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.fvordFor7elease 2000/08/11 CIA-RDP96-00792R000400220001-9 Journal ofthe Society 1 chinec 1Vol. 56, No. 4ly 1990] Notes the situation must be the result orprior physiological activity, identical in earough evolution which, however, is the only technique possible for the case; for example, if it is claimed the light movement is the result of movevelopment of biological faculties. The most likely alternative is that 'idea particles in the aqueous humour, everybody must have the same sized partiontrof is an inherent quality or characteristic of the level of consciousness in exactly the same place at the same time, moving in the same direction at avolved, and since it did not arise biologically, the only conclusion must e that same speed, and this situation arises every time the experiment is carried one stratum of consciousness encompassing it, is itself not a physiological b .entity.. The chances of such an occurrence arising fortuitously are remote in the extren The significance of the part played by the 'idea' hypothesis in the apparitional in fact, virtually impossible, and these conditions apply to any theory based ofieory has been fully covered by Tyrrell and does not arise here. However, taking physiological function. The inference is obvious. nto account the possibly non-physical nature of the requisite stratum of What appears to be taking place, according to the 'idea' hypothesis, is thatonsciousness, it is clearly possible that an 'idea' could arise from one or more first all the observers perceive the light as stationary. One observer claim' s 'ttsvchical sources and thus provide a plausible theory for several other types of . light is moving upwards' and each observer then has an 'idea' in barapsYchological phenomena. If the psychically inspired 'idea' is of a scene, it consciousness which creates the image of the light moving ,upwards, and iould explain the many accounts in the literature of people finding themselves in ?.. responsive observers will see the light doing so, as Gregory points out. In the case of the solitary observer, whose sensory image of the light is nr?ettatihhe inexplicable Versailles type ps surroundings, ror fo experienceundi ng s, and recorded if thes eb havey j ou historicalrd a i n and m associations,obe riy .5fiI f, rtw4;6 , ... primarily influenced by an 'idea' the image remains either stationary or moves;bserver is of say, a religious disposition, the 'idea' may well create a holy figure an entirely random manner. On the other hand, most observers are able ii a grotto or on a church wall. Although widely different in their presentation,. control the movement simply by 'willing, it (i.e., by convincing themselves dill these manifestations, and those aspects of gerception already discussed, .arei.n are able to do so), as with the anemometer effect described in an earlier issueract simply different aspects of the one phenogienon, that is, an image arising in the Journal. Control of movement is total and the light can be directed the consciousness on the inducement of an 'idea', for which in some cases there is whichever direction may be desired, or it can be rendered stationary Th.pparentiv no physical basis. observer sees it follow his 'willed' direction because there is now an 'idea' in tl. It isP rObablv useless to speculate on the nature of the 'idea-pattern' and its consciousness which is controlling the behaviour of the image. Most people witssociated stratum of consciousness, because if these are non-physical entities, as have no difficulty in confirming this phenomenon for themselves. As has already been mentioned, experiments with autokinesis and theirvoluntairn b ut to a ? . be behaviourinca pable wouldof suggest,comprehending then the hmu. mvva en might intelligence,have nwith perception strongly indicate that the visual images being perceived arise simptbe content with observing their manifestations. However, the extensive rangeo alternative its limitations, from a belief (i.e., Tyrrell's 'idea-pattern') in the observer's consciousness anlphenomena in which they appear to operate suggests that this situation already are apparently not related to activity of the visual cortex. Ample confirmation t'presents a serious challenge to the mind brain identity theory and lends credence .., this situation is provided by hypnotic hallucinations which arise from an 'ideito many of the claims of parapsychology. implanted by an external agent. There would appear to be little doubt but thi the percepts from all three sources are created by the same mechanism, compriscishford, Kindlestown Hill the same elements and exist in the same area of consciousness. Since sensory a0elgany, Co. Wicklow hallucinatory images are indistinguishable, there would appear to be gooVRELAND grounds for including sensory perception. However, there is one serio14 objection in that sensory images are obviously not initiated basically by an 'ideal but by a brain state, and yet it can be shown that their behaviour may 13 controlled by nothing more than an 'idea'. This implies that the visual corte PARAPSYCHOLOGY AND RELIGION: RECENT CONTRIBUTIONS cannot be an integral part of the image (contra to a widely held opinion), no can it create the image as some kind of physiological appendage. It seems mereli FROM ITALY (contrary to provide information from which the consciousness may, or may not, create i percept. Normally, in the creation of a percept, consciousness always follows a atterby CARLOS S. ALVARADO in the visual cortex, and it does so with meticulous exactitude, as otherwPise ? t? topic that would clearly be impossible. Such an arrangement has undoubtedly come int Discussion on the' relationship of psi phenomena and religion is a from the iological existence, as Tyrrell points out in considerable detail, through b. ' ' ara2s:c recurs in theliterature lift of religion and parapsychology (for a review fr necessity in the course of evolution. Nevertheless, the overriding control of such a .1S. C c o 1 \ hological point of view see Thouless, 1977) . . Some have argued that reliable procedure by an insubstantial 'idea' is a phenomenon which indisput i V Inc phenomena are at the root of religious beliefs and experiences (Lang, ably exists, as can be demonstrated experimentally. How and z becAri3i3iwberideirpetelasel2AIWAll'bi-no! . (191t/t988), The Ghosts of the Trianon. The Comp ' tetiXiktP96.0107a2R000400220081+9 220 1-1)I.ENTI'RE edited by NI. H. Coleman. Wellingborough: Northants.: The Aquarian Press. 991 tete AN such an alien influence rain y Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400220001-9 Journal of the Society for Psychical Research [Vol. 56, No. fily 1990] 1894). Others argue that the phenomena provide evidence for a basic tene Notes religion, that is, the existence of a nonphysical aspect of human beings (Rh 1953). The latter reminds us that religious studies and parapsychology sharowev iichronisms are parapsychological phenomena consisting of ESP communica- common interest in the concept of survival of bodily death. ii)n between the visionaries' brains while in an altered state of consciousness. Other writers have discussed psychic phenomena in relation to spec er, one wonders if such an explanation is necessary. The authors do not religions such as Judaism (Bazak, 1972) and Islam (Grunebaum, 1966). nisider the effect of practice, or previous experience of the children in the Other there has been much attention paid to psychic phenomena in ioduction of the phenomenon. It is conceivable that after having had months or Christian context such as those reported to occur around Catholic mystics .ars of experience of trance behaviour the children have learned a routine o saints (Thurston, 1952), and phenomena such as Marian apparitions (Freixetto:yrements while in trance and have developed shared assumptions about the 1985). More recently, the topic of parapsychology and religion has hai:si;tion or movements of the apparitionoor sensibility to subtle sensory cues that discussed in a conference of the Parapsychology Foundation (Shapin & Col' be helpful to coordinate the phenctnena described as synchronisms. This f ) and is frequently considered in contemporary publications such --unjecture may not be substantiated by "empirical evidence, but it is the sort o Christian Parapsychologist and the Journal of Religion and Psychical Research. onsideration. that we have to take into ahccoreuenotubrseefotroe acnonEcslupdpinrogeethssa.t the One of the most recent contributions to the subject in question appeared in tLhenomena in question may e explainedy Italian journal Quaderni di Parapsicologia (1989, Vol. 20, whole issue). The jour Two other presenters discussed psychic phenomena associate . ,,.., d with particular is the proceedings of a 1988 conference held at Bologna to discuss differ .udividuals. Father Reginaldo Thorel talked about paranormal phenomena ,,In port g wItitre life of St. Catherine of Siena. His discussion included mention of aspects of the relationship of religion and parapsychology. In this re I briefly summarize and comment on the contents of the proceedings. ehcombuhstibility, visions and knowledge of the hidden sins of people. Thorel ?i,,t Father Andreas Resch presented an overview of ideas about psychuch processes. ued that miracles are not cons' 'considered somportant now as in the past for phenomena in the Catholic Church. The coverage ranged from the activities pr urposes of canonization. The individual's vi ,ues are receiving more weight in Giancarlo Rosati described a variety of phenomena reported around the the Fathers of the Church such as Tertullian to the 18th centuryactivities i Prospero Lambertini, known as Pope Benedict XIV. According to Resch psych)rapilinensowmaemi Sainasu eBhabaas, wmhaotecrliaailmizas ttioonbeoafnoAhiveaettasr a. Tndhisheinachlnugdse.dHdoeswcervipetri,onins phenomena are of interest to the Church because they may foster worldviews kosati's opinion this is not the important aspect of Sai Baba's phenomena. He the members of the Church that are different from conventional doctrine, or thtr, may manifest in ways consistent with Catholic beliefs (e.g., some cases apparitions and healing). Parapsychology, says Resch, may be useful in terms laced more importance on the spiritual transformations that were reported to studying the authenticity and causes of miraculous claims. This is a point th 13b cacbuar, st o doctrinepeop l e a raonudn d interpersonal Baba. T he proceedings relationships als oby includeAngelo a short p paper Readers has been made before by other students of the subject when, for example attempt has been made to draw differences between 'true' mystical phenom'enaH interested in more in depth information about Sai Baba should consult from 'demonic' or human paranormal occurrences (e.g., Farges, 1920/1925 aTr ah 1 ed restss o no' fs the (1987) recent presenters dealtboo k withon the conceptualsubj e c t . Other presentations may be classified in two general groups: papers deali issues. Emilio Servadio argued )? 'that psi phenomena are partly physical and partly metaphysical or transcenden- with phenomena reported to occur around particular individuals and ? - ? fcomplete understanding of psi. Similarly, conceptual issues. 1.01 Since science deals with the physical world the scientific method was Marco In one of the most interesting papers of the conference Giorgio Gagliardi ? anit' wa[considered to be inadequate or a Margnelli summarized psychophysiological researches conducted wid seen in Sergio Bernardi argued that the idea of different levels of reality is clearly l ...astern religions and philosophies. Psychic phenomena was seen as a natura five children that claim to have had visions of the virgin Mary since 1981 auP In contrast to the above mentioned papers Alfonso di Nola rejected the 'synchronisms' Yugoslavia. One of the phenomena the children show is that t) art of systems such as yoga. synchronisms' or movements or gestures done at the same time by all childrer existence of a transcendental world. Instead he postulated an objective and a during ecstasy. The children have been subjected to a variety of tests whid llj d magical and miraculous events) may be explained by human psi faculties. sub?ective reality. He suggested that all paranormal occurrences (including so include visual and auditory evoked potential, galvanic skin response, heart and Di eNola criticized scientists who do not want to study the paranormal on the respiration rate measures. In the author's views the research has demonstrated basis of prejudice, as well as those that use the paranormal to justify religious that while the children claim to have their visionary experiences 'the brain h prejudice. This paper provides a good balance to the other articles in the Qua ernz sensorially isolated from the environment, [and] the synchronisms do not seen dious. to be caused by signals from the environment. . .' Some Of the studies ot There was also a roundtable discussing the issues of the conference. synchronisms focused on eye movements. Two children showed similar eyt that argue for a nonphysical and transcendental view of psychic phenomena. Ferdinando Bersani summarized the previous papers and argued that paramovements when they were seeing the apparition of Mary. Analyses of films chologv presents two dimensions. One was the attempt to explain phenomena inpsy- showed that their eye movements coincided with each other within a variation of natural ways (i.e., as human faculties). Another was the possibility that psi 200 to 500 milliseconds. Gagliardi and Margnelli interpret this to mean that indicated the existence of a spiritual realm. In his opinion some phenomena 222 223 ? Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400220001-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400220001-9 journal of the Society for Puchical Research 1 Vol. 56, No. gly 19901 Notes suggest: (1) other levels of reality (NDEs); (2) survival of death (ND mediumship); (3) independence oldie physical body (OBEs, ESP, PK); ancP2ak. I REFERENCES (1972 analogies with miracles (PK, materializations, apports, healing). He (1972). Judaism and Psychic Phenomena.c,ared New York: Garrett. outlined several explanatory models of psychic phenomena some of whi.alrges. A. ( 1925) s Mystical Phenomenan French, . om/ with their Human and Diabolical Counterfeits. New York: 1920.) focused on supernatural and human causal processes. . eBienzinger. (First?publishedA. After Bersani's comments participants and observers discussed further issJxouernd:ofS. (1983). Las pariczones e d El Escorial. Madrid: Quinta. related to the topic of the conference. For lack of space I will mention only twc runehaum, G. E. von. (1966). The place of parapsychological phenomena in Islam. International Parapsychology, 8, 264-280. these comments. Resch recognized the practical difficulties that the Church fao,farnr,:i.d's07.n' E. (1987). 'Miracles are My Visiting Cards.' London: Century. in demonstrating divine intervention when trying to explain miracles. Fir2 k (1894). Cock Lane and Common-Sense. London: Longmans, Green. Liverziani commented on the differences between mediumistic and Saintaiipl'einj, 'BB... 8z(19C5o31)y.,NLew. (WEdorsl.d).of( (1928). Levitation. London: Burns Oates & Washbourne. levitations, as seen in D. D. Home and Joseph Copertino. In his view Hol1the 87M) .i Mind. rNapesywchY0 ioorgyk :: PWilliamhilo Philosophy hySloane. H. i(1Concepts.New York: Religious produced levitations through the use of psychic energy, while Copertint Parapsychology Foundation. levitations were the product of his spiritual energy. This is ren-iiniscent of Leror 'Implications for religious studies.' In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in liouless, hRi. (1928) attempts to distinguish the levitations of saints and mediums. St/ Research:977). l Psychokinesis. New York: Plenum Press, 175-190. ..,` attempts to establish different causal processes of psychic phenomena i htatPos-rivc bl? 11952). The Physical Phenomena of Mysticism (J. H. Crehan, Ed.). London: Burns Oates. interesting but unconvincing because no clear criteria are offered to sustain sui ideas. Even if we admit differences of magnitude in the phenomena tt explanation may be one of different social or psychological contexts. Fi example, a religious setting may provide a psychological set (e.g., no sense! personal responsibility in producing the phenomena) in which levitations aG, THE SPINELLI DATABASE other phenomena manifest in a stronger way than in other contexts. St4 conditions may be more psi-conducive than mediumistic seances or 0th by BETTY MARKWICK contexts of psi-functioning. The point is that we have to consider ottg 89 possibilities before committing ourselves to explanations having little 'd 49 evi e, I should like to offer some comments on Rick Berger's 'Note', in the October journal for their support. entitled 'A Critical Examination of the Spinelli Dissertation Data'. The contributors to this conference mention issues that have been repeated nrrable and page numbrrs refer to that article and to Ernesto Spinelli's reply in the discussed in the literature on the subject. Some show interest in anomaloi, 'same Journal. ,.., * phenomena reported to occur around particular individuals in a religicl context. Others focus on how parapsychology shows the existence of Dr. SIZE AND r101VIOGENEITY nonphysical reality, a basic tenet of all religions. Still others argue for d subsets Dr. Berger expresses surprise that the effect sizes o . . . l f randomly remove practical use of parapsychology in distinguishing between human and supe to trials (Table 3) are virtually identical to the effect sizes of the original sets natural causal processes or in the authentication of miracles. But is the body (Table 1). Yet surely this would be expected by virtue ' that the of the definition of effect knowledge of parapsychology consistent and reliable enough to help us expld l'size: for a given hit probability and hit rate,effect size is constant for large these issues? The answer can hardly be a positive one. For one we should t; numbers of trials. Or perhaps Berger's point is . 672 386 the effect sizes for the 528 careful to avoid confusing ignorance of causal mechanisms with evidence ft Observed hits, 1,500-trial sets randomly removed subsets are too close to those of the original 224 inal sets? We have: 176 transcendental realities or nonphysical processes as some members of th Expected hits, 500-trial subsets 448 352 parapsychological community are prone to do. We also have to recognize hot Expected hits, 1,000-trial paired sets 125 221 '167 128.667 little we know about psi phenomena in naturalistic contexts such as the one' Observed hits, 500-trial subsets +3 +9 involved in the literature on miracles. At this point the best we can do i Deviations 257.333 speculate within reasonable limits and be aware that if parapsychology is goirt Chi-square to be meaningful for issues such as the study of miracles or the influence o' +3.667 0.0603 0.6903 religious environments on the manifestation ofpsychic phenomena it will have It obtl - ? closer outcome in regard 0.1568 pay more attention to its subject matter as it occurs outside of the laboratory. The total chi-square is 0.9074, 3 df, p = 0.82. This means that the probability of uning a to effect size is 0.18?which is quite unremarkable. Institute for Parapsychology Box 6847 Durham, NC 27708 U.S.A. 224 CHOICE DISTRIBUTION MATRIX: DISCREPANCIES Berger points out that five of the ten rows of the choice distribution matrix Table 6) show unequal numbers of targets sent and received, although the row 225 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400220001-9