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6d?fxrriReleareit03/05/15 : C1A-RDP9S-rtreTnni EVA -2 I A I IVE Final Report (1977) ADVANCED THREAT TECHNIQUE ASSESSMENT (U) By: HAROLD E, PUTHOFF RUSSELL TARG RADIO PHYSICS LABORATORY EDWIN C. MAY CONSULTANT Classification Determination Pending Protect as though Classified SECRET STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE Menlo Park, California 94025 ? U.S.A. ed For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP - 200/Fat9VE A "21 \MLNIFIAIF STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE Menlo Park, California 94025 ? U.S.A. Final Report (1977) Covering the Period 15 April 1976 to 15 April 1977 ADVANCED THREAT TECHNIQUE ASSESSMENT (U) By: HAROLD E. PUTHOFF RUSSELL TARG RADIO PHYSICS LABORATORY EDWIN C. MAY CONSULTANT SRI Project 5309 Approved by: DAVID A. JOHNSON, Director Radio Physics Laboratory RAY L. LEADABRAND, Executive Director Electronics and Radio Sciences Division Classification Determination Pending Protect as though Classified SECRET July 1977 3" Copy No. 4." of 50 copies. This document consists of 126 pages. SRI 7-4375 mm3tielkinEfm.L.P.1411100? Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/04E444.?46401110~8200270001-7 (This page is UNCLASSIFIED) CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (U) LIST OF TABLES (U) ix I OBJECTIVE (U) 1 II PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY (U) 3 III INTRODUCTION (U) 5 A. Background (U) 5 B. SRI Program Content (U) 8 IV LOCAL REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENTS (U) 11 A. General (U) 11 B. Remote-Viewing Experiments with Sponsor Participation (U) 12 C. Content Analysis of a Local Remote-Viewing Transcript (U) 18 1. Psychologist's General Assessment (U) 18 2. Sample Transcript Analysis (U) a. Comparison of Quotes from Subject with 18 Quotes from Outbound Experi- menters (U) b. Comparison of Sketches Made by the 21 Subject and by the Outbound Experi- menters During Remote Viewing (U) c. Selected Comments for a Comparison of the Time Sequence Reported at the Site 23 with That Reported by the Subject (U) . ? ? 25 D. Tracking Persons Unknown to Subject (Abstract Targeting) (U) 26 E. Alphabet Experiments (U) 27 1. Twenty-Trial Tests with Two Subjects (U) . . ? ? 29 2. Remote Viewing of Alphabet Letters (U) 29 3. Machine-Generated Targets with Feedback (U) ? ? 30 V LONG-DISTANCE REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENTS (U) 35 A. General (U) 35 iii Approved For Release 260/051155:1411WREAMF-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release aioErrerilA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 B. Menlo Park to New York City (Grant's Tomb) (U) 36 C. Menlo Park to New York City (Washington Square Fountain) (U) 37 D. Quantitative Analysis of New York City Target Transcripts (U) 41 E. New York City to Ohio (Ohio Caves); Under Sponsor Control (U) 46 F. New Orleans to Palo Alto (Northern California Bank Plaza) (U) 51 G. Menlo Park to New Orleans (Louisiana Super- dome) (U) 53 H. Content Analysis of a Long-Distance Remote- Viewing Transcript (Louisiana Superdome) (U) . ? ? ? 53 VI REMOTE VIEWING BY COORDINATES (U) 59 A. General (U) 59 B. Experiments to Calibrate Remote-Viewing Resolution Capability (U) 59 1. Sylvania Laser Laboratory, Mt. View, California (U) 60 2, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron, Berkeley, California (U) 67 C. Real-Time Targeting (Minuteman and Poseidon Missile Static Test Firings in the Western United States) (U) 73 D. Sponsor-Designated Targets in the USSR (S) 75 1. Pilot Study (U) 83 2. Soviet Site A (Ramenskoye Airfield) (S)t . . . . 83 3. Soviet Site B (S) 88 4. Ten-Site Scan (U) 89 a. Subject El Scan of Site 2 (U) 90 b. Subject Il Scan of Site 2 (U) 91 VII CONCLUSIONS (U) 97 APPENDICES A SUBJECT El SCAN OF SOVIET SITE 2 (S) 99 B -PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES POTENTIALLY APPLICABLE TO PSYCHOENERGETICS (U) 107 REFERENCES (U) 113 iv Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/6"SteffilarkgallINV 200270001-7 (This page is UNCLASSIFIED) ILLUSTRATIONS 1 Golden Pavilion Restaurant. and Drawing by Subject Il of Divided Roadway. Trees, Steps, and Buildings (U) 13 2 Hyatt House Hotel in Palo Alto, and Sketch Produced by Subject in Menlo Park (U) 15 3 Mountain View Swimming Pool Complex, and Drawings by Subjects Il and H1 in Simultaneous, Separate Experiments (U) 16 4 Stanford University Inner Quadrangle, and Sketches Produced by Subject Inexperienced at Remote Viewing -(U) 17 5 Vallombrosa Chapel in Menlo Park (U) 20 6 Subject Gl's Largest and Most Prominent Sketch Compared with Debriefing Comments by Outbound Experimenters (U) 24 7 Palo Alto Bowling Green. and Drawing by Subject H1 (U) 28 8 Grant's Tomb, Used as Target in Coast-to-Coast Remote- Viewing Experiment. 2 July 1976(U) 38 9 Computer File Printout from California-to-New York Long-Distance Remote-Viewing Experiment--Target: Grant's Tomb in New York City (U) 39 10 Washington Square in New York City, Used as Target in Coast-to-Coast Remote-Viewing Experiment, 6 July 1976 (U) 40 11 Computer File Printout from California-to-New York Long-Distance Remote-Viewing Experiment--Target: Washington Square in New York City (U) 42 12 Ohio Caves. Used as Target in Long-Distance Remote- Viewing Experiment (U) 49 13 Target Used in Remote-Viewing Experiment--New Orleans to Palo Alto, 30 October 1976, and Sketches by Subject Si (U) 52 14 Louisiana Superdome, Used as Target in Long-Distance Remote-Viewing Experiment from SRI, Menlo Park, and Drawings by Subject 01, 31 October 1976 (U) 54 TENTATIVE Approved For Release 20(44-WPWal? sq_likqrt;0 T 00200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15: CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 SECRET 15 Two Buildings at Sylvania Target Site, and Clay Models Made by Subject Il in Remote-Viewing Experiment, Menlo Park to Mountain View, California (U) 61 16 Photograph of Air-Supported Building at the Sylvania Target Site, and Subject Il's Drawing of "Aereator" (sic) Building (U) 17 Subject Il's Second Drawing of Sylvania Air-Supported Building (U) 18 Two Sylvania Buildings, and Drawings by Subject Ii (U) 19 Front-View Photograph of Manufacturing Building, with Drawing and Clay Model by Subject (U) 20 Subject Drawing of Inside of "Heat and Light Machine" and an Indication of "Transformers" on the Right 21 Photograph of Sylvania Gas-Transport Laser (U) 22 Berkeley Bevatron, and Sketch by Subject H1 (U) 23 Clay Model Made by Subject in Response to Coordinates of Berkeley Bevatron (U) 71 24 Interior of Bevatron Building, with Sketch by Subject H1 (U) 72 25 Two Views of Bevatron Building (U) 74 26 Drawing by Subject Il of Dust Cloud Raised During Rocket Engine Test (U) 76 27 Photograph of Dust Cloud at Rocket Test Site (U) 77 28 Drawing by H1, and Rocket Test Site Schematic Shown for Comparison (U) 79 29 Photo of Test Bay Showing Test Firing of Rocket Engine (U) 81 30 Remote Viewing by Geographical Coordinates of Dam Site in the USSR (S) 85 31 Remote-Viewing Overview of Dam-Site Locale, Showing Airport of Interest in the Lower Left (U) 86 32 Remote-Viewing Sketch of Detail on Runways and Structures (Soviet Airport) (S) 87 33 Remote Viewing by Second Subject Attempting to Describe Soviet Airport Target (S) 88 34 Airplane Viewed by Subject to be on Ground at Airport Site (U) 89 35 Rural Soviet Site (S) 90 62 64 65 66 67 68 70 vi Approved For Reletigigb/W91R000200270001-7 Approved For Releasej iff rrtlfiyR000200270001-7 Atf 36 Sketch Generated by Subject El (Site 2) (U) 92 37 Subject Il's Overview of Site 2 (U) 93 38 Sketches Generated by Subject Il (Site 2) (U) 94 39 Clay Model Generated by Subject Il (Site 2) (U) 95 vii Approved For Release 2C/AN1c5irAUFg-gPRO00200270001-7 Approved For ReleastiON/C/E5AIWITD91R000200270001-7 TABLES 1 Alphabet Series 2 Quantitative Analysis of the Grant's Tomb Transcript 3 Quantitative Analysis of the Washington Square Transcript ix UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003MMIRPeirlIORW1111990200270001-7 I OBJECTIVE The purpose of this program is to provide a basis for assessini- psychoenergetic processes as an advanced threat technology that could be developed by the USSR. This study is to determine the state of the art and evaluate the application feasibility. 1 mmw5meellt&lFmmil.MONO Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/01R000200270001-7 VE II PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY This report is the final technical report summarizing the work performed under SRI Project 5309, Advanced Threat Technique Assess- ment (U). The objective of this program is to provide a basis for assessing psychoenergetic processes as an advanced threat technology that could be developed by the USSR. This study is to determine the state of the art and to evaluate application feasibility. To carry out this task, SRI concentrated on the evaluation of a particular human perceptual capability, a perceptual process called remote viewing. This phenomenon pertains to the ability of certain individuals to access and describe, by means of mental processes, in- formation blocked from ordinary perception by distance or shielding, and generally accepted as secure against such access. In particular, the phenomenon we have investigated most extensively is the ability of a subject to view remote geographical locations, even at intercontinental distances, given Only geographical coordinates or a known person on whom to target. The remote-viewing abilities of several subjects have now been developed sufficiently to allow the subjects to describe--often in great detail--geographical or technical material such as natural formations, buildings, roads, interior laboratory apparatus, and the like. In a series of experiments extending up to 5000 km, we have not found any degradation in accuracy or resolution as a function of in- creasing distance. Furthermore, real-time tracking of the activity of individuals has been accomplished over these distances. Such experiments have included the successful real-time remote viewing by two subjects of a series of solid-propellant missile static test firings in the western United States. These events were designated as targets by the sponsor's technical contract monitor and kept blind to SRI program participants 3 sixAcir Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CI - DP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release gitr:+1A-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 ? ..--ATIVE until the series was completed and the data were submitted to the spon- sor for evaluation. Finally, remote viewing through the use of geographical coordinates as target designators has provided detailed descriptions of Soviet military facilities designated as targets by the sponsor. Sponsor evaluation of the data is contained in a separate report. As is generally true with human perceptual sources, the information may be imperfect, and is therefore best utilized in conjunction with other resources. Nonetheless, the data generated by this process exceeded any reasonable bounds of coincidental correlation, and therefore may constitute a valuable information source. With regard to a potential Soviet threat, it is known that workers in the Soviet Union have pursued work in the psychoenergetics field for the past forty years. We must therefore assume that they have achieved a level of proficiency similar to that reported here. 4 ?I Approved For Release : 1A-KbP96-10791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/Orgatr96-00791R000200270001-7 mummATTUP III INTRODUCTION A. Background Recent publications in both the open and classified literature provide mounting evidence for the existence of so-called "parapsychologi- cal,paraphysical, or Itpsychoenergetic!I processes. These processes include: (1) The acquisition and description, by mental means, of information blocked from ordinary perception by distance or shielding and thought to be secure against such access. (2) The prodliction of physical effects such as the perturbation of instrumentation or equipment that would appear to be well shielded against such interactions. The literature also provides evidence of the acceleration of research in both the Western and Soviet Bloc countries in an effort to precipitate a breakthrough. Attention was called to this area by the United States Intelligence Board's (USIB) Scientific and Technical Intelligence Committee (STIC) in a recent document entitled "Views on Emerging Areas "1* of Science and Technology Potentially Important to National Security. In the West, an exploratory research effort on psychoenergetic channels has been carried out in our laboratory at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). These results have been reported in two documents, one classified ,2 and one unclassified.3 This work dealt primarily with a capability that we call "remote viewing," the ability to view remote geographical locations up to several thousand kilometers. In more than 100 experiments with roughly a dozen subjects, extending over almost five years, results were obtained on the viewing of buildings, laboratory apparatus, and the like. From this work we conclude that: References are listed at the end of this report. 5 Approved For Release 2007ArtiM6117879171Eo0200270001-7 Approved For Release 20141146pUnag/91R000200270001-7 (1) (U) The phenomenon is not a sensitive function of distance over a range of several kilometers and is still operative over a range of several thousand kilometers. (2) (U) Faraday cage electrical shielding does not appear to degrade the quality or accuracy of perception. (3) (U) Most of the correct information pertains to shape, form, color, and material rather than to function or name. (4) (U) The principal difference between experienced sub- jects and inexperienced volunteers is not that the latter do not exhibit the faculty but rather that their results are simply less reliable, indicating that remote viewing may be a latent and widely distributed, though repressed, perceptual ability. (5) (S) Subjects trained over a several-year period have performed well under operational conditions. Work in this area of research in the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia is discussed in a DIA document.4 It is pointed out that beginning with early work (1930s) in the laboratory of L. Vasiliev5 (Leningrad Institute for Brain Research), Soviet efforts in the area of paranormal function- ing have concentrated on behavior modification and control (e.g., putting people into a trance at a distance through hypnosis) in con- trast to the Western orientation toward remote data acquisition. Also, apparently in keeping with Soviet ideology, the work in the USSR is strongly oriented toward the physical aspects of the channel. Indeed, some of the best theoretical work has been done by Soviet researcher I. Kogan in his investigation of the ELF (extremely lbw frequency) electromagnetic hypothesis.6-9 The authors of the DIA document conclude that the Soviet Bloc parapsychology research effort is now aimed at achieving an understanding and control of the energy involved. Garrett Airesearch, an aerospace firm in southern California, has performed a review of Soviet literature on psychoenergetic research that led to conclusions similar to those of the DIA document.1011 The body of the report treats Soviet application of statistical theories, research done on electrostatics, the development of remote sensors, hypothesized carrier mechanisms, human sensitivity to magnetic fields, and performance training to improve accuracy. Their conclusions include (U): 6 Approved For Rele91R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05St:e1RIFT96-007,9W00,0200270001-7 (1) Soviet researchers have done significant work on signal- extraction, statistical, and information-theory approaches to psychoenergetic processes. (2) Soviet researchers have done creditable work on the electrostatics of telekinesis and have probably now turned their attention to the psychophysiological aspects of the phenomenon. (3) Soviet researchers have an interest in remote physiological monitors, have developed one or two new instruments, and are probably performing R&D in this area. (4) Soviet researchers had, and probably still have, an interest in the physics of psychoenergetic transmission mechanisms and are probably doing research in this area. (5) There is a developing interest in the Soviet Bloc to apply psychophysiological training methods (similar to biofeedback) to develop control over psychoenergetic mechanisms. (6) Soviet researchers are investigating the psychophysiology of multimodal, programmed stimulation as a method to entrain physiological rhythms and produce changes in states of consciousness. (7) A systematic, interdisciplinary approach to psychoenergetic research by the USSR would require only a modest commit- ment of resources. A small number of key personnel with an adequate supporting staff of engineers and technicians could make substantial headway in this area. At this stage, in Garrett's opinion; no unique technological breakthrough is required--only careful investigation. In addition, no unique features such as physical plant facilities, services, or equipment would specifically identify a psychoenergetics laboratory from other types of R&D laboratories. (8) Finally, Garrett notes that open publication of some of the most advanced work in this area has inexplicably stopped. The implausibility of the work itself being stopped has led Garrett to conclude that the work is continuing secretly. Further support for the idea that work in this area is continuing in the USSR can be inferred from a 1974 interview with Kogan, which appeared in the newspaper Leninskoye Znamya (Lenin's Banner), an official organ of the Moscow region Communist Party.12 In that inter- view Kogan discusses a number of recent developments in the field, in- cluding his own experiments, and gives an estimate as to the number of well-developed psychics in the general population 1 in 7 Approved For Release 2003/051FSPRIcoviotigo-602002,000,7 Approved For Releas, ,sratnk-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Al? -La IVE Thus, the DIA and Garrett reports, and supporting data point to the increasing importance of the psychoenergetics area in Soviet research. The validity of this conclusion received further support when the Soviet Psychological Association recently issued an unprecedented position paper calling on the Soviet Academy of Sciences to step up efforts in this area.13 The Association recommended that the newly formed Psycho- logical Institute of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences review the area and consider the creation of a new laboratory within one of the institutes to study persons with unusual abilities. They also recommended a com- prehensive evaluation of experiments and theory by the Academy of Sciences Institute of Biophysics and Institute for the Problems of Information Transmission. It was in this climate that SRI was tasked to provide a basis for assessing the probability of an advanced psychoenergetics threat tech- nique that could be in development in the USSR. The study was to provide indicators that suggested particular advanced threat related applications, and was to include feasibility evaluation using US capabilities in a modeled or simulated threat role. B. SRI Program Content Following is an outline of the areas of investigation carried out in this program. Each item is described in detail in the remaining sections of the report. ? Section IV: Local Remote-Viewing Experiments - Local (less than 10 km distance) remote-viewing experi- ments under sponsor observation, using experienced subjects, to examine subject biases that introduce noise into the perceptual channel. - Content analysis of remote viewing transcripts to obtain a quantitative measure of accuracy. - Pilot experiments in the tracking of persons unknown to the subject. - Alphabet target experiments to investigate techniques to permit increased resolution in remote viewing. 8 Approved For Release191R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 200 ? 96-00791R000200270001-7 ATIVE ? Section V: Long-Distance Remote-Viewing Experiments - Use of the DARPA teleconferencing computer network to provide date and time records of experiments in progress. - Long distance remote-viewing experiments (New York to California; New York to Dayton; New Orleans to California). ? Section VI: Remote Viewing by Coordinates - The use of geographical coordinates to designate a remote-viewing target. - Application of coordinate procedure to the description of local (San Francisco Bay Area) high-technology targets (Sylvania Laser Laboratory, Mountain View, California; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron, Berkeley, California). - Application of coordinate procedure to real-time remote viewing of solid-propellant missile firings in the western Un4ted States. - Application of coordinate procedure to sponsor-designated targets in the USSR. ? Section VII: Conclusions 9 Approved For Release 2003/A . nAcEP-96-00791 R000200270001-7 Approved For Release Mit tAtriTirb 1R000200270001-7 rv LOCAL REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENTS A. General To demonstrate our procedures to the technical representative of the sponsor organization a series of five experiments involving local targets were carried out during the initial month of this program. The sponsor's representative either remained in the laboratory with the subject or participated in the selection of the target and proceeded there with the outbound experimenter. He therefore had an opportunity to assess the. functioningand accuracy of the remote-viewing channel on a first-hand basis. To begin the experiment, the subject was closeted with an experi- menter at SRI and instructed to wait 30 minutes before beginning a narrative description of the remote location. An outbound experimenter then either chose (by use of a Texas Instruments SR-51 random number generator) a target location from a pool of more than 100 targets within a 30-minute driving time from SRI, or, in the case of the first two of the five experiments, the sponsor representative selected sites of his own choosing. The outbound experimenters then left SRI by automobile and proceeded directly to the target without any communication with the subject or experimenter remaining behind, so that the target location selected was kept blind to subject and experimenters in the laboratory. The experimenter remaining with the subject at SRI was kept ignorant of both the particular target and the target pool so as to eliminate the possibility of cueing (overt or subliminal) and to allow him freedom in questioning the subject for clarification of his descriptions. The outbound experimenters remained at the target site for an agreed-on 15- minute observation period following the 30 minutes allotted for travel. During the observation period, the remote-viewing subject at SRI was asked to describe his impressions of the target site into a tape recorder and to make any drawings he thought appropriate. A tentative evaluation 11 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For RUNCOUNSIS FFIED6-00791R000200270001-7 was made of the subject's output when the demarcation team returned. Also, following the experiment the subject was taken to the site to provide feedback. In addition to providing a demonstration of remote viewing, an important purpose of these initial experiments was to obtain information about the resolution capability of the remote-viewing channel. To this end we worked with two of our most experienced subjects, designated here as Il and Hl. Results from these subjects can be compared with those of two less experienced subjects who also took part in the experi- ments. The results of these five experiments are summarized below, and transcripts of the subjects' narratives can be provided upon request. These were all the experiments carried out during this orientation pro- cedure; no data have been suppressed. B. Remote-Viewing Experiments with Sponsor Participation Golden Pavilion Restaurant. Subject Il's drawing of a cluster of buildings located at a sweeping ?turn-off from a divided roadway has many of the characteristics of the target, located on El Camino Real in Palo Alto, as shown in Figure 1. Dr. Puthoff and the contract monitor were at the target. Hyatt House Hotel. In this case Subject Il made a number of drawings that did not come together into a coherent representation, although some elements of his output were suggestive of the location (e.g., he made a drawing of an arched structure with a small block labeled "house" on the top of the arch). During this experiment a response was obtained from a second subject (R1) remote viewing the target from a second laboratory location. The subjects worked simul- taneously in separate rooms, and did not communicate. The sketch The key to numerical designations for subjects is available from the sponsoring agency's contract monitor. 12 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2Uti&GLASFSI'F6tE7D R000200270001-7 0.3 4-11,4,17 1. rt.i0 ? UNCLASSIFIED (444.?Sa tags FIGURE 1 GOLDEN PAVILION RESTAURANT, AND DRAWING BY SUBJECT 11 OF DIVIDED ROADWAY, TREES, STEPS, AND BUILDINGS (U) SA-5309-3 CD 0- 0 to CE4) Z 5.) r? )%0 IA *I -0 co "r1 0 M "X 0 0 ???1 0 0 0 4.1 Approved For Renet/A/?tilt-rElty-00791R000200270001-7 made by R1 is shown together with a photograph of the target in Fig- ure 2. Pool Complex. In this experiment, Subjects Il and H1 attempted to describe or draw aspects of the target (shown in Figure 3) visited by the remote team. Subject Hl's description was of a pool or pond in a shady glen, which was essentially a direct hit. Subject Il drew a little hill of grass surrounded by a plaza with squares and a curved path leading to water, again a result in close correspondence with the target area. His second drawing continues this watery theme with some added shrubs. Baylands Nature Preserve. The subject in this case was a visiting scientist, D1, who had read of our research. He described and drew a long wooden walkway, and described some extensive gardens. Both of these elements are strongly present at the target location. He also described a building he had visited on the previous day, which was not at the place visited. This sort of superposition of erroneous imagery on an other- wise accurate description is often observed and is a principal obstacle to be overcome if remote viewing is to become a useful tool. Stanford University Inner Quad. In a second experiment using D1, the subject described a courtyard and made the two drawings shown in Figure 4. Almost every element of his drawings corresponds to the actual arrangement at the location of the remote experimenters. Although the subject was inexperienced in remote viewing, this set-of responses is among the most accurate and detailed we have obtained. From experiments conducted to date it appears likely that the ability to do remote viewing is distributed throughout the population and that high-quality results can be obtained even from inexperienced subjects. As in our previously published work,2/3 we find that even in this introductory series the evidence accumulates that improved reli- ability can be obtained by having more than one subject work independently to describe target sites. The use of multiple subjects thus appears to provide an opportunity to correct for individual subject biases. 14 UNqbASIFIED Approved For Release 20 3 5/1 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 217NtingFrt-ftbR000200270001-7 - vcd.14.? SA-5309-1 FIGURE 2 HYATT HOUSE HOTEL IN PALO ALTO, AND SKETCH PRODUCED BY SUBJECT IN MENLO PARK (U) 15 Approved For Release 111141-A51$31f6LEDIR000200270001-7 Approved For ReleUNLLAS SIE4E3D30791R000200270001-7 DRAWINGS BY SUBJECT II DRAWING BY SUBJECT KI SA-5309-4 UNCLASSIFIED. FIGURE 3 MOUNTAIN VIEW SWIMMING POOL COMPLEX, AND DRAWINGS BY SUBJECTS I1 AND H1 IN SIMULTANEOUS, SEPARATE EXPERIMENTS. Both perceived a pool of water at the site. (U) 0 CD a. -11 0 CLIC!) Za)?, els r >54 Viso CD (00 M-0 cb co 0 Approved For Release 2UNTelitnliriOtITEr000200270001-7 ' (ore (.011 , 1?)." ST-uu2k (05 winiO4* ) LArr(paesi.-. UNCLASSI F I ED Pita,, 0 pACIV _ V144,--` SA-5309-2 FIGURE 4 STANFORD UNIVERSITY INNER QUADRANGLE, AND SKETCHES PRODUCED BY SUBJECT INEXPERIENCED AT REMOTE VIEWING (U) 17 Approved For Release IghloctAAVAIEJAi R000200270001-7 Approved For RetiNttA3SiffEW-00791 R000200270001-7 C. Content Analysis of a Local Remote-Viewing Transcript 1. Psychologist's General Assessment In consultation with Dr. Ralph Kiernan of Stanford University Medical Center, we have been analyzing past transcripts from remote- viewing experiments, to help us learn what parts of the transcripts are the most reliable. In Dr. Kiernan's opinion the adjectival portions constitute the primary carrier of correct information as compared with the nouns, and especially as compared with proper nouns. For example, if a subject reports that there is "a shiny, red fire hydrant," one would be safe only in assuming that there was a red cylinder at the remote site. But a search for a fire hydrant would in general be unwarranted. We see that descriptors like wide, flat, underground, and dark are all likely to be reliable. Whereas references to nuclear, secret, Mercedes or factory are less likely to be correct. Dr. Kiernan was willing to make a prediction based on our past work. He observes that since almost everyone we have tested shows ability to do remote viewing to some extent, and since it appears to be mediated primarily by the right cerebral hemisphere of the brain, it is likely that a right-brain-damaged patient would not be successful at remote viewing. We consider it important to carry out this experiment at some future date as a test of this particular hypothesis, so as to verify whether the general handling of data on the basis of right-hemi- sphere biasing assumptions is correct. 2. Sample Transcript Analysis Following the sponsor orientation series, we conducted an experiment with an SRI systems analyst and research engineer. A detailed analysis of all phases of this subject's output was carried out. This analysis included the following: (1) Comparison of the subject's largest and most prominent sketch, with the outbound experimenter's descriptive comments. 18 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release U1'fisswirry R000200270001-7 (2) Comparison of the sequence of events recorded at the site, with that reported by the subject. (3) Comparison of quotes from the subject with quotes by the outbound experimenters concerning the site. (4) Comparison of subject's drawings with drawings of outbound experimenters. (5) Underlining of relevant portions of unedited subject transcript. (6) Listing of reactions of the subject to being taken to the target site. (7) Phrases used by the subject during the experiment as compared with the phrases used by the outbound experimenters to describe the same objects. (8) Notes made by the outbound experimenters while at the site. (9)- Subject's guesses and analytical comments in the time seqUence in which they were made. The experiment analyzed in greatest detail was that of July 14, 1976. The site was the Vallombrosa Chapel in Menlo Park, California. The team who selected the target pool for this experiment wrote of this target: "Vallombrosa chapel had all the features for which we were looking. It had an unusual spire which dominates the building. It is a church retreat for women, a function entirely different from the other 5 sites in our target pool. It had a calm, quiet, peaceful atmosphere, and an integrated feeling that we believed would make it a good target for a subject and for judging." The photographs taken at the time of target selection are presented in Figure 5, showing the church building and its prominent yellow glass tower. The outbound team performed a number of qualitative analyses of the Vallombrosa transcript, of which three are included here. They are (1) the comparison of quotes from subject and outbound experimenters, (2) the comparison of drawings and descriptions, and (3) the time-sequence of selected comments from all participants. 19 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For ReletiNVEAS SIMED00791R000200270001-7 LA-5309-3 UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 5 VALLOMBROSA CHAPEL IN MENLO PARK (U) 20 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 UNCLASSIFIED a. Comparison of Quotes from Subject with Quotes from Outbound Experimenters The following consists of quotes from the subject's tape recorded comments during the experiment compared with the taped de- briefing comments made by the outbound experimenters at the site. -(Each outbounder made a separate tape out of hearing range of the other.) The purpose of this analysis is to detect possible similarities. G1: Obi (Observer 1) looking up to the blue sky. [Later] It was like a steeple, something that was painted..." 0b2: Tall steeple on the chapel that reached out to the blue sky. G1: She's (Obi) looking down.... I'm seeing the ground...she's - squatting down looking at something, or kneeling down. 0b2 is also kneeling, looking at something. 0b2: The lawn felt cool. I felt it with my hand. Gl: Like it's a. ..something swirled a snail, almost, like something swirled with straight tenacles extending from it. Obi: We saw two sprinklers going in the first part of the experiment, one twirling around...the other was spraying out a cone-shaped spray of water. G1: I don't think it's something she could touch...but it's something that she could look into. 0b2: Put my hand in the water sprinkler.... Felt like rain on my arm. Gl: Objects whirling around, something whirling around, ,,lots of it. But it's not like a noise...all these things standing upright that are circular in shape.... But there's movement. Something about them that's natural...hazy, swirling thing.... But I get the feeling it's man-made.... They seem to be placed. That's the man-made aspect of it.... They seem to be placed in certain spots, but they're natural.... It's almost like a semi-circle.... But yet they (Obi_ and 0b2) could turn around and walk out of this thing, or out of this area. 21 Approved For ReleaselitNIGUAISIFJEED91R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15 ?sciptiiip6-00791R000200270001-7 Gl: I get the feeling it's...outdoors, but they're protected in some way from's just a shade. 0b2: The trees were large...trees--giant trees everywhere. Obi: Many trees around...a very large deciduous tree. Gl: There's a grassy knoll on a hillside.... But that's quite a ways away.... I can't guess the distance.... This hill is off...fuzzy moved. It didn't stay still.... If you took a photograph, it would be fuzzy. If you took a photo- graph sometime later, it would be gone and moved. 0b2: We walked...0b1 and I, over to the pond...she caught several pollywogs...saw them wiggle...two...dragon flies, flying together back and forth. Obi: Then we walked over, a brief short a rather large lilly pad (pond) that was essentially oval in shape. There are three major clumps of lilly pads on it...noticed dragon flies flying.... I concentrated on the ripples on the water.... I picked up three pollywogs...watched them squirm. Gl: Something roundish. 0b2: I put my hands in the water, I swished them back and forth... water lilly leaves were round and very circular.... The pond is oval in shape. ..looking down on the surface of the water...I noticed that there were little circles ever widening outward caused by the movement of the fish.... Circles, circles, circles going outward. Obi: I threw a mud clod...watched the circles go out.... As I threw a few more pebbles in the water, I noticed the circles they made and how they went out. Gl: There's something on a pole that's associated with this thing, this place. Maybe it identifies it...not your average pole.... There was something at the top. Obi: Cylinder...with jagged top and above that is a metal cross. Photographs of the pond show that it is on a raised area, built up above the surrounding ground level. 22 Approved For RAM ctsA55 VALEP6-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 UNCLASSIFIED Gl: It looks like that pole was metal, like an extruded pipe. It has lines that are marked...has an aluminum finish. Obi: Put my arms around one of the cement pillars and hugged it...had been wrapped with some kind of thing in which the concrete was poured into it...round cement light concrete pillars. * b. Comparison of Sketches Made by the Subject and by the Outbound Experimenters During Remote Viewing The brief sketches made by the outbound experimenters at the target site to capture the essence of what they were seeing are simple and rather primitive in nature, much like those made by the sub- ject who was perceiving the scene remotely. Thus, although subject sketches may seem simple and incomplete, those who were physically there at the site unintentionally sketched in a similar manner, sketching to capture the gestalt of the place with little thought for the drawing itself. A comparison shows that both sets of drawings are characterized by simplicity and directness. The sketches below were made by the out- bound experimenters at the site during the experiment and are to be compared with the subject's sketch shown in Figure 6. Perhaps drawings by subjects could be compared more often in future experiments, with those made at the site by the outbound experimenters. When the subject and outbound experimenters are "into" the experience of perceiving a site, similarities may show up in sketches 23 Approved For ReleassUAGLASSIFIEED91R000200270001-7 OB1 Approved For ReUNet/9k9S1IFIZEFD-00791R000200270001-7 "THE MAIN INTENSE FEATURE THAT ONE SEES IS A CYLINDER THAT'S CONICAL TYPE STRUCTURE." DESCRIPTIVE WORDS USED TO DESCRIBE THIS STRUCTURE "CYLINDER" "CONICAL" "CYLINDER" "CIRCULAR CONE" "CONICAL STRUCTURE" OB2 "THERE WERE TWO REALLY STRIKING FEATURES. THERE WAS THE TALL STEEPLE ... AND THE CHAPEL BENEATH." DESCRIPTIVE WORDS USED TO DESCRIBE THE STEEPLE "TALL STEEPLE" "CYLINDER" "CYLINDER SHAPES" "CIRCULAR SHAPES" "CYLINDRICAL TOWER" NOTE: The descriptive words appear in the order in which they were recorded by each outbound experimenter. The overall impression of the steeple is yellow, and yellow-white glass [ed.]. UNCLASSIFIED LA-5309-4 FIGURE 6 SUBJECT Gl's LARGEST AND MOST PROMINENT SKETCH COMPARED WITH DEBRIEFING COMMENTS BY OUTBOUND EXPERIMENTERS (U) 24 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2110.13/415151.1&?Figi0g761R000200270001-7 that would give another means of comparison (in addition to verbal reports and later photographic records). c. Selected Comments for a Comparison of the Time Sequence Reported at the Site with That Reported by the Subject As mentioned above, the protocol called for outbound experimenters to make notes during the experiment and to use them to debrief into a tape recorder just after the experiment. This resulted in a record of the sequence in which events at the site took place, and allows that sequence to be compared with the comments put on tape by the subject during the experiment. This comparison is given in the following: ? Subject The following is the time sequence taken from the tape recordings made by Subject G1 during the experiment and during the post- experiment debriefing: G1 : "...looking up to the blue sky. Looks like she (Obi) was looking up at something that caught her eye." "Looking down... I'm seeing the ground.. .she's squatting down looking at something, or kneeling down." "Like its a something swirled with.. .almost like some- thing swirled with straight tenacles extending from it...swirling thing..." "I get the feeling it's outdoors, but they're protected in someway from's just a shade." "A hillside.... This hill is off... "Fuzzy things.. .it moved, it didn't stay still. If you took a photograph sometime later, it would be gone and moved. There's some movement." "Something roundish, like they were moving like that." "Not your average looks like that pole was metal, like an extruded pipe. It has lines that are marked..." ? Outbound Experimenters The following is the actual time sequence at the site taken from tape recordings made during the post-experiment debriefing period by 0b2 and Obi_ Obi: "The first thing we did was to walk across...lawn... stand by the chapel tower, look at in it... the tall steeple on the chapel that reached out to the blue sky." 25 Approved For Release IJONg1kA15-5JFEJ-E0141R000200270001-7 Approved For ITN era% friRgB6-00791R000200270001-7 The lawn felt cool.... I felt it with my hand." "Put my hand in the water sprinkler that was on the lawn...felt very much like rain on my arm." "Giant trees everywhere." "Approximately halfway through our time period, we walked...over to a pond. I saw two beautiful.. .dragon flies, flying together back and forth across the lilly pond. The pond is oval in shape." "I noticed that there were little circles ever widening outward caused by the movement of the fish. Circles, circles, circles going outward." "We went back by the chapel, Obi went over and hugged one of the giant columns that holds the roof up. Looked like cement." Obi: "The main intense feature that one sees is a cylinder that's conical type structure above the church." "We saw two sprinklers going in the first part of the experiment, one twirling around, the other was spraying out a cone shaped spray." "We walked over to a..rather large lilly pad (pond) that was essentially oval in shape. 0b2 noticed two red dragon flies flying over...and I saw..." "I threw a mud clod into the water, watched the circles go out...more pebbles in the water, I noticed the circles that they made and how they went out. 0b2 was doing the same thing." "...the last minute...back to the church...put my arms around one of the cement pillars and hugged it.. .had been wrapped with some kind of thing in Which the concrete was poured..." "About 11 minutes into the experiment, I was noticing... many trees around...." These selected quotes indicate that the subject's time sequence was very similar to that occurring at the site. This type of time-sequence comparison has possibilities for studying psi functioning. D. Tracking Persons Unknown to Subject (Abstract Targeting) As part of the local remote viewing experiments (distances less than 10 km), we performed two experiments using a new technique that we refer to as abstract targeting. Instead of sending a person, known to 26 Approved ForWelAC 10A/5551 FdltDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2t) R000200270001-7 the subject, to the remote site to be viewed via the remote viewing channel, we provided the subject only with the driver's license of a person unknown to the subject. Admittedly, such an experiment seems without basis in logic (at least with regard to the present scientific paradigm). However, it has some basis in the anecdotal literature of spontaneous psychoenergetic functioning when, for example, a kidnap victim is found on the basis of the victim's belongings being used to assist targeting. With regard to research in psychoenergetics in general, the possibility of success in such an experiment also is in accord with the observed goal-oriented nature of the "laws" that appear to govern such functioning. In the :two experiments carried out under this abstract targeting protocol, excellefit results were obtained, comparable to those obtained under the standard protocol in which a person known to the subject is used as a target. In the first experiment, the subject correctly de- scribed the outbound experimenter as sitting quietly in an enclosed shell-like structure, and the results of the second experiment are shown in Figure 7. Thus, the two-experiment pilot effort in this form of abstract targeting, carried out under controlled laboratory conditions, tends to substantiate the results observed in field investigations associated with forensic work. Rather than follow through with more experimentation in this vein, the emphasis with regard to abstract targeting work was shifted to geographical coordinates, a potentially more useful targeting procedure, described later in Section VI. E. Alphabet Experiments When targets are chosen from a limited pool that is known to the subject, he will tend to guess at the target, rather than use his The possibility that such goal orientation may find support in modern physical theory has been argued by information-theorist 0. Costa de Beauregard of the Poincare Institute in France.14 27 Approved For Release 2tinc&A?FOLIAP R000200270001-7 Approved For Releasedaea?tRIIDIA6E-00791R000200270001-7 PALO ALTO BOWLING GREEN UNCLASSI Fl ED LA -654D83-33 FIGURE 7 PALO ALTO BOWLING GREEN, AND DRAWING BY SUBJECT H1. Subject's task was to locate unknown target person, given only his driver's license. Subject correctly described fenced-in area with road leading to ornamental iron gate, building at right, and depressed area at left (however, it is covered with grass, not water; ed). A railroad-tie barrier, not shown in photograph, is located where subject has indicated a wooden wall. (U) 28 Approved For RelleisUG104.15SCIFFIED-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 UNCLASSIFIED remote-viewing capability. Thus it is well known in psychoenergetics research that "guessing a number from one to ten" is a more difficult task than, for example, describing a remote scene chosen from an infinitude of possible locations. This latter task, termed a free- response task, prevents the subject from attempting to match his pre? conception of possible targets, with his actual, though perhaps vague, perception. The problem in the forced-choice matching experiments, as opposed to the free-response task, is that the subject's stored mental images are available to him from his memory, and constitute an important source of "noise" in the remote-viewing channel. 1. Twenty-Trial Tests with Two Subjects In an eff,ort to determine whether the forced-choice noise problem could be overcome with experienced subjects, we carried out a series of twenty "letter guessing" experiments as the first part of a pilot study. Subjects H1 and Il were located in their respective homes in Los Angeles and New York City, while the targets were posted daily, one per day, in a laboratory at SRI in Menlo Park, California. Both subjects submitted their. lists of twenty letters. The results were not found to depart from chance expectation. 2. Remote Viewing of Alphabet Letters A second pilot study alphabet experiment was then carried out with an inexperienced subject, Si, who had been especially chosen for this task because the subject reported frequently "reading things" during dreams, a relatively infrequent occurrence that we hypothesized may be an indicator of a natural talent for remote viewing. In these experiments the subject was told to consider alphabet reading to be the same as remote viewing; that is, rather than try to guess what the letter was, Subject Si was asked to ignore the fact that the target was a letter and to describe it as though it was a more general remote-viewing target. Si was asked to make a drawing and to describe it in a non-analytic fashion. Someone else would then look at 29 Approved For ReleasMg14.51S-IfFIE-0791R000200270001-7 Approved For Reftire0E3ASS:irtElty6-00791R000200270001-7 the drawings and description and make the final assessment as to what the target letter was. Si was specifically instructed not to guess the letter. The experiments were carried out between nonadjacent labs at SRI to provide sufficient sensory isolation between subject and target to eliminate spurious information channels. The target letters were determined by use of a Texas Instruments SR-51 random number generator. In the first experiment the subject submitted a number of drawings, including what looked like a series of J's, forward and back- ward, with heavy markings at the bottom. The subject's final words on the associated tape recording made during the session were that " could be a 'U' but I don't think so." Nonetheless, experimenter Puthoff, who was given the subject-generated data on a blind basis, correctly identified the target letter as a "U" on the basis of all the data taken together. The following day a second experiment was done. Subject Si described a letter "with an acute though there is a trench... like a whole stack of V's." The subject drew a pile of overlapping V's. Again, on a blind basis, experimenter Puthoff correctly identified the target letter as a V. In a series of three experiments with subject H1, one of three target letters was similarly identified. Thus, in this pilot experiment utilizing a free-response as opposed to a forced-choice protocol, three letters out of a total of five trials were identified. The- probability of such an occurrence by chance is less than one in 1500 (p = 5.37 X 10-4)? This suggests that the way to increase the analytical capability to include written material is to arrange to separate the perception from the analysis, to encourage the subject to describe only his or her perceptions, and to follow up by having a different person do the final analysis on a blind basis. 3. Machine-Generated Targets with Feedback Based on the results of the two-part pilot study, a third type of alphabet experiment was pursued utilizing a totally automated 30 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release tiNt 1:AtIgrriffil R000200270001-7 experimental setup. The subject was asked to approach the task as a remote-viewing experiment with emphasis on form and shape, with analysis to play a role only when finally a letter choice had to be made. Each of the 26 letters of the alphabet was made into a 35-mm slide so that when back-illuminated by a white light it becomes a target consisting of a black letter against a white background. These slides are used in conjunction with a random-number-generator-triggered light panel that can hold four slides, of which one at a time is backlit in a random fashion. This panel is located in a laboratory remote from the subject. An identical panel with pushbuttons for subject choice is mounted in the subject room. On the subject panel the correct target slide is not lit until the subject makes his choice, at which time he is given feedback. (The random-number generator machine has four-stable internal states, corresponding to each of the four letters. A 1.0-MHz square-wave oscillator sends pulses to an electronic "scale-of-four" counter that passes through each of its four states 250,000 times per second. The state of the counter is determined by the length of time the oscillator has run--that is, the time between subject choices.) As soon as the subject indicates his choice, the target slide on his panel is illuminated to provide visual and Auditory (bell if correct) feedback as to the correctness or incorrectness of his choice. Until that time, both subject (and experimenter in the subject location) remain ignorant of the machine's choice, so the experiment is of the double-blind type. Five encouraging phrases at the top of the machine face are illuminated one at a time with increasing correct choices (6, 8, 10, ...) to provide additional reinforcement. After trial number 25, the machine must be reset manually by depressing a RESET button. A methodological feature of the machine is that the choice of a target is not forced. That is, a subject may press a PASS button when he wishes not to guess, in which case the machine indicates what its choice was. The machine thus scores neither a hit nor a trial and then goes on to make its next selection. Thus, the subject does not have to guess at targets when he feels that he has no idea as to which to choose. 31 Approved For Release VONS1k 1?-kiltiER1R000200270001-7 Approved- For Rt 1I E136-00791R000200270001-7 In a study to determine whether this approach was likely to be useful, a series of four four-letter experiments were carried out with Subject Il. The results, shown in Table 1, provide evidence for alphabet reading at a statistically significant level. The overall probability of obtaining the number of correct guesses by chance exhibited in this series is less than one in 105 (i.e., p < 10-5).* Therefore, this technique could be pursued more extensively as a training routine for alphabet reading. Table 1 ALPHABET SERIES (p = 1/4 Random Selection) Experiment Target Letters Number of Trials, n Number of Hits, H, as Compared with Expect- ad Number, P, Statistic, t Probability, P 1 2 3 4 ABIO CDGQ EHLT KWYZ 200 100 100 100 64 (u = 50) 44 (p = 25) 31 (p = 25) 28 (p = 25) 2.20 4.27 1.27 0.58 0.014 1.07 x 10-5 0.102 0.28 Total 500 167 (p = 125) 4.29 < 10-5 Under the null hypothesis of random binomial choices with probability 1/4 and no learning, the probability of observing k successes in n trials is obtained by table lookup of the probability of a normal dis- tribution value t (k _ n 1 4 /(3n/16)1/2 It is therefore possible to examine a run of alphabet trials and determine whether the letters are correctly identified significantly more often than expected by chance. 32 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 UNCLASSIFIED The observation that alphabet reading is a more difficult task than site description is compatible with the hypothesis that psycho- energetic functioning may involve specialization that is characteristic of the brain's right hemisphere, which predominates in spatial and other holistic processing, in contrast to the left hemisphere which predominates in verbal and other analytical functioning.15-17 Nonetheless the results obtained in the remote-viewing and machine approaches to reading remote alphabet characters do indicate a potential for developing acceptable levels of reliability in reading text for operational purposes. Further study is required to determine whether this reliability can be achieved with a reasonable effort. 33 Approved For Release 11144LASSAELED FM00200270001-7 Approved For Release 2Cititi:MyriOg761R000200270001-7 V LONG-DISTANCE REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENTS A. General Previous SRI work had established a data base of over 50 remote- viewing experiments with local targets (sites within a few kilometers).23 As part of the program described herein we undertook a series of five experiments designed to determine whether an increase in subject-target separation to transcontinental distances would degrade the quality or accuracy of perception. A major motivation for this effort was the desire to begin to accumulate data to examine the Soviet hypothesis that remote viewing is mediated by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromag- netic waves. Under this hypothesis, one would expect a degradation in accuracy as the subject-target distance is increased to several thousand kilometers; it is claimed that the Soviet data indicate this degradation.6-9 As a secondary goal, we were interested in the real-time data rate-- e.g., determining the extent to which a remote-viewing subject can track the real-time activities and movements of a known individual in a distant city. Therefore, the subjects were encouraged to describe real-time activity during the viewing period. The methodology with regard to target selection was identical to that described in Section IV-B. That is, targets were determined either by random-number generator entry into a previously prepared target list unknown to subject and experimenters with the subject, or on the basis of site selection by a sponsor representative. An interesting additional technique that was employed successfully in the first two of the five experiments was the use of the DARPA com- puter teleconferencing network for post-experiment feedback. Access to the computer by the traveling experimenter was by means of a portable terminal. The use of the teleconferencing service allows a subject in one state (e.g., California) to communicate with an experimenter in 35 Approved For ReleaseY0N/gWA5MEOP91R000200270001-7 ApprovetlForR(flUMTASSITTET-00791R000200270001-7 another state?say, New York. The conversational TALK mode available on the DARPA net was used for this purpose in the following manner. The subject at SRI and the experimenter on the east coast agreed (via computer teleconferencing) to begin an experiment in one-half hour. The purpose of the computer in this experiment was to provide time- and date-stamped permanent records of all communications between the various parties involved in the experiment. These data can be read in real time by any authorized person entering the SRI-AI Tenex (MSG) system--for example, the sponsor's technical representative. After logging off the computer, the outbound experimenter would use a random-number generator to determine which of six locations in the target area would constitute the target to be visited in this experiment. Neither the subject nor the experimenter at SRI knew the contents of the target list, compiled after logging off. Having selected a target location by the random protocol, the outbound experimenter would proceed directly to the site and remain there for 15 minutes. At the previously agreed-upon start time (one-half hour after breaking computer links) the subject would begin to type impressions into a special computer file established for this purpose. When the outbound experimenter returned from the target site to his hotel, he would make use of a limited-access file to enter his descrip- tion of the place he actually visited. He would then: return to the executive level of the computer, and await the appearance of the SRI experimenters and subject who could then (and only then) link the New York and Menlo Park terminals. At that time both files would be printed out on both terminals (and at a third location if desired--for example, at the sponsor facility), and the subject and the outbound experimenter would each learn what the other had written. B. _Menlo Park to New York City (Grant's Tomb) Two subjects, Si and Gl, both in California, participated simul- taneously in this experiment at Grant's Tomb, which was the first of two New York City targets. Both subjects independently provided 36 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2153R/einglyntbRO00200270001-7 computer-stored records of their impressions, and one made the sketch shown in Figure 8. (The five possible targets in addition to Grant's Tomb were a railroad bridge, the 20-story New York University law library, the fountain in Washington Square Park, the Columbia University subway station, and the 72nd Street boat basin. The targets were chosen to be dissimilar, and thus differentiable, by potential judges.) Subject G1, an SRI systems analyst, said in his opening paragraph: "Outdoors, large open area, standing on and then off asphalt (rough material), dark for a path. A white building, like a ticket booth. Wooden structure, is white in color, and has an arched look about it. There is a large shade tree close to Russ (outbound experimenter)." Subject Si, closeted in a separate SRI location, began with: "I thought of a high place with a view." The subject continued with "I saw a tree on your left in a brick plaza--it seemed to be in front of a building you were entering." Later, "I could not clearly identify the activity. A restaurant? A museum? A bookstore?" And, "You were looking at coins in the palm of your hand, maybe giving some to Nicky (son of outbound experimenter)." (For the complete transcript, see Figure 9.) The coins were in fact used to purchase the postcard from which Figure 8 was made, and they were given to the experimenter's son who made the purchase. Both subjects then went on for an additional para- graph to describe details of the activities they imagined to be going on inside the building they saw, details that were partly correct, partly incorrect. C. Menlo Park to New York City (Washington Square Fountain) In the second experiment, the target, again chosen by random pro- tocol, was the fountain in Washington Square Park. One subject, Si, participated. The subject produced an exceptionally accurate transcript. The photos and the subject's drawing of the fountain are shown in Fig- ure 10. The subject began his printout with the following: "The first image I got at about the first minute was of a cement depression--as if 37 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 Approved For ReleUMerin5AS StFIPCP791R000200270001-7 GRANT'S TOMB TARGET SUBJECT DESCRIBED: "OUTDOORS, LARGE OPEN AREA.... SHADE TREES.... WHITE BUILDING WITH ARCHES." SA-5309-7 UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 8 GRANT's TOMB, USED AS TARGET IN COAST-TO-COAST REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENT, 2 JULY 1976. Subject described: "Outdoors, large open area ... shade trees ... white building with arches." (U) 38 Approved For RelekjenOcIA:?11UP9P00791R000200270001-7 Approved For Release 2003/05/15 : CIA-RDP96-00791R000200270001-7 UNCLASSIFIED MSG -- VERSION OF 1 APRIL 1976 TYPE 1 FOR HELP, ? # FOR NEWS LAST READ: 2?JUL-76 12:09:34; 7 MSGS, 2 DISK PAGES. 4? TYPE 6:7 (MSG. # 6, 1678 CHARS) DATE: 2 JUL,1976 1126?PDT FROM: TARU SUBJECT: S1'S.REPORT TO: TARG RUSSEL ? I THOUGHT OF A HIGH PLACE WITH A VIEW ? DETAILS INCLUDED 3 MI **VIEWING I SAW A TREE ON YOUR LEFT IN A BRICK 'PLAZA ? IT SEEMED TO BE IN FRONT OF A WRONG BUTTON BUILIDING YOU WERE ENTERING ? YOU WAITED AS IF FOR AN ELEVATOR AND READ SOMETHING ON THE WALL YOU CAME OUT (OFF THE ELEVATOR) AND THERE WAS A ROOM ON YOUR LEFT WITH A VIEW ? I COULD NOT CLEARLY IDENTIFY THE ACTIVITY ? A RESTAURANT ? A MUSEUM? ABOOKSTORE? YOU LOOKED AT ASOMETHING A"CARVING OR MENU OR DIRECTIONS ON A POST BEFORE ENTERING ? FROM THE ROOM I THOUGHT THERE WAS A VIEW OF A HARBOR OR WATER ABOUT 1/3 OF THE FRANME ? AT ONE TIME I HAD THE FEELING THAT YOU WERE LOOKING AT COINS IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND ? MAYBE GIVING SOME TO NICKY ? WHICH WERE THEN PUT IN A SLUT ? JUKEBOX? PINBALL?? ALSO THE SUFACE WITH SOMETHING VERTICAL ABOVE SOMETHING REFLECTING METAL PIPEX OF AN ORGAN (THE ONE I DIDN'T VIEW LAT TIME ) OR OF ROTTLRES AGAINST A MIRROR ? SOMETHING REFLECTING ? THEN DAVID SNAPPED HIS FINGERS ? I SAW A BASKETBALL' .VERY CLEAR TACTILE SENSATION FRON A SOMEWHAT TEXTURED GLOBE ? ALSO, ON ANOTHER SNAP ? THE COLOR RED NOT SHARPLY DEFINED LIQUID OR FLOWING MATERIAL OR NICKY RACING AROUND IN A RED SHOIRT ANOTHER SNAP AND D ASKED FOR THE NAME OF THE PLAVCE ? I.WAS THINKING "BAR" BUT I THREW THAT OUT AS OLD AND 'SAW THE LETTERS "CH" WHICH I COMPLETED AS "CHILE" OR "CHILI" -- ALSO ANOTHER SNAP AND THE NAME OF THE THIRRD PERSON ? JOE JOHN OR GERRY ? IS IT GARY? ? ARUSSELL I S THAT YOU?HI, THAT WAS Si , AND WE **THE "MSG" STILL, I THINK THAT IT MAY ABORT! LA-5309-5 UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 9 COMPUTER FILE PRINTOUT FROM CALIFORNIA?TO?NEW YORK LONG? DISTANCE REMOTE?VIEWING EXPERIMENT ? TARGET: GRANT's TOMB IN NEW YORK CITY (U) 39 Approved For Release JaNC LAI/SFSDIF6IEDI R000200270001-7 er's $+4tAL.- UNCLASSIFIED COAST TO COAST REMOTE VIEWING EXPERIMENT WITH TARGET AT WASHINGTON SQUARE IN NEW YORK CITY. SUBJECT'S FIRST PERCEPTION WAS OF A "CEMENT DEPRESSION - AS IF A DRY FOUNTAIN - WITH A CEMENT POST IN THE CENTER OR INSIDE". SA-5309-6R FIGURE 10 WASHINGTON SQUARE IN NEW YORK CITY, USED AS TARGET IN COAST-TO-COAST REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENT, 6 JULY 1976 (U) Approved For Release atinea-RD_P96-00791R000200270001-7 SSIFIED a dry fountain with a cement post in the center or inside. There seemed to be pigeons off to the right, flying around the surface out of the depression.... At one point I thought you were opening a cellophane bag...." (The experimenter had in fact bought ice cream during the experimental period.) "There was also a rectangular wooden framer-a window frame, but I wasn't sure if it was on a building, or a similar structure with a different purpose. (A possible correlation from a functional viewpoint to the Washington Square Arch through which the outbound experimenters viewed the fountain toward the end of the experi- mental period.) "All in all I thought you were in Riverside Park...." (Incorrect analysis.) An SRI scientist, familiar with the New York City area but blind to the target, did, however, identify the target correctly on reading the twenty lines of printout as it emerged from the computer terminal. As an example of the style of narrative generated by a subject during a computer teleconferencing experiment, we include the entire unedited computer-logged text of the Washington Square experiment in Figure 11. These experiments provide an elqgant demonstration of the utility of the teleconferencing process as a secure data recording system to provide real-time monitoring of long-distance remote-viewing experiments. In a more detailed tape recording made after the experiment, but before any feedback, the subject described "cement steps going into the depression, like a stadium, and the rounded edge of the top of the depression as you go up to ground level." These descriptions are not only correct, but also show remarkable detail. D. Quantitative Analysis of New York City Target Transcripts In attempting to derive a quantitative estimate of the amount of valid data in a transcript, we have made a detailed analysis of the previous two transcripts generated by a single subject during the long- distance experiments between Menlo Park, California, and New York City. 41 Approved For Release 17M5cPA?F5)11f6IgiA R000200270001-7 Approved For Rel1jsNet0A155114E'000791R000200270001-7