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Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 LN465-92 CHINESE JOURNAL OF SOMATIC SCIENCE Today, the board of the Association of Somatic Sciences is convening its fourth meeting. At the same time, our journal, the "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science" has also been published. It may be said that our Chinese Association of Somatic Sciences has progressed to a new operational stage. For our work to enter a new stage, our ideological knowledge must also follow. We must not continue to remain at that stage of hard combat with the group of opponents where we have been for the past several years. We must now fight another hard battle to establish scientific research the somatic sciences. Comrade Chen Xin published an article on this major topic in the initial issue of "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science" entitled "The Concept and Methodology of the Human Body as an Open, Complex Giant System?-." Here, I will use this concept that the human body is an open, complex giant system to talk about my knowledge of somatic sciences and the operations of the Association of Somatic Sciences. I hope that you comrades will point out any errors I may make. In 1983, I had an article in "Nature Magazine" entitled "Concerning the Science of Thought"?. In this article, I mentioned the outlines of somatic sciences, but I did not yet mention the problem of human paranormal abilities. At that time, my primary understanding was that there was a history of several thousands of years in medicine and that there was a great deal of practical experience there. Modern physiology and medicine also had a history of 200 years. This is important. At that time, I stressed the effect of human consciousness. This is the difference between man and animals. Therefore, the shock waves of paranormal abilities have caused us to greatly open up our eyes. At the same time, a great "wave of popularity for QIGONG" has risen around us, reminding people of China's ancient medicine of several thousand years- Chinese medicine. This allows us to recognize that the concepts we have studied in the past concerning man are not sufficient for our needs, and we have finally come to recognize that the human body is an open, complex giant system. Concerning this question, Comrade Chen Xin also stated very clearly in the first issue of "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science" in an article entitled "Somatic Sciences - The Way to Major Breakthroughs in Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Modern Science"-3. When I think about it, the reason we were able to come up with, this concept was with the assistance of the discover of the phenomenon of human paranormal abilities. For my personal understanding, I must thank the origins provided by human paranormal abilities. Therefore, those comrades who are performing work in human paranormal abilities have made major contributions and performed meritorious services which will be called a milestone in the history books of man's understanding of the world. I pointed out in that article in 1983 that somatic science was a major part of the body of modern science and technology. It parallels the natural sciences, social sciences, the mathematical sciences, system sciences, thought sciences, military sciences, behavioral sciences, geological sciences and the artistic theories. Each major part has three levels, the theoretical sciences, the technical sciences and the practical technologies. Naturally, there are several special points in the artistic theories, because the practice of artistic theory is artistic creation and is not science. When somatic science is added to the major fields above, there are a total of ten, which compose the body of modern science and technology. Each part has its own philosophical outline. The philosophical outline of the natural sciences is the natural dialectics. The philosophical outline of social sciences is the historical materialism. The philosophical outline of the artistic theories is aesthetics. The philosophical outline of the somatic sciences is the view of man and nature. Finally, they are all gathered together in the philosophy of Marxism, while Marxism uses the philosophical outline of each part to guide the advances in science and technology-4. In the somatic sciences, the philosophy of Marxism guides research in the somatic sciences through the view of man and nature. The achievements of somatic sciences add to the philosophy of Marxism through the view of man and nature. Although I already had the concept of somatic sciences in 1983, I had a very shallow understanding toward the overall further understanding of the human body at that time. I only knew that it was very complex. As to what extent, I was not clear. Beginning in 1988, we gradually discovered in our system discussion classes the concept that as a system, the human body is not a normal system. First of all, it is an open system, which is to say that this system has exchanges with the outside world. For example, through breathing, eating and drinking and elimination of wastes, it carries out a material exchange. Through sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch it conducts an informational exchange. In addition, the human body is composed of billions and billions of molecules. Therefore, it is not a small system nor is it a large system, but it is a giant system even larger than a large system. Also, all the component parts of this giant system are different. The interaction between these components is also very complex. Therefore, it is a complex giant system. Some giant systems such as the air in this auditorium are also composed of billions Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 and billions of molecules, so it is a giant system. However, there are not very many types of molecules, and the interaction among the molecules is not complex, so it is a simple giant system. For open simple giant systems, a theory can be constructed to process them such as the theory of I. Prigogine and H. Haken with a great deal of success. This won them the Nobel Prize. However, using their theories to process open complex systems such as the human body or society is unsuccessful. This was the fallacy of the "brains" of the social sciences in advocating the injection into China of foreign economic theory a short time ago. Therefore, to study an open, complex giant system such as the human body, it is necessary to take another route. It has been the past few years that we have formed a type of method in our systems sciences discussion class which we called "the comprehensive integration method from the quantitative to the qualitative"5. Specifically, it is combining bit by bit, everyone's qualitative and incomplete opinions to form a numerical model, entering boundary restrictions and performing qualitative calculations, and finally reaching a conclusion. Actually, this is also the modernized processing method of what in the past we called "democratic centralism". However, in the past when using this principle, errors were committed, and when error was added on top of error, it was not possible to collect the proper opinions. Why was this the case Because there was no scientific method to accomplish the summing up. During sessions of he National People's Congress or the Chinese People's Political Consultative Congress the delegates would put forward a number of opinions and there were several programs, but finally what happened was there was actually no good method of summing up these ideas or platforms, so how could a scientific decision be reached? Therefore, all credit for the formation of the concept of an open, complex giant system and the comprehensive integration method from the quantitative to the qualitative should go to the Chinese people. From this basis, mans' ability to understand his world has risen to a new stage. Since man is an open, complex giant system, in our study of somatic science, we must use "the comprehensive integration method from the quantitative to the qualitative". This is a basic view point and methodology. This new concept we have come up with, we should say here at today's meeting, had its beginnings in the theories of Chinese medicine. Therefore, we have already pointed out that Chinese medicine, QIGONG, and human paranormal abilities all taken together form somatic sciences. Now I would like to say that our theories have also risen, risen to this view that the human body is an open, complex giant system. We should hold this view to reshape all old knowledge of the human body. I believe that this is the task of the Chinese Association of Somatic Science. Naturally, this task is a monumental task and will take a great deal of effort. I am afraid it will take until the next century. However, we must have confidence. In the past thousands of years, mankind has constantly searched for, and today has finally found, the proper avenue, and we must go down that road. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Since the human body is an open, complex giant system, the study of the human body must not be simplified. We must not grasp one single point and ignore the rest. Therefore, we must search for truth through facts and must pay special serious attention to obtaining knowledge from experience. As for somatic science, the basis for practical knowledge is medicine. Medicine is the most abundant source for practical knowledge for somatic science. Because man becomes ill, and when he becomes ill he is treated. In order to treat ailments, it is necessary to clarify the cause of the disease and to study just what the human body is. This is especially true of clinical medicine. It has direct contact with patients. A patient is a real and complex entity. There is no way to simplify the patient. I have had contact with a number of persons who conduct medical research. They often simplify man, and often look down on people practicing clinical medicine, feeling that they are not very "scientific". However, I feel that the "scientific" they are talking about is often a component of mechanical materialism. We in the somatic sciences must never commit the errors of mechanical materialism. We must pay serious attention to the experiences of clinical medicine, including Chinese medicine. Chinese medicine has a history of thousands of years and includes a great number of things. Through practical experience, Chinese medicine has a great deal of perceptual knowledge. They also worked hard to summarize this and to form the precious theories of Chinese medicine. Naturally, there are also minority nationality medicines such as Tibetan medicine and Mongol medicine, so we call it traditional medicine. Actually, this problem is also being taken seriously in foreign countries. In the british magazine "The New Scientist"', it was stated that there are two medicines in North Africa, one is called Frankincense and one is called Myrrh which are very famous and which they are studying. Later we also saw a news item that stated that chimpanzees in Africa eat two types of leaves every morning, one has the Latin name of Aspilia and the other is called Lippia Plicata. The item stated that these two types of tree leaves are healthy and give an appetite. That is to say, chimpanzees also eat herbs. Therefore, Chinese medicine and the nationality medicines all over the world are very fruitful storehouses, and there histories are probably longer than several thousand years. If we tack on the ancestors of man, it is probably a history of several hundred million years. Another major aspect is Western medicine. Another is the combination of Chinese and Western medicine. In this years fifth issue of "People's Pictorial"'?, I saw some successes of the combining of Chinese and Western medicine. However, I could not find these in medical books. This is also something very valuable in the practical experience of medicine, and we must not ignore these things. The fifth aspect is psychological treatment. There has been a fair amount of growth here in the past several years. Professor Wu Jieping, vice chairman of the China Science Commission told me that psychological Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 treatment is very important, and that when he was seeing patients, he used psychology. Therefore, everyone should not feel that psychological treatment is not important. The treatment of patients by QIGONG masters also has a psychological effect. The sixth aspect is QIGONG. QIGONG is very effecting in treating certain ailments of certain people. However, the pattern has not yet been fully identified. We cannot, however, ignore QIGONG because of this. The seventh aspect is paranormal abilities. Many comrades here today all conduct research in paranormal abilities, so I need not speak more of the significance of paranormal abilities within somatic science. Are there still more aspects? As our understanding grows, there may well be more. These seven aspects I have mentioned are mentioned in the general order in which they have received serious attention after their appearance. Naturally, the comrades here today probably have their own order, and I will not argue this. However, these seven aspects are all directly used to process man, and they cannot be simplified for practical experience of the human body and our research into the somatic sciences. We must consider man as an open, complex giant system, and no two people are the same. Therefore, clinical medicine is the most abundant and complete source of information for research into somatic science and must be given our full attention. In our Chinese Association of Somatic Science there is a Clinical Medicine Philosophy Committee. Their research plays a major role in the development of somatic science. Furthermore, to what I have said in this section, we should not restrict ourselves to Chinese medicine, but should also include all seven aspects of clinical medicine. For example, I have already suggested using the theories of Chinese medicine to analyze large numbers of cases of Western medicine. From the viewpoint of somatic science, there can be even greater developments in clinical medicine. In the past when talking about medicine, it was divided into the first medicine which was the medicine of the treatment of disease, and the second medicine which was the medicine of health maintenance and disease prevention. As for the concept of the third medicine, I have several different ideas. The English for the third medicine is rehabilitation medicine. Our translation as "recovery medicine" is not appropriate. For a patient to recover, that belongs to the first medicine, while third medicine actually refers to the restoration of functions of the disabled. It is recovery through mechanical methods. Actually, there are a great many such instruments. Nearsightedness cannot be cured, so glasses are worn. If one is hard of hearing, he wears a hearing aid. If the heart function is poor, a pace maker is implanted. As science and technology advances, there are more and more of this sort of thing. There is an article called "Conceptual Technology"!~ in which it states that "We have been wearing glasses for several generations. Then there were contact lenses. Now we perform eye surgery to help ourselves see better. We can also remove aged bones and replace it with stainless steel and plastics are being used to replace Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 skin. We are slowly and actually using more and more materials in the human body. We are becoming controlled machines. We are using technology externally and internally to perform certain mechanisms of life." On the second page of the 28 May, 1990 issue of "Guangming Ribao" there was a news item on a "new model multiple function rehabilitation bed being placed into use".This discussed using a new multiple function electronic bed to help people perform a number of lost functions. Somatic science research can help us manufacture even more mechanical electronic devices. These devices can help people recover some functions which medical treatment methods cannot recover. Therefore, I believe that the third medicine cannot be called recovery medicine, but should be called "reconstructive medicine", which is the reconstruction of organs of the human body. From the viewpoint of somatic science, I feel that there should be a fourth medicine, which is the stimulation of functions which most people do not have, such as paranormal abilities. I call this "Creation Medicine". We must create ourselves, create a man superior to that created by "god". Also, this is a conscious dynamic creation. This is one major aspect of our somatic science. It also includes three other aspects. The first is to use the methods of somatic science to enhance the accomplishments in athletics. Comrade Xia Shuangquan of the Wuhan Physical Education College studied and tested using QIGONG methods to improve athletic achievements. The second aspect is to improve mans intelligence. Comrade Wu Yitong of Anwei has conducted some experiments in this area, using QIGONG methods. However, it was an error for him to list using QIGONG to correct nearsightedness in this category, as that is a first medicine problem. The third aspect is to induce paranormal abilities, bringing into play abilities which are dormant in man or which man does not have. I believe that somatic science should study the fourth medicine, which are problems of creative medicine. Somatic science should turn toward medicine, and the clinical medicine includes the four medicines, which are the first medicine, the second medicine, the third medicine and the fourth medicine. Furthermore, the four medicines all must use Chinese medicine, Western medicine, combined Chinese and Western medicine, folk medicine, psychological treatment, QIGONG, and paranormal abilities. We naturally are also unable to state that paranormal abilities only belongs within the fourth medicine. This concept must be clarified. ] In Shanghai there is a doctor called Sun Qiyuan_ He studies leukaemia. He advocates that it is wrong to separate medicine and pharmacologyG. I feel that this is reasonable. Some people do not go to a doctor when they are ill, but buy medicine according to the advertisements for drugs which could cause problems. This is because even though they have the same ailment, no two people are alike, and no matter what a persons condition, or as we say what their functional state might be, it is not right to just take any medicine. The current state of confusion in the medical treatment enterprises is a cause for concern. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 We who work in somatic science should also note that there are very many problems which clinical medicine has not solved. Not long ago I saw Doctor Kuang Peigen of Hospital Number 301. She talked to me about the problem of pain. She said that this problem is very complex, and that we did not understand it. There is a World Pain Association, and there are a large number of people who have joined it. Some are medical personnel, some are psychologists and some are sociologists. Because the causes of pain are very complex, much pain cannot be cured and nothing can be done about it. Therefore, our knowledge of the human body, especially our knowledge of the nervous system is very lacking. III. THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS In 1983, In my article "About Thought Science", I mentioned this problem. Now I believe that we who are doing research in somatic science should also pay attention to this problem. Because the human body is an open, complex giant system, it is necessary to give serious consideration to the feedback effects of the human consciousness to the other parts of the body. This is psychology, a basic branch of science in somatic sciences. When they studied the human mind in ancient times, they committed mistakes of idealism. Later, when psychology was established, it came up against mechanical materialism. A typical example is behavioral psychology, which is the so-called "black box theory". At the present time, there are a great number of different types of psychological research in foreign country, and none of these can convince the others. However, I believe some of the questions can be clarified. For example, research in brain science can resolve such problems as sensation, which is the detection of external information, and how it is transmitted to the brain after receiving it. This is biological psychology. However, the next higher level of sensation is known in psychology as perception. This is very complicated and cannot be clarified. Because perception involves even more complex questions such as how does the brain process the received information. There are people in foreign countries who have done research in ovine perception. They say if a man is standing, the sheep is afraid. If the man is lying down, the sheep is not afraid. This is one interesting phenomenon. Recently I saw a book review10 which reviewed a book called "Synesthesia" by Richard E. Cytowic. From the book review, I felt that it should not have been called Synesthesia, but should have been called "Feelings". Feelings are something even higher on the scale than perception. For example, someone hears music, first of all is the sensation from the ear to the hearing nerves, and then the controlling portion of the brain processes the sensation information which gives rise to perception. Perception is then combined with the culture of the person listening to the music and finally the feelings of listening to the music are reached. Similar processes apply to touring scenic areas, reading poetry or watching a performance. However, I see that is very difficult Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 for psychology to study this question, because it currently can still not be divorced from the processing method of the reduction theory. There are many books like this. This is a problem that psychology is presently faced with. It is even more important for we who are doing research in somatic science to pay attention to this problem, and we must jump out of the framework of psychology and use the methods of processing open, complex giant systems, and we must use the comprehensive integration method from qualitative to quantitative to gradually move up from biological psychology to the spiritual level which R. Sperry talks about. Once we have determined how human sensation rises to the high spiritual activities, and then, how does this high level activity feed back and affect other portions of the human body. This is actually to establish a science of spirituality. If those working in somatic science do not study this question, a number of questions such as QIGONG and human paranormal abilities may not be able to be solved. I spoke of this problem before, and today while summarizing this concept of "sensation", I would like to iterate the role of consciousness and mind in somatic science. IV. LEADING IDEOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY IN STUDYING SOMATIC SCIENCES Research in somatic science must use the philosophy of Marxism, which is dialectical materialism, as its guide. As for somatic science, it is the view of man and nature which connects it to the philosophy of Marxism. The three levels of the view of man and nature are the microscopic view, the macroscopic view and the universal view. Chinese medicine has made large contributions to the macroscopic view aspects. Here, I would like to emphasize that we must not commit errors of idealism and mechanical materialism. In some fields of natural sciences and technology it is not very easy to commit errors of idealism. However, due to the influences of Western sciences, it is very easy to commit errors of mechanical materialism. As we say in the vernacular, this is stubborn as a mule, and it takes a simplistic view of problems. Research into somatic science not only guard against idealism, it must also guard against mechanical materialism. In the past, the persons who criticized research into paranormal abilities and opposed us included those who said we were guilty of idealism and mechanical materialism. However, if we maintain the philosophy of Marxism, and maintain dialectical materialism, if anyone calls us idealistic, then they must themselves be guilty of mechanical materialism. Therefore, I once more stress that those working in somatic sciences must do a good job in learning the philosophy of Marxism. Otherwise, we not only will not be able to do a good job in our research in somatic science, but will also make mistakes. The central leading comrades have repeatedly stressed that leading cadre must do a good job in learning the philosophy of Marxism. Why have they done that? Because leading comrades must handle social problems, and these are an open, complex giant system. It shares this point in common with somatic science. Therefore, those working in somatic science must do a good job in learning the philosophy of Marxism. Recently I saw the book "Preliminary Explorations into the View of Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Man and Nature" edited by Comrade Ye Jun of Sichuan. I believe that the book contains a number of things that appear to be true and are yet untrue. Therefore, it will not be an easy task to construct this bridge of the view of man and nature between somatic science and the philosophy of Marxism. Here I would like to say that the problems faced by the Chinese Communist Party in leading the new democratic revolution and in socialist construction are very complex, but they have achieved great victories and accomplishments. The summarization of this experience and the refining of a high degree of philosophy lies in the though of Mao Zedong. The thought of Mao Zedong presents the theory of scope of dialectical materialism for interrelated complex problems". It is a sharp weapon for research in somatic sciences. We must study and put to use this philosophical thought of Mao Zedong. With a leading ideology, the next thing is the problem of methodology. The method for handling this open, complex giant system which is the human body is the comprehensive integrated method from qualitative to quantitative. It is not that old method of reduction theory. The reduction theory dissects things, tests them, and then puts them back together. This is the Baconian method of 300 years ago. For the past several hundred years people have always followed this "scientific method" when conducting research work. However, this set of methods cannot be used to solve open, complex giant systems. Because this system is extremely complex, how is it to be dissected? And the small system dissected are not the original systems and there is no way to summarize the bit by bit research of the small systems. I just mentioned that the views of persons conducting medical research are not the same as those of clinical doctors, and the patients faced every day by clinical doctors are each and every on an entire person, an entire entity. Facing this open, complex giant system of the human body, we must conduct comprehensive research, and must not tarry at the level of doing bit by bit research. We must summarize research of the various portions. There are numerous papers published in the medical field every year, but they do not solve problems. Why? Because that research is all bit by bit, partial, and has not been all summarized. Somatic science research must summarize all information. That requires the use of the comprehensive integration method of from qualitative to quantitative. We stated in the first section that this method was the creation of the Chinese people. The foreigners do not have it yet. Naturally, they also face complex problems in practice, and know that the old Baconian methods do not work, so in recent years there has appeared in foreign countries a fad of so called complexity research. However, after discussing it back and forth, no feasible methods came out of it which could solve problems. So it is we who are marching in the forefront. This is something that we Chinese workers in somatic science can celebrate. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 On the other hand, in practical use of the research method described above, because it involves the social situation of China, there are a number of difficulties that have yet to be overcome. There is a great deal of information to be summarized. It cannot be done by hand. Therefore, we must use the methods of modern information technology and use modern information technology as tools to assist human thought in order to complete the comprehensive integration form the qualitative to the quantitative. Those doing somatic science research must take part in this work and must have a firm grasp of this method. As we are know, Mei Lei of the Space Medicine Engineering Lab has done a great deal of work with computers and Lu Zhu and Lu Huo of the Nanjing Military Region Main Hospital have done research in dimensional EEG. Is it not possible to summarize this work on EEG? Recently I saw research into fingerprints by Shao Ziyuan of the Henan Physical Science Research Academyls which stated that finger prints represent a persons genetic information, and by looking at fingerprints it is possible to select people with athletic abilities. I think that this is simplistic. Since finger prints represent heredity, and it cannot be said that heredity is all determining, environmental influences also play a great role. I fear that human functional states require several hundred parameters to describe them and must not be simplified. Recently I saw an article in "Nature Magazine" by Zhang Shaoguang on his theory concerning the networks of the human body-14. He stated that the material basis for networks were a type of liquid crystals which organized movement between certain gaps and channels in the human body. This is also too simplistic. Also, it is only one idea and no thorough research has been done. Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press has come out with a book on modernized research in Chinese medicine by Zhang Shishun in which he quotes me as saying that the human body is a system. However, his system is too simple. He also uses that pansystem theory of Wu Xuemou of Wuhan. Zeng Weijun of the Nanjing Municipal Jiangpu County Hospital has written a book on research in Chinese medicine by many scientific disciplines which broadens the horizons of the theories of Chinese medicine. He has brought in everything he could use. This is an excellent beginning, but it is only a beginning. Because the human body is too complicated, we must not now simplify it. In the past, Western medicine frequently made the mistake of simplification, treating only the seat of the disease. Recently in the May 1990 issue of "Scientific American" I saw an article written by Steven A. Rosenberg15. He told how to enhance the human immune capabilities to allow the immune system to defeat cancer. This is a step in the right direction. The article stated that in 1968 when he was a resident of the Boston Hospital he had a patient with stomach pains. An examination showed he was suffering from gall stones. He used surgery to remove the stones. However, checking the patients medical records he discovered that 12 years earlier the patient had stomach cancer and when it was operated on, it was discovered that it had spread to the intestines and was inoperable. The doctor believed that he had at the most three months to Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 live. However, strangely enough, after three months, he grew stronger and stronger, and 12 years later while undergoing surgery for gall stones, it was discovered that the cancer was completely gone. Rosenberg believes that it was the result of the immune system. This is one type of system view point, and is not treating the head if the head hurts and treating the foot if the foot hurts. I also thought of Chinese medicine treatments. They often use a type of tonic. What is a tonic? In general it is what Western medicine calls strengthening the immune abilities. However, what Chinese medicine calls a tonic is more than the Western medicine enhancement of immune abilities. Western medicine now also uses some tonic medicines, such as Lysium Chinese and astragalus. However, Western medicine does not know that the time of year is important for tonics. Some tonics can only be taken in the Winter and cannot be taken in the Summer. Chinese medicine is more clear on this. These examples all make it clear that we must use the view the problems of the human body from the viewpoint of an open, complex giant system. We must use the comprehensive integration method from the qualitative to the quantitative. We must use the philosophy of Marxism and the view of man and nature to guide our research, and must not only grasp a single point without the rest. If there are to be accomplishments in somatic science research, mechanical materialism must be overcome. However, at the present time, dispersion is a major problem, and dispersion is a major enemy of somatic science research. Within the Association of Somatic Science, there are quite a number of well known old experts. They have already retired from the front line of scientific research and do not wish to do that bit by bit work any more. If the bit by bit research is not all summarized, how can we progress? This is extremely important for somatic science research. There have been accomplishments in Chinese somatic science research and there is great hope for the future. This is not only because we have Marxism - Leninism and the thought of Mao Zedong and the philosophy of Marxism guiding our work, but Chinese Somatic Science Research is also guided by the Party. At the top there is a Party and State four man somatic science leadership team, and below the leadership team there is a group of experts. Because somatic science research requires the use of the comprehensive integration method from the qualitative to the quantitative which requires summarization, I would like to stress one more time that summarization is the most important task for the expert team. The board of directors of the Association of Somatic Science should also conduct summarization work. It is also necessary to do the bit by bit operations, but summarization is where the future of somatic science lies. We must turn around the trend toward scattered research! In the past in the atomic and nuclear bomb, we relied on a unified leadership, relied on a high degree of political awareness, high degree of organizational discipline, and high degree of science. This type of organized integrated operations is what somatic science needs. I hope that through this type Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 of work we can change how others view our Association of Somatic Science. They feel we are the "Chinese Association of Paranormal Abilities" only working with performances or doing bit by bit testing or the "China Association of QIGONG". We must enter a new age of Chinese Somatic Science. The scope of our work must not only include the first medicine and the second medicine, but must also be broadened to the third medicine and we must create the fourth medicine. Therefore, somatic science is intimately related to socialist modernization construction in China. Are the points of my understanding as I related them above correct? I ask the board to discuss them. The members of theboard are the leaders of our association. Our Chinese Association of Somatic Sciences must act as determined by the board. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Chen Xin, "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science", 1(1990), pp 11. 2. Qian Xuesen, "Nature Magazine", 6(1983), pp 563. 3. Chinese Association of Somatic Science, "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science", 1(1990, pp 6- 4. Qian Xuesen "Philosophical Research", 4(1989), pp 54. 5. Qian Xuesen, Yu Jingyuan, Dai Ruwei, "Nature Magazine", 13(1990) pp 3; Originally entitled "Comprehensive Integration Method Which Combines Qualitative and Quantitative". Now, in order to better conform with reality, it has been changed to "Comprehensive Integration Method From the Qualitative to the Quantitative". 6. Collin Michie, "New Scientist", No. 1696/1697 (1989), pp 26 7. "People's Pictorial" (1990) issue 499 pp 36, issue 500 pp 40, issue 501 pp 35, issue 502 pp 28 and issue 504 pp 33. 8. "Bulletin", State Science Commission Joint Planning Group for High Technology, Chinese Science and Technology Information Office (1990, issue 13 (issue 1725 overall). 9. Sun Qiyuan, "Preliminary Investigation into Chinese Medicine Treatments of Leukaemia", Haifeng Printing Limited, (1990), pp 151- 10- Glyn Humphreys, "Nature", 353 (1990), pp 30. 11. Edited by Song Yixiu and Shang Xiaocai, "Teaching Materials in the Philosophy and Thought of Mao Zedong", East China Normal University Press (1989), pp 102. 12. Wang Zhikang, "Philosophical Research", 3(1990), pp 102. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 13. Shao Ziyuan, Liu Jiansheng etal, "Fingerprints and Choosing Abilities", Peoples Physical Education Press (1989). 14. Zhang Shaoguang and Zhang Shaoming, "Nature Magazine", 13(1990) pp 270; He Zongyan, "Nature Magazine", 13(1990) pp 323. 15. Steven A. Rosenberg, "Scientific American", 5(1990), 34. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 LN465-92 THE WORKING TASK OF THE CHINESE SOCIETY OF SOMATIC SCIENCE BY: Zhang Zhenhuan Today, Comrade Qian Xuesen described in a detailed and systematic manner the problems concerning the various aspects of somatic science. In the past, Comrade Qian Xuesen has spoken with insight on somatic science, playing a major role in promoting our work. Today, Comrade Qian Xuesen has come to take pat in our meeting, and we are very happy to see his high spirits and hear his resonant voice. Today we also celebrate the founding of the "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science". This is a publication jointly managed by the China Society of Somatic Science and Shanghai's Jiaotong University. This cooperation helps to ensure the quality of the magazine. We hope that everyone will take this cooperation seriously and will treasure it. Having heard Comrade Qian Xuesen's report, I feel that there is still a very great distance from what we are doing in our work and the requirements Mister Qian spoke of. Mister Qian's speech today on somatic science was very thorough and systematic. He pointed out that somatic science is the combination of many scientific disciplines. To actually carry it out, the contents are very abstruse and very difficult. Our work is guided by the philosophy of Marxism. How is it led? This should be very specific. How can we, through our work, cause even more people to understand us and to attract even more scientists to take part in our work? As for the question of mechanisms, this has not yet been clarified. We should resolutely continue and not waver. We should continue to open up new areas in our work. As for he debate over somatic science, it has not yet stopped. A doctor of chemistry in Hong Kong once said, "even if my own son could read characters using his ears, I would still not believe it. However, there are comrades of this sort around us, who just because their own child can read characters with their ears, so do they believe in it. The year before last there were several Americans, including a magician who came to China to oppose human paranormal abilities and QIGONG. They wanted to see, but we would not let them see. Why should we show them Chinese things. Later there was an investigative commission which came from the United States, and it published an article saying that there was still no proof of human paranormal abilities. What qualifications did they have to publish such a criticism (Comrade Qian Xuesen interjected: didn't the person who invited those Americans - the Editor-in-chief of the "Science and Technology Daily" - resign?) We want to do a good job of combining somatic science with the study of Marxism. Concerning the question of consciousness and existence, the Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 question of thought and the brain, and the problem of subjective and objective, we must do a good job in our study and research. As of now, there has still been no work dealing specifically with the problem of consciousness. This is a problem of doing a good job in research from the viewpoint of the philosophy of Marxism. We have discovered a new phenomenon, and we should outline it from the viewpoint of philosophy, and when it cannot be explained in terms of old concepts and old view points, we should create new things. Also, as for the human brain, we have done only very little superficial research. In order to further investigate such problems, can we train ourselves to generate certain functions? If we ourselves have these abilities, then we have a right to speak about the explanations of certain things. We have to work hard in these areas. In general, our work is still quite a ways from the systematic and strict requirements proposed by Mister Qian. Below, I would like to talk about the problem of the organizational establishment of the society. At the present time there are people all over China submitting requests to join the Chinese Society of Somatic Science. To deal with this, we have adopted an active serious program in organizational development operations, and as of the end of March of 1990, our society had grown to 333 members. Of these 185, or 55.6 percent, held a position at the level of associate professor or associate researcher. This illustrates that the quality of our membership is relatively high. Our members are scattered from 27 provinces, Cities and Autonomous Regions. At the present time only Qinghai, Xizang and Hainan Island do not have members. The concentrations of members are in Beijing, Shanghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, Hei.longjiang, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, and Hunan. There are already six group memberships, and the Jiangxi Province Somatic Science Society and the Guizhou Province Somatic Science Society have requested to become new group members. It is worthy of note that in areas where provincial, municipal, or autonomous region first level somatic science societies (or research committees) have been established, under the leadership of he local science committees or science association, in order to make widespread contact with activist elements, this has spread to a number of local societies. For those who are top notch and who have made contributions toward the growth of somatic science, only when one of these submits an application is he accepted as a member of the Chinese Society of Somatic Science. This is the way it was handled in Yunnan and Guizhou. From what we have learned a few prestigious societies have used this tiered form growth model. Now, our Chinese Society of Somatic Science, with the support of the local societies in the various localities, has these layered conditions. In the work of organizational growth in the future, we should also learn from their experience and adopt a layered growth membership method. In order to strictly ensure the quality of our membership, we are primarily adopting two methods. One is to travel the mass line, relying on the local societies for new membership growth. The second is to act in Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 accordance with the charter of our society, thoroughly investigate and research applications and conduct review and approval in a serious manner. Having tested the measures above through practice, I believe they are actually effective. After several years of stable growth, the vast majority of activists who are really conducting scientific research or organizational and liaison work in somatic science have already been absorbed into our society. New activists will continue to appear in the future, but not on a large scale. In the first half of 1990, the organizational work committee received a total of 30 applications to join the society. Except for two applications which did not meet qualifications, all were handled in the order received. For a fairly long time into the future, we will in general be able to ensure this type of growth rate. As for the problem of training, such as training doctors to see into patient's bodies, we have to pay more attention to this. To sum this up, we should have strict and conscientious organizational work, to gradually form a corps of cadre which can fight a hard fight in the realm of somatic science. This is a reliable organizational guarantee towards our strategic objectives and toward achieving the various tasks which Comrade Qian Xuesen pointed out today in his report. In the past several years, by relying on this corps or ours, we have achieved a certain degree of success in academic construction. In general, there are the following aspects: The first, through strict, designed and targeted scientific experiments, we have demonstrated several objective phenomena of the human body under different functional states. This has provided a valuable clue towards establishing a singular science concerned with these phenomena. Second, according to these facts which have already been established, some scientific research; personnel have already begun to conduct theoretical research such as Comrade Liu Yicheng's preliminary research into multistate physics. Many others have received much encouragement from his work. Third, in order to have more thorough research, all of the special committees set up have begun different degrees of explorations along the direction of their special interests, providing an excellent beginning. Fourth, some special committees, such as the fourth medicine special committee, have already conducted a number of attempts at the applied science level such as making students more intelligent with some preliminary accomplishments. This type of work is continuing to develop. Fifth, in the conduct of somatic science experiments, especially in the conduct of human paranormal ability experiments, several special Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 problems have arisen such as the discovery that the thought activity of those taking part in the experiments could produce an unconventinal reaction on the capabilities of the instruments. This is a phenomenon unseen in ordinary physics experiments. With this work, and facing the results obtained in somatic science research, this problem has arisen which has attracted attention: How should we view human thought activity? This reminds me of a conclusion of Engels which was that human conscious thought is the highest level of all forms of activities in the material world. Since this is the case, just exactly what effect can this type of the highest form of activity have on other forms of activities. As for this question, standing on the heights of philosophy, Mao Zedong once proposed a topic from the view point of knowledge: Material can be transformed into spiritual, and spiritual can be transformed into material- He also pointed out that this is a leap phenomenon often seen in daily activities. It would appear that our research in somatic science may make some discoveries and some progress in this area. There are now people who are considering: How can conscious activities be tested? There is a scientific researcher in the "Second Artillery" system who developed an instrument which he designed to measure "thought forces". Some of the comrades here today have already taken part in these experiments. How can we continue to develop this? This work should be continued. Also, in the past acupuncture treatment required the use of material needles, but now there are those who hold the needles but do not have to stick the needle into the patients body, but stick the needle into the acupuncture mannikin, and the patient senses this. How is this done? Of the people using this method, there is one called Chen Deshun who is a deputy chief resident. He said that it is possible to stimulate a reaction in the patient through thought activity. Is this really the case. We should use strict testing to demonstrate this, using a "double blind", where the patient does not know beforehand what acupuncture point on his body the doctor will try to affect with his thought activity, and the doctor himself will not know beforehand which acupuncture point will be selected, but this will all be determined at the last moment by those conducting the experiment. Later, the results will be compared, and see if the acupuncture points affected by the doctor's thoughts and the ones the patient sensed were the same. If these experiments are able to produce hoped for results, then it would signify that these new phenomena are presenting a challenge to physics. To do research and to have results in this research on the open, complex giant system of the human body, methodology is very important. Everyone must conscientiously study and have a firm grasp of the "comprehensive integration method from qualitative to quantitative" brought up by Mister Qian. Since it is from qualitative to quantitative, researchers themselves must have personal practical experience in the things they are researching. It is only in this manner that there can be qualitative knowledge- Therefore, if your are doing research in QIGONG, you should have some personal knowledge of QIGONG. If you are doing research in human paranormal abilities, it would be best if you possessed Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 paranormal abilities yourself. Comrade Long Wenyu of the standing board of governors of our society is already in his seventies, and yet has developed a degree of abilities. This is a great inspiration to us all. There are people who oppose us who say that we are all wrong. This spurs us on. If people raise an army against us, it will make us all the more determined, and we will definitely find some way to make it through. In order to do a good job in somatic science research, we must still thoroughly study and use the knowledge of modern science. At the same time, we should work hard to extract the essence of China's traditional culture. This is our major advantage, and it should not be overlooked. We should be fully aware that research in somatic science is a difficult system engineering project, just like Mister Qian said, we must expend a great deal of energy to collecting and studying in many different areas, and then consider the summarization of this work. In order to do this, we must do a good job in division of labor and cooperation. We must do a good job in organizational coordination. The Chinese Society of Somatic Sciences must consciously undertake these tasks. From the progress made in the past two or three years, the key points of our work are to strengthen the work of the various special committees and to strengthen the various local somatic science societies. For example, the Sichuan Provincial Somatic Science Society has done the following things in about one year: One, the provincial somatic science society leadership section was injected with new strength, with deputy governor of Sichuan in charge of education, Comrade Han Bangyan serving as the director, and Comrades Zhou Mengpu and Wang Puyan serving as deputy directors. The provincial science committee and the provincial education committee also both support the work of the somatic science society. Second, it is making preparations to establish a Sichuan Provincial Somatic Science Research Center with personnel and spaces from the Sichuan Scientific and Technical University. The provincial science committee has approved this and provided expenses. In this manner, they have formed a new scientific research base. The original scientific research base, the Sichuan University Somatic Science Research Lab still continues to progress forward according to its own characteristics. This year it has cooperated with units concerned in Beijing in applying for research topics from the State Natural Science Foundation Commission. In this manner, it has gradually formed a new situation with both division of labor and cooperation. Somatic science societies or research committees in other areas can also create their own new experiences. We are prepared to conduct some investigations and studies to summarize this experiences and to gradually publicize them. According to the original plan, in the second half of next year we are to convene an international symposium on somatic science. Will we be able to do a good job in this? This will depend on whether or not we are able to bring forth anything of any content. In order to do a good job in preparation, we hope that everyone will make suggestions, and think up some good ideas and like professor Ju Qingquan of the Sichuan Provincial Somatic Science Research Center, who not only took the lead himself, but Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 was also able to mobilize even more people who share the common goal to take part in the practical work in somatic sciences. If everyone were able to do this, our forces would be even larger. In April of this year, a Japanese somatic science exchange group visited China and visited such places as Beijing and Jilin. We were prepared to receive them, and the results were fairly good. In the future this sort of international exchange work will continue to grow. We must all be prepared, and we must not take this too lightly. The building up of international exchange will be an encouragement to us. In order to do a good job in these things mentioned above, we must also strengthen the work of our society office, and continue to do a good job in our journal and our societies "bulletin". Everyone must work hard to support our journal which is the magazine "Chinese Journal of Somatic Science". We must also support our "bulletin". Information materials work must also be firmly grasped, and some way found to collect even more related information such as the biweekly broadcast on Soviet television of information on human paranormal abilities. We must widely collect such information. At the same time, we must do a good job in informational exchanges and build up our contacts with various areas. It is only in this way that the work of our Chinese Society of Somatic Sciences can be even more effective and more dynamic. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 LN465-92 RESEARCH IN RESTORING A BROKEN LEAF THROUGH ESP BY: Wang Chongyuan, Shou Zhumin and Pu. Xianggen of the Bai Qiuen Medical University This article reports on using ESP to restore artificially broken tree leaves. The experiment was videotaped and this broken leaf was cut into thin strips which were subjected to microscopic examination with an optical and electronic microscope. The examination demonstrated that the skin and zoological cells on the surface of the pittosporum tobira leaf were restored. The experiment was repeated three times at different times in different places, always successful. The shortest time was 23 minutes and the longest time was around four hours. The author has demonstrated this fact in cytology ultrastructure. This will be of major significance for the traditional concepts of restoration of organic trauma. The objective of the experiment: to use bi.ocytology methods to demonstrate the possibility and actuality of ESP restoration of artificially broken leaves. Dates of experiments: October and November of 1986. Location of experiments: Bai Qiuen Medical University. Recording equipment: Autopsy microscope, optical microscope, electron microscope (Japanese, 650 power). ESP subject: Li Zhanru, female, 19 years old, student at the Changchun Post and Telecommunications College (now a student at the First Military Medical University). The conduct of the experiment: There was a division of labor among those present at the experiment. There was the subject (the person with ESP abilities - Li), the person in charge of the experiment, a monitor and tester (a volunteer took part) and the observers. The leaves used in the experiment were chosen at random just prior to the experiment (the subject did not know what type of leaf it would be prior to the experiment). The length of the leaf was measured and the leaf was marked. With all the observers watching, the leaf was torn into two pieces, and placed into the hands of the subject (one of four illustration on cover) (translator's note, not available). Then she held it in her fist, and after a length of time, Li said she felt a sensation (meaning it had reconnected), and then in front of the observers she opened her hands to let them see and the state of re-connection was checked. In the process of the experiment, it was required that the subject not leave her seat or open her hand. The observers sat around the subject. In the third experiment, a young woman Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 was assigned to do a control experiment. The results of the experiment in the restoration of the pittosporum tobira leaf were conclusive. Although modern biology and medicine cannot come up with an explanation. This author of this experiment did not rely purely on observation with the naked eye. The re-connection and state of restoration of the broken leaf was also subjected to observation at the cellular level. In order to preserve the biological cells and tissue structure of the pittosporum tariba leaf in a normal and total state, the leaf about to form together was processed with fixer and was encased in wax. Successive slices were made and died for observation. Viewed microscopically, the two ends of the pittosporum tariba leaves had joined very well and there wan no trace of leaf overlapping. Looking at the veins of the leaves, the main veins and the branches as well as the microscopic lines all lined up precisely back in their original position. Although some sections had not yet completely rejoined and small gaps remained, the veins of the leaves were reconnected, and the two ends came together just as they were before separation (cover illustrations two and three) (translator's note: not available). The degree recovery of the surface of the two ends of the broken leaf was not consistent. The thinner portions near the outer edges of the leaves had been fairly well restored, while at the thicker portions at the veins there were visible gaps, however, they had already grown back together (cover illustrations three and four) (translator's note: not available). Similarly, the degree of recovery for different levels of the leaf were also not completely consistent. Cross sectional slices were made of the joining areas of the leaf, and gradual closing of the surface skin is visible, forming a bridge connection (illustrations five through seven). The spongy tissue and the palisade tissue were successively built up. In the restoration of the original biological tissue, the sequence was from surface to the interior, and at the same time it was also possible to see layers which had not yet been completely restored (illustrations five through eight). Observation under a sweep electron microscope further demonstrated the above described results of consecutive slicing. The two ends of the broken leaf showed clear inconsistency in the degree of restoration at the surface. The edges of the leaf had recovered far more than the central portions of the leaves, and no gaps could be seen there (see illustrations nine and ten). Cutting super thin slices of the reconnected portions of the leaf demonstrated the leaf surface was completely restored according to the original tissue structure. The plant cell arrangement was ordered. Similarly, it was possible to see the diagonal gap in the state of complete recovery and near complete recovery (illustrations eleven and twelve). Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000~,Q' Q1t ~i . E 96-00792R000400290002-1 ~aP 8CT %oes smaller Slides .-'' al most no 8(T >ee 10. U r ease 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-007 stir vis, b1e elecn, micro - scope. oc IOOOX mch~n, well Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 ILLUSTRATION 5: Making diagonal slices at the juncture, the leaf tissue structure gradually comes closer together, and the lower surface has already closed. ILLUSTRATION 6: The structures at the middle of the juncture gradually come closer together. ILLUSTRATION 8: Completely closed portion, the plant structure has once again closed up. ILLUSTRATION 9: Under an electron microscope, the surface structure of the juncture portions can be seen to be complete while the gap also exists. ILLUSTRATION 11: Recovery is completed at the surface layer of the cross section of the juncture. A gap still exists in the deeper layers. ILLUSTRATION 12: Regional cellular arrangement gradually becomes ordered. The key to the experiment of the restoration of broken leaves is the question of whether or not Li Zhanru's paranormal abilities actually exist. This is because they are the primary condition for success or failure in the restoration of the broken leaf. Concerning Li's paranormal abilities, continuously checked them for seven years between 1980 and 1986 (up until the time of the experiment). We tracked her from the beginning of junior middle school until she was in college. During this time, she was tested and evaluated by the somatic science research experts of the various institutes of higher learning and scientific research units in our province, and there is no room for doubt about the existence of her paranormal abilities. Her paranormal abilities are multifaceted, such as recognizing characters with her ear, remote sensing, thought transference, and seeing into the human body'- As for the success rate of restoring broken leaves and its repeatability, the experiment or restoring artificially torn leaves was conducted a total of three times (not including ten times outside the experiment) with success all three times. The facts illustrate that it is repeatable, and the success rate is high, eliminating random chance. As for 'recognition of paranormal abilities, the author believes that paranormal abilities have nothing to do with ghosts or goblins, but are a special sense or latent ability of the human body recognized by modern man. There are certain conditions under which it occurs, and these conditions can be learned with energetic training. However, it is also Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 restricted by objective conditions. Just as Qian Xuesen said, the human body is a complex giant system. Because in the process of man learning about the objective world is like an endless river, it never stops?. We have noted that these three successes took different lengths of time, some longer than others. The first time only took 23 minutes. The experiment was held in a small meeting room, and we had discussed this experiment for a long time, and were very excited and there was a cordial atmosphere. Many of those observing were young graduate students, and the conditions were very simple, there was no special equipment. The second time was much different from the first in that the experiment was held in video taping class room. We used a video camera and there were bright lights all around. The observers were all looked very curious and surprised. The video camera ran the whole time. According to the subject, she was afraid the experiment would fail, and the many psychological factors caused the time for her to succeed to be longer. This is just as professor Zhang Hekang said, the individual consciousness becomes the main participant in the experiment. The so called individual consciousness is, the author believes, the ideas of paranormal abilities. But what are the connection between these ideas and the thought activities of the brain, with the knowledge of paranormal abilities, with the location in time and space when it is used on an object to alter it. Just because it is based on such recognition, we tried to create conditions for each experiment. Actually, scientific experiments all do their best to eliminate extraneous factors such as putting the person with paranormal abilities at ease prior to the experiment, eliminating or reducing the tenseness of the atmosphere, and to conduct some stimulation experiments to induce the abilities of the subject. As for the question of restoration of the leaves after being broken, we observed the cellular ultrastructure, and in addition to aiding what the naked eye could not see, we also wanted to test the reliability of the observation and the actuality of the joint the broken leaves. Paranormal ability restoration of a broken leaf is not like abracadabra and it is done, but it takes a period of time. Through both the optical and the electron microscope, the complete restoration of the veins of the two ends of the leafs where they come together can be clearly seen, and there is no possibility of trickery. Even if someone were to try to glue the leaf together while watching what he was doing, it would be impossible to get the vein patterns to come together so perfectly and smoothly. The author believes that to do this through some sort of trick, the following conditions would be necessary: (1), it would be necessary to know beforehand what type of leaf was going to be used. (2), it would be necessary to have some sort of tools. (3), There would have to be a certain amount of time and space. Throughout the entire process of the experiment, none of the conditions for trickery were present. The samples were chosen at random and there was a double blind. The recover of the leaf was plant cell recovery. The entire process from disordered to ordered, and it occurred gradually. This also demonstrates the objective factors necessary for the transition process. Under an electron microscope, the viewing of successive slides of the tissue at the juncture Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 of the leaf demonstrates this process, even though we are unclear of the mechanism through which of human paranormal ability restores a broken leaf. This will require further investigation. However, the revelation of this fact raises two necessary considerations. 1. ESP can restore a broken leaf, can it cure wounds or diseases of the human body? It would seem that it may. 2. It would be a contribution to medicine to further clarify the mechanism of ESP cures and use this for wound recovery and disease treatment. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Wang Zhongyuan et al, "Human Paranormal Abilities Bulletin", 03 April, 1980. 2. Qian Xuesen, "Chinese Society of Somatic Science Bulletin-,m First Issue (12th overall), 30 April, 1989. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 LN465-92 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO THE MECHANISM OF "THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE" BY: Shao Laisheng, Lu Huihua, Shen Yunhu and Fang Linhu (Fudan University) In the process of "thought transference" experiments, there must flash before the frontal lobes of the person sending the messages and the person receiving the messages an ESP special "screen"i in order for transference to take place. We took the screen flashing time to be the sending and receiving time. We discovered that at close distances (100 to 1000 meters) times for sending and receiving messages were very much the same. Both times differed from a few seconds to several minutes. Later while conducting long range (over 100 kilometers) through transference experiments, we discovered that the difference between sending and receiving times differed by as much as several hours. This new phenomenon of "time differential" caused us to do further explorations. This article introduces in some detail the experiments and the results. It discusses the process of how we became aware of the generation of "time differential" and our hypotheses. On this basis, we propose a hypothesis for the mechanism of "thought transference" which is related to the memory storage system of the brain. I. In the process of short range thought transference experiments, we determined the times the "screen" appeared for the sending and receiving subjects by looking at our watches when they said the screen had appeared. There are quite a few subjective factors here, so we need to change over to using stop watches to record the sending and receiving times. This means we must push the button on the stop watch immediately when the screen appears to the sender and the receiver in order to reduce any man made effect. Table one is a portion of the experimental results. The experimental conditions for table one: The message was composed of two arabic numerals. The sending distance was about 100 meters. There were seven comrades with ESP abilities who took part in the experiments. Although we did everything possible to synchronize the stop watches, there was a time discrepancy of from ten seconds to more than two minutes. We also compared the records of experiments of more than 100 experiments of transference from 100 meters to 10 kilometers. The time differential still changed in an unpatterned manner. We did not detect any pattern of change related to the distance. Therefore, during this stage of close range experiments, our explanation of the "time differential" is that we just believe it is generated by subjective influences on the subjects, and experimental error primarily comes from factors which we could not control. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 TABLE ONE: CLOSE RANGE THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE TIME DIFFERENTIAL OF SCREEN APPEARANCE TO SENDER AND RECEIVER 4104. Al ~R~rf7 7m 3 th im Ulf IA ~r 1 842" 8'52" 10 j 2 13'16" 13'33" 17 # S 3 7'15" 7'56" 41 #6' 4 17'26" 18'42" 16 *5 5 31'11" 33'21" 2 10 6 9'49" 11'16" 27 7 27'16" 2937" 21 8 1221" 13'25" 4 r 9 17'01" 17'32" i~J: y , 3l 10 17'15" 19'10" 55 1. Test number- 2. Time screen appeared to sender. 3. Time screen appeared to receiver. 4. Time differential. 5. Seconds. 6. Minutes. On 18 January of 1990, we were successful in our first long distance "thought transference" experiment (between Shanghai and Changzhou, a distance of about 200 kilometers). The results of the experiment were completely beyond our expectations. While eliminating any possibility of message transfer by any other means, the time differential between the sender and the receiver was as much or more than six hours. The results of this experiment are given below: It was arranged by the persons in charge of the experiment at both terminals that: At 12:30 PM and 19:00 Pm on 18 January there would be a thought transference experiment. At 20:00 exactly, the persons in charge of the experiment at both places would compare the results of the experiment over long distance telephone. At Changzhou at 12:30, the person in charge of the experiment, Lu Huihua, randomly wrote two messages to be transferred and gave them to two senders, Ji Meiyun and Yin Yufang. Ji's message was "Return to Shanghai Saturday afternoon", and Yin's was "274". Ji's screen appeared at 12:41 and 12:50. Yin's appeared at 12:42 and 12:53. In Shanghai, the person in charge of the experiment there was Shao Laisheng. Beginning at 12:30, four persons including Pang Fei began receiving. However, within the alloted time for the experiment (45 minutes), the screen had not appeared. This experiment was called a failure. That night, at 19:00 both sides began the experiment again. The message sent by Ji was "914", and the one sent by Yin was "Did it rain in Shanghai today"? However, the messages received in Shanghai were those which had been sent from Changzhou at noon, and not those which were sent that night. The time of transference between those two places was more Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 The next day, another two more experiments were conducted exactly like the day before (except the messages were different) with exactly the same results. Between 23 and 30 January, we conducted four completely successful thought transference experiments between shanghai and Taixing, and the time differential was still fairly large. The results of the experiment are given in table two. TABLE TWO: SHANGHAI TO TAIXING "THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE" TIME DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN APPEARANCE OF SCREEN TO SENDER AND RECEIVER x:91 a. 3 Ai& W g q r *qkN 6 f l $ G ~ f T $ . a 18:43 -0 21:35 2 fJ\Hf 52 j)- 1/23 CL 18,46 i3 21,13 ' 2 Uj 27 S' i t IF, 18:45 Ep 16 21:15 2 iJ\B;J' 30 1/24 {f f S ~~ of 18:44 22:00 3 ,J\1;J' 16 //} 900125 18:39 >_= 21:10' 2 iJ~6J' 31 1/25 C.y~ff) L 3 C ti 18:40 21:22 2 i14J' 42 f- 1/26 7JIE 3 A!E -F:br fZ 18:45 Ep 21:15 2 iJ~n 30 ft 1. Date of experiment. 2. Content of message. 3. Name of sender. 4. Time sender?s screen appeared. 5. Name of receiver. 6. Time message appeared to receiver. 7. Time differential (in hours and minutes). 8. "I am Pang Fei wishing you a happy New Year." 9. Pang. 10. Huang. 11. "I am Ji Meiyun wishing you good luck". 12. Ji. 13. Zhang. 14. I am Pang Fei wishing you good luck." 15. Pang. 16. Yin. 17. I am Ji Meiyun wishing you a happy new year". 18. Ji. 19. Xiao. 20. "900125". 21. Pang. 22. Huang. 23. (tea cup). 24. Ji. 25. Zhang. 26. "It is drizzling rain now in Shanghai". 27. Pang. 28. Yin. 1. From a superficial view of the above long distance thought transference experiments: The reason the time differential from Changzhou to Shanghai was over six hours was because the two experiments were scheduled six hours apart. From Shanghai to Taixing, the message was Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 likewise not received in the alloted time, and after more than two hours, each person actively received one more time. Therefore, the "time differential" cited above is related to the interval between two ESP functional states, and this time interval was artificially determined. However, in actuality, there is a time delay of several hours between sending and receiving in "thought transference". This is where the basic nature of the "time differential" lies. Therefore, we must propose new explanations, and the new explanations obviously must be tied in with the question of the mechanism of thought transference. We believe a possible explanation is: The "time delay" phenomenon is related to the storage and memory functions of the brain. This hypothesis can be tied in with the study of modern psychology and theoretical models of memory. In the process of understanding this world, the role of storage and memory are a very important link. Simply stated, there is constantly changing information from our surrounding environment, mainly through light waves and sound waves which affect our sensory organs, transforming physical stimulation energy into nervous activity. The nervous activity is carried to the brain where is generates sensation and perception. Furthermore, the filtered information is all automatically stored in the memory system. Later, through recollection, it is possible to retrieve the stored information, and by analyzing and summarizing this information, man gains a better understanding. We can use similar methods to illustrate the "time differential" phenomenon of through transference, which is also due to the generation of a memory storage effect in the brain. If the receiver of thought transference goes into an ESP state within the alloted time, but the "screen" does not flash before his temporal lobes, then it is generally believed that the experiment did not succeed (the subject was affected by physical and psychological internal and external interference, this is a common occurrence). However, we cannot eliminate the possible existence of a certain ESP receptor in addition to the other ordinary sensory organs of the body, and that it can enter ESP radiated information into the memory storage system of the brain. Later, the receiver, out of necessity, goes into an ESP state, and can retrieve the stored ESP message, which reappears on the "screen". Therefore, in long distance thought transference experiments, due to the memory storage effect of the brain, the information going from storage to the screen would allow for the existence of a fairly long time differential. 2. In order to better explain the above hypothesis, we have used the following diagram. Illustration one supposes that the differences between the thought transference transmitting and receiving processes are only in the transmission time, and outside information goes through normal information reception systems (sight, hearing, touch, etc.) into the brain to be stored in the memory system. ESP information carriers go through an ESP reception system (ESP receptors) and are entered into the memory storage Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000400290002-1 system. However, later information processing, up until the screen appears, the process of ESP radiation generation is similar. In illustration one, the "Screen effect generating system", the "ESP receptors" and the "ESP radiation" are all hypothetical. Even though their existence cannot be demonstrated by physiological, psychological and physical experiments, we can list a number of related experiments to illustrate that there is a certain objective basis to this chart. ILLUSTRATION ONE: "THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE" SENDING AND RECEIVING FLOW CHART 3