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Approved For Release tajp~reanj Drre TeZepat _Clairvayance and G~c,ma_grlet,ic Acti.yitY Michael Persirfger, PhD, L_aur,entzan University, S,.fdbriry, Qntario, Canada, and Stanley KriQpner^, PhD, Sa ybro,_,k Tnstltilte, San Francisccr; California, Tntroductior; Several studies invc,lvinq putative (T-C) eH "~=r,tanec,us telepatyic- periences concerning clairvoyant death o, yant have su r cs to f _r' to 99ested a r. amily members 4enrnannetic fr,i.e. Ontributir~rr evidence ( t- these Phenomena. e?4?, Schal.at n ~-}ersin 'here i s some get. IrgLq i) that have Occurred when the aeornaonetir activxty was SpJntane,.,,.1,, ?..., exper.iencF~; Ys before AOwer' (; . e. or afterwards a nd ca?rnpr) than the lower tr decided lac, means Of ;he ra,rnthly \,0-laes. We t11 study whether i.5 pcltter'r, was c,V1C:Ien? to ex Oar;me experiences as well. . nta;. 7-C The exrger' lrnents lrl T_C dreams r observatons} in his r, q ,eW out of MCnta I.,a q ~tI ir,iarl, 5 pa~C"hlati`1C (i 9Fi q) cOmmUnl 7]1'aC?I' 1('?p. ,- cation ,f -'s t;ensih; apoearinq in the ;nt,rnal:_,; S he Context clients. '='' sortie Ullman CII^eams repartPd decided to by ina lire whethf,r, y h 1-spherrr.,liren~;r, reams that were experiment w?uld a 1 .1 y Won aaaear` Mola ld t .. recI (Wider seem to ccrntrn,71pC, exclude alternative canei.? ions .: 4- ha pro1ect nterpretat1Ons. U1in7arf was by Stanley Kri 7_;lned goner, now Institute, San Franr;c-- Professor of asyrh, 1 .,Y at c ..L.. ?Ychoph..-F ie= H,,nrr~ t, r, . Ysir_al Research Lahcrr`at orlp5 now Cir^r,rt,or? _.f t He are r Pri r,r.e# r..rn, New cam Zed Of,lt i n t ay.. The h e V e Derlroents 7n1 L (a h,,-r?a rl,'' y ri f'. Ma llnrln)CIF?~1 w~t11r,.,? n P r1F; Y'.. 459 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400030001-0 P96-00792R000400030001 Brooklyn. where Ullman served as director of the Commnrnity Mental. F+gatth The typical procedure followed at Maimonides was for the percipient (or subject) to arrive at the laboratory in time to meet the agent -- a person who would spend much of the night focusing upon the contents of an art print. The percipients task was to dream about this art print ever though it wo+..tld tie selected once the percipient was isolated from the agent. The percipient would also meet the two experimenters who would explain the procedures. (On a few occasions, the art print was Gelected randomly, was not removed from the sealed envelope, and no agent was used. The percipient was simply instructed to attempt dreaming about the art print.) After electrodes were attached to the percipient's head for the monitoring of brain waves anc eye movements, the percipient would have no further contact with the anent until the following morning. Ar, experimenter threw dice that, in combination with a random number table, provided a number that corresponded to one on a sealed envelope containing an art print. The envelope was opened once the anent reached his or her arivate room in a distant part of the building. This, art print became the target or, which the agent focused during the course of the night (Ullman & Krinpner, 1978). The experimenters took turn'a monitoring the percipient's sleep. Toward the end of each period of rapid eye movement (REM), the percipient was awauened nv an experimenter via intercom and described any dream content that could be recalled. These comments were tape recorded as was a morning interview in which the percipient associated to his or her dream recall.. The interview was conducted douple blind; neither the percipient nor the 460 Approved for Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400030001-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RD experimenters knew the identity of the target nor the pool of art prints from which the target had been randomly selected. The target for a given night and the dreams far the night , a number of strikin often contain+eC 9 similarities, suDgesting that an anomaly (so-eal]ed ? "telepathy" or "clairvoyance") occurred. For^ example, or, 23 may 196 target was a print of a zebra painted by 6 the Y an ur,knnyrr, rndiar, artist, T Percipient dreamed about a "horse show, ? ,hf? a horse race,? and a "strived tie. But it could have been the case that any transcript of a n , have contained 1oht s dr earns mi_,ht Passages of striking similarity to any Picture to might have been compared (Child, 1985). wlich they To evaluate the chance hypothesis, the ;tiairnonides tears c?bt of similarity between the judprnentr the dream content and each of the other targets in the pool from which the aoter,tial actual target had been rYPicall ,'and,.-,r'r1Y selected, Y, three judges were used who w+,.rke d h?. i r,d anr+ i r,r. er~F r,r_ er,t. y other with materials that had been mei:l.ed to about there. 'C,++,ey har which picture had beer, randomly selected as the difference between targets and norr-targets Content w in thei- sin.ilar ity to as considered an apparent PParent anomaly, ''ypi.cally, the tar^oet c,-,gals t.~sed by the judges were duplicates that had ,,aver been handled by the ac7ent5. Although percipients sometime- red the rudnes Simi larities t':-, on rate ta r p t r i . ~,.. a 100-point scale 9--_re.tt~ , the only fora in which data a*^e avai tante e l l sessions is a count f t tdr4et pool heir own, crearns a.n:1irl 5t the (before they discovered the identi.t dltho,.igh v of the aa: t~.ial. tar some experiments req., get), and men judges' ts and misses. ranked in l the !. a rn ell the upper half o the target lit 461 .a Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400030001-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R00040003000 noel of six) for similarity to the dreams and post-sleep interview, the Outcome was considered a hit. If the actual target had been ranked in thja lower- half of the 0001 (e.g., 44, #5, #6 in a cool of six), the outcome aa! considered a miss. The median score of the three judges was selected t Ceter'nine hits and misses. For the o'ir?noses of thin study, the ranks were divided into four categories. A "high hit" would ne a rank in the top cuartile (e.g, #1 or 12 it a oooi of eight; 41 in a cool of six), a "low hit" would be a rank in the ., #3 or #4 in a pool of eight; #2 or #3 in a pool of "high miss" would bP a rank, in the third quartile (P. g., #5 or #6 in a oool of eight; 04 or #5 in a pool of six); a "low miss" would be a rank in the fourtn quartile (47 or #8 in a Doll of eight; #6 in a pool of six). The first night' eaci subject spent at the Maimonides Laboratory was utilized and the other nights were discarded. This yielded 62 experimental -L nights available for analysis -- 18 "high hits," 29 "low hits," 7 "high misses," and 8 "'low misses." The 62 cases represent an almost total collection of subjects seen betwepr, ")62 and 1.969 at Mai.rnonides. It was decioea to "se geomagnetic activity as measured by the AA index. Northern hernisohere AA values were collected for the 3 days before, the day of, and the 3 ca.vs after the day that each subject began the dream experiment. These AA values were determined from Mayaud's (1973) data and conseouent monthly updates. Mean monthly values were also listed. Subjects (cases) were coded accordinq to hander and to the closeness of their dreams' 462 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400030001-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400030001-0 correspondence to the target (i.e., "hi:;h hit r HH; ,low nit" or (.H; "7ir~h miss" or HM; "low miss? or LM). In other woF^ds, these four, groups recresente:_ Judges' ranks Of successive order trorn strongest ?hits" to stY^ n "misses. Best The major design involved MANOVA (multiale analyses of variance). Th repeated measure was the AA values for the r e hr^ee days before, the day Of, and the three days aft er the day the experiment was held (a total of 7 days). range of th e activit .--- 11- "' a geomaoretir y Within this period tends to be cor','elated, 0artic,_t}arly wit'-1 a Give" day plus/mi.nus 1 or days. Exceclt fspecific Per i,,,bicities, the intercorrelations between geomagnetic aCtlvity on a day and + days before more than three or afterwards are not statrstrcally rn~, significarAt. The twr ma l r,r main factors (r!on-repeated) were gender (male vs. ferna.le) and r~rc,,.i : or. the numbers of Itec?a subjects within the HM -, s_ and LM groups were respectively), nal.' (N-7, additional analyses were rornpleted, with these two combined. The major analyses involved lc,o base '0 transfarrnatir_,rs of the eai'y .AA values, this was COnraleted in order to reauce the e,antr^ibl_(tic,ns frc,ro sin0?e outlier cases (days) and to increase the homogeneity of variance oetweer, Groups and between re peaters measures. H,:,wev(3r, all analyses were a1s) completed using the original AA values as Q.,are root transf-,rrna , the latter tic,, cec~~,ise were not as extreme as the 1 . rnodifications? A p.=Sterir,r_i "-trasts were completed using corrEJ.atec t-tests for F. 't e~rendent t- each }r_?acy ana test s (between groups on riven day) to c;er,errnire the sc,~rr re of #fty factor by re t pea ed measure interaction s. 463 pproved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400030001-0 Correlated t-tests with p values set at p (.01 (to reduce the effect of multiple t probabilities) were completed for each group for the AA values of each of the 7 days during the experiment and the AA average for the month in which toe experience' occurred. The latter analyses were completed to determine the absolute activity oF the days of the experience compared to the typical monthly values rather than restricting the analyses to the relative differences between the key day and the days before and afterwards. All analyses were completed using SPSSX software on a DEC2020 computer. MANOVA for all 62 subjects according to the three major groups (HH, LH, LM plus HM), gender, and the seven repeated measures (key days plus/minus 3 days) of geomagnetic activity (AA values) demonstrated no significant group or ^encer interactions. However, there was a significant (F=2.53, df=12, p=.003) interaction between groups and the geomagnetic activity over days for the log pose transformed AA values (Fig"re 1). There was also a nearly significant gaily difference (c=2.54, df=5,336, p=.03). There were neither gender by day or gender by group by day interactions. The group by day interaction was significant (p=.01) for the absolute AA values as well. Six of the experimental days involved the testing of two subjects rather than one. To determine if this slight modification in procedure may have altered the geomagnetic contribution to the psi effect, additional analyses were completed on those days (cases) where only one subject was tested. The basic results are shown in Figure 2. There was no appreciable change in the geomagnetic temporal pattern and the significant day by group interactions were not affected. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-DP96-00792R000400030001-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-007 When all four groups were analyzed irr a similar results were noted. desxon, the same There were no bas h= sign"ficar,t main effect differences the four groups or between genders. Aga z n bet weer, days interactions (F=2-02, dfc18, 324 , there was a significant grOUP by Remo vin 9 the second main (109) and a between days difference, (non-repeated) fact,-,,, of gender and simply usInj) four groups did not change the I r,e effect. rher day effects (F 3. 76 were still si.Inificant r , df=6y 348, epeate~~ P=.001) anc; day b P=.003) interaction, Y The a basic res,.ilts are aresented in A 2oste~iari tests showed that tt7e between between days n~'ar.'S,.c,nif~can?t differ for the four grauos rent- cr., 3 days befOr, this day, the georna ore the key day cnetic activit Y was hinher (P=,_'1.40, df=58, n=.02), , finding was confirmed by Duncan's analysis (n=.o tiffs within `' Cc,rrelatecl s gr?uo rampar.is,,ns _)? t -test (set at d=,01) demonstrated that the experiments f ,r for Group I (HH) g7t were $ of the quieten than aay (t213-04, df=17) The night of df=171 .and the ex~.ier'? ence quieter than the (f7ilIs average of ) was signr`~car,,Iy the month (t.=4,5` day (t-2.B2) and the ', df=17, o -. r Both r('1)? the days -1 (t=c?'.68) ~:ey the month, and 1)1us (t=3.84) were a,.iieter than For the second group (LH) cc,r, p ti was high ,r i'h3lQ the activity On days er' (t'=4.81) than the p,,_,nthly avFr'ur?P. ik- Ys Ol US 1 ( s7 n. P HM) demanst ?_At gnet ed a.m ,,irnas,_~a1 pattern. is activity or, day "r cant Y averages. differences between the Then were rwards. Y The third Dreg ( days and the