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Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R00010007Qp04t87-07-406-100 The Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation on Biological Systems: Current Status in the Former Soviet Union Compiled by: Edwin C. May, Ph.D., Laura V Faith a Science Applications International Corporation An Employee-Owned Company 26 February 1993 Contract MDA908-91-C-0037 (Client Private) Submitted by: Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory Agmihomiesomet4ettierAoRMW IAOt'lioo70001-9 Current Status In the Former Soviet Union OBJECTIVE The objective of this volume is to present pertinent papers (experimental and theoretical), which dem- onstrate the biological effects of non-ionizing, non-thermal, electromagnetic radiation (E&M). 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 aB3Fe~IsFad~HOii atfA9fflMWt 00a 0070001-9 Current Status in the Former Soviet Union ABSTRACTS In this section, we present a series of theoretical and experimental papers on the effects of E&M radi- ation on living systems with varying levels of complexity (i.e., bacteria to humans). Many of the papers are technical and are presented for scientific study. For the non-technical reader, we provide brief sum- maries. Please see the Glossary on page 5 for a definition of terms. 1. Introductory Review Article 1. Yu. A. Kholodov, Basic Problems of Electromagnetic Biology, The Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Academy of Sciences of Russia. ? Review of over 6,000 Russian and international papers. ? Clear demonstration of an E&M interaction with a wide variety of animal and human biological systems. ? The response of the central nervous system (i.e., brain) to E&M stimulation is emphasized. ? The degree of response depends upon a variety of radiation parameters such as the frequency, pulse shape, and duration. 2. Example of the Effects on Humans (mm Waves) Although there are many papers on this topic, this paper is representative. 1. Nataliya N. Levedeva, The Effects of EMF on Biological Systems, The Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Academy of Sciences of Russia. This paper provides evidence for the effects of mm waves on human subjects. The results of the experimental investigations include: ? Millimeter waves affect the central and peripheral nervous system. ? The majority of subjects were cognitively aware of the exposure. 3. Theoretical Investigations (mm Waves) These papers propose a variety of theoretical mechanisms for the experimental results. The conclusion we quote are derived from all these reports. 1. M. B. Golant, Resonance Effect of Coherent Electromagnetic Radiations in the Millimeter Range of Waves on Living Organisms, the Research Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow. 2. M. B. Golant, Problems of the Resonance Action of Coherent Electromagnetic Radiations of the Millimeter Wave Range on Living Organisms, the Research Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow. ,r 2 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 200010811911 f4l, abop"MAMW070001-9 The Effects of Electromagnetic Current Status in the Former Soviet Union and Some of 3. N. D. Devyatkov and M. B. Golant, Informational Nature the henResearch Institute the Radio Effects of Electromagnetic Waves on a Lev g Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow. M. B. Golant and P. V. Poruchi kov, Role of Coherent Waves in Pattern Recognition and the use of 4. Engineering and Electronics of the Intracellular Information, the Research Institute of Radio Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow. Synchronization in the Impact of Weak M. B. Golant, and A. S. 'Pager, Role of 5. N. D. Devyatkov, g Organisms, the Research Institute Electromagnetic Signals of the Millimeter Wave Range on Livin Org of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Inte ences of nsity Mil i t BaMoscow nd Radiation, the 6. O. V. Betskii and A. V. Putvinskii, BiologicalAction ofLow Research Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow. M. B. Golant and T. B. Rebrova, Similarities Between Living Organism and Certain Microwave 7. and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences Devices, the Research Institute of Radio Engineering of Russia, Moscow. 8. Yu. P. Chukova, Dissipative Functions of the P Processes Kiev. of Electromagnetic Radiation with Biological Objects, the Research Group ? Sharp resonances are predicted in the high frequency spectra and have been observed exper- imentally. ? High frequency radiation may act as a catalyst fort is spendu anon. llular communication, and few controversial experiments appear com oscillations a Meta-stable biological systems, which are formed eIt is dif (cult to assess the experiment maybe triggered into action by high frequency tal attempts to verify this theoretical hypothesis. ? High frequency radiation may affect the ndam esis is informaunconfirmed nal erpe sss a in living systems (i.e., changes of entropy). Currently, this yp 4. Experimental Studies These papers describe a variety of experiments in both high and low frequency regions of the E&M p spectrum. 4.1 Millimeter Waves V. S. Shcheglov, and V.N. Lystov, Resonance Effects of Microwaves on 1. I. Ya. Belyaev, Ye. D.Alipov, Institute, Moscow, the Genome Conformational State of E. Coli Cells, Moscow Engineering Physics and the Research Group "Otklik," Kiev. ? One micro-watt of power within the narrow frequency range (i.e., 51.62 < v 51.84 GHz) was Coli bacteria. This important result confirms the resonance sufficient to induce changes in E. theories described above. 2. N. D. Kolbun and V. E. Lobarev, Bioinformation Interactions: EHF-Waves, T. G. Shevchenko State University, Kiev. nWlcm2)' ? Humans appear capable of directly "sensing" 10 billionths of a watt per cm2 i e 10 ? Fifty micro-watts is sufficient to affect Proteus bacteria. 4.2 Radlosound (Modulation In the kHz of N1 Ghz Carrier) o " receiver and directly sense the au i di " o that humans may act like a ra It is claimed in these studies, E&M carrier. The author is R. E. Tigra- principle -.. ini'ormation which is imP9sed on the h4 h frequency ,.~ 3 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 . FOI,iagolpa"atoM R ffik 9Wg8 b?1 oUW0070001-9 Current Status in the Former Soviet Union nyan of the Institute of Biological Physics, the Academy of Sciences, Russia, Pushchino. We provide a number of papers and abstracts supporting this claim. 4.3 Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) ELF Electromagnetic 1. N. A. Ihmurjants, V. G. Didyakin, V. B. Makejev, and B. M. Vladimirsky, Fields as a New Ecological Parameter, Simferopol State University, Ukraine, and Crimean Astrophysics Observatory, Ukraine. ? Micro- and macro-behavior of a variety of animals (e.g., rats, pigeons, rabbits) appear to be af- fected by resonances in the ELF spectrum. The power levels are approximately 0.2 nT. The effects include cellular and behavioral changes. ? The authors believe that ELF interactions should be considered as a potential environmental factor. 4 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved Fq~-EReel lfa8 ~2 The Effects o c~atWdiOVID 0070001-9 Current Status in the Former Soviet Union GLOSSARY ? Fly ectromaene!ic Radiation_(E&Ml_-Waves of electric and magnetic fields that may propagate through space or matter. ? Fxtr i el+~ v Low Freauencv (ELFl-E&M radiation oscillating at less than 300 Hz. ? v jt& -Units of frequency of oscillation. ? +lli=rr ter Waves _ m Waves).-E&M radiation between 30 to 300 GHz (1 to 1Q mm wavelength). ? Non-inni .ine-A type of E&M radiation with insufficient energy to strip electrons from atoms. ? Non-thermal--E&M radiation with insufficient energy to cause appreciable temperature increases in tissue. ? esonance--A particular frequency region where the physical/biological system is especially sensi- tive to external stimulation. r+ 5 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 L L L L L L L L L L L Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Introductory Review Article Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Electromagnetic Fields and Biomembranes Edited by Marko Markov Sofia University Sofia, Bulgaria and Martin Blank Columbia University New York, New York Plenum Press ? New York and London Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Yu.A. Kholodov Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophy- siology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR USSR, Moskow Recent interest in the problems of the biological influence of electromagnetic fields /EMF/ is often connected with the be- ginning of the Space Era in the early 1960's. The leading coun- tries in space research - the USSR and the USA - are publishing the predominant part of the papers concerning to be a chapter of biophysics studying the influence of external natural and artificial EMF on different biological systems. In this paper the emphasis will be on Soviet research which represents more than 60 per cent of magnetobiological studies. The ecological trend was strongly developed in the first stages of the development of electromagnetic biology, which were connected with the problems of the possible orientation of migrating animals towards a geomagnetic field /GMF/ /Pressman, 1968; Dubrov, 1974/; with the correlation between the oscilla- tions of the GMF value and different important biological pro- cesses /Opalinskaja at al., 1984; Siddjakin at al., 1985;Wasilik, 1986/; with the influence of magnetic anomalies on the biolo- gical systems /Travkin, 1971/; with the possible role of EMF generated by biosystems /Brown et al., 1984; Kasnatcheev at al., 1985/. As can be seen, such investigations are still carried out today, including not only correlations, but also experimantal approaches, as well as the biological sigificance of the hypomag- natic environment /Kapanev and Shakula, 1985/. The problems of diagnosis and therapy using EMF have been developing since the's seventies and the number of papers in this particular area is permanently increasing /Bogoltjubov, 1978, Demetzkii and Alekseev, 1982; Kholodov, 1982/.has to be stressed. The predominance of the empirical phenomenological approaches, but the theoretical studies on the problem of electromagneto- therapy are being developed. With a view to the activation of these studies the Committee on Magnetobiology and Magnetotherapy in Medicine the Ministry of Public Health was organized in the USSR in 1983. Hygienic standards for different EMF were developed because significant changes in the natural electromagnetic background have been observed recently both on Earth and in Space. EMF become a global factor which changes the conditions of life for the biosphere in general and in this way influences the biosys- tems with any level of organization - from membrane to biosphere. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Terms as "electromagnetic pollutuion" and "electromagnetic star- vation" have already been introduced in the literature and some authors /Akoev, 1983/ speculated about the existence of areas of electromagnetic comfort for particular biosystems. The problems of public hygiene become of great importance. It is known that the Soviet and US standards for the radiofre- quency ran2e differ about a thousand times. Tte limit in the USA is 10 W/cm . Limitations for constant magnetic fields /CMF/ exist only in the USSR - the permissible level is 10 mT. The hygienic problems of electromagnetic biology are developed in the book "Hygiene of Labour under the Influence of Electromag- netic Fields" published by Meditzina, Moscow, 1983. The theo- retical problems of electromagnetic biology and more specifical- ly the problems of electromagnetic neurobiology will be discussed The analysis of the literature /more than 6000 papers/ de- monstrates the ability of many living organisms to respond to the changes in natural and artificial /increased or decreased/ EMF. It is considered that every particular biosystem responds to the influence of this global factor. It has been established that every system of the organism of mammals /above all the nervous vascular and endocrine sys- tems/ can respond to EMF. The data concerning the reactions of different systems of the organism are presented in Table 1. It is seen that every system of the organism responds to applied EMF. EMF as non-ionizing radiation affects every particular living cell, but the most sensitive cell components are esti- mated to be the membrane, mitochondria and cell nuclei. The ideas of I.M.Sechenov, N.E.Vvedenskii, I.P.Pavlov are still valid in theoretical biology and in practical medicine. This tendency is very well expressed in the formation of the Table 1. Responses of different systems to electromagnetic field stimulation Nervous Endocrine Sensory organisms Blood - vessels Blood Muscles Digestive Respiratory Secretory Skin Bone Organism level isolated total local system electromagnetic biology which investigates the responses of different biosystems to natural and artificial EMF, as well as the biological significance of EMF generated by biosystems. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 The practical problems of electromagnetic neurobiology are inevitably connected with the theoretical investigations of the physiological mechanisms of the EMF influence on the nervous sytem. Such studies were carried out at Moscow University and were continued later at the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. It has been established that EMF /from constant electric and magnetic fields to superhigh frequency field/ possess a number of biotropic parameters, such as intensity, vector,gra- dient, electric or magnetic component, frequency, pulse shape, localization and exposure. The biological efficiency of EMF increases upon variation of the biotropic parameters d',ring stimulation /Kholodov and Shishlo, 1979; Plehanov, 1979; Gandhi, 1980/. With a view to their participation in the total influence of EMF, the physiological systems can be ordered in the follow- ing way: nervous, endocrine, sensory organs, blood - vessels, blood, digestive, muscles, secretory, respiratory, skin, bones. The fact that at local EMF influence responses of all systems have been observed suggests the obligatory participation of the regulatoty sytems of the organism /nervous and endocrine/. How- ever, the existence of reactions when EMF was applied on iso- lated systems may be considered as evidence of the direct in- fluence of EMF on any tissue of the organism. Because of the penetration action of EMF one can speculate about a new form of the organism's reaction, which may be named general reorganization reaction. Thus, the general simultaneous character of the electromagnetic treatment will be underlined. This reaction is not yet completely developed and characterized in detail, but some of its pecularities maybe discussed. When man is exposed to electromagnetic influence, the reaction often occurs at subcellular level with switching on the slow reaction starting system. The total reorganization reaction of the organism differs from the usual reaction which occurs at the beginning through the sensory organs, by the involvement in the reaction of seve- ral physiological systems. This reaction to such a weak stimu- lus /as EMF is considered to be/has to provoke adaptational changes in the organism, appearing minutes or hours after the beginning of the influence. We studied the conditioned reflex, the sensory reaction and electroencephalogram. We did not ob- serve summation of the effects if 1-3 min magnetic field in- fluence was repeated after 10-20 min. It is quite probable that the initial reaction is in this time interval. At exposure longer than 20 min, a summation of the effects /evaluated by the conditioned reflex method/ was observed. This event was observed when EMF was applied daily. Generally speaking, the reaction of the organism is manifested by long after-effects. The influence of a 30-min exposure lasts one week, while if MF was applied for 6 hours, the result is observable for nearly one month. The reaction may be termed as adaptational. While the initial reaction mainly includes the nervous system and sensory organs, the adaptational reaction also involves other systems of the organism, mainly the endocrine system. The therapeutic application of EMF should be discussed. /Bogoljubov et al., 1978/. it has been proved-that MF with different inductions and a large frequency range can provoke adaptational reactions in the organism which lead to increase of the resistivity to different infections, to temperature in- fluences, to ionizing radiation, etc. These reactions are considered to take place mainly at Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 the organism level, while at system or cellular level they are not so well demonstrated. Garkavi et al./1979/ enlarge Selye's stress theory with additional stages of general response of the organism to a sti- mulus with increasing intensity. They consider that the triad consisting of the reactions of training, activation and stress may appear several times during increased intensity or prolonged duration of the stimulation and is realized at different "stages".. The electric resistance of the skin the white blood picture and the character of the autoflora are the principal informatio- nal indices for a given stage of the reaction. These demonstra- tions of the reaction are accompanied by considerablechanges in neurohormonal regulation, including immunological processes. The reaction of training is supported by a weak stimulus, the reaction of activation - by a stimulus with medium amplitude, the stress reaction - by an intensive stimulus. The stable reao- tion of activation is typical of the healthy organism. When the duration of EMF increases, the adaptation reactions may turn into pathologival processes connected with destructive changes in the cells. The estimation of this physical factor is a problem of social hygiene. The morphological changes ob- served in tissues and organs after EMF influence are non-speci- fic and reversible. Further two forms of the initial reaction of the nervous sytem to the applied magnetic fields and microwaves /when the duration of the influence is less than 1 min/ will be dicussed. Some parameters of slow and quick reaction are presented in Table 2 on the basis of literature data and our own results. From the initial reaction of the organism we studied in greater detail the sensory reaction of man, as well as the conditioned reflex and the electroencephalographic reaction of rabbit. Changes of the motor activity and correction of the reac- tion of the organism to the EMF influence simultaneously with other stimili /light, sound, electirc current, etc./ occured several minutes after the beginning of the EMF influence. These reactions will not be considered now. There was no summation of the effects when 1 min action of EMF was applied again after 5-10 min. Probably, the start- ing electroencephalographic reaction of the rabbit occurred in this time interval. The registration of sensory indication of EMF involved switching off the generator during simple motor response of the patient. The duration of the influence decreased and consequently the intervals between EMF applications dropped to 1 min. In this way we succeeded in estimating the duration of the reaction. The reactions to EMF have longer /about 20 s/ latent period compared with the initial human sensory reactions to typical stimuli /light, sound/ which are two orders of magni- tude longer. Probably for this reason some authors have not established any effect. The variations of the biotropic para- meters of EMF /induction, frequency, pulse shape, localization/, even if they change the duration of the latent period, do not provoke a quantitative jump. In all cases a peculiar slow sys- tem of the initial reaction /with duration of about 10 s/ is functioning. The detailed characteristic of the slow system of the starting reaction should include not only the basic reaction observable during EMF action, but also the reaction of stop- ping which appears about 15 s after switching off the field /this reaction lasts for about 10 s/. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Other systems of slow adaptational reaction are manifested in the reaction of the organism to EMF when the exposure time increases. Moreover, the slow system of the initial reaction is not directly connected with the pecularities of the studied stimulus. For instance, alternating magnetic fields can provoke the involvement of the system of quick reaction, when EMF is addressed to the eye. The so-called magnetophosphen is observed, i.e. a sensation for lightning under the action of alternating MF with amplitude higher than a definite limit of induction to the human head. On an analogy with this term /connected with the quick sytem of initial reaction/ the sensory reaction connected with the slow system of initial reaction may be named "magneto- touch". It is relevant to remark that for microwaves there also exist slow /demonstrated in our experiments/ and quick systems of the initial sensory reaction. The modality of the slow initial system of the sensor reac- tion at action of alternating magnetic fields or microwaves is similar and this may be considered as an indication for the nonspecificity of the reaction. The same EMF provoke electro- encephalographic synchronization reaction in rabbits, which cha- racterizes the slow system of the initial reaction, while short EMF stimulation or usual stimuli provoke quick electroencephalo- garphic reaction of desynchronization. Thus, the existence of slow and quick systems of initial reaction was demonstrated by analysis of the reaction of the nervous system to the factors of electromagnetic origin. It can be assumed that the slow system can be observed under the action of non-electromagnetic stimuli. It is possible to develop electrodefensive conditioned reflex in rabbits, but it will be less stable compared with the reflexes to normal stimuli /light, sound/. The latent pe- riod of the conditioned reflex to sound is often equal to 1 s, to the MF - 12 s. The changes of the electrical activity of the brain upon EMF stimulation also differ from the electroencepha- lographic reactions to normal stimuli or to the influence of impulse EMF. Normally on the electroencephalogram is observed a quick desynchronization reaction appearing after several milliseconds: lowering of the amplitude and increase of the frequency of biopotentials, while at EMF stimulation the syn- chronization reaction appears several seconds after the begin- ning of the stimulation, accompanied by an increase of the amplitude and decrease of the frequency of the biopotentials. The experiments with isolated parts of the animal brain show that EMF can influence the brain not only by reflex path- ways, but also directly, as EMF penetrate through the skull. When preparations of isolated parts of cortex are studied, the reaction to applied EMF was better pronounced than in intact brain. Therefore, to the traditional reflex pathway of the action of any stimuli should be added the direct influence of EMF on the structures of the central nervous regulation /this distin- guishes the reaction of the whole organism to EMF from the reactions to traditional stimuli. In short, the slow system of initial reaction functions adequately at organism and system level. This concerns the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the reaction, as well as their identity in different experimental objects. One can assume that neurons are secondarily involved in the system of slow reactions to EMF action and a significant role in these reactions belongs to other structures of the nervous tissue, neuroglia and blood - vessels. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 44 0 P w f- 41 0 U?.1 ro i1 N U 0114 w 0 U N 41 'O 0 0 a) rA .F1 04 N a a, N 00 N 00 0 .-I O' N N 00 N 1 0 C r-I tr to 0 0 ?r1 0 ?r1 C 4-1 0 1-1 0 (0 ,4 14??4 N 41 N 11 wrt?aro 0 N 0 N 0 ?.I 0 -'-1 14CN0 .C 0 C 0 U N U fa C .0 C .C U ?.1 U 01 0 N C 0toAEA 14 m U .,A ?r1 0 r-) C O' N O' w 0 b+ C U > ?. ?r1 +1 '0 0 004 fa ra N > 0 U N w a1 1tl -4 -H w w -I U (-I C4 0 w 14 A +Ua 0 -r4 0 0 r1 0 H O' In U' N y Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 The histological investigations on animal brain exposed to EMF action prove the primary hypoxy reaction of the neuroglia /Alexandrovskaja et al., 1966; Nachilnitzkaja at al., 1978/, as well as its participation in the physiological response of the brain to MF, which is another manifestation of the diffe- rence of EMF stimulation from the action of other stimuli. An important role in the processes of training and memory is attributed to the neuroglia. It was demonstrated that the repeated influence of EMF mainly distrurbs both processes: training and memory. Once formed, it is difficult to change the conditioned reflex under EMF influence. It is considered that EMF influence on glia and blood - vessels can be explained by their influence on the hematoecephalic barrier. In this way one can explain also the non-specific electro- encephalographic reaction of synchronization, which appears at influence of different EMF on the animal head. The intensity of switching on the slow system of initial reaction of different parts of rabbit brain decreases as follows: hypothalamus, sen- somotor cortex, visual cortex, specific nuclei of the thalamus, non-specific nuclei of the thalamus, hypocampus, reticular formation of the midbrain. Generally speaking, EMF provoke two types of reactions of the different structures of the nervous system. Some reactions are distingished by the existence of a slow system of initial reaction, reaction of switching, long after-effect, as well as participation of all structural elements of the nevrous system in reactions which are specific for EMF. The second type of reactions is connected with excitation of the specific re- ceptors and is explained by the indication of electromotive force under alternating field influence, being similar to the reaction under the influence of traditional stimuli. One can discuss several primary mechanism and one should mention not only electromagnetic induction under influence of alternating MF or when the object is moving in CMF, but also the significance of ferromagnetic particles as magnetite in the biological objects; the chemical polarization of nuclei and electrons, etc. The biological effects do not always increase with the increase of the MF intensity. More correct seems to be the discussion of the existence of an amplitude-frequency window in which the biological effects are better pronounced. The problem emerges of the functional importance of an artificial magnetic field, which does not differ very much from the natural ones.The validity of this hypothesis is very well demonstrated by several species of electric fishes which use their own EMF for orientation and communication. It can be considered that in addition to the synaptic connection between different parts of the brain, electromag- netic bonding exists as well. The effects of EMF increase upon varying one or more of the biotropic parameters, which should be taken into account when hygienic standards and physio- therapeutic devices are developed. The final biological effect of EMF depends also on such pecularities of the object itself as age /the reactions of children and old people are stronger/, sex /men are more sensi- tive than women/, initial physiological conditions /the working organ has a stronger reaction/, as well as individual capabi- lities. It is quite probable that some of these peculiarities are connected with the function of biological membranes. The listed factors indicate the necessity of biological analysis of the observed physiological reactions of the organism to EMF influence. The methods of membranology may help in studing the magnetobiological effects. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 L L L L L L L L L Example of the Effects on Humans (mm Waves) Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Reactions of the Central Nervous System to peripheral Effects of Low-Intensity EHF Emission Natalia N. Levedeva (Translation from Russian) Abstract The study of reactions of the human central nervous system (CNS) to peripheral effects of EHF emis- sion, created by therapeutic apparatus Yav-I (7.1 mm wavelength) revealed restructuring of the space- time organization of biopotentials of the brain cortex of a healthy individual which indicate develop- ment of a non-specific activation reaction in the cortex. The study of sensory indication of EHF field with these parameters showed that it is can be reliably detected at the sensory level by 80% of the sub- jects. Introduction In the process of study of reactions of living systems with a different level of organization to millimeter waves, non-thermal (informational) effects were discovered.1-3 The distance from the place affected by the emission to the location of appearance of the biological reaction may be hundreds and thousands times larger than the distance at which the emission decreases one order of magnitude. This fact dem- onstrates participation of the nervous system in perception of millimeter-range emission by living or- ganisms. There is a wide-spread opinion that biological effects of EMF are realized in humans at a subsensory level. However, in the recent years there is interest to their sensory detection in the form of radiosound, magnetophosphenes, or skin sensations.49 Changes in EEG to EMF effects were most often observed in the form of an increase in the slow waves and spindle-shape oscillations in reptiles, pigeons, rats, rabbits, monkeys, and humans.10-12 We have not found studies devoted specifically to the effects of millimeter waves on the central nervous system in the available literature; thus, the current study has been undertaken. This study employed electrophysiological and psychophysiological methods for the evaluation of the state of the central ner- vous system while affected by EMF. Methodology Twenty healthy subjects aged 17 to 40 years participated in the experiments. Apparatus Yav-I with the wave length of 7.1 mm was used as the EMF source. A flexible waveguide with the power of 5 mW/cm2 at its end was directed at He-Gu [4 Gi] acupuncture point in the right or left hand of the subject. Two experimental series have been conducted. In the first one (10 subjects, 10 tests with each subject, 20 instances of field action in each test), sensory detection of the field was studied. The length of the EMF signal or control trial without the signal was 1 minute. Tb evaluate the subject's EMF sensitivity, the indicator of response strength (RS) was used, i.e., the ratio between the number of correctly identified -r Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 trials and the total number of EMF signals. Another indicator used was the level of false alarms (FA), i.e., the ratio between the number of false positives to the total number of control trials. The signifi- cance of the difference between RS and FA was evaluated by using the Mann-Whitney test. The analy- sis of latent time T included total histograms of true responses and false alarms. In the second series (10 subjects, 11 tests with each, including placebo tests) the exposure to the field was 60 minutes. EEG recordingwas conducted before and after the EMF influence byusing EEG-16S (Hungary), with 4 paired leads, located according to 10-20% system (in the frontal F-F, central C-C, parietal P-P and oc- cipital 0-0 areas). As the reference electrode, a joint ear electrode was used. Together with EEG recording on paper, the data were fed for on-line processing into an IBM-PC Am- strad computer using spectrum coherent analysis by means of rapid Fourier transformations with plot- ting power spectra and computing mean coherence levels. Selected for the study were frequencies from 2 to 30 Hz in major physiological ranges of the EEG spectrum. Results and Discussion In the first experimental series, the subjects showed a division into two unequal subgroups according to their RS and FA indicators. The first subgroup (8 individuals) could detect at a statistically significant level: the differences between RS and FA were significant according to Mann-Whitney test, the means for RS and FA being 64.3?10.5% and 20.6?11.2%, respectively. The second subgroup (2 individuals) could not reliably distinguish between EMF effects and control trials, the means for RS and FA being 59.0?14.25% and 43.53?16.5%, respectively. From the eight individuals who could detect the EMF well, two could reliably distinguish it from control trials with both hands, one could do this only with the left hand and the others only with the right hand. An analysis of distribution of Tlat of true responses and false alarms showed single mode distribution in both instances. The mean of latent time for eight subjects was 46.1?5.8 sec. The prevalent sensations were pressure (46.7%), tingling (36.3%), itching (8.9%), warmth-coolness (5.3%), and other sensations (2.8%). All the sensations were experienced either in the palm of the hand or in the fingers, each subject having his own set of sensations. An analysis of the data obtained experimentally justifies the assumption that humans are capable to perceive sensorially the EMF in the millimeter range, similarly to their capacity of perceiving the ELF fields,4-6 which is in accordance with the results obtained elsewhere.9 Interaction of any physical factor with biological systems of complex organization begins on their sur- face, and the skin is the first receptor. Unlike other analyzers, the skin does not have absolutely specific receptors. This was confirmed in experiments conducted by A. N. Leontiev and his associates,13 who conducted similar studies with non-thermal emission in the visible range of spectrum and found that their subjects were capable of reliably distinguishing the emission effects from control trials. The modes of perception were similar to those observed in our tests. Thus, our results as well as data of other au- thors indicate the importance of the skin analyzer in EMF perception. Study of the modes of perception which occur in the process of EHF field reception makes it possible to assume that EMF stimuli are perceived either by mechanical receptors (sensations of touch or pres- A" Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 2 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 sure), or by pain receptors, i.e., nociceptors (tingling and burning sensations). From mechanical recep- tors, only Ruffini's and Merkel's endings and tactile disks may be involved in the process, according to the depth of their location in the epidermis, their adaptation speed and their capacity to spontaneous activity. The assumption that nociceptors may be responsible for the reception of EMF signal is based on the following: their polyspecificity in relation to stimuli; the kind of sensations (e.g., tingling and burning), which are considered precursors of pain; experiments which showed complete disappearance of EMF sensitivity in individuals whose skin at the place of influence was treated by ethyl chloride that turns off pain receptors; facts from medical practice that the EHF influence on the respective derma- tome causes sensory response in the afflicted organ of the body which maybe the result of convergence of nociceptive afferents from the dermatomes and the internal organs on the same neurons of pain pathways. With this, skin hypersensitivity occurs because visceral impulses increase the excitability of inter-stitual neurons and facilitation takes place. The latent time of EMF responses (to both ELF range and millimeter range EMF) is unusually large. While the reaction time of visual and auditory sensory systems is from dozens to hundreds of millisec- onds, the perception of EMF takes dozens of seconds. This is in a good agreement with theoretical calculations by I. V Rodshtat14 who made an assumption that a single time cycle of microwave sensory reception, including detection of sensory sensation, is within 40 to 60 seconds. This is explained by a complex structure of the reflex arc which includes both nervous and humoral links. 14 An analysis of inter-central EEG ratios is one of the approaches to the study of regulation mechanisms of functional states of the human brain. As known from the literature,15 the indicator of coherence level (COHm) is the most significant of EEG correlates which characterizes the peculiarities of the human brain functioning. Major changes of the cortical EEG with regard to both inter-central and intra-hemispheric connections in placebo tests can be characterized either by a decrease in COHm, especially in the range of delta and theta, or by maintaining the background level. A power spectrum analysis shows a decrease in the brain waves magnitude, especially in the alpha range (Fig. 1). Thus, as a result of placebo (control) tests, a kind of "expectancy reaction" with specific space-time or- ganization of the cortex biopotentials takes place. A different EEG pattern is observed after the individual is exposed to EMF. There is a significant pow- er increase in the alpha range, especially in occipital and parietal areas in both hemispheres; in other parts of the spectrum the power remains close to the background level (arrows 2 and 3 in Fig. 1). Unlike in placebo tests, an increase in the mean of the coherence level COHm takes place practically in all the subjects resulting from exposure to EHF. It mainly occurs in the frontal and central areas of the cortex and is mostly expressed in slow wave spectrum range (delta and theta). A similar pattern of brain waves is characteristic of the state of an increased brain tone (i.e., it occurs in non-specific activation reac- tion).16 This kind of response is characteristic because it is known that frontal areas of the cortex are sensitive to various external factors. These zones have broad bilateral connections with other cortical and subcortical structures which determine the involvement of frontal areas in many functional re- sponse systems. am Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 3 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Conclusions (1) Peripheral effects of EHF (7.1 mm wave length, 5 mW/cm2) with a 60 minute exposure causes re- structuring of the cortical brain waves in a healthy individual; this points to the developments of a non-specific activation reaction (i.e., to an increase in the tone of the cortex). (2) The study of sensory detection of EMF in EHF range showed that the field with the above parame- ters is detected at a statistically significant level by 80% of the subjects. References 1. Devytakov, N.D., Betsky, O.V., Gelvich, E.A., et al. Radiobiologiya, 1981, Vol. 21, 2, pp. 163-171. 2. Devyatkov, N.D., Golant, M.B., & Tager, A.C. Biofizika, 1983, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 895-896 [English translation: Role of synchronization in the impact of weak electromagnetic sygnals in the millimeter wave range on living organisms. Biophysics, 28 (5), 952-954]. 3. Sevastiyanova, L.A., Potapov, S.A., Adamenko, VG., & Vilenskaya, R.L. Nauchnyye Doklady Vysshey Shkoly, 1969, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 215-220. 4. Lebedeva, N.N., Vekhov, A.V, & Bazhenova, S.I. In: Problemy elektromagnitnoy neirofiziologii [Problems of Electromagnetic Neurophysiology]. Moscow: Nauka, 1988, pp. 85-93. 5. Lebedeva, N.N., & Kholodov, Yu.A. Materials of the 15th Congress of I.P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society. 6. Kholodov, Yu.A. In: Materials of the 7th All-Union Conference on Neurophysiology. Kaunas, 1976, p. 395. 7. Andreyev, Ye.A., Bely, M.I., & Sitko, S.P. Vestnik AN SSSR, 1985, No. 4, pp. 24-32. 8. Lovsund, P., Oberg, PA., & Nilsson, S.F.G. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 1980, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 758-764. 9. Kholodov, Yu.A., & Thmnov, A.A. Materials of the 5th All-Union Seminar "Study of the Mechanisms of Non-Thermal Effects of EMF on Biological Systems." Moscow, 1983, p. 8. 10. Anderson, L.Ye. XXIII General Assembly of URSI, Prague, 1990, p. 12. 11. Semm, P. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1983, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 683-690. 12. Kholodov, Yu.A. Reaktsii nervnoy sistemy na elektromagnitnyye polya [Reactions of the Nervous System to Electromagnetic Fields]. Moscow: Nauka, 1975, 208 pp. 13. Leontiyev, A.N. Problemy razvitiya psikhiki [Problems of the Development of the Psyche]. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 1981, 582 pp. 14. Rodshtat, I.V. Preprint No. 20 (438). Moscow: Institute for Radio Engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1985, 4, pp. 24-32. 15. Livanov, M.N. Prostranstvenno-vremennaya organizatsiya potentsialov i sistemnaya deyatelnost golovnogo mozga [Spatial and Thmporal Organization of Biopotentials and Systemic Activity of the Brain]. Moscow: Nauka, 1989, 398 pp. 16. Sviderskaya, N.Ye. Sinkhronnaya elektricheskaya aktivnost mozga i psikhicheskiye protsessy [Synchroneous Electrical Activity of the Brain and Mental Processes]. Moscow: Nauka,1987,154 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 4 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Fig. 1. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 L L L L L L L L L L L Theoretical Investigations (mm Waves) Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Biophysics Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1086-1098, 1989 0006-3509/89 $10.00+.ot Printed in Poland ? 1991 Percamon Preu pk BIOPHYSICS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS RESONANCE EFFECT OF COHERENT ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS IN THE MILLIMETRE RANGE OF WAVES ON LIVING ORGANISMS* (Received 10 June 1987) The results of Soviet and foreign theoretical studies furthering understanding of the mechan- ism of the acute resonance action of extremely high-frequency coherent electromagnetic ra- diations of low power on live organisms and the significance of these radiations for the func- tioning of the latter are analysed. REFERENCE [1) presents a systematic review of experimental work promoting under- standing of the mechanism of the acute resonance effect of extremely high frequenc% (e.h.f.)t low power irradiations on living organisms. The results of these studies shoal. in particular, that the cells of live organisms generate coherent acousto-electric vibra- tions of the e.h.f. range used in the body as control signals of its functioning. As fol- lows from experimental research, the influence of the external e.h.f. radiations on the body is apparently connected with the fact that at certain resonance frequencies the signals coming from without imitate the control signals generated to maintain homeo- stasis by the body itself. External radiations may make good the inadequacy of the func- tioning of the control system of the body in conditions when the formation by it of signals of these frequencies in arrested or becomes less efficient for one or other reason. Acquaintance with, the data outlined in reference (I] greatly simplifies the review of theoretical work allowing one not to deal with the investigations in which the initial premise is the assumption of the impossibility of generation by live organisms of cohe' rent vibrations.* It also becomes possible to reduce to the limit the exposition of the essence of the first theoretical studies seeking to prove the possibility, in principle, of the mechanism of generation of coherent e.h.f. vibrations in living organisms but not tying the mechanisms considered to the features of their functional use: in such a complex system as the living body one may imagine a number of different mechanisms of genera- * Biofizika 34: No. 6, 1004-1014, 1989. Soviet t The frequency range corresponding to the millimetre range of wavelengths according to standard GOST 24375-80 is called the extremely high frequency range. = See reference (21 to acquaint oneself with the conclusions of such theories and the resultini insurmountable difficulties of squaring their conclusions with the results of experiments. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1087 tion [3] but one may select those actually existing only starting from their correspondence to the functional role. Since the present review is concerned with the biophysical aspects of the problem there remains outside its scope a wide range of biocybernetic studies (see, for example, reference [4]) although devoted to the control systems of living organisms but consid- ering them in a very generalized form difficult to tie to analysis of the specific mechanisms of control. At the same time, a review of theoretical work necessary for the formation of theor- etical notions is required not only for the completeness of the picture: absence of theoret- ical notions , does not allow one to stage correctly experimental investigations leading to conclusions significant in practice. For example, one widespread error is the use for experiments to elucidate the influence of e.h.f. radiations of organisms with a character unchanged as compared with normal of the ongoing functioning (the ongoing functioning of which, as is known, is not influenced by e.h.f. radiations [5]) and also evaluation of the results of the action of e.h.f. radiation disregarding the parameters characterising the adaptibility of the organism to particular conditions of existence (6]. Link between the efficiency of the control system and the frequency range of the con- trolling signals. Living organisms are exceptionally complex and accordingly require a very developed system of control. Even if one does not consider such ultracomplex systems as the mammalian organism or the human body (the latter includes 1014-101' cells) but confines onself to a single cell, its reactions are extremely varied and this variety indirectly characterizes the complexity of the system controlling them. Thus, the author of reference [7, (Russian translation)] writes: "...that to. give a full description of all types of form and movement of eukaryote cells one book would not suffice". The field of effective use of a particular control system is largely determined by the frequency range of the control signal. This problem was analysed in reference [8] and partially matching ideas are contained in reference [9]. Where the question concerns the control of processes in a single isolated cell the possibility of "writing" in its volume must exist, i.e. in the volume the mean size of which _ 10-16 m3, any information neces- sary for the formation of signals exercizing adequate control of the processes helping to maintain homeostasis in any conditions of the vital activity encountered, i.e. "the writing" of information must be extremely economical. The number of different signals which may be excited in a particular resonance system is primarily determined by its electrical length. Consequently, to ensure the necessary diversity of the control signals the lengths of the excited waves must be very short as compared with its geometric length. Naturally, the possible degree of the contraction of wavelength by increasing the frequency of the vibrations f is limited by the fact that beyond a certain limit the energy of the quantum hf is sufficient for the effective destruction of biological bonds, i.e. is actually limited by the ultraviolet frequency range. But the wavelength in the system A is determined not only by the frequency but also by the velocity of propagation v: d = v/f. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 (1) Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1088 M. B. GOLANT If the magnitude v corresponds to the velocity of propagation of acoustic waves (hun- dreds of m/sec) then at frequencies equal to cr exceeding 10 GHz the d values become less than 10-8 m which ensures the possibility of accomodation in the cell volume (the mean linear size of which - 10- S m) of resonance systems of large electric length. The velocity in hundreds of mJsec is peculiar not only to purely acoustic waves but also to acousto-electric waves which will be considered below. Further substantial (by 1-2 or- ders of magnitude) contraction of the wavelength would lead to its commensurability with the size of the atoms a consequence of which would inevitably be the thermal in- stability of any informational structures the size of the informationally significant ele- ments of which would be of the order of one wavelength. The contraction of A to the same values for smaller f through further fall in v would lead to mechanical instability of the wave-guide structures (cell membranes [1]) as a result of decrease in the elastic modulus (see below). The ideas presented make it clear why the influence of coherent radiations of low (non-thermal) intensity on live organisms has been particularly often observed in the millimetre* and even shorter wave ranges. As shown in reference [8] in terms of use in the information system of living organisms the millimetre waves possess two further advantages. 1. The energy losses associated with the propagation in lipid membranes of an elec- tric e.h.f. field are relatively low (in the longwave part of the millimetre range -0.25 dB/cm (10]). From the data of reference [1] it is clear why the water surroundings of the lipid membranes do not influence the size of these losses: the aqueous medium is separ- ated from the hydrophobic layer by a space - 10 A in which the density of the flux of e.h.f. power falls by an order. Apparently (judging from the width of the resonance bands given in reference (I]) the acoustic losses are also low which is also probably explained by the feature already noted in reference (1] of the structure of the membranes: the acoustic link through the 10 A-slit separating the hydrophobic layer from the cytoplasm is greatly weakened. 2. The energy expenditure on the formation of a certain volume of information in the millimetre range is relatively low as compared both with the longer wave and the far shorter wave ranges. This is connected with the difference in the character of noise in these granges as compared with the millimetre. In longer wave ranges noise of a thermal nature dominates. Since in this region hf U. Here the quantum noise associated with the discrete nature of the radiation dominates. Reliable transfer of a certain volume of in- formation requires that the corresponding signal is formed by the number of quanta * We would recall that the millimetre range of waves corresponds to the frequencies of the vibra- tions of 30-300 GHz-e.h.f. frequency range, Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1089 exceeding a certain level minimal for this volume of information. The higher f the more minimal the energy of the signal determined by the given number of quanta. Therefore, the ratio of the volume of information to the energy expenditure on its formation in the region where hf>>kT falls in proportion to f. For living organisms with their limited energy resources minimization of the expenditure of the latter determined by the use of the millimetre and shorter wave ranges nearest to it is quite substantial. Acousto-electric eh. f. waves in cell membranes and their resonances. Reference 11] gives the results of experiments showing that the resonance effect of e.h.f. radiations on the cells is connected with excitation of the acoustic-electric waves in closed cell mem- branes. A theoretical analysis of the problem is outlined in references [5, 11]. In this work on the basis of the data on cell membranes presented in reference [12] (elastic modulus K.;:0-45 N/m, thickness of the hydrophobic region dm--3 x 10-9 m) an evaluation is given of the velocity of propagation of acoustic waves in the membrane: va~(K./pd.)?.S, (2) where p is the density of the lipid (fat-like) layer which for the calculation is taken as equal to 800 kg/m3. The magnitude vp calculated from (2) is -400 m/sec. Using (1) and (2) may one may calculate the wavelength in the membrane for different f and also the frequency shift between the centres of the neighbouring resonance bands df correspond- ing to change per unit of the number of wavelengths accomodated at the perimeter of the membrane: * Jdf I ^ (Ke/pd)??S (ird)- t, (3) where d is the diameter of the membrane. The df values calculated from (3) satisfactorily agree with those presented for the spectral characteristics of different cells [1]. This confirmed the ideas discussed in the preceding section that the information signals in the cells must spread at the speed of the acoustic waves. Separating the right and left parts of (3) into f and using (1) we transform (3) to the form f /df= nd/A . (4) Since the number N of wavelengths A at the perimeter of the membrane equal to Ord/A is equal for the cells in which the value d lies within the limits 0.5-10 pm to several hun- dreds or thousands then relation (4) indicates that the sharpness of the resonances in biological membranes corresponds to that of the contours with the quality factor 103-104. As is known [3], cell membranes are polarized and during normal functioning of the cell the strength of the electric field in the membrane perpendicular to its surface is 10' V/m. Therefore, on propagation of acoustic waves (producing periodic changes in membrane thickness) in the polarized membrane there appears an alternating electric field changing with the frequency of the acoustic vibrations exciting it. For vibrations of * Although excitation of the vibrations may occur in membrane sections corresponding to dif- ferent d, this is of no importance in evaluating the magnitudes since as a rale the differences in the d values corresponding to different sections are insignificant. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1090 M. B. GOLANr low amplitude considered here the membrane represents a linear system and hence for a certain size of the constant electric field in the membrane the ratio of the amplitudes of the acoustic and electric vibrations remains constant regardless of the amplitude of the spreading wave, i.e. an acoustic-electric wave is considered in which the variable electrical and acoustic parameters cannot be regulated independently. It should be noted that unlike electromagnetic waves (the slowing of which in the membrane would be insignificant) the length of the acoustic-electric wave in the mem- brane is -104 times less than the wavelength in free space and, therefore, the energy of the electric e.h.f. field in the course of the vibrations in the main is transformed not to the energy of the magnetic field but to the energy of the acoustic e.h.f. vibrations and back. This is similar to the transformation of energy in some low frequency parametric systems in which the vibrations are maintained through transformation of the mechanical energy expended on increasing the distance between the charges on.the condenser plates to the energy of the electric field. To the different resonance frequencies f corresponds a different number of standing waves at the perimeter of the membrane. Therefore, the character of the distribution of the e.h.f. field also changes with f both at the surface of the membrane and in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces lying next to it and, consequently, so does the character of the controlling action of the e.h.f. field. But for a large total number of wavelengths accomodated at the perimeter of the membrane, change in this number per unit cor- responding to the neighbouring resonarces introduces a slight change in the character of the field distributions. As a result the character of the controlling action connected with the spatial structure of the field gradually changes from one resonance to another. At the same time the controlling action of the external radiations may be connected not only with the spatial field distribution but with the resonance frequencies of particular protein molecules or intracellular elements. These last changes are more weakly connected with the structure of the field of the acoustic-electric waves. In reference [5] it is also noted that since different membrane systems literally pierce the whole cell the acoustic- electric waves branching off from the resonating membrane may penetrate to any region of the cell, the direction of propagation and action depending on the type of vibrations in the resonating membrane and the character of the membrane network changing configuration in different conditions [7]. The theoretical evaluations and ideas presented above applying both to acoustic- electric waves and their controlling action in the cells did not touch upon the problems of excitation of such waves. The question of excitation is trivial neither for the case when it operates under the influence of external radiation nor the autonomous generation of vibrations by the cell itself. Discussion of the problems connected with the excitation of vibrations in the membrane directly leads to analysis of the mechanism of generation by the cells of coherent vibrations. Therefore, it appears desirable before starting such a discussion to go briefly into some hypotheses on the character and nature of the mechanism of action of coherent vibrations on living cells put forward even before clarification of their functional role in living organisms and the careful experimental treatment of the problems associated with these mechanisms. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1091 First theoretical models of the mechanisms of excitation of coherent vibrations in cells. ,01ong the theoretical studies aimed at validating the possibility of generation by living rolls of coherent vibrations a special place is taken by the numerous investigations by ;rvhlich already begun in 1968 and summarized by him in 1980 (13]. Frohlich was one 'the first to express the conviction that in living organisms thanks to the presence of %tabolic energy coherent vibrations may be generated with the energy of random ther- y21 vibrations possibly being transformed to the energy of coherent vibrations. Com- ,Sring the thickness of the membrane with the length of the acoustic waves he postu- sted that the action of radiation may be the cause of excitation in the membranes of ,coustic vibrations with which following polarization of the membranes the appearance ,electric vibrations is connected. ]Frohlich came to the conclusion that the resonance frequencies may lie in the e.h.f. pnge. All these and a number of other ideas, in somewhat modified and refined form, .;0 retain their value today. Frohlich theoretically also worked out one of the possible yecha.nisms of generation of vibrations by the cells on exposure to external electromag- jetic radiations. He postulated that the mechanism of generation of vibrations by the cells is similar to the work of a regenerative amplifier brought to the face of the regime ~f excitation. Therefore, a very low external signal (he did not discuss other cases) is .nough to initiate generation of coherent vibrations the power of which approaches.sa- uration. The vibrations according to Frohlich (34] are connected with the strong interaction ?f polarization waves in a certain band lying in the frequency region - 1O11Hz, with a scat reservoir and are ensue ed by the inflow of energy from metabolic sources. In bio- .cgical systems with low frequency collective vibrations favourable conditions are cre- Aed for phenomena of the Bose-Einstein condensation type in the course of which there sredistribution of energy between the different degrees of freedom and the concentration .a low frequency forms of vibrations. Condensation determines the possibility of goal-di- wted conformational conversion. Frohlich was unable to demonstrate the presence of uch a mechanism of generation (see below). Moreover, in the period when he advanced :be hypothesis the role of coherent e.h.f. vibrations for the functioning of the cell and fence also its need for them was not known. Only in one of his late papers [14] did he autiously assume that biological systems "...themselves somehow use radiations in the requency range discussed and are, therefore, sensitive to the corresponding radiations". Accordingly, in working out the hypothesis questions connected with the different reaction of organisms to radiation as a function of the initial state of the organism and ,ts deviation from normal were not raised or solved; nor were questions concerned with :he variety of the spectra generalized by living organisms in particular cases raised or alved: nor were questions of the significance for the organisms of the degree of coherence )f the signals generated raised or solved as is also true of a host of other problems under- sing study of the problem today when answers to specific questions associated with the practical use of e.h.f. influence are required. How far the hypothesis presented may be adapted to solve the questions arising is rot clear. Probably it is simpler to validate the theoretical construction of the mechanisms Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 of action isolating oneself from model concepts corresponding to the results of experi. mental research. In this connexion of interest is the many years of discussion between H. Frohlich and M. A. Livshits and other supporters of their views [15-18]. The point is that to describe the mechanism of excitation of coherent vibrations in the cell Frohlich proposes [19] a kinetic equation including second order terms ("two-quantum" terms) characterizing the redistribution of energy between the different vibrations as a result of interaction with a thermostat. Livshits considers that "two-quantum" terms are not completely written in the Frohlich equation. But if this omission is removed then the mechanism of excitation of coherent vibrations worked out by Frohlich will not work. Objecting to M. A. Livshits, H. Frohlich writes that the "unusual physical properties of biological systems developed by long evolution cannot be predicted by simple model calculations but call for direct harmonization with the experiment". Can one choose be- tween these two mutually exclusive views? At first sight the experimental detection of generation by the cells of coherent vibra- tions [1] favours the correctness of Frohlich's kinetic equation. But such a conclusion would be illogical: generation may not be connected with that mechanism which reflects this equation. But in such a case the subject of discussion would be peripheral to the real problem. The only way to isolate the true mechanism among the hypothetically possible is to establish its correspondence to the whole body of know facts (including the facts outlined above). Therefore, the view of the author of the review will be formulated below after ending the discussion of the published data. Frohlich's hypothesis was not the only approach to the problem; there are others stemming from the idea of the existence in living organisms of coherent vibrations but not solving the real problems listed above. Thus, for example, the author of reference (2] in 1984 advanced a hypothesis based on the assumption of the existence of a still un- identified molecule taking part in the intermedate stages of development of biochemical reactions and present in the triplet state in which two unpaired electrons interact with their magnetic fields. The molecule has three possible initial states to each of which cor- responds its course of chemical reactions. It is assumed that the initial state may be in- fluenced by e.h.f. pumping so regulating the course of the processes. Naturally, this hypothesis, too, cannot give concrete answers to the real problems of using e.h.f. sig- nals in medicine and biology if only because of the unidentified nature of the molecules the existence of which is taken as its base. Effect of external e.h.f. radiation on the process of excitation of acoustic electric vibra- tions in cells, character of the influence of external radiations on the functioning of the cells. In many experimental studies it is emphasized [1] that a single external e.h.f. exposure does not act on the ongoing functioning of healthy cell;. In reference [5] it was shown that this may be due to the absence of a link between the retarded e.h.f. waves in the mem- brane and the unretarded or weakly retarded waves of external radiation. From electro- dynamics it is known [20] that the link between delayed and undelayed waves may be established by one or more coupling elements (antennae, slits, etc.) located at points the vibrations in which occur approximately in the same phase, i.e. shifted relative to each other by a whole number of delayed waves. And, in fact, reference (1] presents published Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1093 data on the formation at the membrane surface in periods when normal cell functioning is disturbed (and external radiation is capable of acting on its recovery) of temporary structures which may also act as coupling elements. But how do these temporary structure form? Since the membrane for the electrical component of the waves excited in it is a retarding system the wave length in which A is shorter than the length of the electromagnetic waves in the surrounding space, the am- plitude of the field on moving from the surface of the membrane decreases approximately by the exponential law exp (- 2nx/A) where x is the distance from the surface (21 ]. The action of the polarization forces on the excited protein molecules (see below) in such a rapidly changing field, especially at the surface of the lipid layer of the membrane (where the aqueous medium does not penetrate), is always directed to the surface (22]. On exposure to these forces protein molecules and aggregates move to the membrane surface and adhere to it [1] from which the elements of the temporary structure are formed. In fact, the polarization forces acting on the molecules and aggregates are deter- mined not only by the variable but also by the constant components of the field in the membrane pulsating in response to the acoustic wave. These forces are proportional to the square of the field strength. As shown by calculation, if one ignores second order terms of smallness the variable component depending on the coordinate I of the forces Fl acting on the protein molecules at the membrane surface is proportional to El sin2 (2rrI/ '24) where Es is the amplitude of the variable component of the wave field in the mem- brane; I is the ongoing coordinate read off along the perimeter of the excited section of the membrane. Consequently the Fl maxima are shifted relative to each other by the length of the retarded wave A (but not A12 as in the standing wave), i.e. by the distance which in line with the forgoing is necessary for the temporary structures formed to ensure optimally the link between the waves in the membrane and surrounding space. From the photographs given in reference [23] it will be seen that the temporary sti uctures described form not over the whole perimeter of the membrane but at points of curvature or in narrow gaps between the membranes, i.e. in regions of concentration of the fields where their amplitude is maximal. The factors disturbing cell functioning in many cases lead to deformation of the membranes which apparently causes the forma- tion of these temporary structures. Therefore. the effect of the external e.h.f. signals on the cells with disturbed functioning grows. At the same time amplification of the field in the membrane on exposure to e.h.f. fields leads to acceleration of the formation not only of the linking elements of the cells with the external e.h.f. field but also to the for- mation of stable information structures ensuring generation by the cells of e.h.f. signals also after arrest of irradiation [11 (see also below). It should be noted that strengthening of the link with the external field is also pro- moted by such cell deformations still not leading to the formation of the temporary structures described but such a link must be weaker. This probably determines the re- sponse of the cells to repeated exposure to external e.h.f. irradiation where the response to a single exposure cannot be detected [241. To conclude the exposition of the question of the link between the cell membranes and the external e.h.f. field we would mention that the literature quoted in reference [11 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10: CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1094 M. B. GOLANT describes the possibility of enhancing this link by adding to the nutrient medium in which the cells are present long-fibre molecules in a concentration corresponding to their posi- tion close to the surface of the plasma membrane at distance A from each other [5]. The nature of the attendant strengthening of the link is understandable from the fore- going remarks. In reference (25] the authors discuss the nature and character of the influence of low intensity external e.h.f. radiation on the cells which is linked with synchronization by co- herent low intensity radiaticns.of the vibratory processes in the cell. With synchroniza- tion is linked the strengthening of these vibrations determined, in particular, by the co- herent summing of the vibrations previously dephased or excited at different frequencies of the intracellular sources and the formation of a highly effective controlling signal capable of orienting in a definite way or reorienting the processes in the cells (see above). Since ionic and molecular transport takes place across the membrane ensuring the vital activity of the cell and the membrane takes an active part in its regulation [3] in reference [25] it was assumed that external e.h.f. radiation must influence it. It is important to emphasize that external e.h.f. radiation is not an energy source for the established coherent vibrations in the cells but merely synchronizes them. The question of the transformation of the random energy of metabolism to the energy of cohe- rent vibrations demands special analysis. One of the later sections is concerned with this question. Excitation of the vibrations of protein molecules in the cell. The published data outlined in reference [1] referring to experimental studies indicate that the living cell as an auto- nomous system is controlled by e.h.f. signals generated by the cell itself. A major role in this process is apparently played by the protein molecules. In the literature the prob- lems of excitation of vibrations in protein molecules have been explored reasonably fully both experimentally and theoretically. The most detailed experimental investigations [26-30] were undertaken under the di- rection of Didenko on a specially designed apparatus permitting use of spectra obtained by the method of nuclear gamma resonance spectroscopy. The apparatus permitted various measurements in conditions of e.h.f. irradiation both of crystalline and lyophyl- lic haemoglobin samples including measurements in a strong magnetic field ensured by the use of superconducting solenoids with change in the temperature of the samples from room to helium. Haemoglobin was used as protein, although the results of measurement probably apply more generally. As shown by the measurements, e.h.f. exerts a resonance action on the haemoglobin molecules expressed in changes in the Mossbauer spectrum. the width of the resonance bands at room temperature is only 3 MHz. Several series of resonance bands were detected. From analysis of the changes in the Mossbauer spectra Didenko concluded that on e.h.f. irradiation the haemoglobin molecules pass to new confcrmational states distinguished by the distribution of charge of the electrons and by the electric field gradient on the iron nucleus; at resonance frequencies the tertiary struc- ture is rearranged in the globin part of the molecule and its dynamic properties change, These problems have also formed the subject of numerous theoretical investigations in the recent period. Among them we would note the work of Frauenfelder et al. [31-33] Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1095 who developed the model of the dynamic behaviour of proteins according to which the molecules perform fluctuations passing from one conformational state to another, many of these states being energetically very close to each other. At reduced tempera- tures (nitrogen level and even lower) the probability of such transitions associated with overcoming the potential barriers falls in proportion to exp [-EjkTJ where E, is the energy of the transition [34]. At rocm temperature most of the substates are in thermal equilibrium. The conformational mobility is important for the fulfilment by the bio- molecules of their biological function. Accordingly thermal equilibrium leads to a cer- tain averaged distribution of these functions between the molecules. The e.h.f. signal is capable of synchronizing the vibrations isolating certain conforma- tional states in those molecules with resonance frequencies close to the frequency of the synchronizing signal. The possibility of excitation of the vibrations in protein molecules by the electromagnetic signal is determined by the fact that ions as part of the protein molecules are distributed in them unevenly so that these molecules have considerable dipole moments [35]. In line with the model of biomacromolecules developed in ref- erence [36] at different frequencies the e.h.f. field interacts with their different portions. Particularly effective interaction of the e.h.f. field with protein molecules must occur close to the membranes where the e.h.f. waves are retarded and their lengths are equal to acoustic (see preceding section) the length of which is commensurate with the size of the protein molecule. As made clear above, on exposure to an e.h.f. signal the protein mole- cules are drawn to the membrane surface, the character of the process of drawing to the inner surface of the membrane being similar to that of molecules to its outer surface [23]. As a result information structures may form on the membrane surface (an example of one of them was given in reference [1]). Didenko relates the results obtained by her in study of the action of an e.h.f. signal on the Mossbauer spectra of protein molecules to excitation in the latter at the resonance frequencies of acoustic vibrations. The quality factor of the haemoglobin molecules as acoustic resonators Qe? according to the evaluation made by her (on the basis of the ana- logy with polymers is quite large: - 10'. The magnitude hfQev> kT and, therefore, in such molecules the effects of accumulation of the energy of many quanta may operate allow- ing one to isolate the action of even very weak coherent signals against the background of noise. Mechanism of generation by the cells of coherent e.h.f signals. The material of the previous sections allows us to pass to an exposition of ideas on the mechanisms of auto- generation of e.h.f. vibrations in the cell [5]. This is a very important question since as already noted the action of the external signals on the cells is effective only to the extent it imitates their autovibrations. Probably it is rational to outline as follows the sequence of the process of excitation of the autovibrations. In conditions when as a result of certain actions on the cell lead- ing to anomalies in its functioning its symmetry is disturbed, conditions of preferential excitation are created in the cell membranes at certain resonance frequencies (see above). This leads to synchronization of the vibrations of those protein molecules adhering to the membrane and the resonance frequencies of which coincide or are close to the fre- Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1096 M. B. GOLANT quencies mostly excited in the membranes. Synchronization and the associated coherent summing of the vibrations ensure rise in the efficiency of transfer of their energy to the membrane and radiation to the surrounding space. As a result the dependence of radia. tion on frequency begins to differ from that observed in the case of equilibrium thermal radiation at the temperature of the cell: at resonance frequencies it rises. Naturally, the rise in the energy of radiation occurs through the energy of metabolism compensating rise in the energy losses on radiation (but not through cooling of the cell). Transformation of energy apparently occurs as follows. Disturbance of thermal equi- librium through increase in radiation at certain resonance frequencies leads to redist,i- bution of energy between the protein molecules taking place during energy exchange be- tween them and directed at restoring the equilibrium state. This process is linked with the preferential transfer of energy to the molecules synchronized by the vibrations of the membranes since the radiation at their resonance frequencies is more intense than that at the frequencies of the vibrations of other molecules. Maintenance of the temperature of the cell is ensured by fall in the removal of energy of metabolism into the external space. In the initial period after disturbance of the symmetry of the cell giving rise to the gen- eration of coherent vibrations, the number of protein molecules adhering to the mem- brane is relatively low as compared with the periods when protein molecules are drawn to the membranes from the cytoplasm (especially at those portions of the membrane surface which undergo the sharpest distortions [37]). With increase in the number of molecules adhering to the membrane and the formation of information structures the resonance become sharper, the energy transmitted by the protein molecules to the mem- brane and emitted into space (the energy of the coherent vibrations generated by the cells) grows. The process of rise in the power of the coherent vibrations generated is not limitless. The limitations are connected with the non-linearity of the process. Wherein lies its source? In reference (I] attention was drawn to the fact that enlistment of protein mole- cules further from the surface to form information structures on the membranes re- quires energy expenditure exponentially growing with distance. This inevitably leads to restriction of the attainable power of the vibrations, i.e. to passage to steady generation. The higher the level of disturbances and the greater the invaginations of the membrane it pn. duces [37] the higher the maximum level of the vibrations generated. The reaction of the systems present in the state of stable equilibrium to the forces perturbing them (but not leading to irreversible changes) always boils down to fall in the effect of the action of the latter (le Chatelier principle; in relation to living organisms the same meaning is attached to the concept of homeostasis). In this case this means that the effect of the control e.h.f. signals generated by the cell always restores the stable state of the cell whatever the cause of its disturbance or to the greatest possible fall in the effects of the action of the forces is in disturbing the given state. * Detailed treatment of all the associated processes is not possible since the processes perturbing the work of the cell are highly diverse but, for example, elimination of the membrane deformations is easy * The character of the processes is determined both by the spectrum of the signals generated and the localization of the disturbances producing them. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Resonance effect of coherent electromagnetic radiations 1097 to explain as a consequence of the impacts on their protruding portions of the molecules drawn to them by the e.h.f. field. The use of external e.h.f. signals of the same frequencies which for the corresponding disturbances would be generated by the organism itself pray accelerate the process of generation of the information structure or make it more effective. The process described is a system process involving metabolism, protein molecules and the membrane system alike and if one considers multicellular organisms (which we have not touched upon in the present review in order not to complicate the exposition) then one also considers the organism as a whole (naturally its different parts to differing degrees). The mechanism described, of course, is still highly hypothetical. 1. GOLANT, M. B., Biofizika 34: 339, 1989 2. KEILMAN, F., Physik in unserer Zeit, No. 2, 33, 1985 3. BYERGEL'SON, L. D., Membranes, Molecules, Cells (in Russian) 183 pp., Nauka, Moscow, 1982 4. HAKEN, H., Biol. Cybern. 56: 11, 1987 5. GOLANT, M. B. and REBROVA, T. B., Radioelektronika, No. 10, 10, 1986 6. FURTA, M. et at., IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engng., Vol. BME-33, p. 993, 1986 7. FULTON, A., Cytoskeleton. Architecture and Choreography of the Cell (in Russian) 117 pp., Mir, Moscow, 1987 8. DEVYATKOV, N. D. and GOLANT, M. B., Pis'ma v ZhTF 12: 288, 1986 9. TASTED, J. B., .1. Bioelect. 4: 367, 1985 10. LAND, D. V., IEEE Proc. 134: 193, 1987 11. GOLANT, M. B. and SHASHLOV, V. A., Use of Millimetre Low Intensity Radiation in Biology and Medicine (in Russian) pp. 127-131, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1986 12. IVKOV, B. G. and BYERESTOVSKII, G. N., The Lipid Bilayer of Biological Membranes (in Russian) p. 224, Nauka, Moscow, 1982 13. FROHLICH, H., Adv. Electronics and Electron. Phys. 53: 85, 1980 14. Idem., Mol. Models of Photoresponsiveness. Proc. Nat. Adv. Study Inst., San Moniato, 29 Aug. to 8 Sept., 1982, pp. 39-42, N. Y., 1983 15. LIVSHITS, M. A., Biofizika 17: 694, 1972 [6. FROHLICH, H., Ibid. 22: 743, 1977 17. WU, T. M. and AUSTIN, S., Phys. Lett. 65A: 74, 1978 18. YUSHINA, M. Ya., Ibid. 91A: 372, 1982 19. FROHLICH, H., Ibid. 26A: 402, 1968 20. LEBEDEV, I. V., Technique and U.H.F. Instruments (in Russian) Vol. 11, 375 pp., Vyssh. shk., Moscow, 1972 21. SILIN, R. A. and SAZONOV, V. P., Retarding Systems (in Russian) 632 pp., Sov. Radio, Moscow, 1966 22. POHL, H. A., Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems, pp. 199-210, Springer, Berlin-Heidel- berg, 1983 23. SOTNIKOV, O. S., Dynamics of the Structure of the Live Neurone (in Russian) 160 pp., Nauka, Leningrad, 1985 24. GOLANT, M. B. et al., Effect of Non-Thermal Exposure to Millimetre Radiation on Biological Objects (in Russian) pp. 115-122, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1983 25. DEVYATKOV, N. D. et al., Biofizika 28: 895, 1983 26. DIDENKO, N. P. et al., Effect of Non-Thermal Exposure to Millimetre Radiation on Biological Objects (in Russian) pp. 63-77, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1983 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1098 L. I. KRISHTALnc 27. DIDENKO, N. P. et at., Pis'ma v ZhTF 11: 1515, 1985 28. DIDENKO, N. P. et al., Proc. of the Nuclear Physics Research Institute at the Tomsk Poly technical Institute (in Russian) No. 10, pp. 77-81, Energoizdat, Moscow, 1983 29. DIDENKO, N. P. et a!., Summaries of Reports of Sixth All-Union Seminar "Use of Millimetre Low Intensity Radiation in Biology and Medicine" (in Russian) p. 40, IRE. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1986 30. AMELIN, G. P. et a!., Tomsk, 1986-Dep. in VINITI, 17 January 1986 as No. 319V-86 31. FRAUENFELDER, H., Helvet. Phys. Acta 57:165,1984 32. FRAUENFELDER, H. and GRATTON, E., Protein Dynamics and Hydration, Univ. Illinois, 1985. Preprint III-(ex)-85-1, 26 pp. 33. ANSARI, A. et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Wash. 82: 5000, 1985 34. ZHDANOV, V. P., Rate of Chemical Reactions (in Russian) 101 pp., Nauka, Moscow, 1986 35. RAPPOPORT, S. M., Medizinische Biochemie. Veb. Verlag, "Volk and Gesundheit", Berlin. 1964 36. CHOU, K. C., Biophys. Chem. 20: 61, 1984 37. TUSHMALOVA, N. A. and NARAKUYEVA, I. V., Comparative Physiological Studies of Ultra- structural Aspects of Memory (in Russian) 148 pp., Nauka, Moscow, 1986 Biophysics Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1098-1104, 1989 0006-3509189 $10.00- .00 Printed in Poland 0 1991 Pergamon Prosy plc ACTIVATION ENERGY AND ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE PATHWAYS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC EVOLUTION OF OXYGEN* L. I. KRISHTALIK Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Received 23 July 1987) From analysis of the main contributions to the activation energy of a series of stages of oxida- tion of water to 02 the following conclusions are drawn: the barrier set up by the repulsion of unbound 0 atoms on their convergence is partially overcome through the energy of binding of the water molecules by manganese ions. Concerted electron and proton transfer with the par- ticipation of bases stronger than water greatly improves the energetics of the process; the most probable pathway of the reaction is the rate-determining two-electron oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide (the possibility of this process taking place in two successive single-electron stages is not clear) with two subsequent-fast stages of oxidation of H202 to HO: and then to 02. IN references [1, 2] we considered the equilibrium values of the changes in the configura- tional free energy of the reaction of evolution of 02 as a whole and its individual stages. We now look at the factors determining the height of the activational barrier. Let us ? Biofizika 34: No. 6, 1015-1020, 1989. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 terminant role of the protein carcass in the cooperative effects in the membrane. The phenomena due to rearrangement of the membrane carcass and cytoskeleton are analysed in relation to pro- tease-induced adhesion of fibroplasts, the mechanisms of functioning of highly permeable gap contacts and the excitability of the neurone membranes. From the analysis made the concept of the participation of the cytoskeleton both in local and remote regulation of the receptors, enzyme systems and ionic channels is formulated. The controlling role of the generalized structural transitions is traced not only in the membranes of individual cells but also at the level of intercellular interactions. Thus, the membrane rearrange- ments induced by the contacts between the surfaces of neighbouring cells, in the view of the author, are an important factor in ihibiting animal cell division and regulating the size of microbial po- pulations. A special place in the book is occupied by an outline of new ideas on nonequilibrium, meta- stable states of the membrane structures determined by the interaction of the membrane carcass and the lipid bilayer, the transmembrane potential and the surface membrane charge. Thanks to this metastability sustained through the energy of metabolism, non-decaying spread of the struc- tural transitions over a considerable distance proves possible. The book by S. V. Konev is literally saturated with similar original concepts, sometimes ap- parently debatable but invariably stimultaing the creative thinking of researches working in one of the most interesting fields of biophysics, exploring the mechanisms of the functioning of supra- molecular structures of the cell. Biophysics Vol. 34 No. 2. pp. 370-382, 1989 0006-3509189 $10.00+.00 Printed in Poland ? 1990 Pergamon Press Plc PROBLEM OF THE RESONANCE ACTION OF COHERENT ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS OF THE MILLIMETRE WAVE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS* M. B. GOLANT (Received 10 June 1987) A review is made of Soviet and foreign experimental studies furthering understanding of the mechanism of the acute resonance action of extremely high frequencyt coherent electro- magnetic radiations of low power on living organisms and the significance of these radia- tions for the functioning of the latter. THE effect of electromagnetic radiations (e.m.r.) on living organisms was noted long ago (see, for example, [21) and occasioned no surprise. Physiotherapy and radiobiology are concerned with study of the character of the thermal and radiation effects of e.m.r. and study of the possibility of their practical usage. ? Biofizika 34: No. 2, 339-348, 1989. t The range of extremely high frequencies (e.h.f.) from 3 x 1010 to 3 x 10'' Hz corresponds to the millimetre wave range from 1 to 10 mm [1]. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Action of electromagnetic radiations of millimetre wave range on living organisms 371 However, simultaneously there appeared data on the effective influence on the functioning of living organisms of non-ionizing radiations of low power (so-called non-thermal level of power) on exposure to which heating of the tissues does not exceed 0.1 K. It was difficult to understand the nature of their actual presence from the same standpoint from which the action of more powerful radiations was explained. Many considered that it is a matter of artefacts particularly since at first the reproducibility of the results was extremely poor. The data referred to different biological objects and the action was characterized by different biological parameters and the acting factors were also not compared. However, communications on non-thermal actions of electromagnetic radiations did not cease and it would be impermissible to ignore them if only from the point of view of the safety techniques in work with radiations. At the start of the 'sixties a number of teams under the joint scientific direction of Academician N. D. Devyatkov embarked on a systematic study of the action of coherent radiations of non-thermal level on living organims. The work was conducted in the e.h.f. range [3] since in the course of setting up the first series of generators covering this range Academician Devyatkov and the author identified the specific features of e.h.f. radiations both as compared with lower frequency and far higher fre- quency ranges (4] suggesting the possibility of an enhanced reaction of living organisms to these radiations. Later, the special possibilities of using the radiations of this range were validated in rela- tion to the problems of medicine and biology (5]. For any sufficiently complex system, primarily for living organisms, study of the features of their reaction to agents must begin by answering the question of the role of these agents in the functioning of the system or organism. The answer to this question may give knowledge on the re- gularities of the behaviour of the agent. Therefore, study of these patterns was the main aim of the first systematic experimental investigations. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BASIC PATTERNS OF THE ACTION OF COHERENT E.H.F. RADIATIONS OF NON-THERMAL LEVEL OF POWER ON LIVING ORGANISMS The first series of experiments sought to clarify the question on the reality of the effective ac- tions, or artefacts, of coherent e.h.f. radiations of non-thermal intensity thereafter for brevity called e.h.f. radiations) on living organisms and if such actions exist to identify their basic patterns. It was undertaken on organisms of differing complexity of organization (from bacteria to mammals). The results have been repeatedly and quite amply discussed in the literature. In particular, the re- views of the first 70 publications are given in [6, 7]; in references [8, 91 the technique of the experiment is described and the main patterns, later also treated in reference (101, presented. Subsequent experi- ments confirming these patterns were also undertaken abroad (see, for example, [11, 121). Therefore, it is desirable without digressing on a repetition of these experiments (the main results will be pre- sented in the course of the exposition) to begin straight away with formulations of the patterns iden- tified on their basis. 1. The dependence of the biological effect on the frequency of coherent e.h.f. radiation acting on the body is of an acute resonance character, i.e. the response to the agent occurs in narrow fre- quency bands (usually -10-3-10-` of average frequency). 2. The effects observed in a certain fixed time of the action of e.h.f. radiation are not critical to the density of the incident flow of energy. Starting from a certain minimum (threshold) density amounting for different organisms to 0.01-100 mW:cm2 the subsequent rise in flow by 2-3 orders of magnitude for a single action does not, as a rule, influence the biological effect. 3. The memorization of the action of the e.h.f. -persistence for a long time after arrest of the exposure of the resulting changes in the functioning of the organism -ensues only when irradiation is of sufficient length: from a few tens of minutes to a few hours. 4. The biological effects of the action of e.h.f. radiations closely depend on the initial state of the body. Single e.h.f. irradiation does not significantly influence the current functioning of the Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 372 M. B. Gor.Awr healthy organism. If any of the functions of the organism is disturbed, exposure to coherent e.h.f. radiations may in many cases restore it. It is important to note that heat exposure cannot give effects satisfying these patterns. This, of course, does not exclude the existence of purely thermal effects weakly depending on frequency and corresponding to low levels of the acting power flux (13, 141. To form ideas from the experiments on the nature of the action of e.h.f. radiations on living organisms a major role is played by the common nature of the patterns presented for organisms of different complexity of organization. This allows one to use the data of many investigations and not to confine the field of the investigations to the characteristics of any one object. Analysis of the patterns listed outlined in the greatest detail in (14, 151 suggested two main conclusions. a) The effect of coherent e.h.f. radiations on living organisms adds up to the control of the restorative processes occurring in them and processes of adaptation to the changing conditions of functioning; and b) the effectiveness of the acute resonance action on the organism of radiations originating from sources of coherent oscillations external in relation to it is connected with the fact that these radiations may excite in the organism coherent e.h.f. oscillations simultaing signals generated in certain conditions by the organisms themselves. A similar conclusion is also contained in refer- ence [16]. However, the passage from the patterns outlined to these conclusions at first ran through complex logical reasoning. The question of more direct experimental evidence retained its acuity. namely the present review is devoted to a description of it. The material will be outlined in the order and way in which it may serve for answering the specifically posed questions corresponding to the problem under study. The choice of the experiments described in each case is determined by the completeness of the answer to the question posed ensured by them. In order to fit into the volume of the paper the information necessary for illuminating the most important aspects of the problem the material will be given without going into details which are contained in the quoted sources. In particular, the communications (11, 17, 18] are specially de- voted to the question of possible experimental errors. Here, we would merely note that in the ex- periments described below in nearly all cases the range of changes occurring on exposure to e.h.f. radiations was far smaller than the mean value of these changes. UNK BETWEEN THE ACUTE RESONANCE CHARACTER OF THE RESPONSES OF ORGANISMS TO THE ACTION OF E.H.F. RADIATIONS AND THE INFORMATION FUNCTION* OF THE LATTER For the comprehensive control of the functioning of an organism many control signals dif- fering from each other are necessary. The acuity of the resonance responses of the body to irradiation (narrowness of the frequency band, see, for example, Fig. 1) characterizing the first of the above formulated patterns contributes to the formation on the basis of them of a large number of different spectra. But to answer the question of how far the acute resonance nature of the responses of the organisms to the action of e.h.f. radiations may indicate the information function of the latter, it was first necessary to satisfy ourselves that a large number of such resonance response actually exists. The action spectra [12, 191 given in Fig. 2-dependence of a certain biological parameter on fre- quency -confirmed that the position is actually so. t Similar dependences had already been registered in reference (20], only the number of identified resonances was smaller. With such a density of accommodation of the resonance bands in the frequency range their combinations in the spectra may ensure a huge variety of signals. But this will correspond to the diversity of control only with the ? Below by information function we mean the role of e.h.f. radiations as control signals. t We would note that in reference (19] for some resonance curves from among those shown in Fig. 26, we present a large number of experimental points. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Action of electrcmagnetic radiations of millimetre wave range on living organisms 373 tog K 70 f, GNz 71 ]FIG. 1. Induction coefficient of lambda prophage as a function of the frequency of the acting ra- diation [lll. of whethertor not from each condition that to each presened do not answer the question organism other. condition otherr. The action P is fulfilled. They reflect the dependence on frequency of only one single biological parameter and the 41,800 fMNz N/Npl- r- - b a b b a k 00 e.h.f *P !' ? 1 \ 1 `1 1 1 1 1 1 '[ I A2 60 4oI 1 i I i i I 1 i 710 714 718 722 A, MM FIG. 2. Dependences of the in nrmalized growth rate of a number of karyocytese(N/ (N/No) after exposure to e.h.f. combined radiation [121 (a) and change with X-radiation with the wavelength of e.h.f. radiations in free space [191(b). character of the change in the other parameters complete examination of the biological objecttlis extremely provide an answer to this question since laborious, if feasible at all [211. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 374 M. B. Gor.Arrr A certain but insufficiently complete answer to this question is given by experiments on the detection of the frequencies of exposure optimal in terms of the maximum intensification of different processes in the organism [22]. The results of one such investigation are given in Fig. 3. Since the frequencies optimal in terms of reaching the maximum changes of arbitrarily chosen parameters are usually scattered far apart the corresponding experiments cannot give an answer to the question of the differences in the effects on the organism in new resonance bands. ONE OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS OF IDENTIFYING THE LINK BETWEEN THE GENERAL STATE OF THE BODY AND THE FREQUENCY OF THE E.H.F. RADIATION ACTING ON IT Since the detection of all the changes occurring in the body separately is impossible a different approach to answering the question was substantiated and experimentally worked out [23]. Some integral characteristics exist influenced by all or nearly all the changes occurring in the cells. Such an integral characteristic is, in particular, the duration of the cycle of development of the cell between successive divisions (hereafter, for brevity duration of the cycle). In so-called synchronous cell cul- tures it is possible to select cells with almost identical parameters and ensure the simultaneity of the first acts of their division. But even with the strictest selection the synchrony of cell division already after a few cycles is disturbed with transition to exponential growth of the cell count (Fig. 4a). a,% 1 6.16 1 6.16 6.20 6.22 A,mM 3 Fia. 4 Fto . Fta. 3. Enzymatic activity of Asp. awamory 466 (in relation to control) as a function of the wave- length of the acting radiation in free space for two different substrates [22]: 1-alpha amylase; 2 - glucoamylase. Fta.4. Curves of the synchronous division of yeast cells: a-not exposed to e.h.f. radiation; b-ex- posed [23]; n/no is the ratio of the cell counts in the suspension to the initial value; r is time in cycles of development between successive divisions, duration of cycle 1 hr. It has been assumed that a difference in the duration of the cycle is connected with the difference in the frequencies of the e.h.f. oscillations generated by the cells. In fact, after synchronization of these oscillations in the course of relatively brief (in different conditions from several tens of minutes to two hours) exposure to a coherent signal of non-thermal intensity from an external source of e.h.f. radiations the difference in the duration of the cycle for different cells was virtually removed and reflected in the constancy of the duration of the steps (Fig. 4b). A similar effect can also be obtained through mutual synchronization of the oscillations in the cells without resorting to an external emitter. For this it suffices to amplify the emission of the cells. As shown in (24,251 amplification of emission can be achieved, in particular, by introducing into the cell suspension long-fibrous molecules acting as antenna (this will be examined below in more detail). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 y0 50 r,Gnz 60 Frc. 5. Duration of cycle of development of yeast cells between successive divisions as a function of the frequency of the e.h.f. radiation acting on them. Action of electromagnetic radiations of millimetre wave range on living orgac?srns 375 At the same time, different cells, for example single-type cells of different animals apparently generate, in principle, different frequencies not amenable to mutual synchronization. In [251 de- scribing the interaction of erythrocytes it was established that only those of the same animals ef- fectively interact (attract each other); they find each other even in a suspension of cells of different animals. In the course of the above-described experiments on synchronization of the cell-generated oscilla- tions by an external e.h.f. signal the duration of the cycle was found to depend on frequency: it was t, in 80 proportional to the frequency of the signal synchronizing the oscillations in the cells (Fig. 5). Com- parison of this result with the action spectra (Fig. 2) indicates that together with resonance depend- ences of one specific parameter on frequency there is gradual change with frequency in a set of other parameters influencing the duration of the cycle. This is reflected in change in the integral charac- teristics. Consequently, to each of the resonance bands correspond changes in the body differing in some way from each other. At the same time the smoothness of change with the frequency of the integral characteristic indicates that even the individual parameters of the cell with change in the frequency of the oscilla- tions generated by it change gradually so that it may be expected that at close resonance frequencies the organism as a whole changes relatively little. WHAT STRUCTURES DETERMINE THE RESONANCE NATURE OF THE RESPONSE OF THE ORGANISM TO E.H.F. EXPOSURE? The large number and regularity of lines in the action spectra shown in Fig. 2 indicate that e.h.f. radiation leads to excitation of multimodal resonance systems. Shift in d2 between the neigh- bouring resonances in wavelength in the free space and the valued of the mean wavelength in the region in which the spectrum is recorded (see Fig. 2) make it possible to determine the number of wavelengths in the excited resonance system N= 2114M. (With this condition Al corresponds to change per unit number of wavelength accommodated in a closed resonance system, i.e. transition to resonance of the type of oscillations closest to the initial.) Thus, for example, in the experiments run with cells and described in (201 N= 200. In the experiments described in reference (121 NP., 1500 (see Fig. 2). The wavelength in the system in order of magnitude must be equal to the ratio of the perimeter of the cell (microns to tens of microns) to the magnitude N indicated, i.e. the wavelength in the excited system is _ 106 times shorter than that in the free space (241 and this, in turn, indicates that the waves in a multimodal resonance system spread at the velocity of sound (in order of magnitude). Thus, the experimentally established nature of the action spectra indicates that on exposure of the cells to electromagnetic radiations acoustic-electric oscillations are excited in them (241. Judging from the character of the action spectra in mammals (Fig. 2b) they are also due to resonances in the cells. For the oscillations to be excited by electromagnetic waves the losses on the propagation of acoustic-electric oscillations in the resonance system must be relatively low. This requirement is met by the losses on propagation of the e.h.f. in a lipid medium (10-fold decay at distances of the order of centimetres (26]). Such distances are very large as compared with any intracellular dimen- Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 376 M. B. GOLANT sions. This led to the conclusion that the role of the multimodal resonance systems may be played by lipid membranes [27, 281. But the membranes are surrounded by cytoplasm-a medium representing aqueous salt solutions (hereafter for brevity called an aqueous medium) characterized by heavy ohmic losses. Does not this make resonance excitation of the membranes impossible? The investiga- tions described in reference (29] showed that the hydrophobic part of the membranes with low losses is separated from the hydrophilic (directly contiguous to the aqueous medium) by layers of thickness -10 A. At the same time the above-indicated value of the delay of wave propagation (-106) cor- responds to fall by an order in the density of the power flux of e.h.f. also over a distance -10 A [301. Therefore, an e.h.f. field of sharply reduced amplitude reaches the aqueous medium and the ohmic losses in it do not impede resonance excitation of the oscillations in the membranes. dB Y 36 37 fGXz Fio. 6 Fia. 6. Absorption spectra of: a-erythrocytes; b-erythrocyte ghosts (31]. Fia. 7. Formation during memorization of protein structures on the surface of the nuclear mem- branes of ganglionic elements of hydra [33]: a-normal state; b-adaption. In principle, a priori, the resonances observed in study of the action spectra cannot be equated with those on excitation by e.h.f. fields of passive electrodynamic structures. The difference is that in experimental study of the action spectra the biological effect is the discrete output parameter. The biological effect is linked by a complex non-linear dependence to the fields acting on the mem- brane and in a complex metabolic system the initial action of the field may be enhanced which, in turn, may lead to fixation of even weak differences in the acting field.' The experiments described in (311 with recording of the absorption spectra of the erythrocytes and their .ghosts (i.e. erythrocyte membranes -freed of cytoplasm) showed that the spectra in both ? In certain conditions the ohmic losses for the waves spreading in the membranes may rise considerably leading.to difficulties in the experimental detection of resonance frequencies. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Action of electromagnetic radiations of millimetre wave range on living organisms 377 cases are very close (Fig. 6). This is direct confirmation of the fact that the e.h.f. may excite oscilla- tions precisely in the membranes and allows one to tic the observed biological effects of the action of e.h.f. on the cells to the resonance frequencies of the excited oscillations. WHAT ENABLES LIVING ORGANISMS TO MEMORIZE E.H.F. EXPOSURES AND ACCORDINGLY CHANGE THE CHARACTER OF THEIR FUNCTIONINGI In line with the third of the above listed patterns living organisms memorize the external in- fluence exerted on them and after its arrest continue to generate for a long time the frequencies estab- lished under its influence determining the changes in the character of functioning. In technical multimodal auto-oscillatory systems to fix excitation for certain types of oscillations special struc- tures are used determining the most favourable conditions of excitation for these types of oscillations. In the case of living organisms the structures fixing the type of oscillations could be created only by the organism itself in the period of the action on it of the e.h.f. radiations. The duration of the process of memorization already led to the conclusion that such structures are formed in the organism on exposure to an e.h.f. (see above); it might be determined by the time of construction of the structure. Deeper study of the question may be furthered by the results of experiments described in [32]. In the course of these experiments conducted on mice it was shown that the biological effect of e.h.f.. exposure for 1 hr does not change if continuous is replaced by pulsed irradiation with a power of the pulse radiation equal to the power of the continuous. The power of the continuous exposure was close to the threshold value (see pattern 2) and the porosity on pulse exposure was equal to six. Thus, the mean power on pulse exposure was several times lower than the threshold value for conti- nuous exposure. The duration of the intervals was 2 x 10'' sec. The following conclusions could be drawn from the results. Firstly, the character of the biological effect in the pulsed and continuous regimes of exposure to e.h.f. radiations is the same if the frequencies of the acting oscillations match. Secondly, in the pauses between pulses when the external irradiation of the animal is absent, in the organism itself the e.h.f. oscillations stay at a level close to that established in the period of the pulse and, thirdly, with shortening of the total duration of exposure the biological effects determined by memorization of the action are not observed. Consequently, one or a small number of pulses is insufficient to give structures fixing the new (resulting from irradiation) state of the body. Nor did these experiments allow us to judge the character of the structures formed. Morpho- logical investigations were necessary to determine it. Such morphological investigations have been widely conducted in connexion with study of the ultrastructure of aspects of memory (33]. It was established that the memorization process in the cells leads, in particular, to the formation on their membranes of structures adhering to the latter (we shall call them informational) which in the process of forgetting again pass to the cytoplasm (Fig. 7). INFLUENCE OF THE POWER OF EXTERNAL E.H.F. SIGNALS ACTING ON ORGANISMS ON THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF THE ACTION AND ON THE DYNAMICS OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURES DETERMINING THE MEMORIZATION OF THE RESULTS OF EXPOSURE TO AN E.H.F. Unlike energy factors acting on living organisms (factors for which the biological effect is deter. mined by the energy coming from without) the biological effect of the informational c.h.f. influences is primarily determined by the information content of the signal (its frequency spectrum if it cor- responds to the natural frequencies of the biological system) and in a wide interval of changes of power does not depend on the size of the latter (see pattern 2 and Fig. 8 reflecting it). This indicates that the volume of the near-membrane aggregates in the informational structures described in the previous section starting from a certain value weakly influences the character of the e.h.f. field formed by the membrane. In terms of e.h.f. electrical engineering this is natural: the frequency of the signals generated by the cell and fixed by the informational structure primarily depends on the character of the given structure. In other words, the frequency to a far higher degree depends on the location of the elements forming the structure than on their size. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 1? ro-31.10-2 1.10-- 1.0 P,mW/cm? 2^10-3 2.10-1 2.10-' P, M V//cm Z Fta. 9 Fla. S. Coefficient of induction of synthesis of colitsin as a function of the flow density of e.h.f. radiation [7]. FIG. 9. Duration of exposure (to-time of irradiation) as a function of the flow density of e.h.f. radiation for an unchanged biological effect: 1-minimum time taken to synchronize oscillations of all cells; 2-time required to synchronize oscillations of 15 per cent of the cells; 3-maximum exposure time for which synchronization of the oscillations of the cells still does not appear. However, the dynamics of the process of formation of informational structures cannot be influenced by the power of the signal causing them to form. To identify the nature of this influence a series of experiments was run. They determined, in particular, the dependence of the degree of synchronization of the oscillations in yeast cells on the duration and power of the signal acting on the cell suspension. The results of such an experiment are given in Fig. 9. The character of the dependence of the degree of synchronization on time is quite trivial. The greater the initial shift of frequencies of the oscillations generated by the cells from the frequency of the synchronizing signal the longer must be the process of synchronization determined by the rearrangement of the structure adhering to the membranes. Comparison of the dependences of the degree of formation of the informational structures on the exposure time and the power of the acting signal allows one to judge a great deal. As may be seen from Fig. 9, the power of the e.h.f. signal is connected with the time of exposure required to achieve a certain biological effect, a dependence close to exponential. With what is this connected? The biological effect is determined by the formation of informational structures. It may be assumed that acceleration of this process is connected with enlistment for their formation of protein molecules from layers of the cytoplasm more distant from the membrane but the e.h.f. field on moving away from the membrane drops exponentially (see above). Therefore, for the e.h.f. field forming the structures to reach the required value at a larger distance from the membrane the ex- ponential drop of the field must be compensated by an exponential rise in the external e.h.f. signal. It should be noted that thanks to fall in the amplitude of thee.h.f. field in a direction perpendic- ular to the membrane surface the molecules shift under the influence of the field not so much along this surface as are attracted to it [34]. Therefore, the process of the action of the e.h.f. field described on the molecules in the, volume of the cytoplasm explains not only the process of the formation of informational structures on the membranes (see, for example, Fig. 7) but also the process of drawing the protein molecules described in reference (35] to the surface of the membrane (Fig. 10) in condi- tions unfavourable for the functioning of the cell, i.e. in periods when in it restorative and adaptative processes develop. Apparently this process of drawing the protein molecules to the membrane sur- face organized by the e.h.f. field indicates that the role of the e.h.f. signals is not confined to deter- mination of the "direction" of the restorative activity of the cell. They take part in the process of mobilization of its resources which. is greater and more rapid the more intense the controlling signal. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 380 M. B. Got.Arrr tion of the phenomenon, the authors of reference (231 ran the following experiment similar to those described above with synchronization of the cell-generated oscillations by the external monochromatic e.h.f. signal. The only difference was that irradiation was with a signal modulated in frequency. The results are given in Fig. 12 showing that the greater the amplitude of frequency modulation (inevi- tability causing some initial desynchronization of the oscillations in the cells) the greater must be the power of the signal to achieve in a fixed time period a certain degree of synchronicity of cell division. Rise in the power required for synchronization with increase in the amplitude of frequency modulation is of an exponential character. In line with the analysis made in the preceding section the character of the dependence observed indices that in conditions of low coherence of the oscillations in the cells control of their functioning calls for high mobilization of the cell resources. This, in turn, may explain why the not-young or- ganism with its weakened links (including electromagnetic) apparently already unable to ensure high coherence of the. generated signals is more subject to disturbances and diseases. Consequently, it may explain why in the case of upsets of the functioning of the organism associated with disturbance of the intercellular or intracellular links (which would not cause this upset) exposure to external coherent e.h.f. signals at certain, i.e. determined by the character of the disturbance, frequencies has a beneficial effect on the restoration of normal functioning. We would note that the last experiment is very illustrative in terms of showing the non-thermal nature of the action of the e.h.f. effect: frequency modulation in a narrow range has practically no affect on the energy absorbed by the cells. At the same time as may be seen from Fig. 12, main- tenance of the biological effect requires an exponential increase in the energy expenditure. INTERCELLULAR E.H.F. LINK AND E.H.F. LINK IN THE VOLUME OF THE INTEGRAL MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM The preceding sections were mainly concerned with experiments involving intracellular processes. However, the experimentally established patterns presented equally apply to multicellular organisms and in the last case the local e.h.f. exposures may influence change in the functioning of the regions of the body quite remote from the irradiating surface. This calls for experiments answering the following questions: 1) how can the e.h.f. signals gene- rated by the cells be emitted beyond the cell (we would recall that as shown above the e.h.f. field in the normal state of the cell is pressed to the membrane surface over a distance -.1 nm); and 2) over which channels can the e.h.f. signals in the organisms spread over large distances? The first of these questions may be answered by the investigations (241 showing that emissions of the e.h.f. signals from the cell may be enhanced if on the membrane surface projections form with 'a height of several tens of Angstroms especially if several such projections acting as antennae shift relative to each other by distances close to the wavelength in the membrane (- 100 A) for the middle part of the e.h.f. range. In fact, the photographs of the membranes recorded with an electron micro- scope corresponding to the periods when the normal functioning of the cells was disturbed in one way or another revealed such projections -septa (near-membrane aggregates) with the dimensions indicated above (351 (Fig. 13). Such antennae may be used to transform part of the energy of the retarded to the energy of the non-retarded wave. If the antennae are situated at points of the resonance system at which the oscillations have an identical phase, i.e. at points separated by. distances equal to a whole number of wavelengths, and the length of the antennae is sufficient to take the oscillations from these points to the region where the amplitude of the retarded wave is heavily reduced then in this region the set of antennae will excite the non-retarded wave since at each given moment the field at-the ends of these. antennae is identical. Naturally, the non-retarded wave may be excited (though less effectively) by a single antenna. The main means of propagation in the body over distances of information associated with the excited e.h.f. oscillations appears to be the nervous system. The experiments of Sevast'yanova showed that anaesthesia like the sectioning of nerve fibres lessens the influence of e.h.f. impacts on the func- Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Action of electromagnetic radiations-of millimetre wave range on living organisms 381 tioning of the body. It was assumed that the e.h.f. signals spread via the myelin-lipid sheaths of the nerve fibres the e.h.f. losses in which are minimal (sea above). This conclusion was flit formulated in reference [25]. Such an assumption is also supported by the changes described in reference [35] in the character of these, sheaths in the regions of the nodes of Ranvier helping to establish a link between the neighbouring portions of the myelin sheaths in periods unfavourable for the normal functioning of the body. The probability of an e.b.f. link through the nervous system is also indicated 1110-9 i'10- Pu P,mW/cm2 FIG. 12 Fio. 13 FIG. 12. Dependence of the maximum amplitude of frequency modulation djfor which the frequen- cies of the oscillations in the cells can still be synchronized by external radiation for a power flux density P. Fio. 13. Formation of reactive structures of the membrane associated with its activation: endocytotic vesicle covered with protein aggregates [35]. by the enhancement described by the authors of [37] of the effect of e.h.f. signals on the body if the points of acupunture are directly exposed to e.h.f. radiation. Also possible is humoral transmission of the e.h.f. signals with the moving cells (primarily the blood cells) by generating oscillations of corresponding frequency. But the author does not have to hand the results of direct experiments confirming this assumption. REFERENCES 1. Radiocommunications -Terms and Definitions (in Russian) GOST 24375-80 U.S.S.R. State Standards Commission, 1980 2. PRESMAN, A. S., Electromagnetic Fields and Animate Nature (in Russian) Nauka, Moscow, 1968 3. DEVYATKOV, N. D., Effects of Non-Thermal Exposure to Millimetre Radiation on Biological Objects (in Russian) pp. 3-6, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1983 4. DEVYATKOV, N. D. and GOLANT, M. B., RE, No. 11, 1973, 1967 5. Idem., Pis'ma v ZhTF 12: 288, 1986 6. DEVYATKOV, N. D. et a!., Radiobiologiya 21:163,1981 7. SMOLYANSKAYA, A. Z. et al., Usp. sovr. biol. 87: 381, 1979 8. BAZANOVA, E. B. et al., Usp. fiz. nauk 110: 455, 1973 9. DEVYATKOV, N. D., Ibid. 110: 453, 1973 10. GOLANT, M. B., Biofizika 31: 139, 1986 11. WEBB, S. J., Phys. Lett. A73: 145, 1979 12. GRUNDLER, W. and KEILMANN, F., Phys. Rev. Lett. 51: 1214, 1983 13. DARDELHON, M. et a!., J. Microwave Power, No. 14 (4), 307, 1979 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 382 M. B. GOLANT 14. DEVYATKOV, N. D. et al., Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Problems of their Use and Standardization (in Russian) pp. 75-94, Pushchino, 1986 1S. DEVYATKOV, N. D. and GOLANT, M. G., Pis'ma v ZhTF 8: 38, 1982 16. FROHLICH, H., Molecular Models, Photoresponsiveness, pp. 39-42, NATO Adv. Study Inst., San Moniato, 29 Aug.-8 Sept. 1982-1983 17. KEILMANN, F., Collective Phenomena, Vol. 3, p. 169, 1981 18. BRYUKHOVA, A. K. et al., Elektron. tekbnika. Elektronika SVCh, No. 8 (380), 52, 1985 19. SEVAST'YANOVA, L. A. et al., Effects of Non-Thermal Exposure to Millimetre Radiation on Biological Objects (in Russian) pp. 34-47, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1983 20. VILENSKAYA, R. L. et a!., Nauch. dokl. vyssh. shkoly. Biol. nauki, No. 7, 59, 1979 21. ALEKSANDROV, V. Ya., Cell Reactivity and Proteins (in Russian) 317 pp., Nauka, Leningrad, 1985 22. GOLANT, M. B. et a!., Effects of Non-thermal Exposure to Millimetre Radiation on Biological Objects (in Russian) pp. 115-122, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1983 23. BOZHANOVA, T. P. et al., Elektron. prom-st', No. 1 (159), 35, 1987 24. GOLANT, M. B. and REBROVA, T. B., Radioelektronika 29*0, 1986 25. ROWLANDS, S., Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems, pp. 145-161, Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1983 26. GUERQUIN-KERN, J. L., These presentee n L'Unversite Louis Pasteur de Strasburg pour obtenir le titre de Docteur de Specialit6 en Electronique et Instrumentation, 1980 27. FROLICH, H., Adv. Electronics Electron. Phys. 53: 85-152, 1980 28. GOLANT, M. B. and SHASHLOV, V. A., Use of Low Intensity Millimetre Radiation in Biology and Medicine (in Russian), pp. 127-132, IRE, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1985 29. IVKOV, B. G. and BYERESTOVSKII, G. M., Lipid Bilayer of Biological Membranes (in Russian) 224 pp., Nauka, Moscow, 1982 30. LEBEDEV, L V., U.h.f. Techniques and Instruments (in Russian) 375 pp., Vyssh. shk., Moscow, 1972 31. BLINOWSKA; K. J. et al., Phys. Lett. A109:124,1985 32. BALIBALOVA, Ye. N. et al., Elektron. tekhnika. Elektronika SVCh, No. 8 (344), 6, 1982 33. TUSHMALOVA, N. A. and MARAKUYEVA, I. V., Comparative Physiological Investigation of Ultrastructural Aspects of Memory (in Russian) 148 pp., Nauka, Moscow, 1986 34. POHL, H. A., Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems, pp. 199-210, Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg, 1983 35. SOTNIKOV, O. S., Dynamics of the Structure of the Living Neurone (in Russian) 160 pp., Nauka, Leningrad, 1985 36. GOLANT, M. B. et al., Elektron. tekhnika. Elektronika SVCh, No. 8, 52, 1987 37. ANDREYEV, Ye. A. et al., DokI. Akad. Nauk UkrSSR, Ser. E, No. 10, 60, 1984 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 al -at.a - % of 31 dw (3) la 35 tivoi radi- et "vely; Cr a a oue lectron he -lec- r,n.sses it their it -Is- y rer a- hese ;e k d.il 3 ,an- . f-, that .r (4) ..),1eV (0 / 0 8/10':-C- 9P96-of6.78 ?U a density on Fermi quasilevel C (a) of the injection current dsij ) on the e temperature of of the electron we would have jth" 10-100 A/cm2 - at least an order of magnitude lower than the experimental threshold current density.' In these lasers, therefore, Auger recombination leads only to a heating of the electrons. The current in the active region of injection lasers results primarily from carrier diffusion,' so that we may ignore the Joule heating in Eq. (3) in this case: Further- more, the term rA in Eq. (1), which corresponds to Auger recombination, is assumed to be small in comparison with the rate of radiative recombination, r1. The dependence en e can of the threshold current on the lattice temperature now be determined from the onset of degeneracy of the electron gas, which can be found by solving system (1)-(3), with To fixed, and with T treated as a parameter. The expression for the rate of Auger recombination in this case is T a?- /Z? (T) } r (5) where E' ' (m1 and mll are the transverse and ` ~" II is the equilibrium longitudinal electron masses), ni('I) smooth function intrinsic electron density, and R (1) is a We evidently of the temperature T and is given in Ref. 4. have rl(T) "17 CI)n2, where y(T) is also a smooth function of T (Ref. 1). Figure 1 shows some typical curves of the position of the Fermi quasilevel t and of j lotted of the temperature T for various values of ag, plotted under the assumption TO < Ei. gas for various gap widths (e g' >egrh The maxima in these curves result from the activa- tional nature of the Auger recombination. Tetheh electron gas does not become degenerate when ~' (T) maximum (as on curve 2), the degeneracy sets in at a temperature T*N Ei which is essentially independent of the lattice temperature T0. This case corresponds to an S-shaped dependence of T on the pump current ~g the esti- mate Using the expression from Ref. 4 for R(T), and vg^' 10+7s-', one can show that for TO > 10 K curve corresponds to semiconductors with gap widths rg In summary, for injection lasers made from semi- conductors of this type the threshold pump current be- comes a function of the lattice temperature with Ei ^' 0.1 e g. This conclusion is in good agreement the experimental data. 'T. X. Hoal, K. H. Herrmann, and D. Genzow, Phys. Status Solidi A 64, 239 (1981). 2G. Nimtz, Phys. Rept. 63, 265 (1980). 3R. W. Keyes, Proc. IEEE 63, 740 (1975). 4P. R. Emtage, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2565 (1976). Translated by Dave Parsons Informational nature of the nonthermal and some of the energy effects of electromagnetic waves on a living organism N. D. Devyatkov and M. B. Golant (Submitted July 10, 1981; resubmitted November 26, 1981) Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 8, 39-41 (January 12, 1982) PACS numbers: 87.50.Eg, 87.10. + e It was noted a long time ago that living organisms may be affected significantly by electromagnetic waves in the radiofrequency range at a very low intensity, below that which would cause any significant heating of tissues.' 'these effects have been labeled "nonthermal" or "specific" effects. There are, however, no clear criteria for judging an effect to be "specific" (the fact that the temperature change is small cannot serve as such a criterion, if only because the wave energy and, hence the temperature can he increased significantly without affecting the results in several cases). In the absence of clear criteria, there have been difficulties in deciding whether an effect is a specific effect or a thermal effect (or an "energy" effectf)) in some particular case or other, and there has been some doubt that specific effects should be singled out as a special group. The phrase "specific effect" has frequency been replaced by "information effect" in more recent years, but this change does not eliminate the difficulties, since no clearer criteria for this concept have emerged. A study of the influence of millimeter-range electro- magnetic waves of a nonthermal intensity on living organ- isms of various complexity levels was published in 1973 (Ref. 2). The organisms studied ranged from microorgan- isms to mammals. Some general conclusions about these effects were formulated. Approved For Release 20gg@8/10 o ek,ArRD.I?e6.100792RODO b00700di ' m erican Institute of Physics ?ws i_ett 811?. _Ianuarv 1-stir 1) A f cec on the ve fregu~enc in a piece of evidence indicating that "specific" effects are of r~i ie - eldase.2 ,1 J;WR,96-007,2 ft'ADO : If an animal is subjected to a a small deviation from the frequencies at which the waves are most effective. 2) The effect is essentially independent of the intensity of the electromagnetic waves above a certain minimum (threshold) level and below the level at which a significant heating of tissues is observed. The reasons for the resonant nature of the effect have been discussed by several investigators (see Refs. 2-4, for example), while the second of these facts has not yet been convincingly explained. This second fact is apparent- ly the key to an understanding of the essence of informa- tion effects. We begin our discussion by considering one aspect of the operation of cybernetic devices used in technology. These devices work only in those cases in which the re- sults of their operation are not, over a broad range, af- fected by changes in the signals generated in the informa- tion-processing systems. The minimum signal levels required for operation of a device are usually determined by the requirements for shielding the device from noise and stray pickup. The maximum permissible signal levels are determined by the possibility of damage or of changes in the operating conditions of the device. Let us examine the situation in somewhat more detail. The input of the cybernetic device receives a set of signals - which represent the arriving information as a set of quantities and operations on these quantities. Emerging from the output of the device is a set of signals which resent information obstained as a result of the pro- re p cessing of the data which arrived at the input. The in- many diseases result from disruptions of information- formation which arrives at the input must be unambiguously processing and -transfer systems. In certain cases, related to the information taken from the output. therefore, the use of information effects may prove very As the device processes information received at its successful. input, however, auxiliary signals are generated in it. The level of these signals cannot be independent of the working state of the elements making up the device, and this work- ing state unavoidably changes over time. Consequently, cybernetic devices which ensure an unambiguous corre- spondence between the information received at the input and the information taken from the output can operate reliably only if this relationship does not depend, within the specified limitations, on the level of the auxiliary signals generated in the information-processing system. It is natural to suggest that in a living organism the level of the signals generated by the information-process- ing systems does not, over a broad range, influence the relationship between the received d information test of the informa- tion on the corresponding organ. tion effect on the organism, electromagnetic waves which d t F--- outside the organism may be similar (L L aUL.- _J ---- --- "specific" stimulus, tine region magnetic waves does not necessarily co~anaoin can i e wit} the affected region. The necessary transferred through one of the information-transfer char. nels in the organism. An important point is that the energy effects of the electromagnetic waves may simultaneously be inform atior effects on the organism. The interrelationship between the information effects and energy effects of a signal can be explained with the help of an example. The meaning of some text (information) does not depend on the intensity at which it is illuminated. On the other hand, the illumi- nation intensity determines the energy effect of the light on the eye. 'Accordingly, a distinctive feature which determines the informational nature of an effect of electromagnetic waves is not the absence of tissue heating but the essen- tial independence of the effect from the intensity of the electromagnetic waves over a broad range. In many case: (including those discussed in Ref. 2) an information effect on an organism is determined by the frequency (or, more generally, by the spectrum of frequencies) of the waves and is related to the resonant dependence of such effects on the wave frequency which we mentioned earlier. Since several organs and systems are working simul- taneously and in a coordinated manner in a living organist exchange of information between these organs and system: and processing of this information are absolutely neces- sary. Alterations in its information exchange may strong., la4 rti cu affect the working conditions of the organism; in pa t)The more rigorous term "energy effect- should be applied to any effect whose magnitude is decisively influenced by the amount of energy or power. 'A. S. Presman, Electromagnetic Fields and Animate Nature [in RussianJ, Nauka, Moscow (1968). z"Scientific Session of the Division of General Physics and Astronomy, Academy'of Sciences of the USSR (January 17-18, 1973)," Usp. Fiz. Nauk 110, 452 (1973) [Sov. Phys. Usp. 16, 568 (1974)]. 3H. Frohlich, Phys. Lett. 51A, 21 (1975). 4F. Kaiser, Symposium on the Electromagnetic Waves and Biology, CESA Center, France, June 30-July 1. 1980. are inci en , to signals generated by the information-processing systems of the organism itself. The discussion of threshold and maximum signals is similar to that above...There is another Translated by Dave Parsons Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 18 Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8(1), January 1982 8c. L. KAppukived Eoag [easePlNO@PA6F'id~9,G9`J lRE9P96-06 2~ ~~ynnh~t%86 ov, and v. G. Pavlov, Pia, . Suppl. 11, C6-459(1988). ' SO6 21986) (Sov. Tech. Phys- Lett. 3 1986)] 33 I 1 o Talantsev, J. Phys. (Paris) _, P Translated by D. P. 11J. A. Panitz, Rv. Sci. Instrum? 44, 1034 (1973). 9G'. Zaharchuk, L. V. Alvensleben, M. oehring, and P. Haasen, J. Phys. (Paris) 49, Coll. C6, Suppl. 11, C6-471 (1988). 10G. A. Mesyats, N. N. Syutkin, V. A. Ivchenko, and E. F. il C6 Sunni. 11, C6-477(1988). 49 C Role of coherent waves in pattern recognition and the use of intracellular information M. B. Golant and P. V. Poruchikov (Submitted December 15, 1988) Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 15, 67-70 (August 26, 1989) It was shown in Refs. 1 and 2 that the coherent acoustoelectric waves which are generated by cells (and whose length is smaller than that of electro- magnetic waves by a factor of about a million) may play a role as a high-information-content facility in the acquisition of data about processes involving breakdown of the normal operation of the cells. The rate at which information is processed and the amount of information which is processed, how- ever, depend to a large extent on the manner in which this information is perceived and processed. From this standpoint, the most effective methods are pattern recognition and processing of informa- tion in complex organisms. The perception of a visual pattern is usually cited to illustrate this point. The human eye, for example, has about 250.106 receptors, which simultaneously perceive different elements of the object being observed, establishing in the brain a pattern similar to that of this ob- ject. 3 This circumstance is of exceptional conven- ience for mental manipulation of the pattern as a unified whole and results in huge savings in both the memory and the processing facilities required for the manipulation. The result of the processing of information is then realized in actions which are carried out at the level of organs (hands, feet, muscles, etc.). The human brain, however, which has only about 10s-1010 cells, cannot perform a modeling of the processes which are carried out at the cellular level in an organism, since the number of cells in an organism is 1014-1011. For this rea- son, processes at the cellular level may be con- trolled primarily by systems of the cells themselves. R. Vikhrov's suggestion that any pathology is re- lated to a pathology of a cell remains important even today. It is natural to ask whether the perception and processing of information about breakdown, which are carried out in cells by means of coherent waves in the extremely-high-frequency range are of a pat- tern nature. A stress reaction of an organism as a whole (a nonspecific response of an organism to a change in its condition of existence) is, from the standpoint of phases of adaptation to changes, sim- ilar to the responses of a cell to unfavorable changes (Ref. 4). It might thus be suggested that there is a similarity in the organization of the control. further, as described briefly in Ref. 5, among other places. This work has led to the suggestion that the organic changes in a cell which lead to a dis- ruption of the shape of cellular membranes result from the excitation of coherent standing acoustoelec- tric waves in these membranes. These waves are presumably most intense in regions of a disruption. The frequency of the oscillations is determined by the nature of the disruptions. Theoretical work has shown 1) that the field of these waves, which are partially radiated into the surrounding space and converted into electromagnetic waves, causes the dipoles of protein molecules which are oscillating at frequencies close to the frequencies of the waves excited in the membrane to be attracted toward the membrane. The attractive forces acting on the pro- tein molecules are proportional to sin 2 wt cos [ (2 it / A) A.] , where A is the length of the acoustoelectric wave, and. 1 is the coordinate along the surface of the membrane. These attractive forces are periodic (their period is A, rather than A/2, as in stand- ing waves). These forces are weak enough that a flux of protein molecules toward the membrane is formed as a result of a gradual buildup of directed displacements against the background of Brownian motion. In the immediate vicinity of the surface of the membrane, a force determined by the interaction of the polarization field, which is strong (10 7 V/m), with the constant component of the dipole moment of the protein molecules acts on the dipoles of these molecules. As a result, kinetic energy is trans- ferred from the protein molecules to the membrane (the average transfer is kT). The collisions. of the protein molecules may eliminate the distortion of the shape of the membranes. Protein molecules adhering to the membrane execute oscillations which are sustained by virtue of metabolic energy in the cell. Being synchronized by the oscillations in the membrane, they may trans- fer this energy to the alternating field of acousto- electric waves which are excited there, thereby re- plenishing the energy expended on controlling the moving flux of protein molecules . 6 There is a clear distinction here between the control process and the energy process of eliminat- The control process is pre- deformations th i . e ng dd 1~ dd Ti;p' 1W~2e1~e 2~0]~8/~enClXvID~96-0?~~~}61000 0001 gg of the flux of protein mole- Sov. Tech. Phvs. Lett. 15(8), Aug. 1989 0360-1 20X/89/08 0649.02 $02.00 ? 1990 American Institute of Physics cules tAgipcoftitbF1mdRWVbS6 >Mt> WFM -007921 0 of external radiation to a cell of weak alternating components of the field of acous- is effective tote extent that it corresponds to the toelectric waves and the fields of the electromagnetic coherent intrinsic radiation which is generated by oscillations into which the acoustoelectric waves con- the cells upon corresponding disruptions. vert upon radiation. In the course of the energy Since the pathology of the overall organism is, process, on the other hand, the protein molecules as we have already mentioned, related to a cellular transfer the average kinetic energy of their thermal pathology, the ? same frequencies may prove useful motion to the membrane in the region in which it in the healing of quite different diseases. Indeed, is distorted. The process of eliminating pathological the first studies in this direction have revealed that deformations is essentially a "self-healing" of the the spectrum of the biological action of oscillations cells. of a certain frequency is very wide, and, while a From the standpoint of the answer to the question posed above, this process can be inter- preted in the following way. The distribution of the amplitude and the frequency of the coherent waves excited in the membrane reflects the nature of the disruptions in the membrane. In other words, It is the pattern of shape disruptions of the membrane, coded in the frequency and distribution of the am- plitude of the field, which affects the processes which occur in the interior of the cell (here, the energy processes are also included), leading to the elimination of the disruptions and the maintenance of homeostasis. It seems to us that this interpretation of the process is of more than theoretical importance. It might also have some substantial practical conse- quences. Since the frequencies of the oscillations ex- cited in the membrane are determined primarily by the nature of the distortions of the shape of the membrane, identical distortions in different parts of a membrane will lead to the excitation of the same frequencies. The nature of the disruptions of the functioning of a cell (the nature of the "disease") t however, depends on the orientation of the distor- tion with respect to the positions of the cellular organelles. In other words, the same oscillation fre- quencies may cooperate to eliminate different dis- ruptions. The richness of the pattern perception of information about intracellular changes and of the certain spectrum of generated frequencies corre- sponds to a certain type of disruption, the inverse conclusion cannot be drawn: A certain frequency spectrum of actions (i.e., only one of the coding factors) may correspond to the possibility of healing different disruptions. 1N. D. Deyatkov and M. B. Golant, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. $, 39 (1982) [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. $, 17 (1982)]. 2N. D. Devyatkov and M. B. Golant, Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. ]g, 288 (1986) [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. J Z, 118 (1986)]. 3L. A. Cooper and R. N. Shepard, Sci. Am. 251, No. 12, 106 (Dec. 1984). 4A. D. Braun and T. P. Mozhenok,.Nonspecific Adaptive Syndrome [in Russian], Nauka, Leningrad (1987). 5M. B. Golant, in: Problems of Physical Electronics [in Russsian], M. I. Kalinin Polytechnical Institute and A. F. loffe Physico- technical Institute, Leningrad (1988). 6M. B. Golant and T. B. Rebrova, Radioelektronika No. 10, 10 (1986). pattern control of actions performed on these changes is determined by the frequency-coordinate nature of the perception. Translated by D. P. Defect formation in thin films bombarded with high-energy protons S. G. Lebedev . Institute of Nuclear Research, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Submitted February 9, 1989; resubmitted June'28, 1989) Pis'ma A. 'rekh. Fiz. 15, 70-72 (August 26, 1989) . The radiation-induced structural defects in solids bombarded by high-energy protons, of energy T > 100 MeV, are determined by both elastic (elec- tromagnetic and nuclear) and inelastic interactions of the primary protons with the target atoms. The recoil nuclei which acquire energy as a result of nuclear interactions of protons create atom-atom col- lision cascades which are greater in extent than the cascades which start at the atoms that are the first ejected from their positions in Coulomb inter- and these recoil nuclei are primarily re- ? - actions , sponsibliAPPrOV8JM*8% osecMM/10 CIA-RDP96 00792R00010007000'f E~ is the minimum energy suf- A fraction rt(T) of the energy of a recoil nucleus Is expended on electronic excitation, while another fraction v(T) is expended on the formation of radia- tion-induced point defects in elastic interactions of the recoil nucleus with target atoms. The NRT stand- ard2 is widely used to calculate the function v(T). To evaluate the rate at which point defects are gen- erated by radiation, we need to know the effective cross section for defect formation, ad, and the num- ber of defects, nd = v(T)/(2Ed), produced by the first-ejected atoms in the cascade of subsequent 660 Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15(8), Aug. 1989 . 0360 120X/89/08 0850-02 $02.00 ? 1990 American Institute of Physics 650 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Biophysics Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 952-954, 1983 0006-3509183 510.00+.00 Printed in Poland c 1934 Pergamon Press Ltd. DISCUSSION ROLE OF SYNCHRONIZATION IN THE IMPACT OF WEAK ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS OF THE MILLIMETRE WAVE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS* N. D. DEVYATKO\', M. B. GOLANT and A. S. TAGER (Recerred 28 September 1982) The possible mechanism of the action of weak electromagnetic radiation on living organisms is discussed based on the assumption of electromechanical autofluctuations of cell substruc- tures (for example, portions of the membranes) as the natural state of living cells. It has been established that synchronization of these autofluctuations by external electromagnetic radiation leads to the appearance of internal information signals acting on the regulatory systems of the body. This hypothesis helps to explain the known experimental data. IT is known that the electromagnetic radiation of the milimetre wave range e.m.r. of very low (non-thermal, i.e. not appreciably heating the tissues) power may exert a fundamental action on various living organisms from viruses and bacteria through to mammals (1]. The spectrum of the e.m.r. induced biological effects is also extremely wide - from change in enzymatic activity, growth rate and death of microorganisms through to protection of bone marrow haematopoiesis against the action of ionizing radiations and chemical preparations (1]. Many years of experimental re- search have established the main patterns of the action of e.m.r.: its "resonance" character (the biological effect is observed in narrow-from tenths of a per cent to percentage units-frequency intervals and starting from a certain threshold value practically does not depend on the intensity of the e.m.r.); the high reproducibility of the resonance frequencies in repeat experiments; `memo rization' by the organism of the action of the e.m.r. over a more or less long period if irradiation lasts a sufficiently long time (usually not less than 1 hr); the non-critical nature of the observed biological effect to the irradiated portion of the animal body, etc. (2). The most general conclusion arising from analysis of the patterns identified is that thea~ry of the e.m.r. on live organisms is not of an energetic but information character (2, 31, the pr effect of the e.m.r. being realized at cell level and asociated with biostructures common to different organisms. Such structures may be, in particular, elements of cell membranest with a considerable dipole electric moment, molecules of protein enzymes, etc., for which, as shown by evaluations the frequencies of the natural mechanical vibrations lie (depending on the speed of sound) in the inter' val (0?S-5) x 1010 Hz. Below is described the most probable, in our view, mechanism of action of e.m.r. on fluctuation in cell structures and the appearance of information signals in the body.t ? Biofizika 28: No. 5, 895-896, 1983. t Such an assumption has been advanced by many investigators. S. Ye. Bresler was the first to point out this possibility to the authors. iderod t The problem of transformation of information signals into control signals is not cons here. [952] Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Role of synchronization in impact of weak electromagnetic signals 1153 IV initial assumption is that in'the living organism and in the absence of external action all std&CI Uaa P Printed in Poland POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF THE SPECIFIC ACTION OF PULSED U.H.F. FIELDS* R. E. TIGRANYAN Institute of Biological Physics, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Moscow Region) (Received 29 May 1986, after revision 20 January 1987) The conditions of excitation of mechanical vibrations by u.h.f. pulses model liquiids d ha been studied experimentally. The possible role of the different types biological significancc r specific effects demonstrated. reviewed. From the results a hYPO' b fu.pulsed OLE h f. pulses sfields of the the excited formation shear vibrations of P o ? s uT thesis is suggested on the acoustic nature of the mechanism of the specific_ by effects u.hof. pu `biological objects of shear wave u.h.f. fields as a result of generation in ` THE identification of the mechanism of the biological action of pulsed electroma Lids (e.m.f.) of ultrahigh frequency (u.h.f.) is becoming exceptionally important the wide adoption of pulsed u.h.f. instruments and systen& with themost vanLions. Enormous factual material has been gathered and different hypotheses mechanism of action proposed. 18>a' Many effcts called son-thermal (specific) have still not been properly - eX Such eff.:cts include disturbances associated with the functioning of exciti.bls str j E ~ ~~- eft that are,_quite inexplicable from the standpoint of the quantity of absorced + Blofizika 33: No. 4, 698-702, 1988. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Specific action of pnleed u.h.f. W& 733 pulses The effects described in these cammunuications most clearly de- 1 S (- J? _ ? resence o undo pathway of the transformation of the absorbed Pe ate the_ p n nT omag1 tic u.h.f. energy. Eidi j6] notes that there must be a certaitransfeer on, _?re ectromagnetic wave between the cell and the el than the heat released info To amplifier M. 1. Schematic representation of the recording node of the mechanical vibrations excited ~~ liquid: 1-tube containing liquid; 2-rectangular waveguide; 3-piezo crystal; ,5-spring; 6-h.f. cable; 7-centring ring; 8-screen; 9-insulating washer. impinging on the object. More than twenty years ago Kamenskii [7] investigating the action of pulse e.m.f. of ultrahigh frequency on the parameters of conduction of excita- tion along a nerve concluded that in such a regime of the action of this physical factor summation of the local changes occurs in the nerve preparation. In the present work a ypothesis is advanced on the acoustic nature of themechanism of the biological action of u.h.f. pulsed e.m.f., i.e. transformation of part of the absorbed electromagnetic energy of the Pulse into quite intense mechanical vibrations capable of actively influencing the functional state of the object is taken as a t r a n s f e r function. It is known[ 11 that on absorption of the energy of a u.h.f. pulse there forms in the medium a thermal pulse the fronts of which char&es in the volume of the object leading to the formation in it of mechanical vibrations. The authors of the present paper had his interest aroused in this phenomenon in connexion with the results of comparison of some non-thermal mani- festations of the action of pulsed u.h.f. fields and the action of ultrasound on objects of the same type. It turns out that the effects observed are qualitatively adequate [12-181. This led to the conclusion that dut$ the pulsed awn of u.h.f, in biological objects Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 754 R E. TIGRANYAN tuq 'te intense mechanical vibrations must be excited apable?of actively influencing the functional state of the object. Yet the calculated pressure values of the mechanical vibra- tions presented in [9, 19] are lower by 4-5 orders (by 8-10 orders in intensity) than those capable of leading to functional or pathological disturbances. To clarify the question we ran a series of experiments on modl systems-liquids of organic and inorganic origin and,biolojicalects (the intact brain of the rat,,.apreparation of the frog tibial nerve and an erythrocyte suspension. The block diagram includes a u.h.f. generator with a pulse power of 70 W at a carrier frequency of 800 MHz, a rectangular waveguide in the running wave regime, a piezo- ceramic mechanical vibration detector, a linear amplifier and a S1-54 oscillograph. The obj:cts were irradiated in a tube positioned in the diametral plane of the waveguide. Figure 1 presents the design of the node of fixation of the tube and recording of the mechanical vibrations excited in a liquid. The power flux density in the pulse in the wave- guide was 2 W/cm2. The height of the liquid column in the tube was varied from 30 to 50 mm. The test of whether these vibrations actually originated from the test liquid was the velocity of sound in a given liquid determined from the relation [20] C=41f C=41/ndr, where I is the height of the liquid column, em; f is the frequency of the excited mechanical vibrations, sec' i; dr is the time marking of the sweep of the oscillogragh, sec; n is the number of markings per period. The liquid column is regarded as a four-wave acoustic resonator. The duration of the pulses in the experiments ranged between 10-1 and 10-' sec and the repetition frequency was 10-10` Hz. Figure 2 presents an oscillogram of the mechanical vibrations excited in ethanol. With change in the duration of the u.h.f. pUl5 periodic changes (maxima and minima) in the amplitude of the excited mechanical vibrations were observed. The amplitude of the resulting vibration is determined by the relation AF =[Aj+A=+2AjA=wa X+ ?, ?' L where A i AO a"d; A2 -.4 oe are the amplitudes of the dying oscillations excited b7 the leading and trailing edges of the thermal pulse. Thus the fronts of the thermal P' may be regarded as two independent sources of mechanical vibrations. Such an apPr0 to the effect observed is also supported by the fact that with change in the duration of tbs wide u-h.f. pulse (for a duration of the u.h.f. pulse equal to several periods of the C"Citei mechanical vibrations) the amplitude of the mechanical vibrations excited by the leadifli edge remains unchanged and only that of the mechanical vibrations excited by the tram edge of the thermal pulse changes. With change in the duration of the u.h.f. pulses 04 only does the amplitude of the vibrations change but, also the character of the a10 process-at ri=(2n+1)T/2 the process of generation of the mechanical vibrations continuous if the repetition frequency of the u.h.f pulses is close to the resonance fW aw Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Specitlc ac don of pal'od u..f. geld Fia. 2. Oscillogram of mechanical vibrations excited in ethanol. icy of the object or waning: at t =nT it degenerates into packets of mechanical per excited nbrations following at the frequency of the u.h.f: pulses be o slanted ff om thetsensitivity mechanical vibrations). The pressure amplitude may was - 0-3 of the detector equal to 10' 6 V?dyt~toof 20-30 mVhFromsthis one may determine for an amplitude of the signal on the de the intensity of the excited mechanical vibrations using the known relation I, W/cm2 =p2/2pc . gutaineting the values ccn2 presented a we iO s W/cm=OThe values of the pressurles solution and int ne obtained respectively 0. 1 1 N/ N/m sities of the excited mechanical vibrations obtained correspond the resonance resonan a of the frequcies or models used. At frequencies of u.h.f. pulses not equal o t their subharmonics the amplitude of the electric signal of the detector falls 50-100 fold. Thus the system studied when exposed to a pulse of electromagnetic energy must be regarded as a contour of impact excitation in which on exposure to an external pertur- bation free vibrations appear with a frequency close to that of resonance i.e. in evaluating pressure and intensity the quality factor of the system must be heeded. In pure liquids as is known only longitudinal mechanical vibrations are excited. In heterogeneous systems, for which the shear modulus G,0 on excitation of the longitudinal waves, shear waves are also excited. Consequently, in a real biological object a shear component with a frc uency equal to that of the longitudinal wave will also be present. If we start from the known findings that the velocity of the shear wave is less by 2-3 orders than that of the longitudinal wave and attenuation is 105 times greater [211 then for the frequency range of the excitable mechanical vibrations ,,, 104 Hz (which is ob- served in many experiments) the intensity of the shear vibrations may be evaluated as follows. For an intensity of the longitudinal waves - 10-6 W/cm2 in the absence of expended W/c m2. In view of resonance the intensity of the shear then shear waves cent, the run of 2-3 the heavy attenuation, the energy of wavelengths, i.e. at a distance - 300.um. If the heterogeneities of the object are regarded as. point sources of such waves then in a sphere of 3 x 1Q'2 cm radius surface area c=1Q-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 cm2 and volume V=10-` cm3, the density of the energy will be 10-2 W/cm3. It may be assumed that the maximum action of the shear waves will occur at the boundary of the lipid membranes in view of the considerable difference in the dielectric constants of the membrane ar:d ambient medium leading to increase in the local energy of the u.h.f. e.m.f. by three orders. In this case the energy density of the shear waves will reach 10 1' Fro. 3 Fro. 4 Fia. 3. Relative changes in the speed of conduction of the wave of excitation (1) and the amplitude of the action potential (a.p.) (2) of the nerve preparation on synchronization of u.h.f. irradiation with the latent period. 1' and Y- Results of control measurements with change in the speed of coo- duction of the wave of excitation and amplitude of the action potential. Fro. 4. Change in the speed of conduction of the wave of excitation (1) and the amplitude of the sa tion potential (2) of the nerve preparation on thermal heating. W/cm'. Thus, even in the_ case of non resonance excitation of the mechanical vibes' lions the energy d. nsit of the shear waves is biologicallysignificant and far exceeds the threshold values. Comparison of the results on the non-thermal effects of u.h.f. pulsed e.m.f. on e0i' table structures with data on the effects of ultrasound showed the single direction d the effect record.d. Thus, on exposure of the frog nerve preparation to u.h.f. pId'a lasting 3-5 msec with a repetition frequency of 17-23 Hz the speed of conduction of the excitation wave and the amplitude of the action potential (4.p.) decrease (511. 3) on total heating of the preparation by not more than 1 K, the shifts of the parametc" studied being observed on synchronization of the ut.h.f. pulse with a latent pe1l ' With a shift of the u.h.f. pulse in time relative to the latent period the effects disappeO' the values of the record. -d parameters concur with those for the control objects Thus, for equality of the u.h.f. energy supplied in the two case the effect is >n only on synchronization of the u.h.f. pulse with the active state of the preParatiO& A qualitatively similar picture is seen for preparations of the isolated frog hem innervated muscle [2, 31. H:ating these preparations ought to lead to the known oPP?' site results (231 (Fig. 4). It is significant that for aU the preparations indicated incr' Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 C, % 30 90 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Specific action of pulsed u.hL fiekU `, `737 the tition frequency, i.e. increase in the density of the power flux, led to their repe qualitative agreement of the effect with those observed on ther- {~preciable heating and quell 4 >ooo] heating. The values of the amplitudes of the pressures and intensities of the excited mechan- vibrations obtained and also the evaluation of the volumetric energy density of shear waves allow one to draw a conclusion on the biological significance of the lat- ter On their excitation by u.h.f. pulses. REFERENCES TIGRANYAN, R. E. and TYAZHELOV, V. V., Summ. Report All-Union Symp. "Biological Action of Electromagnetic Fields" (in Russian) p. 12, Pushchino, 1982 TIG1ANYAN, R. E. and PARSADANYAN?, A. Sh., Ibid. p. 13 JIGRANYAN, R. E. et at., Ibid. p. 14 4. 1NSEU, G. L., Physiotherapy (in Russian) Vol. 3, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1938 s, gHOLODOV, Yu. A., Advances in Physiological Sciences (in Russian) p. 48, 1982 6. EMI, U. R., TITER Vol. 68, No. 1, January 1980 7. IfAMENSKII, Yu. I., Biofizika 9: 6, 1964 DANILOVSKAYA, V. I., Priki. mat. mekh. 14: 695, 1950; 316, 1950; 16: 341, 1952 FOSTER, K. It. and FINCH, Science 185: 256, 1974 la WHITE, R. M., J. Appl. Phys. 34: 3559, 1963 11. GOURNAY, L. S., J..Acoust. Soc. Amer. 40:1322,1966 12. KAZARINOV, K. D. at al., Summ. Reports All-Union Symp. "Biological Action of Electro- magnetic Fields" (in Russian) p. 42, Pushchino, 1982 11 FRy, W. J. D. and TUCKER, D., J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 23: 627, 1951 14. HAUSSMANN, H. G. and KEHLER, H., Optic 7: 321, 1950 is. HAUSSMANN, H. G. et al., Hygien. 134: 565, 1952 16. LEHMANN, J. at al., Strahlentherapie 83: 311, 1950 17 SARVAZYAN, A. P. and PASHOVKIN, T. N., Proc. UBIOMED-IV. Vol. 1, Visegrad, Hun- gary, 1973 is. 7ISMANN, H. and WALLHAUSER, K. N., Naturwissenschaften 37:185,1950 19. JAMES, C., Microwave Auditory Effects and Application, 1978 2D. ALEXANDER, It., Biomechanics (in Russian) Mir, Moscow, 1970 21. SARVAZYAN, A. P. at al., The Role of Shear Properties of Biological Tissues in Ultrasonic Bioeffects. Abstracts UBIOMED VII. p. 54, Eisenach, G.D.R., 6 22. TIGRANYAN, R. E., Hypothesis on the Acoustic Nature of the Mechanism of the Biological Action of Pulse u.h.f. Fields (in Russian) ONTI NTsBI, Pushchino, 198.4 2.1. VEPRINTSEV, V. N., Dissert. Cand. Biol. Sci. (in Russian) Moscow State University, 1960 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Biophysics Vol. 30 No. 5, pp. 975-981, 1985 OOO6-3509185 S10.00+.00 proted in Poland Pergamon Journals Ltd. pHYSICAL MODELLING OF THE ACOUSTIC EFFECTS ON EXPOSURE OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS TO U.H.F. FIELDS * R. E. TIGRANYAN and V. V. SHOROKHOV Institute of Biological Physics, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Moscow Region) (Received 5 March 1984) A physical model of radiosound is proposed based on the phenomenon of excitation of mechanical vibrations in liquid medis on absorption of the energy, of_ u.h.f._ pulses. It is shown that a restricted volume of liquid may be regarded as an acoustic resonator with ana- tural frequency of vibrations. Interference occurs for certain ratios between the period of suc- cession and the duration of the pulses. Oscillograms of the mechanical vibrations recorded are presented. An explanation of the low frequency type of radiosound is offered. It is con- cluded that the proposed method of investigating the phenomenon of radiosound is correct. WORK on the effect of radiosound [1-5] has reliably confirmed the appearance of sub- clive sound sensations on irradiation of the human head with a pulse-mo a ated ..h.f. field. Nevertheless, there is still no conclusively formed idea of the mechanisms of origin of such sensations. The socalled thermo-elastic hypothesis of the mechanism of radiosound proposed by Lin [6] is the best researched and most consistent. Its es- ,ence is to assume that absorption of the energy of the u.h.f. field occurs not uniformly over the whole volume of the brain but is concentrated in its very narrow re ions ("hot spots") with their subsequent rapid thermal expansion and detection on the skull bones. Thanks to the presence of bone conductivity the .mechanical vibrations reach the organs of hearin where the sound image also forms. But since the author ,)f this hypothesis r e g a r d s the head as an acoustic resonator he derives a number of consequences consistent with some experiments on radiosound. However, this theory cannot explain a large body of experimental evidence and is in conflict with some of 'l. Therefore, it may be desirable in order to define certain aspects of this phenomenon ..o stage experiments on models which would exclude a subjective evaluation by the ubject of a particulai characteristic of the effect. Foster and Finch observed excitation n a cubic vessel with a side of 300 mm filled with 0.15 M KC1 solution of mechanical vibrations on exposure to a pulsed u.h.f. field [7]. This phenomenon was taken as the basis of our experiments. X9751 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 976 R. E. TIGRANYAN and V. V. SHOROKHOV In choosing the conditions of the experiments the authors sought to follow the parameters and characteristics of the objects known from the literature on the pheno- menon of radiosound and also the conditions of earlier experiments. As objects we used I M NaCl solution and ethyl alcohol poured into tubes with an internal diameter 7 mm and height 100 mm. The height of the column of liquid changed within the limits 30-50 mm. The choice of I M NaCI solution is explained by the fact that the electrical and acoustic parameters of a given liquid, according to [6], correspond to the parameters of brain tissue. The choice of ethyl alcohol was largely arbitrary thou eh dictated by the wish to show that the advent of mechanical vibrations on irradiatio with e m f pulses is not exclusively the property of electrolytes but.occurs to an e u.d dg,ree for non-conducting pure liquids. Irradiation was carried out in a rectangulL- waveguide with section 31 x 240 mm'. To raise the concentration of the field in the zone of the tube on the wide wall of the waveguide was sealed a brass tube of height u.h.f. generator Pulse generator Amplifier Oscillograph FIG. 1. Circuit diagram of experimental apparatus. 50 mm with an internal diameter 14 mm. The power of the generator in the pulse Y.a' 72 W, the repetition frequency of the pulses changed within the limits 10-3000 HI. and the duration of the pulses was 10 psec-1 msec. The mechanical vibrations excited in the liquid were recorded by a bimorphous crystal. The variable electrical signal recorded from the detector was amplified with a UBP1-02 bipotential amplifier and recorded on the screen of a S1-19B oscillograph. As source of u.h.f. e.m.f. we used .i modified GS-6 generator, carrier frequency 0.8 GHz. In [6, 71 this phenomenon i> considered on exposure to e.m.f. pulses with a carrier frequency of 918-2400 MHL from which it may be concluded that the character of the effect over a wide frequency range is quite general. The apparatus at the disposal of the authors operates at the frequency of 800 MHz which is quite close to the values presented in the literaturte. Modulation of the u.h.f. vibrations with pulses of square form was carried out "Vi a G5-54 generator. The circuit diagram of the apparatus is indicated in Fig. I. Figure crystal shows arrangement of the tube with liquid in the waveguide and bimorphous ciy used as detector of the mechanical vibrations. Preliminary investigation established that the amplitude of the vibrations in the tube filled with ethyl alcohol is considerably higher than in the case of NaCl solution. Qualitatively the character of the vibration" for these and other liquids used in the experiments completely matches. Therefore. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Acoustic effects on exposure of biological systems to u.h.f. fields 977, for convenience of description below we give the results 'obtained for ethyl alcohol if no special qualifications are made. Figures 3 and 4 give the oscillograms of the mechanical vibrations for the dif- ferent time parameters of the e.m.f. u.h.f. pulses. For long durations (Fig. 4) the vibra- tions excited by both fronts of the thermal pulse are clearly. visible. The vibration in ,he duration of the e.m.f. u.h.f. pulse with interference between the mechanical vibra- tions excited by the leading and trailing edges is observed. The periodicity of the ap- pearance of the maxima (minima) of the amplitude of the mechanical vibrations r 1,1f where fis the frequency of the vibrations excited in the liquid, is inversely propor- tional to the height of the liquid column. The graphs (Figs. 5 and 6) indicate the dFpendence of the amplitude of the excited. mechanical vibrations on the duration of the acting pulse. The frequency of the mechan- ical vibrations was determined from the zero beats between these vibrations and the acoustic signal from an electrodynamic emitter. The emitter was 30 cm away from the tube with detector. At the moment of equality of the frequencies of the tonal acoustic signal and the mechanical vibrations excited in the liquid zero beats were observed on the oscillograph screen. In this case the detection itself served as a vibration mixer. Simultaneously on rearrangement of the frequency of the sound generator beats are 3 Fio. 2. Arrangement of tube with liquid in waveguide and bimorphous crystal in tube: I - detec- tor of mechanical vibrations (bimorphous crystal); 2 - test liquid; 3 - packing (fluoroplast); 4 - co- axial cable; 5 - test tube; 6 - tube; 7 - waveguide. Fio. 3 Pso. 4 FIG. 3. Mechanical vibrations excited in ethyl alcohol with a short u.h.f. pulse (duration of pulse 'less than the half period of mechanical vibrations). Fia.4. Mechanical vibrations exicited in ethyl alcohol with a wide u.h.f. pulse (duration of' the pulse amounts to several periods of the mechanical vibrations). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 A, r el.un. 1E 0 10 2 3 10 t, psec 0 Fic. 5. Amplitude of mechanical vibrations excited in 1 M NaCl solution as a function of the du- ration of the u.h.f. pulse. FIG. 6. Amplitude of mechanical vibrations excited in ethyl alcohol as a function of the duration of the u.h.f. pulse. observed between the repetition frequency of the e.m.f. u.h.f. pulses and the fre- quency of the acoustic vibrations from the electrodynamic emitter. The beats are re- corded whenever the frequency of the acoustic vibrations is, .multiple of the, pulscd repetition frequency. As an example, Fig. 6 gives the oscilloram of such beats. The frequency of the acoustic signal is 6 x 101 Hz and the pulse repetition frequency of the e.m.f. u.h.f. is 1.5 x 103 Hz. Zero beats may be observed when these frequencies ate equal. An interesting feature of the experiments is that the vibrations excited in the liquid have an intensity sufficient for their auditory perception from a distance of up to I in. The beats of the acoustic signal and vibiations excited in the liquid may also be per- ceived by hearing. In this case the mixer of mechanical vibrations emitted by the tube with liquid and electrodynamic emitter is the auditory apparatus of the observer. The zero beats on hearing may be recorded in parallel with their visual observation on the oscillograph screen. The values of the frequency of the natural vibrations of the liquid obtained by the method of zero beats recorded byte detector concur with those determined on hearing. Similarly, parallel recording on the osci'ilograph screen and on hearing of the maxima and minima of the amplitude of the free vibrations the appearance of which is due to the presence. of interference in the_ vt_bratory system is possible. Interference appears not only through change in the duration "of the pulses (Figs. 5 and 6) at a low frequency of their succession. With increase in the repetition frequency of the pulses and for a short duration of them the excited mechanical vibrations do not have time to wane in the pauses between pulses and starting from a certain value, of the repetition frequency interference of the mechanical vibrations is also observed: with agreement of the signs of the initial phases of the vibrations their amplitude grows, in counter-phase the vibrations die away (Fig. 7). At these moments a lower tone corresponding to the pulse repetition frequency is clearly perceived. In the experiment increase in the in- tensity of the low frequency vibrations perceived on hearing is noted with fall in the repetition frequency of the pulses down to 10 Hz. This is explained by the fact that Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 A, relun. 1 0 10 102 10d t,,usec Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Acoustic effects on exposure of biological systems to u.h.f. fields 979 in the energy spectrum with fall in the pulse repetition frequency the amplitude of the low frequency spectral component increases [8]. The tone corresponding to the free vibrations of the system is perceived on hearing starting from a pulse repetition fre- quency of the order 250 Hz. Fio. 7 Flo. 8 FiG. 7. Beats between pulse repetition frequency and frequency of acoustic signal, a multiple of the pulse repetition frequency. FiG. 8. Quenching of excited mechanical vibrations as a result of interference. We also ran experiments on the character of the mechanical vibrations in liquid-fi'1? d beads on their irradiation with pulsed e.m.f. u.h.f. All the other conditions corresponded to those described earlier. A bead of diameter 20 mm with a tube 9 cm long filled with ethyl alcohol has a resonance frequency of about 9 kHz and filled with I M NaCI solution of the order I1 kHz. For a bead of diameter 30 mm with a tube 8 cm long the corresponding values are 6.4 and 8 kHz. A sealed 30 mm bead containing alcohol has a resonance frequency of 7.8 kHz. The results permit some assumptions on the possible mechanism of radiosound. The clarity of the effect investigated in the experiments, the possibility of direct auditory perception and visual observation on the oscillograph screen of the vibrations excited in the liquid oil rrradiatto of the, tube with pulsed e.m.f. u.h.f. support the assumption that the effect of radiosound is due to the same processes as generation of sound vibra- ions in a test tube containing liquid; namely: transformation of the diminishing e.m.f. energy into the mechanical energy of the absorbing substance. From this point of view the object on which the investigations were carried out may be regarded as a phy- sical model of radiosound and the results of the model experiments be interpreted in relation to this phenomenon. However, it should be noted that within the model de- scribed it is not possible to explain the effect of high frequency radiosound__[9, 10] of a non-resonance character. But, if one starts from the fact that the measured rate of rise in temperature in the tube was 0.1?C sec-' for 1.5 cm3 1 M NaCl solution for a pulse porosity 20 then the UPM for this object has a value of the order 8.4 kW/kg in the pulse. The calculations show that for such a UPM the power absorbed by the tube must be about 8 W in the pulse. Accordingly, to excite the mechanical vibrations of the same amplitude in a volume of 2-5 x_103 cm3(the volume of the head of the human adult a Pulse power of the generator of not less than 13 kW is necessa_ . Naturally, Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 in our experimental conditions such vibrations could not be recorded owing to the considerably lower power of the generator. Nevertheless, it is obvious that if resonance were detected in this system the quantitative results of the experiments would entitle us to give a reliable interpretation of them in relation to the effect of radiosound. It is also interesting to compare the experimental results obtained with those pre- sented in Lin's work [6]. The author considering the characteristics of the effect of radiosound proposed for its explanation a mathematical model of the action of a single e.m.f. pulse on. a liquid-filled sphere. Lin moved away from the real situation auto- matically replacing the linear spectrum occurring on exposure to a sequence of pulses of a definite repetition frequency by a continuous one. The dependences obtained by Lin of the sound pressure on the duration of the pulse are not commented on. If one starts from the fact that the sound pressure must change in tandem with the frequency of the elastic mechanical vibiatiens then from the calculated graphs presented in Lin's work, it follows that a sphere of radius 3 cm must vibrate with a frequency of about 150 kHz and one with a radius of 7 cm with a frequency of about 66 kHz. However. here the dependence of the resonance frequency on the radius of the sphere is presented and the commentary gives the resonance frequencies for radii of 3 and 7-10 cm and 25 of 7.3-10.4 kHz. This contradiction is not explained and it remains only to postulate the causes of its appearance. On the other hand, our experimental findings show that as a result of interference the maxima (minima) following each other allow one to determine the resonance fre- quencies for a liquid column as a four-wave resonator. Thus, the following conclusions may be drawn from the work undertaken. 1) A tube filled with liquid may be regarded as a physical model for investigating the pnomenon of radiosound. This follows_frnm_the obvious assumption that radio- sound and excitation of sound vibrations in a -liquid are based on the same mechanism - transformation of the diminishin a mf, enemy into mechanical vibrations of the abs orbing substance. 2) The socalled second type of radiosound [9, 10], namely perception of a 101, frequency tone in the absence of resonance vibrations is_ explained by the presence of mechanical vibrations corresponding to the pulse repetition frequency at the moments when the high_ frequency components corresponding to the natural frequency are suppressed as a result of the run-on of the phase. 3)._ Qn etiQn_gf the_. resonance properties of the head which can be done only on a model since the calculated powers necessary for the advent of vibrations in such asystem well exceed the safely norms, the quantitative results of the model experiments icy baplied quite correctly to the description of the effect of radiosound. 1. FREY, A. H., Aerosp. Med. 32:1140,1961 2. Idem, J. Appl. Physiol. 17: 689, 1962 3. Idem, J. Med. Electron 2: 28, 1963 4..Idem, J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 984, 1967 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 5. Idem, IEEE Trans. MTT 19: 153, 1971 6. LIN, J. G., Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Spri~eld, Illinois, 1977 7. FOSTER K. R. and FINCH, E. D., Science 185: 256, 1974 s. KHARKEVICH, A. A., Spectra and Analysis (in Russian) Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1962 9. KHIZNYAK, E. P. et a!., Activ. nerv. sup. 21: 247, 1979 10, KIUZNYAK, E. P. et a!., Proc. URSI-CNFRS Symp. Electromagnetic Waves and Biology, p. 101, Paris, 1980 aiophysics Vol. 30 No. S. pp. 981-987, 1985 0006-3509/85 $10.00+.00 printed in Poland Pergamon Journals Ltd. ASPECTS OF THE REGULATION OF HUMAN LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENTS * V. A. BOGDANOV Institute of Problems of Information Transmission, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Received 18 September 1984) Transforming the experimental kinematic data to normal coordinates and calculating the moments of the muscular forces during walking the author found that the locomotor movements for each degree of freedom of the leg are regulated almost discretely so that the two bit constant control parameters are switched a small number of times in the cycle of the step. Therefore, the musculature acts like switchable elastic links and the energy expenditure depends significantly less on the trajectories of movement than on the kinematic conditions at fixed moments of switching. Posing of problem. Earlier, it was shown [I] that muscular actions are theoretically possible for which the energy expenditure depends on the goal of the movement but not on the trajectories along which the goal is reached. The control of such muscular actions is characterizcd by parameters instantly changed when the next goal of move- ment arises and constant until the goal is reached. This priniple of control was called iso-energetic and the changes in the parameters termed switching. It was found [2] that iso-energetic control is used in rhythmic movements of the arm in the elbow joint. Similarly during locomotions of man and animals the goal of movement consisting in the displacement of the body to the necessary point in space appears more important than the trajectories of movement. Statistical analysis of the published data showed that during walking by man the muscular actions in the joints resemble the actions of switched elastic links [3]. Let us see whether the intermediate goals of movement Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Geo-cosmic relations; the earth and its macro-environment Proceedings of the First International Congress on Geo-cosmic Relations, organized by the Foundation for Study and Research of Environmental Factors (S.R.E.F.), Amsterdam, 19-22 April 1989 Editors: G.J.M. Tomassen (editor in chief), W. de Graaff, A.A. Knoop, R. Hengeveld Pudoc, Wageningen, 1990 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Geo-cosmic relations : the earth and its macro-environment : proceedings of the first internatio- nal congress on geo-cosmic relations, organized by the Foundation for Study and Research of Environmental Factors (S.R.E.F.), Amsterdam, 19-22 April 1989 / eds. G.J.M. Tomassen ... (et all. - Wageningen : Pudoc ISBN 90-220-1006-6 gab. SISO 552 UDC 55:524.8 NUGI 829 Subject heading: goo-cosmology. ? Pudoc, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands, 1990. All rights reserved. Nothing from this publication may be reproduced, stored in a computerized system or published in any form or in any manner, including electronic, mechanical, repro- graphic or photographic, without prior written permission from the publisher, Pudoc, P.O. Box 4, 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands. The individual contributions in this publication and any liabilities arising from them remain the responsibility of the authors. Insofar as photocopies from this publication are permitted by the Copyright Act 1912, Article 168 and Royal Netherlands Decree of20 June 1974 (Staatsblad 351) as amended in Royal Netherlands Decree of 23 August 1985 (Staatsblad 471) and by Copyright Act 1912, Article 17, the legally defined copyright fee for any copies should be transferred to the Stichting Reporecht (P.O. Box 882, 1180 AW Amstelveen, Netherlands). For reproduction of parts of this publication in compilations such as anthologies or readers (Copyright Act 1912, Article 6), permission must be obtained from the publisher. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 ELF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AS A NEW ECOLOGICAL PARAMETER Temurjants, N.A., Sidyakin, V.G., Makejev, V.B., Simferopol State University, USSR. Vladimirsky, B.M., Crimean Astrophysics Observatory, USSR. Summary A short review of the investigated problem 'Solar activity and the Bios- phere' is presented below. The research was being carried out by the Sim- feropol State University, the Crimean Medical Institute and the Crimean Astrophysics Observatory in the years 1972-1985. The main conclusion is that the effect of solar activity upon medical and biological processes can be explained if one takes into account a new essential parameter in ecology - an electromagnetic background field at the Earth's surface in the VLF - ELF range. Introduction The problem of the effect of solar activity upon the Biosphere is an old controversy and has had a long history. At present the problem in question hardly seems to attract the attention of scientists. The overwhelming ma- jority of researchers considers the effects of solar activity on the bio- phere to be a myth or at least a pseudoscientific activity of some small groups of 'adherents'. However, we think that there is no basis for such an opinion. For the last ten years strong empirical evidence of correlations between the indices of solar (geomagnetic) activity and some biological parameters (or medical statistical data) has been obtained. In lots of ca- ses these correlations have a strong statistical significance, they are based on a large body of measurements and have been verified by independant groups in different laboratories. Unfortunately, there is no possibility here to present a full survey of the literature on the problem. Some impor- tant results were published in the collections of the articles edited by Gnevyshev, M.N. and 01', A.I. in 1972 /1/ and 1983 /2/ (one more paper is being prepared: /3/). An extensive discussion of the problem under study is given by the authors of the present paper in their monograph /4/. The interdependence of solar activity variations and biological processes is a widely-spread phenomenon. It has revealed the major divisions of bio- logical systematics including bacteriology, entomology, ornitology, etc. The same type of regularity is observed in many topics of medicine, such as cardiovascular diseases, ophtalmology, nervous system diseases, psychiatry, pediatrics, etc. All the data are conditioned by uncontrolled environ- mental factors. The most essential feature of this operating agent can be defined by comparing the results of various observations. The main peculi- arities are as follows: 1. The operating physical agent penetrates into a laboratory room but it is modified by an electromagnetic screen. 2. This agent is constantly present, and yet it has diurnal and seasonal variations. 3. Some parameters of the agent (intensity?) change with variation of the geographic latitude from the equator to the pole. 4. The modification of the agent parameters due to solar activity vari- ations is controlled both by solar wind variations and ionospheric disturbances. Of all the known physical factors among the above mentioned characteristics Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 the variations of the Earth's electromagnetic field intensity in the very low frequency - extremely low frequency' range satisfy very well. They are the VLF emission of the magnetosphere, the atmospheric and geomagnetic micropulsations. Nowadays the electromagnetic nature of the operating fac- tors is established by considering the discovery of the biological sys- tem's very high sensitivity to electromagnetic fields in the VLF range. This discovery seems to be the most important event throughout the long history of investigating the problem in question. We present here a short review including the major results of the inves- tigations done by the researchers of the Simferopol State University, the Crimean Medical Institute and the Crimean Astrophysics Observatory. In this paper we shall confine ourselves to exemplifying the most relevant findings without going into additional details (see also /4/ and the refe- rences therein). Influence of very weak electromagnetic fields Several types of experiments with small intensity alternating magnetic fields have been carried out. Fig. 1 shows typical results obtained for pigeons. The birds were exposed to a magnetic field of 8 Hz-frequency (in- tensity - 5000 nT) for 3 hours per day. To test the nervous system perfor- mance the capacity of fulfilling classical conditioned reflexes was used. In fig. 1 this is shown by the upper curves as a function of time (1: mo- del; 2: experiment). One can see some reduction of the reflexes following the exposure to the field (up to 70%). It should be noted that during mag- netic storms the reduction of the reflex performance was also observed (for details see /5/). An influence of alternating magnetic fields on the nervous system of birds measured in different tests was revealed to be de- pendent upon the electromagnetic field parameters. To study these depen- dences large numbers of experiments were carried out. Spectrum measurement of alternating magnetic field Biological activity Special series of experiments were done to study the frequency-dependent field activity. Up to 15 different biological indices for rats were mea- sured for each value of frequency. Forty frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz for the three intensity levels of 5000 nT, 500 nT and 5 nT were analysed. The experiments were carried out in a special screened chamber. An exposure of 3 hour duration was used in each experiment. The typical situation is given in fig.2. Here the ordinate points to the activity of one of the enzymes in the rat's blood. The abscissa indicates frequency (Hz). Vertical lines at the bottom are measures of the statistical signi- ficance of the difference between the model and the experiment. It is evi- dent that the biological effect of the field has a strong dependence upon the frequency: at some frequency values the enzymatic activity is enlarged, at the other it is decreased. Several hundreds of experiments were perfor- med to verify the reproductivity of measurements. As a result, 'active' frequencies were revealed. Within the above-mentioned range these frequen- cies are as follows: 0.02 Hz, 0.5-0.6 Hz, 5-6 Hz, 8-11 Hz. One of these 'active' frequencies is close to the standard frequency of Pc 3 geomagne- tic micropulsations (0.02 Hz). An other such frequency coincides with the well-known fundamental frequency of the ionospheric waveguide (8 Hz). The activity spectrum has been found out to be partly dependant upon the field intensity. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 % CR 1001 Fig. 1. Condition reflex (2) and motion reaction time (3) for pigeons under the influence of magnetic fields and under normal conditions (1,4) 1,6 1,2 F--1 Q H w w H C11 q w Fig. 2. Frequency-dependent magnetic field activity (peroxidase - PO in neutrophyls). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 304 0,I Fig. 3. Correlations between biological effects and field intensity. Interdependence between biological effects and field intensity Special experiments were also carried out to examine the dependence of biological effects upon the field intensity for the only one frequency value. An example is presented in fig. 3. In this case only one isolated frequency was used - 8 Hz. The ordinate shows the glycogen concentration in the rabbit's blood. It is clear that growth in the field intensity gives no rise to stronger biological effects. The presence of a certain optimum intensity in some intensity range is clearly seen in these expe- riments. Thus, the dependence of biochemical or physiological changes upon the field intensity has in general a very complex non-linear form. It is important to mention that while certain biological and biochemi- cal changes were taking place the minimum field intensity for mammalia was as small as 0.2 nT (with a frequency of 8 Hz and an exposure time of 3 hours). For the electric field the exposure was about 0.1 V/m. Traditionally, biophysicists have considered specific effects of the electromagnetic field in biological tissue to be hardly possible for such small intensities. However, over the past two decades we have been wit- nessing growing awareness that very weak alternate electric and magnetic fields do have clear effects on a living organism. Such effects are, of course, hardly explainable in the simplified terms of Joule heating. A new approach to understanding these results is necessary (a number of reviews on this new branch of investigation, i.e. biological action of non-ionising radiation, are available - see /6/). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9 Conclusion Our most relevant conclusion is that natural electromagnetic fields within the low frequency - extreme low frequency range should be regarded as an essential factor in ecology. These electromagnetic background fluc- tuations are closely related to solar activity variations. Thus, the solar activity influence upon medical and biological processes can be explained by taking into account this new ecological agent. References 1. Gnevyshev, M.N., 01', A.I. (Eds.): "Effects of Solar Activity on the Earth's Atmosphere and Biosphere". In: Progr. Sci. Transl., Jerusa- lem, Israel, 1977, 245 p. or In: Moscow, 1971, 224 p. (in Russian). 2. Effects of Solar Activity on Biosphere. In: Problems of Space Biolo- gy. Moscow: Nauka, 1982. Vol. 43, 265 p. (in Russian). 3. Clinical and Biophysical Aspects of Heliobiology. In: Problems of Space Biology. Moscow: Nauka, 1988. Vol. 56, 250 p. (in Russian). 4. Sidyakin, V.G., Temurjants, N.A., Makejev, V.B., Vladimirsky, B.M. (1985): "Space Ecology". Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 176 p. (in Russian). 5. Sidyakin, V.G. (1986): "Effects of Global Ecological Factors on the Nervous System". Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 159 p. (in Russian). 6. Temurjants, N.A., Vladimirsky, B.M., Tishkin, O.G. (1989): "Extremely Low Frequency Signals in the World of Biology". Kiev: Naukova Dumka, (in Russian - to be printed). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000100070001-9