f. signals generated by the cell always restores the organisms stable state of the cell whatever the cause of its disturbance or to the effects of the action of the forces is in disturbing the given state* De t f r all possible fall io the ailed treatm the associated processes is not possible since the processes petturbing the work of the cell are highly diverse but, for example, elimination of the membrane deformations the easy * The character of the processes is determined both by the spectrum of the signals generated and the localization of the disturbances Producing them. ase 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00310 xplain as a cons, Wn to them by th ch for the cone iy accelerate the 1: tive. The process desc; the membrane s; e not touched up, one also conside ees). The mechan GOLANT, M. B., Bi. KEILMAN, F., Phys BYERGEL'SON, L. 1 1982 HAKEN, H., Biol. Cy GOLANT, M. B. and FUR1A, M. et al., IEE FULTON, A., Cytosk( Mir, Moscow, 1987 DEVYATKOV, N. D. TASTED, J. B., J. Bio LAND, D. V., IEEE P~ GOLANT, M. B. and S and Medicine (in Russ, IVKOV, B. G. and B' (in Russian) P. 224, Na, FROHLICH, H., Adofs Idem., Mol. Models I to 8 Sept., 1982, Pp. 39- LIVSHITS, M. A., Biofi FROHLICH, H., Ibid. 2. WU,T.M.and AUST12 YUSHJNA, M. Ya. 1h& , ROHLICH, H., Ibid. 2E LEBEDEV, I. V., Techn Sir, R. A. and SAZO Moscow, 1966 POHL, H. A., Coherent E berg, 1983 SOTMKOV, O. S., Dynan Leningrad, 1985 GOLANT, M. B. et al. Ef , Objects (in Russian) pp. 1 l DEVYATKOV, N. D. eI at DIDENKO, N. P. et al., En Objects (in Russian) Pp. 63 oved For Release 2000/08/08: CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1097 associated to explain as a consequence of the impacts on their protruding portions of the molecules f their a . 100 May, are determined by both elastic (elec- fraction v(T) is expended on the formation of radia- tromagnetic and nuclear) and inelastic interactions tion-induced point defects in elastic' interactions of of the primary protons with the target atoms. The the recoil nucleus with target atoms. The NRT stand- recoil nuclei which acquire energy as a result of ard2 is widely used to calculate the function v(T). nuclear Interactions of protons create atom-atom col- To evaluate the rate at which point defects are gen- lision cascades which are greater in extent than erated by radiation, we need to know the effective the cascades which start at the atoms that are the cross section for defect formation, ad, and the num- first ejected from their positions in Coulomb Inter- ber of defects, nd = v (T) / (2Ed) , produced by the actions, and these recoil nuclei are primarily re- - first-ejected atoms in the cascade of subsequent sponsible for tlAa% ffor 8ieas.e 2000'/08/08ato~~~tp suf- 650 Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15(8), Aug. 1989 0360c120X/89/08 0660-02 $02..00 01/119990 American Institute of Physics'( 650 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 TAB Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approvj Role of synchror initial assumption is tha in part of the oscillatory Biophysics Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 952-954, 1983 Printed in Poland utofluctuations sustained ted not with excitation istics of auto-fluctuation spectrum. We shall assum' DISCUSSION ROLE OF SYNCHRONIZATION IN THE IMPACT OF WEAK ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS OF THE MILLIMETRE WAVE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS* N. D. DEVYATKOV', M. B. GOLANT and A. S. TAGER (Receired 28 September 1982) The possible mechanism of the action of weak electromagnetic radiation on living organisms is discussed based on the assumption of electromechanical autofluctuations of cell substruc- tures (for example, portions of the membranes) as the natural state of living cells. It has been established that synchronization of these autofluctuations by external electromagnetic radiation leads to the appearance of internal information signals acting on the regulatory systems of the body. This hypothesis helps to explain the known experimental data. IT Is known that the electromagnetic radiation of the milimetre wave range e.m.r. of very low (non-thermal, i.e. not appreciably heating the tissues) power may exert a fundamental action on various living organisms from viruses and bacteria through to mammals [1]. The spectrum of the e.m.r. induced biological effects is also extremely wide - from change in enzymatic activity, growth rate and death of microorganisms through to protection of bone marrow haematopoiesis against the action of ionizing radiations and chemical preparations [1]. Many years of experimental ra search have established the main patterns of the action of e.m.r.: its "resonance" character (the biological effect is observed in narrow-from tenths of a per cent to percentage units-frequent?' intervals and starting from a certain threshold value practically does not depend on the intensity of the e.m.r.); the high reproducibility of the resonance frequencies in repeat experiments; 'mema' rization' by the organism of the action of the e.m.r. over a more or less long period if irradiation lasts a sufficiently long time (usually not less than I hr); the non-critical nature of the observed biological effect to the irradiated portion of the animal body, etc. [2]. The most general conclusion arising from analysis of the patterns identified is that thPaction ry of the e.m.r. on live organisms is not of an energetic but information character (2, 31, the effect of the e.m.r. being realized at cell level and asociated with biostructures common to differerd organisms. Such structures may be, in particular, elements of cell membranest with a considerable dipole electric moment, molecules of protein enzymes, etc., for which, as shown by evaluations the frequencies of the natural mechanical vibrations lie (depending on the speed of sound) in the val (0.5-5) x 1010 Hz. Below is described the most probable, in our view, mechanism of action of e.m.r. on fluctuat'? in cell structures and the appearance of information signals in the body= * Biofizika 28: No. 5, 895-896, 1983. t Such an assumption has been advanced by many investigators. S. Ye. Bresler was the fi to point out this possibility to the authors. siderod t The problem of transformation of information signals into control signals is not con here. 1952] Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00310. Yfll membranes.* Sets of I implest model of such rators (oscillators) weak each of which the aut nchronization of the ( of the links between the nous regimes, if they exi .Therefore, it may be exr t oscillators, including ly so that the mean valu pse to zero is the macro! such fluctuations - they ' tion system of the be tic field. If the freq harmonics and subh tion) by the externs up and depends little onization is accompa bases of these oscillt bets (for exampt diitm) and serve above mentionec the actions of is of frequencies rr ts. eristic feature of t' external signal rec given group. Incre er of the syncl of the oscillati lfxation of new mentioned effect harmoni G ORG M Lions of :rimental da nzymatic activi v haematopo esonance" chars estt~ centage units-freq depend on the long period if i tntified is that the racter (2, 31, the g3 :nest with a eonsid shown by evaluatio A of sound) in the 2 RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 of weektiectromagnetic signals 953 Role of synchronization in impact The initial assumption is that in the living organism and in the absence of external action all co- ain part of the oscillatory degrees of freedom of certain biostructures is in the regime of _r ril The eflect of an external e.m.r. M idy~ the energy ors , sautofltuations sustane not with excitation ofthe fluctuations nostructurres but w h change in particular 11 t PWA ested particular, with change ~0CCer istics of auto-fluctuations already existing in the living organism, ions of the lipid skeletons spectrum. We shall assume that the auto-fluctuations appear pon to the cell membranes.* Sets of normal fluctuations with an almost identical spectrum correspond artions of the membranes of the given cell similar in structure or in identical cells adjacent 1- of 0it' oel of such a structure The simplest weakly joined together. The whole set may be b ken down into several nerat 00 ators nerat in each of which the autogeneratocs are almost identical. Within each group, in principle, tual synchronization of the oscillators is possible although because of rapid weakening with pence of the links between the elements of structure and a certain difference in the frequencies, tions between which synchronization nditions the phases of the auto-fluctuations sent. Ts regimes, may be expected r that in the-usual small ech as oscore it o may are distributed different nt oscill'besmean value of the sum ofvthephhasesoftall a tofluctuations~is close to* zero. Jomly so that close to zero is the macroscopic (mean over a large number of portions of the same type ANO Aect of such fluctuations -they exert the minimal action on other cell structures and do not burden information system of the body. The situation, however, may of the external nagent sufficiently closely approaches the fre- etromagnetic fleld. If the frequency queasy of the auto fluctuations of one of the above mentioned groups of almost identical oscillators (or to the harmonics and subharmonics of this frequency) the auto-fluctuations are 'captured' 41 he oscillators of (synchronization) determined by the mean weighted value of the partial synchronization bof t a given group and depends little on the deviations of the partial frequencies of the individual oscilla- a even is tors. Synchronization is accompanied by phasing of the oscillations of all the elementary autogen: - ntors-the phases of these oscillations concur with the phase of the external signal in a given portion of the structure. duce different Such cophasic oscillations of identical portions of the cell membranes may pre macroscopic effects (for example, excitation of electromagnetic or electro-acoustic waves in the surrounding medium) and serve as an information signal for the regulatory systems of the body. queany of the abo the actions ofthe external signal will lead to the same or similar biological effect. Since os it Since other structurally different portions of the membranes have their own spectrum of auto-fluctu- ations other sets of frequencies may also be observed at which the external signal produces different biological effects. A characteristic feature of the phenomenon of synchronization of auto-fluctuations is the low power of the external signal required for synchronization the threshold value of which depends autoge- othe f the external signal bove the noise level in the Incr ase in the power of nerators does not aerators of a given group. . change the character of the synchronized oscillations. The phasing of the oscillations on synchronization may be accompanied by conformational rearrangements of the cell structures since the auto-fluctuations influence the stability of mechanical systems (6]. The fixation of new conformations involving metabolic processes in the cells may ex- plain the above mentioned effect of "memorization" by the organism of prolonged ged t o and cache not onl The phasing of the auto-fluctuations of cell structures may apparently appear influence of the external harmonic signal but also as a result of mutual synchronization of the oscilla- * The mechanism of excitation of auto-fluctuations in membranes is discussed in [51. W"I'M M11 954 R. A. ABAGYAN et at. tors due to their rearrangement with change in the conditions of existence or internal mobilization of the organism. It is natural to assume that the auto-fluctuations of portions of the membranes in the cells of a living organism are not only a means of information transmission, there role is much wider. In particular, auto-fluctuations, even not synchronous, must exert a fundamental influ fluence on ionic and molecular transport across the membranes. The fluctuating portion- acts as a pump the mechanism of action of which is based on the vibration displacement of particles (on average, in a certain direction) under the influence of periodic (on average, not directed) forces [71. The synchronization of the auto-fluctuations of different portions of the cell membranes may fundamentally influence the processes of membrane transport and hence the properties and vital activity of the cells. The assumption that the biological action of e.m.r. on live organisms is connected with the external synchronization of the natural autofluctuations of cell structures also agrees with other patterns of this phenomenon not mentioned here. REFERENCES 1. DEVYATKOV, N. D. et al., Radiobiologiya 21: 163,198 t 2. DEVYATKOV, N. D. et al., Electronic Techniques. Ser. UHF Electronics (in Russian) 9, (333 43, 1981 3. DEVYATKOV, N. D. and GOLANT, M. B., Letters (in Russian) Zh. tekhn. flz. 1, 39, 198- 4. FROLICH, H., Advances Electr. Electron. Phys. 55: 147, 1980 5. LIBERMAN, Ye. A. and EIDUS, V. L., Biofizika 26: 1109, 1981 6 6. CHALOVSKII, V. N., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 110: 345, 195 7. BLEKHMAN, I. I. and DZHANELIDZE, G. Yu., Vibration Displacements (in Russian) p. 41:. Nauka, Moscow, 1964 0006-35119/83 $10.00'1'00 Biophysics Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 954-963, 1983 C 1984 Pergamon Pre, W Printed in Poland INVESTIGATION OF DIFFRACTION EFFECTS APPEARING ON PACKING OF MOLECULES* R. A. ABAGYAN, V. N. ROGULENKOVA, V. G. TUMANYAN and N. G. YESIPOVA Institute of Molecular Biology, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Received 11 September 1980) The paper considers the general problem of diffraction in biological specimens lnclnd'" several levels of organization. Formulae are obtained for diffraction on aggregates of hel" molecules in which the size of the cell in the direction of the axis of the molecule does.. not agle" ns and with the period and size of the helix. The formulae obtained fully describe the positlO ? Biofizika 28: No. S. 897-904, 1983.. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00310028 d by the scatter c ities of the reflexio diffraction patter which was earlier not reflexion with d;z approach developec 1 structures will be the structure of a hi nt in weakly defo of the following or 'ollowing level wou ed either the boi on of this role is t ization and the syt :ological macromole . In this case, on taty cell naturally e e diffraction patter present stage of d, level of structw of unexplained mplicates the p ry of diffractic grork considers tl organization and sing the diffract form scatter facto, is a whole ni the helical rr it.they are s' of molecules: Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 TAB Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 BIOINFORMATIONAL INTERACTIONS: EHF-WAVES N. D. Kolbun and V. E. Lobarev Kibernetika I Vychislitel'naya Tekhnika, No. 78, pp. 94-99, 1988 UDC 577.31 The informational interaction of the EHF-wave band are discussed. The influence of electromagnetic fields in the millimetric band, which are similar to natural fields, upon human body is studied. The evolution of life on earth was affected by various environ- mental factors. Among the most important factors were electromagnetic fields (EMF) and magnetic fields. Studies have confirmed a high sen- sitivity of biological systems to these fields [2,5]. In principle, each band of electromagnetic waves reaching the Earth's biosphere could have contributed to natural evolution and may affect vital functions [5]. In the past few decades, the theory which assigns a regulatory and informational role to EMF in biological systems has been gaining supporters [5,14,16]. The theory views a bio- logical system as a biochemical, complex inseparably linked with intern- al and external EMF. A concept advanced by Kaznazheev in 1975 (see [61) represented a biosystem as a nonequilibrium photon constellation maintained by a constant energy influx from outside. Under this con- cept, EMF quanta are material carriers of information flows in cellu- lar biosystems. EMF flows within a biosystem constitute the informa- tional base of its vital functions; flows of external EMF are the fac- tors regulating (to some extent) the internal information flows. Differentiation between energetic and informational flows of ex- ternal EMF has been discussed in [3,5,8]. The energetic actions are defined as the actions introducing a change into biosystem proportional to the amount of energy contributed. An informational interaction of a 1989 by Allston Pna. Inc. an EMF witk the amount various EI characters carrying si ergy or mat er boundary on the orde bright line gators (1,3 W/ cm 2. Figl that form ti the atomospk is unevenly from solar r EM' range. and dynamics band. Biola EMF flows in lowest. Biologi, appear, acco; the external transparency density of sc an absolute. t a fraction of sun. In the closely by th T1a,o in the ra been measured 8000 K E. Galactic the natural b~ absorbed comp: Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00310020001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 the upon >nviron- ^omagnetic sigh sen- ig the and may ory iological ews a bio- th intern- 5 (see ?1lation its con- , cellu- .nforma- the fac- of ex- ns are portional ,ion of an F with a biosystem is one where the effect is not determined by the EM amount of energy brought in but by specific informational features; various EMF modulations, frequency bands, polarizational and time characteristics, etc., can function as such features. The information- carrying signal, in that case, merely triggers a redistribution of en- ergy or matter in the system and control processes in it [5]. The low- er boundary of an information effect is set [8] at flow density (FD), on the order of. lb-12 W/m2 (10-16 W/cm2). Apparently, there is no bright line between informational and energetic FD. Various investi- gators (1,3,8,10] place it in the region between 10-7 W/cm2 and 10-2 2 W/cm. Figure 1 compares the characteristics of principal EMF sources that form the natural electromagnetic background of the biosphere and the atomospheric transparency to the entire wave band. The atmosphere is unevenly transparent to EMF of different wavelengths. In turn, FD from solar radiation and from other sources is uneven throughout the EMY range. The combination of these factors determines the magnitude and dynamics of natural EM background of the biosphere in each frequency band. Biological systems are likely to be more sensitive to external EMF flows in the frequency bands where the natural field background is lowest. Biological effects at informational EMF'intensities (2) r kinematics itrary fixed 'hich the the possible ents (for M he sweep of he model ma .o model loci , function k expressio -oposed foci g models" wi )st of them. a this case 'fh but only one., of identical St )vercoming su Plenum p. 1179, W :iev, 1979. w..a+rsI- aav.w*.w in Poland ? 1991 Pergamon Press plc DISSIPATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE PROCESSES OF rTERACTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WITH BIOLOGICAL OBJECTS* Yu. P. CHTIKOVA "Otklik" Time Scientific Collective (Received 23 July 1987) The authors have determined the rate of generation of entropy in biological systems as a result of the irreversibility of the processes of the interaction with electromagnetic radiation which one accompanied by rise in free energy. The characteristics of the irreversibility of the process of plant photosynthesis, human vision, etc. are presented. It is shown that in the processes considered, irreversibility may greatly differ (up to 108 fold). kEVERSIBILITY, as is known, is an integral property of all real processes. After the rack of Prigogine [1] it is characterized by the magnitude Si, called the rate of genera- tpa of entropy, the specific value of which a is called a dissipative function. Among bt variety of irreversible processes of the real world we would mention but a few yrocesses of heat and electrical conductivities, diffusion, thermal chemical reactions, ttc,) for which methods of calculating this magnitude have been devised. As for biolo- pcil objects for them as for more complex systems the question has hardly ever been -=ed. Yet, the achievements of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes in the ut few years and, in particular, the successful application of the Landau-Vainshtcin aeehod for explaining the processes of energy transformation in quantum systems have :ule possible evaluation of the magnitude St for a large range of processes of interac- wn of electromagnetic radiation of any spectral composition with matter. The method of determining St for endoergic processes occurring under the influence of electromagnetic radiation is outlined in [2]. It is applicable to open systems in the amdy state. While in these conditions electromagnetic radiation with the energy W. :suits in processes accompanied by rise in the free energy (endoergic processes) of the aad,ucts (Fe) as compared with the free energy of the reactants (F,J the efficiency of is roc p ess he=(FP-FR)lwa (1) "here the points above the magnitudes denote time derivatives. From the laws of ther- d o ynamics for ?1, we have the relation Biofizika 34: No. 5, 898-900, 1989. (2) roved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 n 976 YU. P. CHUKOVA where S. is the flux of entropy of electromagnetic radiation with the power k, whxt is absorbed by the system. Usually relation (2) is analyzed in the approximation of the thermodynamic [,me when S1=0 [3]. The limiting value of the efficiency of the system (r],) may in this Calf be calculated for any system if the main characteristics of the process are known S, may be evaluated from the difference of the real efficiency of the process (rle) from tk limiting. The effects appearing in biological objects as a result of interaction with electra. magnetic radiation and those magnitudes from which they are judged with rare exccp tions cannot be interpreted as efficiency. But in threshold conditions when the biora ponse vanishes one may state that the efficiency of the endoergic process is equal u zero. This aspect is considered in detail in [2]. In threshold conditions of real efficicncl we have St= W,?/TS; -1. For the red boundary of all bio-effects with a wide frequency action band and far bioresonance effects the position of the zero efficiency boundary of the endoer;% process in the approximation of the thermodynamic reversibility of the process is grace by the relation c2E?=27rkTv2[(1+po)ln(1+po)-PolnPo] where v is frequency; E? is the spectral density of the radiation at this frequency: T >ti the temperature of the system; c is the speed of light; k and h are Boltzman and Plana constants; po=c2Eo/27rhV3. The Figure illustrates this dependence for a wide frequency interval. The cnap of electromagnetic radiation the characteristics of which (frequency and spectral densitli enter the region A cannot be transformed to the free energy of the system even in tbt approximation of the thermodynamic limit (thermodynamic reversibility). The 'Juc E? is always higher than the spectral density e,, T of the radiation of an absolute btad ar algae g plants jig plants t 1 prophage `ate of yeasts haemoglobin The magnitude processes S~. and E; isthec 4ld be reme. Calculated sts se of the abso ie width of t pd from the yes the St evah ocesses and JA the range c e_ valuatiow not CBUSt istence of ince the cha the effect th introduce i wa in [2] tc it does by Position of zero boundary of endoergic processes on the plane log v- log E, in the apPr011" . oration of the thermodynamic reversibility of the process. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100 ity exceeds R ') ma: Bess s fre item, lity). proved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003100280001-7 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with biological objects 977 body with the temperature T. Their ratio E?%,, T assumes a simple form for high fre- quencies (hv>>kT): E?/ay,T=e and for low frequencies (hv< k7): E%,,,r=ln (ep0). The position of the zero boundary of real processes is shifted towards high E, values tbrou,gh dissipative processes. These processes may be evaluated from formula (3) if it is known from the experiment under which conditions the effect disappears. ---System and process igeshold human vision at the red boandary photosynthesis of unicellular algae shade-loving plants light-loving plants Synthesis of 2 prophage Rigidity of the haeme protein bond in haemoglobin Experimental conditions 2=780 nm, E,0=3x 10-16 J/Cm3 [5] 2=950 nm, E.0=4 x 10-70 J/cm' [6. 7] 400 nm