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Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 A STUDY OF SOME ESP TESTING METHODS AND THEIR VALIDITY MOXIE TEGANZHIGONGNENGDE CESHIFANGFA JI QI ZHENSHIXING DE YANJIU BY: Gong Wenyao, Hou Yueli, Jiang Xiuying, Zhang Linfu, Zhou Liangzhou, Li Xianggao and Zhai Tingxiang (Institute of Aerospace Medical Engineering) ABSTRACT Based to testing principles determined by the institute, we established testing methods for the ability to see objects through a wall, seeing objects underneath dirt in a flowerpot to simulate seeing underground, and a method of testing mental telepathy abilities. The results of this study were decisive. The paranormal abilities of the subjects to see objects through a wall, inside flowerpots and to perform mental telepathy actually existed. KEY WORDS: Extrasensory perception (ESP), Seeing objects through a wall, paranormal vision, target object, and mental telepathy. Parapsychological phenomena which can not yet be explained through known science primarily include Extrasensory Perception (ESP) and Psychokinesis (PK). ESP refers to persons with paranormal abilities being able to obtain knowledge of objects, events or other people's thoughts without the use of ordinary sensory organs or any ordinary sensory channel[s]. an example of this is Clairvoyance. This includes paranormal vision and paranormal remote vision of remote objects or events. It includes Precognition, which is knowledge of future events and telepathy which is the direct transmission and communications of thoughts. Up to the present, there are a number of different views in the debate over whether extrasensory perception actually exists[2'3'4]. Those who say it does exist believe it we must see the phenomenon actually exists, but there is not as yet a satisfactory scientific explanation for it. Those who say it does not exist believe that the phenbomenon is strictly imaginary, and that the necessary foundation for parapsychology to exist as a special science is not there. Since March of 1979 when the "Sichuan Daily" reported the phenomenon of "reading characters with the ears" of Tang Yu, the research into ESP in China can generally be divided into Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792ROO0300070001-7 experimental research into paranormal character recognition[5], paranormal vision [61 and mental telepathy [7]. At the same time, there have been some useful explorations into the physical characteristics of the phenomena of ESP [ 8, 9" 10, 11 ] . As a new field of scientific research, ESP research is currently still primarily operating at the research stage of accumulating facts. However, sometimes testing methods are not strict enough and some reports which have not been verified by stringent repeat testing, and at times there is some fakery, and also there are many factors which influence the results of this testing. Under these conditions, it is understandable why people harbor some suspicion about the reality of paranormal abilities. The constructive opinions and criticism they offer concerning the question of existence should be welcomed. We believe that one of the primary reason for the different opinions concerning the phenomenon of paranormal abilities is that there are debates and differences over the research methods themselves. Therefore, when verifying the reality of ESP, the first thing should be to establish a set of strict ESP testing methods. This is the primary precondition for answering the question of whether or not it objectively exists. The objective of this study is to study and draw up testing methods appropriate for certain ESP abilities to lay a foundation in methodology for its basic and applied research. At the same time it presents a founded answer to whether certain ESP abilities actual exists. We conducted 1,567 individual-occasion formal tests of 21 persons who claimed to have certain types of ESP (including 4 males and 17 females, ages were between 10 and 40, and levels of education between elementary school and college). As a control group we used 14 persons (all female, ages between 19 and 43, and educational levels from junior middle school and college) upon which we conducted 1,198 individual-occasion control tests (see Table One). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792ROO0300070001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792ROO0300070001-7 (s~ l.ic (q) 9 6 6 A & ?Q 1044 460 63 (~ Xt ARLIP 6 4 4 I,& (!D 848 330 20 TABLE ONE: TESTING OF SUBJECTS AND CONTROLS 1. Type of ESP. 2. Seeing through walls. 3. Seeing inside flower pot. 4. Mental telepathy. 5. ESP subjects. 6. Number of people. 7. Number of tests. 8. Controls. 9. Number of people. 10. Number of tests. When establishing testing methods for ESP abilities, we decided on the following principles: 1. Random and precise selection of target objects and timely and accurate recording of the ESP results to avoid any lack of certainty about the description of the target object. 2. Pay attention to the double blind of the preparing of the samples and repeatability of the test results. 3. Establish a principle of combining control groups and blank experiments. 4. Conduct the experiments when the ESP subjects feel their abilities are in an optimum state. Based on the above principles, the methods and results of the experiments on ESP abilities are described separately below. I. EXPERIMENTS ON SEEING AN OBJECT THROUGH A WALL 1. The Methods Used in the Experiments on Seeing an object Through a Wall. The subjects and the target objects were separated with a solid brick wall (see Illustration One). Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792ROO0300070001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 LN134-93 ILLUSTRATION ONE: DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTS ON SEEING THROUGH A WALL 1. Target Object. 2. Blank. 3. Partitioning wall. 4. Subject. In order to ensure the objects are clearly identified, we used an equilateral triangle 18 centimeters on a side, a square, half a circle with a radius of 18 centimeters and a full circle. The ESP subjects felt that red target objects were easier to sense, so in the experiments it was decided to use red wooden target objects. In the experiments, these four target objects and a blank experiment where was no object occurred at random. The random sequence was provided by a computer. Here, we would like to briefly describe the specific conditions at the location of the experiments. On one occasion, the experiment was conducted in two adjoining rooms separated by a brick wall at the Anshan Hotel in Anshan (see Illustration Two). It takes effort for a person with ESP to see through a wall when the person is in a fairly dark room, so the window in one of the rooms was covered with a carpet, and during the experiment, the ESP subjects sat in this (B) room attempting to see the objects displayed by the person running the experiment (a) in room (A). The person running the experiment (b) sat in room (B) inside the door, and after the ESP subject had (seen) and recorded the target object, he gave the person running the experiment (a) the signal to change the target object. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 ILLUSTRATION TWO: DIAGRAM OF FIRST SEE THROUGH WALL EXPERIMENT WITH SUBJECT ZHAO 1. Person running the experiment (b). 2. ESP subject (being tested). 3. Window. 4. door. 5. Person running the experiment (a). 6. ESP subject (not being tested). 7. Corridor. During the progress of the experiment, the doors and windows of rooms (A) and (B) were always kept closed. No one could enter or leave either of the rooms. Because of the limited conditions at the time, the other ESP subject who had not yet been tested also sat in room (A). The subjects were Zhao Ying and Zhao Li. Two years later, we repeated the seeing through the wall experiment with Zhao Ying. The type of target objects and method of display were the same as in the first experiment. The testing location was room 821 in the Scientific Research Building of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine Engineering (see Illustration Three). The ESP subject Zhao YIng sat in a soundproof room and attempted to see target objects displayed on the other side of the wall by experimenter (a). Experimenter c sat outside the door to the soundproof room, and when the ESP subject had finished attempting to visualize the target object and had noted it down, he would inform experimenter b of this who would then rap on the door to notify experimenter c who would then rap on the door of the main room to inform experimenter A that he could change target objects. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792ROO0300070001-7 ILLUSTRATION THREE: SECOND SEE THROUGH THE WALL EXPERIMENT WITH ZHAO 1. Room. 2. Experimenter C. 3. Experimenter B. 4. Soundproof room. 5. Corridor. 6. Window. 7. Experimenter A. 8. Partitioning wall. 9. Door. During the experiment, the doors between the rooms were all kept closed, and no one was allowed in or out of the rooms. The vast majority of the seeing through a wall experiments were conducted under these conditions. 2. Results of Seeing Through a Wall Experiments. We see from the results in Table Two that rate of correct responses by the ESP subjects ranged from 15.0 to 79.4 percent. The accuracy rate of the vast majority of ESP subjects was very near the individual natural probabilities. The accuracy rates in seeing target objects through a wall for subjects Zhao Ying, Zhao Li and Wang Haiyen were 79.4, 51.0 and 41.7 percent respectively. The accuracy rates for the controls were below or near the individual natural probabilities. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792ROO0300070001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000300070001-7 ------------------------------------------------------------------- SUBJECT NUMBER GROUPS ACCURACY NATURAL (N) (PERCENT) PROBABILITY (PERCENT) ------------------------------------------------------------------- Wang X X 320 14 27.4 25.0 Zhang X X 204 11 31.1 25.0 Wang X X 60 3 41.7 25.0 Lin X X 40 2 30.0 25.0 Liu X X 60 3 23.3 20.0 Xue X X 80 4 27.5 25.0 Wang X 20 1 15.0 20.0 Zhao X 160 8 79.4 20.0 Zhao X 100 5 51.0 20.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------- CONTROLS Xie X X 100 5 22.0 25.0 Yu X X 80 4 23.7 20.0 Yue X X 110 5 18.7 25.0 Yang X X 110 5 25.7 25.0 Wu X X 300 14 25.3 25.0 Jiang X X 124 6 19.2 25.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------- TABLE TWO: RESULTS OF SEEING THROUGH A WALL EXPERIMENTS We derived the mean value of the difference between the accuracy rate and natural probability rate each person of the control group and of each ESP subject and performed statistical analysis. We can see from the results (Table Three) how Wang Haiyan, Zhao Ying and Zhao Li fared compared to the control group. in this table, ** is p