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Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY WASHINGTON, D. C. 20301 u. A G TRANSLATION yr ~~ Sr~TES o0 REQUESTER TRANSLATOR'S INITIALS TRANSLATION NUMBER DA FNCL(S) TO 1 R NO. DT-S WG LN201-91 ( A r 91 L ANGUAGE GEOGRAPHIC AREA (If different from place of publication Chinese China ENGLISH TITLE OF TRANSLATION PAGE NOS. TRANSLA TED FROM ORIG DOC. Instructional Material Of The Qigong Medical School full text Introduction to Chinese Qigong FOREIGN TITLE OF TRANSLATION AUTHOR (S) FOREIGN TITLE OF DOCUMENT (Complete only translation) if different from title of Ma Li-Di PUBLISHER DATE AND PLACE OF PUBLICATION Beiging Chinese Immunology Research Center China COMMENTS TRANSLATION DIA FORM 5Appvoved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL OF THE QIGONG MEDICAL SCHOOL INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE QIGONG by Ma Li-Da Eeijing Chinese Immunology Research Center (Qigong is "a system of deep breathing exercises" added here by the translator) Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE QIGONG MA LI-DA February 1087 I. STRENGTHEN THE CHINESE QIGONG POSSESSING CHARACTERISTICS OF OUT COUNTRY The Chinese gigong was born several thousand years ago, but since then it has been born anew as the crystal of our country's working people's wisdom. At the same time, it declares that, the gigong which was made mystical and monstrous by the feudal superstition and so that could not be understood, is finished and dead. From the old stage of naturally developing, the Chinese q.;. gong has come to a. fresh new era in which researches are con.uCted using modern scientific means. Our country's qigong possessing our co'_Intry's special characteristic:. is different from the old weak traditional qigong in that, it has not only its own unique theories and practices but also it has been gradually proved as the. results of basic theoretical researches. It is closed related with modern sciences and -,od?rn medical sciences. W,":th its own scientific disciplines, it will serve our ccuntrY Construction of socialism, and development of sc entific development of the world. Various areas of studies are born and grow and are affected by social bac,:grounds. The Chilies gigong__stud y ~F~a= prb used at the Eleventh ~a%ty CG',Z 1eSS Third Plenaiy_ Session, and it has become a systematic policy of thE. Party. Since the First National Qigong Research Confer ence in August 1931, various branches of the qigong study have coordinated and cooperated and exchanged their research on basic functions of "gigcng." In five years in the enterprise of our country's qigong research, three branches have been organized. From the Chinese Qigong Research Conference the _igpng Association, theChinese (Many fields) National Medical _Qigcng Re earLLch Association and the National Gymnastic Qigong Research Association of the_ Chinese Medical---Ass_ociation""have been developed. Thus, a broad road has been built for spreading and developing the Chinese qigong possessing firmly unique Chinese characteristics. II. CHINESE QIGONG AND MODERN SCIENCES The birth and developee:..t of Chinese qi _;ong, like ether scientific knowledge, represents the results of long term struggle of mankind with the nature and environment (both Ifmacro-world and miicro-world) . Because of this, one branch of study contains various broad fields; its basic research orientation is not *01 d or e'I~asei2601!~ i/0 : CIA RDP96-0079200neral 0200650020 3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 LN 201-91 (chemistry, physics, and physiology) but it has developed. to apply molecule and micro biology, electronics, electrochemistry, magnetism, microwave and mathematics; and i t penetrates into and rates merges into various fields of sciences. It has deeply p 1 so that its relationships and functions with macro-world and micro- world can be explored. In view of birth and change of knowledge structure, current status of the topics and emergence of new expression forms due to academic interdiscipline, its major types can be classified into the following six hinds: 1. Frontier science: It points to the science where two or three field: are interrelated , penetrates and forms the leading edge . Transversing science: This is the science which makes it its object of study concerning certain uncommon aspects of d forms of me ements of various sutstaices. structural layers all 3. Comprehensive sciences: These are those sciences that make particular problem . and or goals as their research objects. Since these problems are complex, a given science alone cannot fulfil the objective of research; cciisequentl it is necessary to comtine and apply theories, methods and techniques of many sciences in order to solve the problems. 4. Soft sciences: These are high level synthetic and resourceful sciences. Their research objects do not involve natural phenomena and scientific techniques, but they involve human and social factors which have mutual relations and mutual functa.ons in various social phenomena. 5. Comparative sciences: Comparative sciences refer to the totality of various comparative studies. 6. Other newly developing sciences. Under the above-mentioned situations of new scientific and technological revolution, along with scientific developments, has appeared the modern Chinese qigong science which contains the characteristics of comprehensiveness and also containing our country's characteristics. III. CHINESE QIGONG SCIENCE AND MODERN MEDICAL SCIENCE Because of the revolution of new technologies, especially life science and technology having reached widely the field of medicine, human capability has developed towards non-human fields; these developments have presented us new problems. New technological revolution has brought great shocks upon medical sciences; changes in medical patterns have produced extremely profound influences upon medical science. Because of this, width and depth of medical Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 knowledge have fundamental differences from the previous medical science; their categories encompass both natural and social sciences. Scientific developments and interrelations among sciences are becoming increasingly evident; those fields formerly not closely related with medical science have begun to become closely related with medical science; medical science also traverses basic knowledge day by day. Thus, basic knowledge expand horizontally and thus cause knowledge structures to make important changes. Eased on the above-mentioned changing situations, medical professional knowledge arrangements follow biomedical models and evolve to bio-psycho-social medical models; thus changing the c; iginal medical professional knowledge arrangements. Applications of new technologies have brought about many problems. 'How well the new trend.ti. will be adjusted demands the medical circle to understand basic and applied medicine but also understand technological knowledge of other fields. The arrangements of technological knowledge have already caused medical experts to necessary arrangements, but along with the new technological revolution and development, reliance upon scientific technology of the medical science is increasingly evident. Various scientific technologies have been transplanted into medical sciences and diagnostic and therapeutic means have become modern, like electronic microscopes, X-ray computer fault scanning, nuclear magnetic resonance, E-type ultra sound, etc. Under the trend of new technological revolution, the Chinese qigong study represents one of the sciences having characteristics of comprehensive science. And, development of modern medicine requires developing the Chinese qigong science in the field of medical research. IV. BRIEF HISTORY OF CHINESE QIGONG AND OUTLINE OF THE STUDY The Chinese gigongstudy originated from the human beings' long straggle against diseases. As early as several thousand years ago, according to the writing of (Luzi String and Autumn Annals (Chunqiu) . Guyue): At the beginning of Taotang Tribe (the tribe to which Yao-Shun belonged), they had much rain and rivers flooded, tides were wet and cold; consequently, people's mood was stagnant and blood was silted, bones and muscles were tired and uneasy; "therefore, they danced (zuowu) and called it dao." "Zuowu" is the first form of daoyin. Qigong is our country's oldest "daoyin, "daoyin-xinggi," sometimes called briefly "dao," "yin", and it the part of xinggi is called " tuna (pushing out and admitting)." Consequently, qigong is the result of ancient people's struggle against bad environment and their own sickness. Qigong has made itself a discipline, and come with its theory and practice. Results of experiments are the experiences and le sdOproved np-d Release 21001/03/07: CIA RDduring several thousands P96 00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 years. The first recorded letters related with gigong were found going back to the early Era of Warring States ( about 380 B.C.) in (Xinggi_yuyongminq). In this document it is written: "In xingqi, deepness is accumulation; accumulation is stretching; stretching is bottom; bottom is settled; settling is solid; solid is budding; budding is long; long is returning; returning is heaven. Heaven is above; earth is below. Obeying is removing; sending is dying." In (The Era of Slavery System) Comrade Guo Mo- ru.c said as follows: "Breath in deep means its volume ~s large, and makes it go down and stretch and is settled to be solid; then breath out. Like budding of grasses and plants, going upward and it takes the opposite route of that of getting in deep, and gets out and retreating to the peak. In this manner, the heaven makes to easy to move up, while the earth makes it easy to move d own. Following this means going; being against it means death." What has been said means that, it already mentioned about a kind of disciplined and adjusted breathing method, which is a kind of tl angll 1. tranquility skills. During the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B . C .) and the Han Dynasty (206 D C. _ 220), gigong became a kind of therapy of the Chinese medicine; and there were already professional writings and at the same time it was transmitted to the mass and spread widely. For example, (HarishuzhiwenZhi) . (Huangti-ZaZibu) twelve volumes and (Huangti-Ziba,o) ten volumes. Among the medical books copied on silk discovered in 1973 from the Zhangsha Mawangdui Han tomb there were two volumes concerning gigong. One volume wrote about breathing dacyin curing many diseases and the breathing methods required during the curing; different methods for curing different sicknesses. And the other volume was a book of diagrams; it had about 40 pieces of pictures showing various body movements and postures. Each picture had writings for explanation. From these pictures and. explanations, it is possible to see that different kinds of sicknesses required different methods of qigong therapies; this has embodied principles and characteristics of dialectic of Chinese medicine. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, during the time of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (420-589) , Tao Hong-jing newly arranged historical sources into (Yangxing-Yanming-Lu--Book on increasing strength and prolonging life) . During the era of Sui Dynasty (581-618) and Tang Dynasty (618-907), qigong was approved to incorporate it as an indispensable method of medical practice. Since then throughout Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, many famous medical books contained discussions related with gigong. From the above, it can be seen that, theories and practices of Chinese qigong have been the results of wisdom of working people throughou from ancient times of Qing and " several thousand years dynasties. They have made Han to Song, Yuan, and to Ming and Qing d.~ certain contributions to. national defense, basic medicine, clinical medicines and their developments . 'prose .t Status cf Chinese Qigong Science Every science has things and events existing in a certain Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 LN 201-91 defined territory as its own objects of study; and it has found certain unique objective regularities of the things and events within the given territory, and then it uses these objective regularities to serve the society. In the above, we discussed relations of Chinese qigong science with modern sciences and modern medical sciences. discussed in Chinese gigong science is not merely energy capability and capacit/ of human body, but it encompasses energy of caps ji i y o b jdy anc energy of intellectual capability, like energles_a ready known in 11 SicS such as electricity, heat, magnetic, sounds, light, infrared rays, etc.; it is also possible that there can be still unknown energies and information. All of these are problems ,- _ xCCe_ has deser?~ yng cons.~deratioi~.s. The bcls s of Chin e . ig :ig sc e Chine S. Ems' __.Ilie ~1Cal 5C E 1Ce Olle scholar argued that ChaneEe medical science has gone through three breakthroughs in the history. The first of these started during the times of the Spring and. Autumn Period (770-476 L.C.) and the Warring States (475- 221 S.C.). During this period, under influences of materialistic views and naive dialectic ideas generated by many scholars, medical professionals developed medical science from the theories, adopting sufficiently achievements of natural and social SCICIh::e."-. of that time, transplanting many such as ideas of yinl'ang-wu:ilig (five elements) and 7 ing (energy, spirit), zi (vital energy), shen (s.pirit, mind), etc. Thus they covered and synthesized several thousand years' human medical curing e,,periences and formed a comprehensive theoretical system of Chinese medical science relating life phenomena, diseases of human body and their treatments, And, thus they produced (Huangti Neijing) , which is a brilliant great book. The book made it to develop into clinical medicine, started experiences of curing diseases with plant medicines, further developed into curing using many liquid forms , thus improving curing effects . They accelerated the medicine to break away from mysterious sorcery, and made medical theories and acupunctural techniques to be applied to drugs and pushed them into a new stage. Then thereafter numerous facts were proved and developed regularities objectively existing such as jingluo (main and collateral channels, regarded as a network of passages, through which vital energy circulates and along which the acupuncture points are distributed),-zangxizng (state of internal organs), tianren-xiangying (heaven and men corresponding to each other), etc. This represented the first scientific and technological breakthrough. To consider the causes of this breakthrough: On the one hand, there were many scholars rose and there was created an environment in which many scholars could debate and argue their theories and technologies. On the other hand, it is due to the fact that Chinese medicine belonged to the ancient natural science's unified theoretical system, thus this fact made yt to be sufficiently open and had advantages to mutually penetrate into many fields of sciences each other. The second major development came when Zhang Zong-jing completed it toward the end of the Eastern Han (25-220). His book entitled (Shanchan-Zabir.g-Lun -- diseases caused by harmful cc" ld Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 LN 201-91 factors) presented a dialectic therapeutic theory; thus it made the ancient theoretical medical science to be combined with clinical medicine and organized its theories and various medicines in a consistent line thus overcoming conflicts and inconsistencies of the theories of (Neijing) against clinical facts. it improved greatly not only curing the shanghan (diseases caused by harmful cold factors) but also improved effects of curing communicative diseases. Dialectic therapeutic theory is an important characteristic of Chinese medicine and led the entire Chinese medicine in 1700's. The third important development was the baqiyingxue (making qi to generate blood) dialectic theory proposed by various doctor: in the Jiang:~'i Province represented by a man called Ye Tain-shi. The then ~' e.plained the mechanism of causes, occurrences and change: of fevers, and created substantially unique methods of curing and medicines, thus improving effects of curing fevers. However, it is worth noting that, from Zhang Zhong-jing through Ye Tian-shi, all the many new and practical matters of Chinese medicine did not separated from the theoretical framework of (1,Ieijing), simply filling its volumes by refining it over and over again. As to the causes of forming this situation, what scholars did was that they changed from the open system of the initial Chinese medicine gradually toward a closed system. Now scholars argue: In view of development of sciences and technologies, Chinese medicine cannot escape from opening up again departing from the closed state of affairs. We can declare that, Chinese must open once again and definitely it should make developing of a nature of breakthrough, achieving higher level of sciences leaving the isolative aspects. Some other scholars argue: The moving force, speed and key of the development of Chinese medicine lies in its own contradiction and movement; outside environment still may be advantageous conditions. In order to utilize sufficiently the outside conditions, take initiative to welcome the challenges of modern sciences and technologies and should adopt cooperative strategic ideas. Cooperate well Chinese and Western medicines, and relationship between Chinese medicine and other sciences; thus making Chinese medicine and pharmaceutical sciences to inherit and develop Chinese medicine's theory of qi. Based on unique principles such as Taiji and Bagua (Eight Diagrams) cooperate well various related sciences following many routes to accelerate development of Chinese medical and pharmaceutical sciences. What has been presented above is the present day status of development of Chinese medicine. The developmental status of Chinese qigong science is also closely related with the development Of Chniese medicine and has many, many relations. Therefore, when Chinese medicine is situated at the closed stage, Chinese qigong science has also received many pressures for many years, and its original face was covered with colors of feudal superstitions. But, receI-.t, ears along with scientific developments, Chinese medical Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 7 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 sciences also have gradually become open. Chinese qigong science has become a new science and has characteristics of comprehensive science, systems science, information science and control science. Thus, it is situated at a development stage. Not only the study of fundamental nature of qi but also mechanism of qi are studied from various angles of many sciences. So, superstitious mysterious aspects seen in the recent past have been eliminated and it has been pursued through cooperation and exchanges from many sciences and has developed into a new science, but still it is a science that contains several thousand years' basic practices. These recent years there have been more than one thousand pieces of articles published. For details, see the Appendix. This is the present status of Chinese qigong science. In recent years, Chinese qigong science has come out as a category of science (like medical science) not only in the field of basic theories but also in the field of application, and has Stepped into comprehensive research with various sciences, exchanges and applications from them. Under such situations, a mechanism corresponding to them has emerged. Like science and technolcgy researches, in Beijing has developer Qigong Research Institute. Beijing Chinese Medical Research Institute has establ ash d ?. q 6TlL _,EecTallzatlon research or2.. 11n zation. Tie Naval Main Medical. Hospital has established Chinese Immunology Pesearch_Center tahose major emphasis is on gigong immunology, anc. at the same time it has e:= abliSled,aintl with Guangzho University Qyg on~g Physics, Biological Testing Center. In the field of educating an cultivating talents, because cif its characteristic of its specialization, the first of the comprehensive schools Chinese Ma WangDui__Quigong School. All of th s explains that, Chinese ono science has_made a deep progress not only in the research on its theories and practices but also in educating and cultivating ta'e:Its on the subject. However, tie problem requiring immediate consideration is how to establish scientific attitude, despise superstition, encourage solidarity and mutual cooperation and eliminate feudal superstitious ideas. Therefore, the present immediate research tasks of Chinese qigong science is: Chinese qigong science must discipline its own science and make it function for construction of socialism with our country's characteristics and for development of sciences of the world. The research method of Chinese qigong science must be based on the basic principles as listed below: (1) Scientific principle; (2) Objectivity principle; (3) Practicability principle; (4) Theory-Practice combination principle; and (5) Generality- particularity combination principle. VI. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHINESE IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH CENTER WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON QIGONG IMMUNOLOGY Based on the principles mentioned above, we have to present, first the concept of immunologic physics. In other words, using Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 8 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 theories of electricity, energy, electrodynamics, etc. and having these principles as its leading methodology, it must carry out research concerning immunities of organisms relative to their cells, molecules, antigen, antibody and immunity sources. Along with incessant deepening of research, we propose to make one step ahead in the theories cf immunologic macroscopics, immunologic macroscopics, gerontologic immunology, immunologic rehabilitation, military immunology, immunologic economics, clinical qigong science, and qigong voice modeling, etc. (Omitted here; see the Appendices). Under the leadership of these theories, we have developed research topics list below: 1. Observations on functions of qigong upon those troops receiving Research on functions of gigcc'ng outer qi upcn human tumour :Ells. Functions of gigong outer qi upon rat aSCiteS Cancer. 4. Functions of gigong outer qi upon cells cf cancer of uterus neck. Functions of gigong outer qi upon cells of gastric gland cancer (SGC--7201 ) 6. Initial observations of microstructural changes of cells of stomas ancer after scanning electric mirror was applied to qigong outer qi. 7. Observation of gigong outer qi causing distortion of chromosome of cells of gastric gland. 8. Functions of gigong outer qi upon bacteria. 9. Functions of qigong outer qi upon virus. 10. Functions of qigong outer qi upon virus hepatitis. 11. Research on functions of qigong exercises upon those whose surface antigen is positive. 12. Influences of qigong outer qi upon functioning of rat immunity. 13. Influences of gigong outer qi upon IM type antibody generated by rat and its influences upon spleen cell multiplication. 14. observation on whether qigong outer qi has relationship with haemooglobin. 155. Qigong outer qi`s influences on red cell electric pulses of 108 sample patients. Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3 LN 201-91 1C. Clinical practices of Chinese qigong science for difficult complicated cases. (The above listed researches have been presented first on their respective specialty publications; then afterwards they are also presented or published at different meetings and journals). At present, The Chinese immunology Research Center has gradually moved to clinical researches through basic researches, and rapidly forming system models of medicine, immunology and rehabilitation medicine possessing our country's characteristics. These new models also, due to their all directions postures, will reach wider areas of gigong immunology. These represent challenges to us. before the challenges, it is necessary for us to propose new strategies, concrete measures. When the new and old models revolve, obstacles of the old ideas must go through borrowing and reexamining modern sciences, dig out our country's various potential forces and make them to move the old models forward and gradually form systems and models of medicine, immunology and rehabilitation medicine possessing our country's characteristics. To summarize what have been said above, the Chinese qigong science possessing our country's characteristics, from now on, must make progress forward with theories and practices of modern sciences, modern medical sciences and many other sciences, so that it can run the road of a comprehensive science; at the same time, ue must emphasize that we must break and eliminate feudal superstitions, and at the same time, at associations, scientific research meetings and academic meetings, under the leadership of various levels of organizations and scientific researches, we must cooperate each other and proceed together for the purpose of construction of the father land's four modernization and progress of the world medical science and health of humankind. Approved For Release 2001/03/07 : U9A-RDP96-00792R000200650020-3