Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 4, 2016
Document Release Date: 
October 21, 1998
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
September 29, 1994
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0.pdf5.84 MB
Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Final Report Phenomenological Research and Analysis Authors: Edwin C. May, Ph.D., Wanda L. W. Luke, and Christine L. James 29 September 1994 MEI __MUM- MIIIMMEnb. U. -- - NI AMBINiglir-INMEW ? Science Applications International Corporation An Employee-Owned Company Presented to: U. S. Government Contract MDA908-93 ?C-0004 (Client Private) Submitted by: Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory lA ErArdirFdil6gekuttf allprings, ati:Aptli Other SAIC Offices: Albuquerque, Boston, Colorado on, untstelle: La e a AnyltAtallidratiaelgattle, Tucson ApprpvecL For Release 20949Egn6RtialaP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomendlogicai Fiesearcn ana Ana; TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ii LIST OF TABLES iii I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 II. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW 2 1. Biophysical Measurements 2 2. Data Patterns/Parameter Correlations 11 3. Theoretical Issues 15 4. Applied Research 18 5. Research Methodology and Support 25 III. GLOSSARY 27 REFERENCES 28 APPENDIX A: Autonomic Detection of Remote Observation 30 APPENDIX B: Target and Sender Dependencies in AC Experiments APPENDIX C: Managing the Target Pool Bandwidth APPENDIX D: Shannon Entropy as an Intrinsic Target Property APPENDIX E: Ganzfeld Experiment 31 32 33 34 SG1A Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Approved For Release 20012/95/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Keport LIST OF FIGURES 1. Stimulus Timing 7 2. Typical ERD..from Direct Stimuli 8 3. Cluster Diagram 16 4. Cross-Section of the Detector (Not to Scale) 21 5. Test Exposure: 2,250 Volts for 28 Hours 22 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 ii PhenomerfANWeralgeaans&AWNEgnaROAIRP96-00789R003200240001-0 LIST OF TABLES 1. AC Results 9 2. Wilcoxon Statistics for ERDs 9 3. 0-7 Point Assessment Scale 10 4. Partial Element List for a Test-bed Experiment 24 Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 III Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Anatysis: vinameport I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Our research has advanced our understanding of applying anomalous mental phenomena to practical problems and lead us toward a comprehensive theoretical model for the phenomena.* During the con- tract period endinga29 July 1994, we have: ? Clearly demonstrated that using AC as a technique to send messages is not a productive pursuit. All of the experiments that we conducted for this year produced highly significant evidence for anoma- lous mental phenomena. We interpret this success, which is 20 times chance, to our expanding under- standing of the protocols, mechanisms, and psychology that are responsible for a high level of function- ing. The magnitude of our AC effects exceed the value that is considered robust by the psychology research community. * This report constitutes our final deliverable under contact number MDA908-93-C-0004. Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 1 P96-00789R003200240001-0 PhenomentiNgva?geFseraNealaVARAligtalWAR II. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW In this section we provide a technical overview of the activity which was conducted under contract num- ber MDA -004. The technical details of the experiments can be found in the Appendices. 1. Biophysical Measurements These tasks were to search for possible physiological correlates to anomalous cognition (AC) function- ing. If such correlations could be found, they would directly lead to improved application and laborato- ry results. 1.1 Remote Observation Experiment A series of experiments has been conducted in the U.S. in which it is claimed that a receiver's electrical properties of the skin (i.e., electrodermal response) can be influenced by a remote observer. This is a laboratory example of a frequently reported anecdote: after entering a crowded room, you "sense" that you are being stared at and discover that you are correct. A complete write-up of our experiment, which includes the history, methodology, and results can be found in Appendix A; however, we summarize the findings here. Two experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which people are able to unconsciously de- tect another person staring at them from a distance. A close-circuit television set-up was employed in which a video camera was focused on the experimental volunteer (Observee) while a person in another room (Observer) concentrated on the image of the distant person as displayed on a color monitor; this procedure was used to preclude any conventional sensory contact between the two people. During the experimental session, the Observee's galvanic skin responses were monitored. An automated and com- puterized system was programmed to record and average the physiological responses of the Observee during 32 30-second monitoring periods. A random sequence was used to schedule 16 periods of re- mote observation and 16 control periods when no observation efforts were attempted. A within-sub- jects evaluation was made for each experimental session with a comparison between the mean amount of autonomic nervous system activity during the experimental and control conditions. Twenty four ses- * References may be found at the end of the document. t Please see Section III on page 27 for a definition of terms. Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 2 Approved For Release 2062/0511.7 ? ClAAIRP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: tie sions were conducted in each of two experiments. As predicted, both experiments yielded significantly more autonomic activity during the remote observation periods as compared to control periods (Ex- periment 1: t=1.878, df = 23, p < 0.036; Experiment 2: t=2.652, df = 23, p < 0.014). As pre-planned, the two experiments were combined to increase the statistical power, yielding a significant t-score of 2.652 (df = 47, p < 0.005). There are two competing anomalous mental phenomena descriptions for these results. Given that this experiment represents successful replication of a number of such experiments, we do not include the possibility that these results are a rare or chance statistical deviation. The question we pose for future experiments is: Is this effect causal (i.e., the Observer forces the skin parameters to be different than they would otherwise be) or informational (i.e., the Observee is AC-sensitive to know when he/she is been stared at and responds accordingly)? The methodology we used in our experiment was primarily designed to replicate both US and FSU similar experiments rather than to answer this particular ques- tion. Although most of our analyses of so-called anomalous perturbation (AP) experiments demon- strate informational mechanisms, we have recently analyzed a bio-AP experiment that statistically fa- vored the causal explanation. Determining the mechanism is very important because it will dictate the potential applications for this type of phenomenon. 1.2 Central Nervous System Response to AC Signals The objective of this effort was to test the hypothesis that physiological responses to AC stimuli re- semble those which occur in response to identical direct visual stimuli. 1.2.1 Background As part of the research tasking for FY 1993, we had been asked to conduct an investigation of the rela- tionship between the central and/or the peripheral nervous system and AC. In this section, we review the pertinent literature and provide a justification for the effort. Prior Research We only consider AC experiments that use complex material for targets. While there have been sub- stantial numbers of experiments in which symbols have been used as targets (Honorton, 1975; Honor- ton and Ferarri, 1989), we will not include that data as part of the behavioral evidence for AC. In 1976, Puthoff and Targ (1976) published the results of a series of experiments in what was then called remote viewing. In 51 trials, their results led to an overall effect size of 0.960?0.140 which corresponds to a 6.8a effect. In behavioral terms, Cohen (1988) would classify this effect as large. As part of our FY 1991-1992 effort, we were asked to use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investi- gate how, or if, the central nervous system (CNS) responds to "visual" stimuli that are physically and sensorially isolated from a receiver. The reasoning behind this request was that during an earlier inves- tigation in FY 1988, we observed, what was suspected to be, instantaneous phase shifts of the dominant alpha rhythm concomitant with such stimuli. That study itself was originally thought of as a conceptual replication of even earlier work in which alphapower changes were putatively induced with remote visu- al stimuli (Rebert and 'Iltrner, 1974; May, Targ, and Puthoff, 1977). As we stated in our final report (May, Luke, and Lantz, 1992), the FY 1992 study did not replicate the FY 1988 finding (May, Luke, Trask, and Frivold, 1990b). Because of our technical and methodological Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 3 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report improvements, we concluded that the 1988 results were likely to be spurious. We can, however, specify a number of possible arguments why the 1988 study failed to replicate: ? AC does not exist. ? AC exists, but the conditions were not conducive for quality AC functioning. ? AC exists, but the target system (i.e., 100 millisecond sinusoidal gratings in the lower left visual field of the receiver) did not constitute an appropriate stimulus. We address these issues in order. tA The verification of the existence of AC is an epistemological problem. The definition of AC is a nega- tive one; we are able to describe what AC is not, but there is no statement about what AC is other than methodological. Colloquially, we might say AC is a form of information transfer when, according to the currently understood laws of physics, the retrieval of information is impossible. Thus, we say AC exists if a statistically valid anomaly is observed under the propq-Methodological conditions. 4/0 _ Since replication is better than distribution theory, it is important to define what replication means in a 2-o domain. Professor Utts, from the statistics department at the University of California at Davis, has provided a good operational definition, which is based on standard power analysis (Utts, 1988). Since 1975, there have been four major articles published in the reviewed literature that analyze substantial numbers of experiments that portend AC. All but one use the modern methods of meta-analysis to determine the final conclusion for each collection of studies. It is important to realize that in all these analyses, all the published data are included. In addition, the techniques of meta-analysis allow for re- sponsible estimates of the number of studies that "failed" and were not published. (1) In "Error Some Place!" Honorton critically reviewed card-guessing experiments, which were con- ducted between 1934 and 1939 (Honorton, 1975). The AC-targets in these studies were five geo- metric symbols; circle, square, wavy lines, star, and cross. In almost 800,000 individual card trials that were obtained after the targets had been specified (i.e., real-time AC), the weighted effect size was = 0.013?0.001, which corresponds to an overall combined effect of 12.7a. This analysis, however, was completed before the techniques of meta-analysis were known. Improvements, which include the analysis of experiment quality, can be found in the next example. (2) Using the tools of modern meta-analysis, Honorton reviewed the precognition (i.e., a target is ran- domly generated after the trial had been obtained) card-guessing database (Honorton and Ferarri, 1989). This analysis included 309 separate studies reported by 62 investigators. Nearly two million individual trials were contributed by more the 50,000 subjects. The combined effect size was = 0.020?0.002, which corresponds to an overall combined effect of 11.4c. Two important results emerge from Honorton's analysis. First, it is often stated by critics that the best results are from studies with the least methodological controls. To check this hypothesis, Honorton devised an eight-point quality measure (e.g., automated recording of data, proper randomization techniques) and scored each study with regard to these measures. There was no significant correlation between study quality and study score. Second, if researchers improved their experiments over time, one would expect a significant correlation of study quality with date of publication. Honorton found r = 0.246, df = 307, p < 2 x10-7. In brief, Honorton concludes that a statistical anomaly exists in this data that cannot be explained by poor study quality or a large variety of other hypothesis. In examining AC with complex visual targets, Bern and Honorton analyzed 11 separate studies in- volving a total of 329 trials (Bern and Honorton, 1994). They report a combined effect size of i = 0.159?0.055, which corresponds to 2.89o. We wish to call attention to the fact that this effect size is approximately eight times larger than the effect size reported for studies where the targets are sym- bols. Since effect sizes are relative measures above mean chance expectation, this result is one, of (3) Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 4 Approved For Release 2002/05/1_7 : ClA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: F Mai R eport many, which suggest that the statistically simpler target system of five symbols does not produce as much AL, as do complex targets. (4) Radin and Nelson (1989) provide, in Foundations of Physics, a meta-analysis of a different form of AC. The targets were randomly changing binary bits whose random nature was usually derived ei- ther from electronic noise or radioactive decay. Similar to Honorton's work, they assigned a 16-point quality rating to over 800 individual studies conducted by 68 investigators from 1959 to 1987. They compute an overall weighted effect size of approximately = (3.0?0.5) x 10-4, which corresponds to 6o. They also find no correlation between study quality and study score. An independent analysis of these statistics can be found in Statistical Sciences, which is a journal that invites and publishes contributions and substantial critical comments by recognized leaders in the field of statistics (Utts, 1991). Although Utts focuses her attention on the meta-analyis of the Ganzfeld, her analysis, discussion, and defense of the commentary are noteworthy. These effects are small. 'lb illustrate a point about replication, we will compute, using standard power analysis, the probability that a new study will demonstrate significant (i.e., p < 0.05) evidence for AC. If we assume that the actual AC-effect size is given by = 0.159 then the probability of observing a signifi- cant outcome in 50 trials is only 30%. Although this is six times chance expectation of 5%, there remains a 70% likelihood that this study would "fail" to replicate. It is exactly this type of realization that is responsible for a shift in the determination of replication from p-values to effect sizes. It is clear from these analyses that there is incontrovertible evidence that a statistical, albeit small, in- formation-transfer anomaly exists that cannot be accounted for by methodological issues or fraud. Thus, we were strongly motivated to continue our investigations of the CNS in order to identify how the brain responds to AC stimuli. Conditions for Quality AC Functioning One of the problems associated with our earlier CNS investigations is that we did not obtain concom- itant behavioral measures of AC. Many experiments and discussions about what constitutes an AC- conducive state can be found in the parapsychology literature. It is beyond the scope of this report to provide an analysis of this research, and there remains substantial disagreement among the researchers on this point. In Ganzfeld studies, for example, it is assumed that reducing somatisensory noise en- hances AC, yet in our experiments we observe equivalent or larger effect sizes without the reduction. Lacking reliable research results on this point, it has been our view that the "ideal" environment for AC would not be much different than what might be needed to perform any high-level mental task. For example, the best environment for a person to read and understand a novel might also be sufficient for producing AC. In most all of our AC experiments, receivers are seated in a quiet and comfortable room with few external distractions. The atmosphere is cordial, yet businesslike. On the one hand, we would like to have the receivers be attentive (i.e., we suspect that too relaxed or asleep is not helpful); yet on the other hand, we do not want them to be distracted. Under these conditions, we routinely observe large effect sizes for AC. In our MEG investigations, receivers were required to recline, face down, on a wooden table in a dark, technically complex room for approximately 30 minuets. A large device (i.e., the MEG and its associated liquid helium flask) was comfortably touching the back of their heads. In addition, they were instructed to move as little as possible and relax as much as possible. Some receivers complained that Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 5 Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report various body parts fell "asleep," and that the experience was not particularly pleasant; other receivers did not mind the setup. No receivers, however, found the experience enjoyable. We suspect that since this environment was sufficiently different from our usual one, it may have failed to provide a conducive atmosphere to elicit AC functioning. Target Systems The meta-analysis of the historical databases clearly show a preference for certain target systems. For example, as we have shown above, complex visual targets provided better AC than do simple geometric symbols. In addition, Bern and Honorton have demonstrated a statistical preference for even more complex targets than static photographs. They observed a significant difference in the Ganzfeld favor- ing video segments from popular movies over single photographs. There is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a 100-millisecond long sinusoidal grating constitutes a viable AC target. In fact, our en- tropy results suggest that it would not be a good target, because it's total change of Shannon entropy is small (May, Spottiswoode, and James, 1994). Conclusions Except for the alpha blocking experiment done at SRI in the early 70's, we have not been able to observe CNS correlates to AC functioning. We think that this may have resulted because of methodological issues. In the remainder of this section, we describe a much-improved approach that remedies the prob- lems of the previous methodologies. 1.2.2 Protocol Introduction Using an electroencephalograph (EEG), we corrected the shortcomings of the previous work. Each stage of the investigation was built upon the results to date, and represented only modest extensions to the previous stage. In addition, we used traditional EEG methods for data collection and analysis so that comparisons with the established literature were straight forward.* We assumed that AC exists in general (i.e., within the framework discussed above); however, our approach included a "local" verifica- tion of AC's existence. Consider event-related desynchronization (ERD). Spontaneous EEG reveals short-lasting, task- or event-related amplitude changes in rhythmic activity within the alpha band (i.e., 8 to 12 Hz). This am- plitude change or desynchronization is one of the elementary phenomena in EEG. It was first described by Berger (1930) in scalp EEG as alpha blocking, and was later termed ERD by Pfurtscheller and Arani- bar (1977). ERDs can be quantified as a function of time and can then be used to study cortical activa- tion patterns during the planning of motor behavior (Pfurtscheller and Aranibar, 1979), sensory stimu- lation, and cognitive processes (Pfurtscheller, Lindinger and Klimesch, 1986; Klimesch, Pfurtscheller and LindingerKlimesh, 1987; and Sergeant, Geuze, and Van Winsum, 1987). Kaufman, Schwartz, Salustri and Williamson (1990) provide a more recent example of cognitive-process-related ERDs, which they call alpha suppression. They found a significantly shorter ERD when subjects simply responded to a target stimulus, compared with the ERD that occurred when a subject had to search visual memory to determine whether the target matched one previously presented. Because ERDs arise from external For these investigations, we did not require the speci al properties of a MEG (e.g., source localization), sowe used the less com- plex and more readily available EEG technology. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 6 Approved For Release 2002/05/11: CJA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report stimuli, cognitive tasks, or motor functions, they are a likely variable to use to study how the CNS might respond to AC stimuli. It would be odd, indeed, if AC was the only stimulus that did not produce an ERD. Target Stimuli To overcome the potential problems associated with the earlier stimuli, we used throughout this study our standard National Geographic target pool. These images are complex, but there is an increasing database in our laboratory that shows they are suitable for targets in AC experiments. In addition, the results of the meta-analyses, which were described above, show a significant preference for complex target systems as opposed to symbols or 100-millisecond long sinusoidal gratings. Our target pool was digitized for later display on a laboratory PC. Figure 1 shows the stimulus timing. During a trial, a ran- domly selected photograph was displayed for one second with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 3 seconds. Stimulus Window Post Stimulus Next Stimulus Window 0 1 4 5 Time (Seconds) 8 Figure 1. Stimulus Timing. While this stimulus?post stimulus pattern is fixed throughout the session, what happens in a stimulus window is counter balanced between two stimulus types and random. We created a digital "image" that was technically identical to the target images (e.g., same resolution, size) except that the color was nu- merically identical to the background color of the display. These pseudo stimuli could not be detected visually and, thus, served as a within run control. Receivers We asked three of our best receivers, 009, 372, and 389 to participate in the experiment. Because of the pilot nature of this approach, we did not set the total number of trials; rather, time and receiver avail- ability determined the number of trials for each receiver. Thal Protocol The following was the sequence of events for each trial: (1) The receiver was wired at the standard positions for right and left hemisphere EEG for occipital and parietal measurements referenced to CZ (i.e., the center of the top of the scalp). (2) The receiver was seated in a sound-attenuated and electrically shielded room that is commonly used for such measurements. (3) One of two possible random sequences for pseudo and target stimuli was selected randomly, and the trial was initiated. (4) The receiver was instructed to silently obtain AC data for the first five minutes. (5) The receiver debriefed his/her experience during the next five minutes in words and drawings. (6) After the response had been collected, the receiver was presented visually with the exact same stim- ulus pattern that was used in the first five minute interval as feedback. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 7 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report After a brief rest, a second trial was conducted, which was identical to the first except that a new target was selected randomly and the second possible stimulus order was used in step 3 above. AC-Behavior Analysis An analyst who was otherwise blind to the experiment and trial details, was given a target pack number that contained the original target and four decoy photographs in random order. The analyst's task was to rank-order the five targets from best to worst match to the trial behavior response (i.e., writings and drawings). With the usual sum-of-rank statistic, we could determine the overall level of AC functioning in the study, for each receiver, and determine the level of AC for each trial. ERD Analysis The EEG record for each trial contains continuous samples at 500 samples/second for five minutes of AC-stimuli and five minutes for direct stimuli (i.e., feedback of the target visually). Each epoch con- tained random sequences of stimuli and pseudo stimuli. These data were low pass filtered to avoid aliasing, then reduced by five, yielding an effective sampling rate of 100/second. The alpha content (i.e., 7.81 to 12.7 Hz) was extracted with a 32-pole, FIR, zero phase shift, digital filter, and the alpha power was estimated by the ensemble square. We computed an ERD template for each receiver. For each direct stimulus during the feedback five minute interval, the alpha power was ensemble averaged and normalized by the average alpha power for one second of prestimulus time. The resulting ERDs were averaged to produce the template for each trial. Figure 2 shows a typical ERD from one such calculation for receiver 372. We see that for direct stimuli we expect a latency of approximately 0.5 second (i.e, time after stimulus onset), an 85% reduction in alpha power and approximately two seconds for recovery. This template was cross correlated with the data during the AC-portion of the trial. That is, for each stimulus and for each pseudo stimulus, the maximum of the absolute value of the cross correlation for ?0.2 seconds surrounding the stimulus time was accumulated separately for each stimulus type. A stan- dard non-parametric sum-of-ranks method was used to compare the resulting two distributions. ?1 0 ?1 0 1 Time (s) 2 3 Figure 2. Average ERD Normalized by Pre-Stimulus Mean. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 8 Approved For Release 2002/05J17 ClARDP26-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Fmai mepon 1.2.3 Results and Discussion Table 1 shows the results of the blind rank-order judging for the three receivers; Table 1. AC Results Receiver Thais ES P-value 009 18 2.389 0.432 0.033 372 24 2.500 0.354 0.042 389 28 2.750 0.177 0.175 Total 70 2.571 0.303 0.006 llvo receivers produced independently significant evidence for AC and the combined data were also significant. Thus we have corrected one of the shortcomings of our earlier efforts; we have independent evidence for AC. Table 2 shows the results of the non-parameter Wilcoxon sum-of-ranks test between the distributions resulting from the pseudo- and AC-stimuli. Since the total number of stimuli per receiver was over 1600, the statistics shown in Table 2 are not en- couraging. That is, given we observed significant evidence for AC, how is it that we do not see a signifi- cant CNS response? Table 2. Wilcoxon Statistics for ERDs Receiver Z-score P-value (2t) 009 ?0.758 0.448 372 1.509 0.132 389 0.930 0352 Total 0.938 0.175 ,. To determine the overall sensitivity of our signal detection methodology, we inserted template ERD's into copies of the EEG data. Averaged over all receivers, we found that a 0.2 % change from pre-stimu- lus alpha would lead to a significant difference between the distributions resulting from the AC-stimuli and the pseudo stimuli. This high sensitivity arises primarily because we have over 1600 stimuli per receiver and because the cross correlations technique (i.e., frequently referred to as a matched filter) can be shown to be the best possible signal detection algorithm in a noise environment. Yet, with this sensitivity we did not observe a statistically significant ERD. We must examine some of our basic as- sumptions, if we are to understand this result. One assumption is that a putative ERD would result, on the average, from every AC-stimulus. To test this, we re-analyzed the behavioral data post hoc. Rank-order analysis does not usually indicate the Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 9 Approved For Release 2602/05/17 ? CIA=RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenorneinological Research and Analysis: Finai 'Report absolute quality of the AC. For example, a response that is a near-perfect description of the target re- ceives a rank of one. But a response which is barely matchable to the target may also receive a rank of one. Table 3 shows the rating scale that we used to perform a blind assessment of the quality of theAC responses, regardless of their rank. Table 3. 0-7 Point Assessment Scale Score Description 7 Excellent correspondence, including good analytical detail, with essentially no incorrect information 6 Good correspondence with good analytical information and relatively little incorrect information. 5 Good correspondence with unambiguous unique matchable elements, but some incorrect information. 4 Good correspondence with several matchable elements intermixed with incorrect information. 3 Mixture of correct and incorrect elements, but enough of the former to indicate receiver has made contact with the site. 2 Some correct elements, but not sufficient to suggest results beyond chance expectation. 1 Little correspondence. 0 No correspondence. To apply this subjective scale to anAC trial, an analyst begins with a score of seven and determines if the description for that score is correct. If not, then the analyst tries a score of six and so on. In this way the scale is traversed from seven to zero until the score-description seems reasonable for the trial. We thought that by analyzing the EEG data only when the AC functioning was high, we might have a better chance of detecting an ERD. Unfortunately, we found no statistical change of the Wilcoxon Z- scores only using data from the upper portions of the scale shown in Table 3. Thus, we must examine our assumptions further. One implicit assumption in the search for AC-ERDs is that there is a direct casual and temporally stable link between the stimulus and the response. That is, since the data analysis involves an ensemble aver- age over time, we must assume that changes in spontaneous alpha that are not associated with the stim- ulus will be averaged out of the ensemble. It may be, however, that AC is more complex. In Honorton's meta-analysis of the precognition data (Honorton and Ferrari, 1989), the precognition of complex visu- al targets reported by Jahn (1982), and the anecdotal reports of many of our receivers all suggest that AC may not be stable in time. One explanation for the significant improvement in AC when complex targets are used instead of sym- bols may be related to imagery. If a receiver knows the stimulus set (e.g., in the case of Zener cards; star, cross, square, circle and wavy lines) then he or she is likely unable to differentiate between a vivid inter- nal image of one of the symbols, which results from memory or imagination, and a putative "signal" resulting from AC. In the case of more complex targets, such as National Geographic photographs, Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 10 Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report there may be a lesser tendency to remember all possible combinations of elements one may find in such a target pool. If this speculation is correct, then internal imagery is a source of noise, and we might not expect to see changes in occipital alpha. Some receivers report that their internal experiences tend to be kinesthetic rather than visual. These ideas have not been formally tested in the laboratory, yet they are commonly reported by many of our excellent receivers. We have assumed that the CNS will respond as if the AC-signal stimulates neurons near the visual cortex. Given that we were unable to take survey data over the entire scalp, it is possible that we might not have positioned the EEG electrodes for optimal detection of an AC response. We recommend that we adopt the new technology of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can survey the entire CNS. In addition, we suggest that we optimize the target pool to contain the largest possible gradient of Shannon entropy. This should be the best possible next step to observe the CNS's response to an AC stimulus. 2. Data Patterns/Parameter Correlations The task of this section was to identify parameters that would potentially lead to an increase of AC func- tioning and assist in determining optimal protocols for potential applications. 2.1 The Gradient of Shannon's Entropy The primary activity in this category was to determine if the total change of Shannon entropy could be confirmed as an intrinsic target variable. This effort constituted a replication of our finding during the 1992-1993 period, and led to three papers that have been accepted for publication at the Parapsycholog- ical Annual Convention. We include these three papers as Appendices B, C, and D and summarize their findings here. The Ganzfeld experiments as summarized by Bern and Honorton (1994) suggest that using dynamic targets produces stronger results than using static ones. Bern and Honorton, however, only analyzed Ganzfeld studies that included the use of a sender. Since it is known that a sender is not a necessary requirement in forced-choice trials, we designed and carried out a study to see if a sender is required in non-Ganzfeld, free-response trials. In the first of two experiments, five experienced receivers partici- pated in 40 trials each, 10 in each condition of a 2 x 2 design to explore sender and target type. We observed significant effects for static targets (i.e., exact sum-of-rank probability of p < 0.0073, effect size = 0.248, n=100), chance results for dynamic targets (i.e.,p < 0.500, effect size = 0.000, n = 100), and no interaction effects between sender and target-type conditions. One receiver slightly favored the no sender condition (F(1,36) = 4.43, p < 0.04), while another slightly favored static targets (F(1,36) = 5.47, p < 0.04). We speculate that these surprising results (i.e., favoring static over dynamic targets) arose, in part, because of the difference between a topically unbounded dynamic target pool and a topi- cally restrictive static pool. In a second experiment, we redesigned the dynamic pool to match more closely the properties of the static pool. Four of the receivers from the first study participated in at least 20 trials each, 10 in each target-type condition. No senders were used throughout this experiment. We observed a significant increase in anomalous cognition for the new dynamic targets (X2 = 9.942, df = 1, p < 1.6 x 10-3), and an increase in anomalous cognition for the static targets (X2 = 3.158, df = 1, p < 0.075). We conclude that a sender is not a necessary requirement for free-response anomalous cogni- Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 11 Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report tion. A rank-order analysis showed no target-type dependencies in the second study (X2 =0, df = 1, p < 0.5), but a rating analysis revealed some difference favoring dynamic targets (t = 1.32, df = 68, p < 0.096) for the significant receivers. Based on our analysis, we believe a fundamental argument suggests that in free-response anomalous cognition experiments, dynamic targets should be better than static ones. The experimental result, however, was surprising?it was directly opposite to the results that re derived from the Ganzfeld database. The topics of the dynamic targets were virtually unlimited, where- as the topics for the static targets were constrained in content, size of cognitive elements, and range of affect. In our second experiment, we redesigned the target pools to correct this unbalance and observed, significant improvement of AC functioning. We incorporate these findings into a definition of target pool bandwidth and propose that the proper selection of bandwidth will lead to a reduction of incorrect information in free-response A C. Based upon our early entropy result and using the knowledge gained about the target pool bandwidth, we propose that the average total change of Shannon's entropy is a candidate for an intrinsic target property. We find a significant correlation of the gradient of Shannon's entropy (Spearman's 0 = 0.337, df = 31, t = 1.99, p < 0.028) with an absolute measure of the quality of the anomalous cognition. This result is a successful replication of our 1992 finding. Our identification of an intrinsic target property that correlates with the quality of AC is an extremely important finding. Not only does it instruct us to select better target material for laboratory studies, but it also guides us in task selection for practical applications. 2.2 Senders in the Ganzfeld Another primary activity in this category was to assess the role of a sender in an AC experiment. We subcontracted to the Psychology Department at the University of Edinburgh to conduct a detailed test using the methodology of the Ganzfeld. Appendix E contains their final reports which detail their ex- periment and results. We summarize their findings in this section. The Ganzfeld methodology differs in three fundamental ways from our usual AC experiment: (1) A mild altered state is used to elicit AC functioning. (2) Senders are used in a "telepathic" modality. (3) The receivers perform their own the rank-order judging in the analysis of the data. Otherwise the Ganzfeld protocol is similar to ours. A receiver is asked to register his/her impression of an isolated target that is randomly selected from a pre-defined set. We asked Dr. Robert L. Morris to use this methodology to determine the role of the sender. As they will be reporting at the next Parapsy- chological Association Annual Convention, they found, as we did, that a sender is not a necessary partic- ipant in successful AC experiments. In addition, they were able to show that the sender may not partici- pate in any significant way in the process. As a consequence of this experiment, they are considering dropping the sender in all of their future experiments. While it is agreed that perhaps for psychological reasons, some receivers may produce better results with a sender, there appear to be no mechanistic arguments favoring the use of a sender. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 12 Phenonierved Fpr Release 2002/05/17 LCIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 oiogicai Research and Analysis: Final Report 2.3 0-Sort Personality Assessment The objective of this study was to explore potential personality variables as they relate to AC ability through the use of the 0-Sort method. 2.3.1 Introduction Historically, a wide range of psychological tests have been used in an attempt to detect correlations be- tween personality variables and AC performance. These tests have included standard clinical batteries as well as the Personality Assessment System (Lantz, 1987). Some of these have yielded statistical cor- relations; however, the magnitude of the correlations are often too small for predictive purposes. The 0-Sort differs from other methods of personality assessment in that it is not a psychological test, but merely an empirical system devised to permit individual personalities to be comprehensively de- scribed and quantitatively compared. First conceived by William Stephensen, the 0-Sort method has become a useful tool for comparing personality variables between a wide variety of different popula- tions (Block, 1978). For example, studies have ranged from examining the differences between effec- tive and ineffective liars to analyzing the difference between individuals who tend to rely upon external visual fields rather than proprioceptive (i.e., muscular skeletal) cues in determining true vertical. One common difficulty with traditional self-report personality tests is that they ask the subject to identi- fy where they fit on a continuous spectrum of pre-determined dimensions. For example, one dimension of the MBTI ranges between extroversion and introversion. Even if the subject chooses not to describe him/her self in these terms, nonetheless, they must respond. The Q-Sort allows the subjects to deter- mine the appropriate dimensions for themselves. In 1989 we conducted a preliminary test of this method using 14 individuals, including three receivers who were known to be talented in anomalous cognition (AC). Cluster analysis was used to assemble the results of individual 0-Sort scores into groups of similar profiles, at the same time attempting to create groups that are as different from one another as possible. The result is a visual display called a cluster diagram. To the 14 receivers, we added three standard profiles; a normal personality profile, two differ- ent types of pathology personality profiles, and a tentative AC-Profile; an average of the personality traits of the three known viewers. The result was that the pathological profiles were in a cluster by them- selves while the normal profile and the tentative AC-Profile were clustered together with the known receivers. As a result of the 1989 0-Sort work, we proposed to expand the use of the Q-Sort and to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) What personality variables are common to those individuals who perform well on AC tasks? (2) How do the personality descriptions of individuals who do not do well on AC tasks differ from those who do? (3) What might an "ideal" AC profile look like? 2.3.2 The 0-Sort Method For each individual, the Q-Sort method involved sorting 100 cards into nine categories with an assigned number of cards placed within each category. The 100 Q-Sort cards look something like a deck of nor- mal playing cards, except that on the face of each is written a single psychological statement in a theoret- ically neutral form (e.g., "Initiates Humor"). Each psychological statement is written in a way so as to Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 13 ApprovecIfor Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenbioglcai Research and Analysis: Final Report suggest a continuum rather than an either/or dichotomy. The numbers of cards within each of nine cate- gories must be 5, 8, 12, 16, 18, 16, 12, 8, 5, respectively. The first category represents those psychody- namic elements that are least characteristic of the individual, while the last category represents those elements most characteristic of the individual and the middle categories represent a continuum in be- tween. The prescribed distribution is a powerful tool, in that it forces individuals into making difficult definitive decisions about their own personalities at the extreme ends of a scale while also allowing for some flexibility. The Q-Sort is self-administered and takes approximately 20 minutes per individual. Subject Selection Thirty four individuals participated in the 0-Sort study. All were a self-selected subset of individuals who consented to participate in other AC experiments conducted by SAIC, recruited from the profession- al and academic communities within the greater San Francisco Bay area, drawn from the student and faculty populations of Stanford University, the Institute for Transpersonal Psychology, and other neigh- boring educational and research institutions. The age of all participants ranged from 16 to 60. 23.2.2 Procedure The following is a step-by-step description of the method used to collect the 0-Sort personality as- sessments. This process is done only one time by each subject. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) A participant was greeted by the PI in the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory at Science Applications International Corporation in a warm and friendly way and was shown to a comfortable, quiet loca- tion within the laboratory. Following a brief "get acquainted" period, the procedure was explained and (s)he was encouraged to ask any questions about the nature of the study. The PI provided a consent form, typed instructions, a record sheet, and a deck of 100 0-Sort cards. The PI left the participant alone to sort the 100 cards into the nine categories. The record sheet, instructions, and deck of cards was then collected by the PI. 2.3.23 Analysis All personality descriptions were put into a computer database for cluster analysis. This kind of analysis assembles 0-Sort descriptions into groups of similar profiles, and attempts to create groups that are as dif- ferent from one another as possible. The result of such an analysis is a visual display of clusters, such as the one in Figure 3. Talented AC receivers are indicated by a (*) and seem cluster around the normal pro- file. Fortunately, the two personality pathology profiles are in a cluster by themselves. 2.3.3 Results and Conclusions The results of the cluster analysis can be seen in Figure 3. Three standard profiles; a normal personality profile, two different types of personality pathology profiles, and a tentative AC-Profile were added to the analysis. The AC-Profile was composed of the combined Q-Sorts of six known talented receivers (i.e., 454, 372, 009, 389, 518, and 330). These receivers were chosen on the basis of their repeated suc- cessful performance on AC tasks within our laboratory. From our analysis, we find that good AC receiv- ers think of themselves as: ? Possessing a wide range of interest. ? Thinking and associating ideas in unusual ways. ? Valuing intellectual and cognitive matters. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 14 Approved For Release 2002/Q5/1J : C1A-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 PhenomendlOgical Research and Analysis: Final Report ? Concerned with philosophical problems. ? Being verbally fluent and can express ideal well. They also believe that they are not: ? Subtly negative and do not tend to undermine, obstruct, or sabotage. ? Guileful, deceitful, manipulative or opportunistic. ? Ego-defensive or have a small reserve of integration. ? Exploitive or create dependencies in people. ? Self-pitying or feel victimized by life. It remains to be seen if this general statements are predictive of good AC performance. They do, how- ever, represent a personality profile of our best receivers. For example, in a study investigating a possible correlation between ESP and creativity using subjects from a well-know music academy in New York City, Schlitz and Honorton (1992) suggest that subjects who exhibit greater cognitive flexibility and elaboration produce higher AC scores. The five 0-Sort items most characteristic of the AC-Profile would tend to support this idea. The advantages of using the Q-Sort method of personality description is that it is easy and inexpensive to implement and analyze. The problems are that the results are conditioned both by the content of the 0-Sort card set and the willingness of the sorter to give a candid and accurate description of themselves. These results are only preliminary and little can be known until we have a much larger database of reli- able AC viewers. In time it is hoped that the Q-Sort may prove useful in predicting where we should begin to look in the general population to find successful AC viewers. 2.4 Improved AC Evpluation for Applications Under this section, we were asked to provide improved AC analytical techniques that might be more germane in an application setting. We have delivered a complete description of one such technique as a separate document. This technique expands our fuzzy set analysis to include adaptive learning based upon real-time feedback. 3. Theoretical Issues The objective was to identify models for physical mechanisms for AC and to develop protocols for test- able experiments using select individuals. We reported our theoretical approach in an interim technical report; however, we include it here for completeness. 3.1 Probable Futures Since the dawn of history, mankind has been fascinated by the "what ifs" associated with the probabilis- tic paths that form the future and form the myriad worlds of "what might have been." Mankind's fas- cination with predicting the future evolved into the mathematical science of probability theory. Howev- er, classical probability theory is a description which is overlaid on an assumed physical reality. With the advent of quantum theory, alternative paths to the same end took on a physical reality. The very fact that alternative paths exist change the probability of the outcome. There is no classical equivalent. Suddenly the world of "what ifs" has become comingled with the worlds of "what might have been." Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 15 PhenomsfiRRSNIM ggieltkValfd2ANOW TingAiggN96-00789R003200240001-0 L1-2 04 00 t 4Le DCC * 9ZZ Let OZZ 69L OL t * 956 lL 69E * 21Ltoid-DV VZ SSE lutwoN EOL 6* ?Le SZ ZE4 OLE 906 * EIZ les C94 OS' I. eV 5'4 poueled opelsAti 04 90 00 Figure 3. Cluster Diagram Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 16 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report This idea has been experimentally verified in recent experiments conducted at Rochester University. It has been shown that the physical outcome of a quantum mechanical experiment depends not only upon what is being measured, but also on what could be measured, even though it wasn't. The implication for AC mechanisms is that precognition may be the underlying mechanism. If, for some yet unknown reason, humans have access to probable futures rather than actual futures, then the perception appears not to contradict the rules of physics. 3.2 Einstein, Poldasky, Rosen Paradox (EPR) The paradox suggest possible information transport during the collapse of a wave function. It arises naturally when considering two-particle correlations and the effects of measuring the state of one par- ticle which gives rise to unambiguous knowledge of the state of the correlated particle even though it may be very far from the measured particle at the time the measurement is made. While no one any longer questions the validity of the predictions of quantum mechanics for correlated systems, the very fact of their validity has caused a philosophical revolution. There is no underlying reality, no absolute reality. There is only reality as defined by measurements made by an observer. There is substantial anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) literature on what are called Observational Theories (OT). It is possible that the EPR paradox and its implications may serve as a physics base for the OB. There is a major problem both with the on and EPR as models for perception. Brain func- tioning at room temperature appears not to be a quantum system; therefore, care must be exercised before we can demonstrate the value of EPR for AMP mechanisms. 3.3 General Relativity The recent resurgence of interest in Einstein's general theory of relativity has lead to some startling theoretical conclusions about the nature of space-time again bringing to the forefront the fact that sci- ence has not unveiled all the secrets associated with time. One such piece of work is Matt Visser's paper on traversable wormholes (Visser, 1989). This paper predicts that it is physically possible to transport energy (and, therefore, information) between remote space-time points without traversing the classical distance between the space-time points. For sometime it has been known that even according to Einstein's special theory of relativity, it is pos- sible to describe mathematically a fully consistent universe in which everything moves faster than the speed of light. The particles inhabiting such a universe have been given the name tachyons while, in contrast, the particles with which we are familiar are named tardyons. The important fact is that neither particle can ever travel at the speed of light. Photons, of course, are common to both universes. More- over, this is a non-quantum mechanical description. We know that in quantum theory it is possible to violate such constraints providing that we do so for short enough periods. The question of whether a tardyon can exist as a tachyon for a short period of time merits investigation. From a heuristic perspective, reverse information flow (i.e., precognition) appears to describe much of the AMP data. While Visser's calculations are not a theory of precognition, at a minimum they demon- strate that physics may allow for the macroscopic, but statistical, breach of causality. We anticipate that a continuation of these ideas may lead to a law for causality similar to the Second Law of Thermody- namics. That is, on the average causality must hold, but locally there may be a slight statistical reversal that is compensated for elsewhere such that the average is correct. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R00320024000114 Phenonfilikrafecifeacslaggialinpy?WasliKINR6-00789R003200240001-0 3.4 Time and Entropy The relationship between time and entropy is once more open to question. For nearly two hundred years, scientists have taken the position that the entropy of a closed system can never decrease with time and that, on the scale of the universe, entropy always increases with increasing time. Recently however, Steven Hawking raised the possibility that macroscopic time or psychological time, the time that we perceive, is actually determined by the change of entropy (Hawking, 1988). Similar conclusions were reached at about the same time by Tbny Rothman from the Center for Relativity at the University of Thxas (Rothman, 1987). Rothman discusses the seven arrows of time that represent the distinction be- tween microscopic reversible time and the macroscopic time as experienced by intelligent life. This concept was first proposed by Szilard (1929) in the paper, "On the decrease of entropy in a thermody- namic system by the intervention of intelligent beings." Given that we showed experimentally that the total change of entropy is related to the quality of AC, this theoretical approach seems most promising (May, Spottiswoode and James, 1994). 3.5 Novel Potentials Classical mechanics and, for the most part, quantum mechanics have treated potentials as convenient mathematical descriptions for which there was no physical instantiation. Recently a series of clever ex- periments have dispelled that view by showing that a potential can have an effect on a particle even when there was no corresponding force present. The electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials or torsion fields are examples of such novel potentials. At this time, the existence of anomalous perturbation (AP) remains open. While there are intriguing experiments, the database for AP is substantially less than for AC. A theoretical approach for AP using novel potentials is probably premature; however, it may be possible that such potentials could act as a "carrier" of AC information. 4. Applied Research SG 1 B The task objective was to focus on items that might lead to improved functioning through protocol mod- ification and to provide demonstrations of potential applications. We conducted three primary activi- ties for this tasking under the direction of physicist S. James P. Spottiswoode. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 18 SG1B Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 SG 1 B PhenomAilliOgVall &81015*airfdiniM0haiiNg96-00789R003200240001-0 4.2 Attempts at Message Sending Using AC The objective of this experiment was to adapt a standard AC experiment to a forced-choice situation. An additional objective was to incorporate fuzzy set technology into a "crisp," two-by-five, error cor- recting block code to improve AC detection in a message sending/receiving metaphor. We reported this experiment in an interim technical report; however, we summarize it here for completeness. 4.2.1 Background In the Spring of 1992, SAIC conducted a pilot experiment that was designed to explore the potential for maximizing the reliability of AC responses through objective and rapid analysis. In this study, we re- verted to using a dichotomous binary procedure as opposed to a fuzzy set technique. By carefully select- ing the dichotomous elements, we could use standard block coding techniques to incorporate complete single error correction, also including a few two-fold corrections as well. We used a message sending motif as a test-bed for this kind of analysis. Unfortunately, in that experiment, only one receiver demonstrated an effect size larger than 0.20 (i.e., 0.22) for evidence of an AC phenomena, and no evidence of enhanced detection of AC was seen. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 22 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report A number of difficulties were discovered in this experiment that may have rendered the results incon- clusive: ? In an attempt to make the targets dichotomous within target packs and at the same time interesting to view, targets within the pool ranged in scale from a panoramic scene of a cityscape to a photograph of three chairs or an image of three geometric shapes, and thus possessed a large target-pool bandwidth (i.e., a large set of differing target elements). Since receivers were told in advance that the targets could contain absolutely any material, they were unable to censor their internal experiences, which may have resulted in enhanced intrinsic receiver noise, and thus added "noise" to the response. ? Each encoding bit was linked to only one precept (e.g., the single target element of water). This exag- gerated the importance of the chosen dichotomous elements. For example, if a receiver failed to sense water in the target but managed to sense most other aspects of the target, regardless of whether they were part of the bit structure, then the BCH coding was not particularly applicable. ? In an AC application, a fundamental imbalance existed in the bit structure. The BCH coding assumes that binary zero is "assertive." That is, in AC when water is not indicated in the response, it is equiva- lent to indicating the water is definitely not in the target. Unfortunately, in AC experiments it is pos- sible or even likely that unless a receiver specifies explicitly that water is not present, then the pres- ence or absence is indeterminate. Maybe water exists in the target but was not noticed or was unreported by the receiver. Similarly, water may not exist in the target and a non-response is equiva- - lent to an assertive no. These two cases are, of course, indistinguishable. The net effect is to render the BCH coding invalid. In the current experimental protocol, we attempted to correct the problems discussed above so that potential enhancement of the detection of AC might be optimized. The following modifications were made: ? The target-pool bandwidth was reduced by using the National Geographic static target pool, which has been successful for many previous AC experiments. ? Sensitivity to single BCH encoding bits was reduced by using a number of fuzzy-set elements to define each BCH bit. Thus, each BCH bit did not rely upon a single precept, but rather represented classes of different precepts. We had anticipated that these improvements would allow for much stronger AC and provide a more sensitive test of whether BCH error-correcting could be successfully applied to AC detection. We used long-distance associative AC tasks as a test bed for this procedure. This experiment was similar to a traditional AC experiment. A target was selected randomly; a receiver was asked to describe that target; and a quantitative assessment of the match was made. It differs, how- ever, only in the construction of the targets and in the quantitative analysis. 4.2.2 Conclusions No receiver produced significant deviations in the sum-of-ranks statistic, and binary numbers were not determined beyond chance expectation. Even though our best receivers participated in this particular study, their results were not up to the standard which we have traditionally seen from them. We could speculate that possibly the experimental conditions were significantly different from their usual ex- pectations (i.e., at home or in our laboratory) and that travel and performance anxiety may have con- tributed to the lack of AC functioning; however, very occasionally do they not perform as expected and excuses are not necessary. We strongly urge that a replication be tried under laboratory conditions to test the new approach of the fuzzy set encoding. At this time, even though there are a few excellent ex- Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 23 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report amples in the literature of using AC for message sending, we suggest that this might not be an optimum use of the phenomenon. 4.3 Improved Analysis We have delivered an approach to the analysis of application-oriented AC using fuzzy set technology as part of a separate document. We summarize the pertinent aspects of the approach here for complete- ness. We have been conducting application-like experiments for a number of years. These test-bed experi- ments have an advantage in that total ground truth is known in advance. A list of items, therefore, can be constructed that wouldgenerally be of interest. We illustrate this approach to fuzzy set analysis with one of our test-bed experiments. We constructed three categories of items: (1) Functions of the Site, (2) Physical Relationships, and (3) Objects. Table 4 shows a partial list of these three types of items for our test-bed experiment. The complete list spans many pages. Table 4. Partial Element List for a Test-bed Experiment Target/Response Element w T(?) R(?) Functions (1.0) Directed Energy 5 1.0 0.9 Test Experiment 2 1.0 1.0 Noise Generation 1 0.4 0.6 Operation in Space 1 0.0 1.0 Relationships (0.75) Power Source Above Beam Line 1 1.0 0.0 Electrons Flow Through Beam Line 1 1.0 0.7 Pipes in and out of Sphere 1 0 1.0 Objects (0.5) External Electron Beam 2.5 1.0 0.0 High Security Area 1 1.0 1.0 Bundled Metal Rods 1 0.0 1.0 Two types of data must be incorporated into such a list to provide an accurate measure; an a priori list of items that are definitely part of the target and items that are mentioned by the receiver that were not recognized as being part of the target. In Table 4, we have indicated overall weighting factors of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 for functions, relationships, and objects, respectively. That is, in this experiment, we were primarily interested in functions. Depending upon the task, the formalism accepts any appropriate weighting factors. The column w is a within-group weighting factor. That is, the item Directed Energy is five time more important than is Noise Generation. T(u) represents the degree to which the item is pres- ent in the target. For example, although Noise Generation is present in the target, it is roughly only 40% apparent; whereas Pipes in and out of Sphere is not present at all. R(u) is the degree to which the analyst is convinced that the element is indicated in the response. For example, the analyst was 90% convinced Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 24 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report that the receiver meant Directed Energy even though it was not specifically mentioned. All items that are specifically mentioned receive an It(u) = 1. Notice that we included all items mentioned by the receiver regardless if the item was present in the target. We set their relative weights all equal to one. lb arrive at a meaningful number from these data, we use fuzzy set formalism (May, Utts, Humphrey, Luke, Frivold, and Mask, 1990b). We compute the accuracy and the reliability of the response to the target system. The accuracy is the fraction of items in the target that were described correctly, and the reliability is the fraction of items in the response that were present in the target system. It is possible to obtain a very accurate description with poor reliability. Suppose the receiver inserted an encyclopedia as his or her response. In principle, nearly all aspects of the target might be mentioned; however, a large number of response items would not be present in the target. Thus the certification number, the value which may be used to describe the quality of the response, must be related to both the accuracy and the reliability. Formally, the accuracy and reliability are defined by: ZWiMin[T jtu R ;Cu)] Accuracy ? i.1 Elgi TAU) W, Min[Ti(u), RAIL)] Reliability ? RA11) J=1 (1) where N is the total number of elements in the evaluation form; Tj and Rj are the target and response score for element j; and Wj is the product of the within-group weight, w, and the group weight. For ex- ample, in the Functions group the w are equal to the Wbecause the functions weight is one. Since the Relationships group weight is 0.75, the within-group weights shown in Table 4 must all be multiplied by 0.75 to form the Wj for those elements in this group. To be sensitive to the interplay between Accuracy and Reliability, we propose that Certification = Accu- racy x Reliability. To illustrate the use the Equations 1, we demonstrate how to compute these items using only the data we show in Table 4. We find the Accuracy = 0.744. the Reliability = 0.764, and Certification = 0.568. Ran- dom utterances compared to random targets roughly yield 0.3 for both Accuracy and Reliability. That is approximately 1/3 of whatever is said can be found in any target and 1/3 of any target can be described regardless what is said. An approximate minimum Certification of 0.1 would represent chance matches. Anything above 0.3 would can be considered as solid evidence of "contact" with the target even in an application setting. 5. Research Methodology and Support Besides our usual activity with our Scientific Oversight Committee, who review our technical protocols prior to experiments, and our Institutional Review Board, who review our procedures with regard to the ethical use of human subjects Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 25 SG1B Approved Lor Release 2002/06./17_? CJA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenblogicai Research and Anaiysis: Him Heport Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 26 Approved For Release 2002/05/17. : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report III. GLOSSARY Not all the terms defined below are germane to this report, but they are included here for completeness. In a typical anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) task, we define: ? Anomalous Cognition (AC)?A form of information transfer in which all known sensorial stimuli are absent. That is, some individuals are able to gain access to information by an as yet unknown process. ? Agent?An individual who attempts to influence a target system. ? Analyst?An individual who provides a quantitative measure of AC. ? AE?A form of interaction with matter in which all known physical mechanisms are absent. That is, some individuals are able to influence matter by an as yet unknown process. ? Feedback?After a response has been secured, information about the intended target is displayed to the receiver. ? Monitor?An individual who monitors an AC session to facilitate data collection. ? Protocol?A template for conducting a structured data collection session. ? Receiver?An individual who attempts to perceive and report information about a target. ? Response?Material that is produced during an AC session in response to the intended target. ? Sender/Beacon?An individual who, while receiving direct sensorial stimuli from an intended target, acts as a putative transmitter to the receiver. ? Session?A time period during which AC data are collected. ? Specialty?A given receiver's ability to be particularly successful with a given class of targets (e.g., people as opposed to buildings). ? Target?An item that is the focus of an AMP task (e.g., person, place, thing, event). ? Target Designation?A method by which a specific target, against the backdrop of all other possible targets, is identified to the receiver (e.g., geographical coordinates). Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 27 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 ? CIA7RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report REFERENCES Bern, D. J. and Honorton, C. (1994). Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 1, 4-18. Berger, H. (1930). Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen. J. Psych& Neuro., 40. 160-179. Block, J. (1978) The Q-Sort Method In Personality Assessment and Psychiatric Research. Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., Palo Alto, CA. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ. Hawking, S. (1988), A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books. Honorton, C. (1975). Error Some Place! Journal of Communication, 103-116. Honorton, C. and Ferrari, D. C. (1989). 'Future Telling:' A Meta-analysis of Forced-Choice Precognition Experiments, 1935-1987. Journal of Parapsychology, 53, 282-308. Jahn, R. G. (1982). The persistent paradox of psychic phenomena: an engineering perspecitve. Proceedings of the IEEE. 70, 2, 136-170. Kaufman, L., Schwartz, B., Salustri, C., and Williamson, S. J. (1990). Modulation of spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2. 2. 124-132. Klimesch, W, Pfurtscheller, G., and Lindinger, G. (1987). Das Corticale Alctivierungsmuster bei Verbalen Gedaechtnisaufgaben. Sprache Kognition. 140-154. Lantz, N. (1987). Review of the personality assessment system. Final Report, Project 1291, SRI International, Menlo Park, California. May, E. C., Targ, R., and Puthoff, H. E. (1977). Possible EEG correlates to remote stimuli under conditions of sensory shielding. Electro 77 Professional Program, Special Session: The State of the Art in Psychic Research, IEEE, New York, NY. May, E. C. Luke, W L. W, Trask, V. V., and Frivold, T. J. (1990a). Observation of neuromagnetic fields in response to remote stimuli. The Proceedings of the Presented Papers of the Parapsychological Association 33rd Annual Convention, National 4-H Center, Chevy Chase, MD. May, E. C., Utts, J. M., Humphrey, B. S., Luke, W. L. W, Frivold, T. J.. and Tiask, V. V. (1990b). Advances in remote viewing analysis. Journal of Parapsychology, 54. 194-228. May, E. C., Luke, W. L. W, and Lantz, N. D. (1992), Phenomenological research and analysis. Final Report: 6.2 and 6.3, Science Applications International Corporation, Cognitive Sciences Laboratory. May, E. C., Spottiswoode, S. J., and James, C. L. (1994). Shannon entropy as an intrinsic target property: Toward a reductionist model of anomalous cognition. Submitted for publication in the Journal of Parapsychology. Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 28 Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Final Report Pfurtscheller, G. and Aranibar, A. (1977). Event-related cortical desynchronization detected by power measurements of scalp EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 42. 817-826. Pfurtscheller, G. and Aranibar, A. (1979). Evaluation of event-related desynchronization (ERD) preceding and following self-paced movement. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 46. 138-146. Pfurtscheller, G., Lindinger, G., and IClimesch, W. (1986). Dynamisches EEG-Mapping-Bildgebendes Verfahren fuer die Unterschung Perzeptiver, Motorischer und Kognitiver Hirnleistunger. Z. EEG-EMG, 17. 113-116. Puthoff, H. E. and Targ. R. (1976). A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research. Proceedings of the IEEE, 64, 3,329-354. Radin, D. I. and Nelson, R. D. (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of Physics, 19, 12, 1499-1514. Rothman, T (February 1987). Discover, p. 63. Rebert, C. S. and Turner, A. (1974). EEG spectrum analysis techniques applied to the problem of psi phenomena. Physician's Drug Manual, 4., 1-8, 82-88. Sergeant, J., Geuze, R., and Van Winsum, W. (1987). Event-related desynchronization and P300. Psychophysiology, 24.272-277. Schlitz, M J. and Honorton, C. (1992). ESP and creativity in an exceptional population. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86. 2, 83-98. Schlitz, M. J. and LaBerge, S. (1994). Autonomic Detection of remote observation: Two Conceptual Replications. The Proceedings of the Presented Papers of the Parapsychological Association 37th Annual Convention, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Szilard, L. (1929). On the decrease of entropy in a thermodynamic system by the intervention of intelligent beings. Zeitschnft fur Physik, 53. 840-856. Can be found in English in Maxwell's Demon: Entropy, Information, Computing, H. S. Leff and A. F. Rex Eds., Princeton Series in Physics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1990). Utts, J. M. (1988). Successful replication versus statistical significance. Journal of Parapsychology, 52, 305-320. Utts, J. M. (1991). Replication and meta-analysis in parapsychology. Statistical Sciences, 6, 4, 363-403. Visser, M. (1989). Physical Review D, 39. No. 10. Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 29 Approved For Release 2002/05/1Z ? QIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 Phenomenological Research and Analysis: Fina( Report APPENDIX A Autonomic Detection of Remote Observation: Two Conceptual Replications Approved For Release 2002/05/17: CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 30 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/05/17 : CIA-RDP96-00789R003200240001-0 AUTONOMIC DETECTION OF REMOTE OBSERVATION: Two Conceptual Replicationsl Marilyn J. Schlitz Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, Science Applications International Corporation and Stephen LaBerge The Lucidity Institute ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which people are able to unconsciously detect another person staring at them from a distance. A closed-circuit television set-up was employed in which a video camera was focused on the experimental volunteer (Observee) while a person in another room (Observer) concentrated on the image of the distant person as displayed on a color monitor; this procedure was used to preclude any conventional sensory contact between the two people. During the experimental session, the Observee's galvanic skin responses were monitored. An automated and computerized system was programmed to record and average the physiological responses of the Observee during 32 30-second monitoring periods. A random sequence was used to schedule 16 periods of remote observation and 16 control periods when no observation efforts were attempted. A within-subjects evaluation was made for each experimental session with a comparison between the mean amount of autonomic nervous system activity during the experimental and control conditions. Twenty four sessions were conducted in each of two experiments. As predicted, both experiments yielded significantly more autonomic activity during the remote observation periods as compared to control periods (Experiment 1: t=1.878, p