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October 1, 1973
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'02 STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE Menlo Park, California 94025 ? U.S.A. Proposal for Research SRI No. ISH 73-146 PERCEPTUAL AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES Part One--Technical Proposal Approved: Earle D. Jones, Dire r Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory 1 October 1973 Prepared by: Harold E. Puthoff Senior Research Engineer Russell Targ Senior Research Physicist Bonnar Cox, Executive Director Information Science and Engineering Division Copy No. Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791a00100420002-0 CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF TABLES I INTRODUCTION II BACKGROUND iii iv 1 3 A. Exploratory Research in Remote Viewing 3 1. Global Targets--Training Mode 3 2. Demonstration-of-Ability Tests: Double-Blind Client-Supplied Coordinates 6 B. EEG Experiments 18 C. Remote Perception of Graphic Material 23 III PROPOSED PROGRAM 40 A. Objective 40 B. Technical Approach 40 C. Statement of Work 41 D. Reporting Schedule 42 IV QUALIFICATIONS OF STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE 43 ii Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00794p00100420002-0 Niof ILLUSTRATIONS 1 2 3 Training Results (Swann) Map No. 1 of West Virginia Site (Swann) Map No. 2 of West Virginia Site (Detail--Swann) 4 8 9 4 Map of Urals Site (Price) 12 5 Map No. 1 of Kerguelen Island Site (Detail--Swann) 14 6 Map No. 2 of Kerguelen Island Site (Swann) 15 7 Map No. 3 of Kerguelen Island Site (Price) 17 8 Occipital EEG Frequency Spectra, 0 to 25 Hz, of Jean Mayo, Receiver 21 9 Occipital EEG Frequency Spectra, 0 to 25 Hz, of Bella Hammid, Receiver 22 10 Shielded Room Used for EEG Measurements 24 11 Target 1 (Firecracker) and Geller's Responses 25 12 Target 2 (Grapes) and Geller's Response 27 13 Target 3 (Devil) and Geller's Responses 28 14 Target 4 (Solar System) and Geller's Response 31 15 Target 5 (Camel) and Geller's Response 33 16 Target 6 (Golden Gate Bridge) and Geller's Response . 34 17 Target 7 (Seagull Flying) and Geller's Response 35 18 Target 8 (Kite on CRT Display) and Geller's Response. 36 19 Target 9 (Church, Stored in Memory of Text-Editing Computer) and Geller's Response 37 20 Target 10 (Arrow Through Heart, Stored in Computer Graphics Program) and Geller's Responses 39 iii Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-0079100100420002-0 TABLE 1 Results of Global Targets Training--Run 10 iv Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791%9100420002-0 *sr I INTRODUCTION Stanford Research Institute proposes to undertake a one-year research program to investigate, and develop techniques to enhance, human percep- * mo tual abilities. mio The perceptual abilities that we have been investigating for the past year are sometimes considered paranormal phenomena. However, our recent work leads us to consider them as, to a greater or lesser extent, latent in all people. The phenomena we have investigated most exten- sively pertain to the ability of certain individuals to view with great clarity distant scenes not presented to any known perceptual sense. In addition, we have performed more modest experiments with unselected sub- jects who have been found to exhibit direct physiological (EEG) evidence of perception of remote happenings. Our accumulated data make it appear that both gifted and ordinary persons can be assisted in developing remote perceptual abilities up to a level dictated by their individual potentialities. The purpose of the proposed research is to investigate the physical and psychological variables underlying these phenomena so that we may gain a greater understanding of this ability and a more com- plete grasp of its limits and applicability. Section II of this proposal provides background material, detailing the evidence pertaining to remote viewing and other nonregular percep- tual abilities. In this section we describe: ? Experiments with two gifted individuals who took part in double-blind experiments to perceive scenes at intercon- tinental distances. ? Brain wave experiments in which ordinary (not specially selected) subjects were asked to perceive whether or not a remote light was flashing--the EEG data from several of these subjects indicates objectively that they did perceive the presence of the light, even if only at a noncognitive level of their consciousness. This proposal has been prepared at the request of the client. 1 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Zease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R400100420002-0 ? Carefully controlled remote perception experiments with Mr. Uri Geller, in which he, while located in an elec- trically shielded room, was able to reproduce target pictures drawn for the occasion at various SRI locations. Section III describes the proposed program and presents a detailed work statement, along with the major program milestones. Section IV outlines the experience, facilities, and personnel of Stanford Research Institute, and its Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory that are available to contribute to the successful completion of this work. A separate Part Two of this proposal covers contractual matters and costs. 2 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-007911W100420002-0 Nrusi II BACKGROUND A. Exploratory Research in Remote Viewing As a result of experimentation carried out in an eight-month program to investigate the abilities of a gifted subject, Ingo Swann, Swann ex- pressed the opinion that the insights obtained had strengthened an ability that has been researched before he joined the SRI program; namely, the ability to view remote locations. To test Swann's assertion, SRI re- searchers set up a series of experimental protocols on a gradient scale of increasing difficulty. The first step toward the proof that such an ability might exist in principle was completed in our laboratory in a series of experiments with another subject in which target pictures were successfully received where the subject was separated from the target material either by an electrically isolated shielded room or by the isolation provided by East-coast/West-coast distances. These data are presented in Part C of this section. 1. Global Targets--Training Mode For the first experiment, considered to be a training mode, 100 targets on the earth's surface (ten per day for ten days) were chosen at random, often by different experimenters. For each ten-trial session, the experiment would begin with the subject (Swann) being given a target location by latitude and longitude only, for which he had to provide an immediate response of what he saw. Following his response, some brief indication was given as to whether any correspondence existed between his description and the target location. The next coordinate was then given until all ten coordinates were exhausted. A run of ten coordinates was always completed in less than 30 minutes. The results obtained during the training mode are summarized in Figure 1, where a least-squares fit to the data is shown by the solid lines. Details for the final run (Run 10) are shown in Table 1. The second coordinate in Run 10 (Table 1) affords a surprising example of precision that sometimes occurred. The experimenter chose 3 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For %lipase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-007911%0100420002-0 10 8 HITS/RUN 6 out of 10 trials/run 4 LESSER CORRESPONDENCES/ RUN out of 10 trials/run MISSES/RUN out of 10 trials/run 2 0 8 6 4 2 0 6 4 2 0 ? ? ? ? ? 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 ? ? - ? ? ? ? --? fiti If iii I I I I I - ? ? ? ? ? ? I I I I I ? I I 2 4 6 8 10 RUN NUMBER SA-2613-1 FIGURE 1 TRAINING RESULTS (SWANN) Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R4119100420002-0 Noe Table 1 RESULTS OF GLOBAL TARGETS TRAINING--RUN 10 Target Response Evaluation* 45?N 150?W Ocean, beautiful blue-green waves, sun H (ocean) shining, ship toward north 2?S 34?E Sense of speeding over water, landing H (eastern shore, Lake on land. Lake to west, high elevation Victoria, Africa) 55?N 150?E Not many trees, patches of snow, marsh? M (Sea of Okhotsk) 64?N 19?W Volcano to southwest. I think I'm over H (20 miles ENE of ocean. Mt. Hekla volcano, Iceland) 55?N 130?E Wind blowing there, night, telephone N (Soviet Union) wires. Land, flat place with fields; Cold. 60?N 90?W Open water, stands of pine to north. H (Hudson Bay) 60?N 91?E City, snow on ground, city to north- N (Soviet Union) east, factory to south. 30?S 00 (ocean) Ocean, Atlantic, deep blue water. H 42?N 105? Mountains H (Gobi) 28?S 137?E Islands, Land mass to east, west. H (Lake Eyre, Australia) An open sea, night. H--Hit; good description of area in near vicinity of target. N--Neutral; some possibility of correspondence. M--Miss; clear lack of correspondence. 5 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Rcapse 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791RV100420002-0 the coordinate from a world map to represent the middle of Lake Victoria, Africa. However, Swann insisted that the coordinate, when given, turned on a picture of land to the right of a large lake. Subsequent checking with a detailed map of the region indicated that his perception had been correct. We must, of course, point out that the results of such a train- ing mode can be taken as indicative only, since even under the carefully controlled experimental conditions in force, ? An individual could--in principle--obtain good results on the basis of eidetic memory. ? Given the hypothesis of extraordinary functioning an individual could--in principle--obtain the data subliminally from an experimenter who knows the target location. Therefore, the rapid global targets training mode was followed up with a series of global targets supplied by Stanford Research Institute personnel on a double-blind basis in which detail was obtained on build- ings, roads, bridges, and the like. The results were sufficiently ac- curate to lead us to propose the client-controlled demonstration-of- ability tests described in the following paragraphs. The final evaluation rests on the analysis of the double-blind targets used in the concluding demonstration-of-ability tests. 2. Demonstration-of-Ability Tests: Double-Blind Client-Supplied Coordinates In order to subject the remote viewing phenomena to a rigorous test under control of the client, a request for coordinates was trans- mitted to the client. In response, SRI personnel received the first set of coordinates, hereafter referred to as the West Virginia Site. a. West Virginia Site (Swann) Date: 29 May 1973, 1634-1640, Menlo Park, California Protocol: Coordinates 38?23 45-48"N, 79025' 00"W given by Dr. H. E. Puthoff to subject I. Swann to initiate experiment. No maps were permitted and the subject was asked to give an immediate response. The session was recorded on video tape. 6 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Re4ase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791K410100420002-0 Swann response: This seems to be some sort of mounds or rolling hills. There is a city to the north (I can see the taller buildings and some smog). This seems to be a strange place, somewhat like the lawns that one would find around a military base, but I get the impression that there are either some old bunkers around, or maybe this is a covered reservoir. There must be a flagpole, some highways to the west, possibly a river over to the far east, to the south more city. The map of Figure 2 was drawn. On the following morning, Swann submitted a written re- port of a second reading, dated 30 May 1973, 0735-0758, Mountain View, California. Cliffs to the east, fence to the north. There's a circular building (a tower?), buildings to the south. Is this a former Nike base or something like that? This is about as far as I could go without feedback, and perhaps guidance as to what was wanted. There is something strange about this area, but since I don't know particularly what to look for within the scope of the cloudy ability, it is extremely difficult to make decisions on what is there and what is not. Imagination seems to get in the way. (For example, I seem to get the impression of some- thing underground, but I'm not sure.) However, it is apparent that on first sighting the general location was correctly spotted. The map of Figure 3 was drawn. b. West Virginia Site (Price) As a back-up test, the coordinates were given to a second subject (Price) who appears to possess similar ability in casual testing. The task was presented to the second subject independently of the first, both to prevent collaboration and to prevent any sense of competition. Date: 1 June 1973, 1700, Menlo Park, California Protocol: Coordinates 38?23' 45-48"N, 79?25' 00"W given by Dr. H. E. Puthoff to subject Price by telephone to initiate experiment. 7 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Re, lapse 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R0461400420002-0 -Voot" 97)4te 56(-4-1 a %NIA FIGURE 2 MAP NO. 1 OF WEST VIRGINIA SITE (SWANN) 8 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Reaase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791ROW00420002-0 Ift\es, FLAA e ro i0 chrivs5 16 vi 04 5c5 rit e , 83 artT FIGURE 3 MAP NO. 2 OF WEST VIRGINIA SITE (DETAIL?SWANN) 9 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For ReimOse 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R0,942000420002-0 On the morning of 4 June 1973 Price's written response (dated 2 June 1973, 1250-1350, Lake Tahoe, California) was received in the mail. Looked at general area from altitude of about 1500' above highest terrain. On my left forward quadrant is a peak in a chain of mountains, elevation approximately 4996' above sea level. Slopes are greyish slate covered with variety of broad leaf trees, vines, shrubbery, and undergrowth. I am facing about 3?-5? west of north. Looking down the mountain to the right (east) side is a roadway, freeway country style--curves around base of mountain from S.W.--swings north for a few miles, then heads E.N.E. to a fairly large city about 30-40 miles dis- tant. This area was a battleground in civil war--low rolling hills, creeks, few lakes or reservoirs. There is a smaller town a little S.E. about 15-20 miles distant with small settle- ments, village type, very rural, scattered around. Looking across the peak, 2500-3000' mountains stretch out for a hundred or so miles. Area is essentially wooded. Some of the westerly slopes are eroded and gully washed--looks like strip mining, coal mainly. Weather at this time is cloudy, rainy. Temperature at my alti- tude about 54?--high cumulo nimbus clouds to about 25,000- 30,000'. Clear area, but turbulent, between that level and some cirro stratus at 46,000'. Air mass in that strip moving W.N.W. to S.E. 1318 - Perceived that peak area has large underground storage areas. Road comes up back side of mountains (west slopes), fairly well concealed, looks deliberately so. It's cut under trees where possible--would be very hard to detect flying over area. Looks like former missile site--bases for launchers still there, but area now houses record storage area, microfilm, file cabinets; as you go into underground area through aluminum rolled up doors, first areas filled with records, etc. Rooms about 100' long, 40' wide, 20' ceilings with concrete supporting pilasters, flare-shaped. Temperature cool--fluorescent lighted. Personnel, Army 5th Corps Engineers. M/Sgt. Long on desk plac- ard on grey steel desk--file cabinets security locked--combina- tion locks, steel rods through eye bolts. Beyond these rooms, heading east, are several bays with computers, communication equipment, large maps, display type, overlays. Personnel, Army Signal Corps. Elevators. 10 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Reakpase 2003/04/18 CIA-RDP96-00791R%0100420002-0 1330 - Looked over general area from original location again-- valleys quite hazy, lightning about 30 miles north along moun- tain ridge. Temperature drop about 6?, it's about 48?. Looking for other significances: see warm air mass moving in from S.W. colliding with cool air mass about 100 miles E.S.E. from my viewpoint. Air is very turbulent--tornado type; birds in my area seeking heavy cover. There is a fairly large river that I can see about 15-20 miles north and slightly west; runs N.E.; then curves in wide valley running S.W. to N.E.; river then runs S.E. Area to east, low rolling hills. Quite a few Civil War monuments. A marble colonnade type: "In this area was fought the battle of Lynchburg where many brave men of the Union and Confederate Armys (sic) fell. We dedicate this area to all peace loving people of the future--Daughters G.A.R." On a later date Price was asked to return to the West Virginia site with the goal of obtaining codeword information, if pos- sible. In response, Price supplied the following information: Top of desk had papers labeled: Flytrap Minerva File cabinet on north wall labeled: Operation Pool --- (2nd word unreadable) Folders inside cabinet labeled: Cueball 14 Ball 4 Ball 8 Ball Rackup Name of site vaguely seems like Hayfork or Haystack. Personnel: Col. R. J. Hamilton Maj. Gen. George R. Nash Major John C. Calhoun?? c. Urals Site (Price) After obtaining a reading on the West Virginia site, Price volunteered that he scanned the other side of the globe for a Bloc equiv- alent, and found one in the Urals at described as follows. Elevation, 6200'. Scrubby brush, tundra type ground hummocks, rocky outcroppings, mountains with fairly steep slopes. Facing 11 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved ForRelease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791W0100420002-0 *IS north, about 60 miles ground slopes to marshland. Mountain chain runs off to right about 35? east of north. Facing south, mountains run fairly north and south. Facing west, mountains drop down to foothills for 60 miles or so; some rivers running roughly north. Facing east, mountains are rather abrupt, dropping to rolling hills and to flat land. Area site under- ground, reinforced concrete, doorways of steel of the roll-up type. Unusually high ratio of women to men, at least at night. I see some helipads, concrete. Light rail tracks run from pads to another set of rails that parallel the doors into the mountain (see Figure 4). Thirty miles north (5? west of north) of the site is a radar installation with one large (165') dish and two small fast-track dishes. The above reports were submitted to the client for evalua- tion. A second set of coordinates was requested and obtained, hereafter referred to as the Kerguelen Island Site. MOUNTAIN FACE FIGURE 4 MAP OF URALS SITE (PRICE) 12 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-007911342.90100420002-0 d. Kerguelen Island Site (Swann) Date: 21 July 1973, 1708-1730, Menlo Park, California Protocol: Coordinates 49?20'S, 70014'E given by Dr. H. E. Puthoff to subject I. Swann to initiate experi- ment. No maps were permitted and the subject was asked to give an immediate response. The session was recorded on video tape. Swann response: My initial response is that it's an island, maybe a mountain sticking up through a cloud cover. (Experimenter checks, gives positive feedback.) Terrain seems rocky. Must be some sort of small plants growing there. Cloud bank to the west. Very cold. I see some buildings rather mathematically laid out. One of them is orange. There is something like a radar antenna, a round disc. (Subject draws map during report.) Two white cy- lindrical tanks, quite large. To the northwest a small airstrip. Wind is blowing. Must be twO or three trucks in front of build- ing. Behind, is that an outhouse? There's not much there. That's all, I think, for now. Swann submits map, Figure 5. On the following day, 1152-1215, the identical protocol was followed for a second reading. Again, no maps were permitted. During this reading, Swann described following the coastline of the island, drawing segments on 8-1/2" X 11" pieces of paper as he went, resulting in Figure 6 when the pieces were assembled. It's not completely dark there, sort of orangish light. If I look to the west, hills; to the north flatlands and, I think, airstrip and ocean in the distance; to the east, rolling bumpy grasslands with bumps; to the south is -- I can't see anything to the south. I move north to the coastline and follow it around. That's point A (begins to draw map). Point B, rocks sticking up out of the ocean, breakers on them. Point C, little cluster of buildings with wharf, boats. Point D, jutty of land sticking out. Point F* is sand basin, river coming through, Lettering out of order. 13 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 virv SECTION L DETAIL Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791Z00100420002-0 Nam.' ,setc4wis Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 MAP NO. 2 OF KERGUELEN ISLAND SITE (SWANN) Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791,U00100420002-0 NNW lots of birds. Point E brush of small trees. This is fun (laughs), first time I've ever done this. (Following E) almost a straight coastline, cuts in rocks, beach. Then curves back. I see to northwest a mountain rising, snow on top. Area G is irregular. Point H is a high cliff, Point I is a promontory. Point J has big breakers, K is a bay, L is area I drew yester- day (circles area, draws airstrip and buildings for orientation to previous map). That will do for today. May be a lighthouse (on tip?). I lacked courage going around Point G. e. Kerguelen Island Site (Price) Date: 20 July 1973, 1400, Menlo Park, California Protocol: Coordinates 49?20'S, 70?14'E given by Dr. H. E. Puthoff to subject Price by telephone to initiate experiment. Price Response: On the morning of 21 July 1973 Price's written response (dated 20 July 1973, 2055-2232, Santa Clara, California) was received (hand carried). Picked 15,000' altitude. Looking south, 4? east of south, see a site located on a cliff about 200' high above the ocean. In- stallation is a cluster of buildings and radar tracking station (see Figure 7). Radar is a segment concave type rather than circular dish type. Building #1 is the largest, L-shaped, front facing NW, two stories plus basement. Buildings #2 and #3 about 75'-100' east of main building, also two stories plus basement. Building #2 has recreation and dining facilities, building #3 contains living quarters. Building #4 is a shop and maintenance area. Buildings are all interconnected on the ground floor. I see a dock area at the base of the cliff, and 1/4 to 1/2 mile from the buildings is an airstrip. The installation has four functions: 1) Tracking (space) 2) Meteorological station 3) Monitoring equipment for radiation readings 4) Radio relay station. I see a couple of other radar installations covered by geodesic domes. There are two small tracking radars interlinked with main radar. 16 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791W0100420002-0 ? ? WaffThiqZ PAS7X FIGURE 7 MAP NO. 3 OF KERGUELEN ISLAND SITE (PRICE) I:1 11.\.000 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 fosi Approved Forgpease 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791%00100420002-0 I had the impression that the personnel (military and civilian) were French, but since I could understand what was being said I assume personnel are American. f. Analysis of Results (Double-Blind Client Coordinates) The results obtained with the double-blind client coordi- nates have been evaluated separately by the client. (See attached supplement.) As an additional control with regard to the experimental protocol, SRI personnel have not been informed before, during, or after- ward of any details of the target series parameters, including the hit- miss profile. However, SRI personnel have been informed that in each experiment there have been at least some categories of information in which the data exceed any possible bounds of coincidental correlation, and exceed any possible bounds of acquisition by known means. It has also been reported that some of the data possibly constitute "noise" in the signal, but it has usually been difficult to negate totally any information given by the subjects. that: Therefore, we conclude from this portion of the study ? A channel exists whereby information about a remote location can be obtained in the manner described. ? As with all biological systems the information channel appears to be imperfect, containing some noise along with the signal. ? While a signal-to-noise ratio cannot as yet be determined by SRI personnel with regard to client- controlled targets, a semiquantitative signal-to- noise ratio might be determined with additional experimental effort. B. EEG Experiments One premise underlying our investigation is that paranormal func- tioning is distributed throughout the population in much the same manner as every other ability, and indeed in much the same way as intelligence 18 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791W0100420002-0 is distributed. We further conjecture that it is partially the "world view" of the times in which we live that prevents paranormal ability from surfacing to a greater extent. Our EEG program was initiated in an effort to determine whether objective physiological measures of paranormal functioning exist and to relieve the subject from the burden of having to demonstrate voli- tionally any sort of paranormal functioning. We inform our subjects that a light is to be flashed from time to time in a distant room, and if they perceive that light it may be evident from changes in their EEG output. This experiment tests the hypothesis that perception may take place and be measurable at noncognitive levels of consciousness, even though not easily expressed verbally. In our work with four female volunteer subjects, we have found evidence in three of their EEG spectra that they are influenced by the remote stimulus. Thus it appears from this exploratory work that we have a repeatable perception experiment that yields significant results even with unselected subjects. The experimental protocol for the experiment is as follows: A subject is seated in a shielded EEG monitoring room in the Life Sciences Building of SRI. A friend of the subject is seated in a remote room with the stimulus generator, in this case a strobe light. The EEG out- put is recorded from the vertexes and occiputs (regions of the brain) simultaneously from both participants. On each trial, a tone burst precedes by one second a ten-second train of flashes presented to one of the subjects designated as the "sender." The subject who does not see the flashes is designated the "receiver:" this subject also hears the warning signal. This signal evokes a contingent negative variation (CNV) in each of the subjects as they anticipate the occurrence of the flashes. Thirty-six such trials are given, each consisting of 12 null trials, i.e., 0 flashes/second, 12 6-Hz flashes, and 12 16-Hz flashes intermixed in a random order. Each of the 36 trials consists of a ten-second EEG epoch. The EEG data are recorded on magnetic tape and digitized. The 12 data blocks associated with the 0, 6, and 16 Hz trials are averaged. A spectral analysis is then performed on the average. This analysis has given two types of results. In two subjects we have evidence of actual modulation of the EEG output at the flash fre- quency. The other (more consistent) observation is that the dominant alpha production of the resting subjects is pulled to higher frequencies during the 6- and 16-Hz trials as compared with the 0 flashes/second trials. 19 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-007911V0100420002-0 Agir In summary, the "receiver" subject knows when a trial period is beginning but does not know whether the light will be flashed nor what the flash frequency will be. However, from the accumulated EEG data, we tentatively conclude that there is evidence strongly suggesting that human subjects can directly--even though noncognitively--perceive remote stimuli not presented to any known perceptual sense, and the perception event can be recorded by an objective process. Figure 8 shows the averaged EEG for a subject attempting to perceive the remote stimulus. In this case the twelve averaged trials are for the 6- and 16-Hz light. The spectrum indicates a significant (p = 0.05) in- crease in the 16-Hz component during the 16-Hz period. Figure 9(a) shows an overlay of the three averaged spectra for a different subject. Figure 9(h) shows the difference spectrum where the 0 trials data are electrically subtracted from the 6-Hz data. This difference curve shows a clear frequency shift in the dominant component of the subject's alpha (9-11 Hz) production. Of our four subjects, this subject had by far the most monochromatic EEG spectrum. Again the fre- quency shift obtained from comparing the stimulus versus nonstimulus trials was significant at the p = 0.05 level for the 6-Hz case and at the p = 0.005 level for the 16-Hz case. A second important use of the EEG technique is to allow a deter- mination to be made of what confidence level to place on what a subject reports that he is perceiving during the course of his remote viewing experience. Subjects taking part in these EEG experiments are asked to indicate their conscious feelings, on a trial-by-trial basis, as to which stimulus is being generated. They make their guess known to the experimenter via one-way telegraphic communication. An analysis of these guesses has shown a correlation between the correct calls and certain characteristic changes in EEG output. These changes vary from subject to subject but appear to be constant for any one subject. Having observed this apparent correlation in exploratory work, it is important to continue this study further to determine its constancy. In experiments with Swann, the correlation took the form of a de- crease in monochromaticity of his alpha production when his verbal re- sponses to a stimulus condition were correct. (In this experiment Swann was asked to determine whether a remote helium-neon laser was on or off.) In the course of this experiment there was thus an apparent correlation between the accuracy of his perception and his EEG production, even though his overall task performance in this particular experiment did not differ significantly from chance expectation. 20 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-007911400100420002-0 NOW to 1?5 (a) SENDER STIMULATED WITH 6-Hz FLASHES Zo e0 (13) SENDER STIMULATED WITH 16-Hz FLASHES FIGURE 8 OCCIPITAL EEG FREQUENCY SPECTRA, 0 TO 25 Hz, OF JEAN MAYO, RECEIVER 21 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved Forgpase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-007911Q100100420002-0 5 Hz 10 Hz 15 Hz 20 Hz (a) THREE CASES-0-, 6-, AND 16-Hz FLASHES (12-TRIAL AVERAGE) 5 liz ? 4 15 P7 2) Hz 10 Hz (b) DIFFERENCE SPECTRA-6-Hz MINUS 0-Hz FIGURE 9 OCCIPITAL EEG FREQUENCY SPECTRA, 0 TO 25 Hz, OF HELLA HAMMID, RECEIVER Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Zease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791%00100420002-0 In other work with Swann at the American Society for Psychical Research, Dr. Karlis Osis has reported that when Swann attempted to reproduce pictorially the contents of a hidden container, his EEG out- put would consistently shift from lower to higher frequencies. Swann was highly successful (eight out of eight) in this series of perception experiments. It therefore appears that monitoring of the EEG may prove to be a good indicator as to the measure of confidence that should be placed In a subject's report about his perception of a remote scene. C. Remote Perception of Graphic Material The objective of this group of experimental sessions was to inves- tigate the apparent paranormal perception ability of gifted subject Uri Geller under carefully controlled conditions with the goal of under- standing the physical and psychological variables underlying such ability. On each day of an eight-day experimental period, picture drawing experiments were carried out. In these experiments, Geller was separated from the target material either by an electrically isolated, shielded room or by the isolation provided by having the targets drawn on the East Coast. As a result of Geller's success in this experimental period, we consider that he has demonstrated his paranormal perceptual ability In a convincing and unambiguous manner. Saturday, 4 August--Two drawing experiments were conducted this day. In both of these, Geller was closeted in an opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded room. This room is the double-walled shielded room used for EEG research in the Life Sciences Division of SRI. It is locked by means of an inner and outer door, each of which is secured AO with a refrigerator-type locking mechanism, as shown in Figure 10. The two drawings used in this experiment were selected by randomly opening a large college dictionary and selecting the first word that could reasonably be drawn. The first word obtained in this manner was "fuse" and the object drawn was firecracker [Figure 11(a)]. All target selection and picture drawing was done with Geller already in the shielded room. Geller was notified via intercom when the target picture was drawn and taped to the wall outside his enclosure. He was continuously moni- tored by a one-way audio circuit. 23 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791W0100420002-0 Noe FIGURE 10 SHIELDED ROOM USED FOR EEG EXPERIMENTS 24 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For %Vase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-007911W100420002-0 (a) TARGET (b) RESPONSE 1 (c) RESPONSE 2 FIGURE 11 TARGET 1 (FIRECRACKER) AND GELLER'S RESPONSES 25 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 vet Approved For Wease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791W0100420002-0 Geller's almost immediate response was that he saw "a cylinder with noise coming out of it." His drawing representing his response to the target was a drum, along with a number of other cylindrical-looking objects [Figures 11(b) and 11(c)]. The second word selected was "bunch," and the target was a bunch of grapes. Geller's immediate response was that he saw "drops of water coming out of the picture." He then talked about "purple circles." Finally, he said that he was quite sure that he had the picture. His drawing was indeed a bunch of grapes. Both the target picture and Geller's rendition had 24 grapes in the bunch (Figure 12). In this work the target picture is never discussed by the experi- menters after the picture is drawn or brought near the shielded room. The intercom operates only from the inside of the room to the outside, except when the push-to-talk switch is depressed on the outside of the room. In our detailed examination of the shielded room and the protocol used in these experiments no sensory leakage has been found, nor has any defect in the protocol been brought to our attention. Sunday, 5 August--Geller is locked in the shielded room with one experimenter outside as a monitor while the target is drawn in the other experimenter's office about a half mile away. The target selected from the dictionary was an outline drawing of a man, which evolved through the drawing process into a devil with a trident [Figure 13(a)]. To start the experiment, Puthoff, who was with Geller, called Targ, who was with the drawing. Geller spent almost a half-hour working on the drawing before "passing," as he felt unable to get the drawing. We in- clude his efforts nonetheless for the insight into the process that they provide. His drawings [Figures 13(b)-13(d)] were as follows: "Moses Tablets," i.e., Ten Commandments. Apple with a worm coming out of it, a snake was in the same picture, and the Tablets symbolism of the first drawing. ? Composite picture with the Ten Commandments on top of the world and the trident on the outside, along with a neatly drawn leaf. One is led to speculate that the Biblical representation in these three drawings is perhaps associational material triggered by the target. The inability on Geller's part to draw the devil may be culturally induced. 26 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For tease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-007911W0100420002-0 27 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 RESPONSE (a) TARGET TARGET 2 (GRAPES) AND GELLER'S RESPONSE Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791%90100420002-0 28 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 RESPONSE 1 TARGET 3 (DEVIL) AND GELLER'S RESPONSES Approved For13,&ase 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791W0100420002-0 \ RESPONSE 3 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 RESPONSE 2 TARGET 3 (DEVIL) AND GELLER'S RESPONSES (Concluded) ce) cc Approved For %Rase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791%610100420002-0 With regard to the target picture, Geller did draw the trident from the target picture, but he did not draw the man who was holding it. From this it seems clear that Geller does not simply copy lines from di the target picture, but rather he apparently performs some mental pro- cessing before drawing them. The second target picture was drawn by an experimenter while he was inside the shielded room with Geller outside the room with another experimenter. In this case the target [Figure 14(a)] was a representa- tion of the solar system. His immediate verbal reaction before drawing was one of "space." Geller's drawn response to the target while outside the room [Figure 14(b)] coincides well with the target drawing. The block in the center of Geller's picture, according to his statement, was his afterthought suggested by the movie 2001 and was drawn as an addition just before comparing target with response. Monday, 6 August--The experiment to be done this day was a pure clairvoyance task. A picture was drawn by a scientist outside 'the usual experimental group. The picture was locked in the shielded room before Geller's arrival at SRI. Geller was then led by the experimenters to the shielded room, and asked to draw the picture inside the room. He drew a number of pictures, all of which he rejected as not being appli- cable. He said that he got no clear impression and passed. The target was a rabbit, and nothing Geller drew in any way resembled a rabbit. It should be added that the picture was drawn by a scientist of whom Geller is not fond, and Geller asked at the outset if this was the case. The experimenters said that this was not the case, since they did not know who had drawn the picture. Geller felt vindicated to some extent when he found out that his initial guess as to the artist had been correct. Tuesday, 7 August--This day two target pictures were attempted with Geller in the shielded room. He was connected to an EEG apparatus to allow measurement of his brain waves at the time that he was attempting to perceive a hidden picture. The two target pictures were a tree and an envelope. He experienced difficulty, did not make a drawing that corresponded to either drawing, and passed. Also, he found it very difficult to hold adequately still to make good EEG records. The same skeptical experimenter who drew the rabbit was the EEG operator on this second unsuccessful day. 30 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Vase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791RW0100420002-0 cr e i4v (a) TARGET 4 ? tiellgigig (b) RESPONSE FIGURE 14 TARGET 4 (SOLAR SYSTEM) AND GELLER'S RESPONSE 31 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 tv7 5-617 Approved For 134pase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-0079114403100420002-0 Wednesday, 8 August--Three targets were drawn during the course of this day's work. In the first, the experimenters closed the outer door of the laboratory in which the shielded room is located (in addi- tion to the inner double doors) and worked in an adjoining room. The target picture in this case was a camel. Geller felt unsure and passed, but his first choice drawing was a horse (see Figure 15). The experimenters then returned to the room outside the shielded room and drew the second picture, which was the Golden Gate Bridge [Figure 16(a)]. Geller inside the shielded room drew some curved lines with some squares underneath [Figure 16(b)]. He said that he didn't know what the picture was and passed. The third picture was a flying seagull. Geller said almost imme- diately that he saw a flying swan over a hill. He drew several birds and said that he was sure that his drawing was correct, which it was (Figure 17). Experiments were conducted in the shielded room for six days; good results were obtained on four of the days when there was no openly skeptical observer present. Thursday, 9 August--The experiments were moved to SRI's Engineering Building in order to make use of the computer facilities available. After Geller was secured in a shielded room about 150 feet down the hall and around a corner from the computer room and placed under continuous monitoring, a picture of a kite was drawn on the face of the TV screen driven by the computer's graphics program. Shortly after Geller was notified that the picture had been drawn, he had the computer room called to determine if the target picture was a geometric picture or an object. By talking to an intermediary, who was ignorant of the target picture, we told him that it was an object. Geller's first drawing in this case was a square with the diagonals drawn in. He then also drew some trian- gular airplanes and passed. His first drawing was a good representation of the actual target picture (Figure 18). Friday, 10 August--Two pictures were drawn and stored in the com- puter memory so that no visible evidence was available in the computer room after the picture was drawn. The first picture was a church. The picture was drawn and stored in the memory of the computer. Geller's responses are shown in the attached collection of drawings (Figure 19). It appears that both of: 32 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Rase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791RW$100420002-0 (a) TARGET (b) RESPONSE FIGURE 15 TARGET 5 (CAMEL) AND GELLER'S RESPONSE 33 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Re lipase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791RW00420002-0 (a) TARGET (b) RESPONSE eR FIGURE 16 TARGET 6 (GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE) AND GELLER'S RESPONSE 34 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved ForZease 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-0079114100100420002-0 RESPONSE 7 :1 TARGET 7 (SEAGULL FLYING) AND GELLER'S RESPONSE g Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Vase 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791%180100420002-0 (a) TARGET (b) RESPONSE FIGURE 18 TARGET 8 (KITE ON CRT DISPLAY) AND GELLER'S RESPONSE 36 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-0079W00100420002-0 0 0 00000 0 0 C00000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000 0 000000000000 (a) TARGET (13) RESPONSE 1 (c) RESPONSE 2 FIGURE 19 TARGET 9 (CHURCH, STORED IN MEMORY OF TEXT-EDITING COMPUTER) AND GELLER'S RESPONSES 37 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 Approved For Release 2003/04/18: CIA-RDP96-00794000100420002-0 1100 his attempts have some elements in common with the target drawing, but he had no idea that it was a church and he passed. The second target picture was stored on the face of the TV tube with the intensity turned off so that no picture was visible with the room lights turned on. Geller immediately drew an arrow under a rounded brick and then drew another arrow inside a suitcase. We consider the arrow in the suitcase similar to the target, which was an arrow through a heart (Figure 20). These latter two experiments admit to at least two hypotheses, which will require further work to differentiate: ? Perception of information stored in the computer. ? Perception of mental contents, since there were several people in the computer room, all of whom knew the nature of the target that was stored. A long-distance telepathy experiment was also done on 10 August. An East Coast scientist was called and asked to draw a simple represen- tational object for Geller to copy. [Following the experiment he indi- cated that he drew two peaked mountains with a sun in the upper right.] Geller drew two arches side by side with a circle in the upper right. Geller's picture also had a train-like object running through it. We consider this to be suggestive of communication but not conclusive. Further work along these lines is indicated. 38 Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000100420002-0 ami Approved For Release 2003/04/18 : CIA-RDP96-0079W00100420002-0 `tow (a) TARGET