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%%Levu 110 l? catP Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-0Fdqy000400390001 ? PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN JAPAN Tntroductiem In 1992, the Japanese Society for Parapsychology celebrated its 25th anniversary with a three- day conference in Tokyo. This society was founded by Professor Soji Otani, an academie payehologist at the Japanese Defense Academy. It has been the mainstay of responsible parapsychology in Japan, and has its intellectual roots both in traditional Japanese approaches and in the American experimental appi oath ofJ.B Rhine. The latter influence is largely due to the time spent by Otani in Rhine's lab in the mid 1.960's, and more recently by Dr Shigeki liagio, an academic psychologist from Kagoshima Keiaai University, in the southern part of Japan. The Society has a small membership, with relatively few empirical contributions, averaging about seven research-related reports each year. Separate sections below will cover this year's JSP convention, as well as research recently initiated at Sony. Before considering ret:ent research and researchers, some general comments on the social context Of parapsychology in Japan may he helpful. All are a mix of subjective impressions from the author's visit. Japan is a very polite, socially structured society. Criticism is indirect, inferred and often Lather gradual. Confrontation or debate at conferences or in the media has been quite rare although that is changing. Researchers acknowledge that they obtain more direct and detailed criticism when they present their work internationally. '1'his is unfortunate for parapsychology, where critical feedback is necessary to avoid the many pitfalls of design, methodology, analysis and interpretation that can so easily arise, especially with novice researchers. Some Japanese research projects appear to suffer from lack of critical feedback. Jr has often been said that when people do not like an idea they will ignore it rather than confront it. There has been very little public criticism of parapsychology by skeptical groups or academics, therefore, which probably is not a good thing. It means that the topic has been and can he safely ignored by the academic/intellectual community. This is reflected in the dearth of bona fide academicians currently involved and in the relative lack of student involvement. It is difficult if not impossible to interest university senior staff and administrators. There is insufficient precedent and universities are very conservative, and reluctant to take on new ideas. "The nail that stands out gets hammered down" is a well-known proverb, frequently cited in conversation. The lack of academic involvement and other public discussion means that serious public assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of parapsychological research is greatly reduced. This in turn further marginalises the subject for potential serious researchers. An additional consequence is that the media themselves have no real guidelines for distinguishing between competent and sloppy research, in their own country and elsewhere. Many programs are made which describe research activities in China, Russia. North America and Europe, which are very popular but have little quality control, Japanese psychics are presented primarily through televised demonstrations which arc often poorly controlled, This situation is amenable to some change, however, as Japanese media are eager to avoid mistakes or being regarded after the fact as foolish. But when they seek advice, they have little idea I. Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 `+' 02/06 "J3 1460 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 themselves of thu degree of expertise of those they consult, This is not unique to Japanese media, of course. A recent example of media conflict over psychic claims is mentioned in the attached article by James Met'''.lenon, Japanese society as whole is very open to parapsychology and to intelligent research in such areas. Survey figures show that only 10% of Japanese claiin teligious belief, yet 80% claim to practice Buddhism and 80% claim to practice Shinto. Most Japanese actively practice both, and frequently engage in rituals of various sorts which imply direct interaction hetween their own mental activities and the surrounding environment, including interaction with spirits. Supplicatory prayer is collation. even by those who would claim that it's only a placebo, or that they are engaging in a smilel act to show their peers how dedicated they are towards various goals. The idea of using modern tools to explore ancient claims is acceptable to most, because Japanese society emphasises the integration of the old with the new in so many ways. Current interest in exploring psychic powers seems eurrently to focus on China and Russia/Siberia. generally held, by academics to be the two main ancient sources of Japanese spiritual tradition. Siberia is less frequently acknowledged by the public as a whole, but evidence of Siberian shamanism as well as Indouliinese shamanism (via Okinawa) can be seen in the forms of Shinto. practices in less developed regions (occasionally referred to as Mountain Shinto or "inounutin religion". Included dIV various mediumistic and healing practices, as well as ideas of the concentration of mental energy later incorporated in the mountain-based Nillj4 training, centres and in the Chinese tradition of Qi. As A result of various factors including the above, serious psychical research in Japan tends to be. practised by a handful of academics, by a few members of the medical community, and by individuals or small groups within industry. The most impressive example of the latter are the research facilities at the Sony Research Center in Yokohama. Parapsychology Research at Sony Professor Soji Otani and the author visited the Sony Research Center in August, 19924 where there are two laboratories involved in parapsychological research. Our hosts were three electrical engineers; Dr Toshiro Terauchi, Senior Manager of the ESPER Laboratory; Dr Yoichiro Sako. Representative of the ES PER Laboratory; and Dr Mitsuru Takashima, Assistant Manager of the l'ulscgraph Laboratory. Although all three spoke. English, Dr Terauchi served as our primary translator. We were given a brief history and introduction to the research of the two labs. Seven years earlier, Mr Ibuka, Honorary Chairman of Sony Corporation, established a lab with Dr Takashima, to explore the mind-body aspects of oriental med.ivine. After three years the Pulzegraph Lab was formed, to examine Eastern approaches through the tools of Western medicine. This has involved working with Chinese Qigong practitioners, primarily Mr Nagoya who has joined them_ They study interactions between healers and non-clinical volunteers, focussing on thc physiology of both healer and client. Measures are taken while the healer becomes relaxed and while the healer gives and receives energy. These measures so far have been taken on people in the same rum; no remote influence studies as yet, They intend 2 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 s;h1 11! 41 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 to look at differences in healers, both Japanese and Chinesec, as well as differences in healing environtnents. Although they employ a variety of measures including EEG, body temperature and standard plethysmography, their main innovation so far is the development of the pulsegraph, an instrument for measuring pressure in the arteries at three adjacent locations, primarily in the left and right wrists. The device places pressure on the artery at three adjacent sites, varying the amount of pressure from hard to merely "floating". This gives a Mid of 12 readouts, six from each hand, and enables assessment of vasomotor activity, heart rate, heart beat amplitude, blond flow, viscosity, vessel elasticity and heart valve movement. Professor Otani and I both went through this procedure and our polygraph records were examined afterwards by Mr Nagoya. lie examined the raw wave forms themselves as well as the various digitised readings provided, focussing on various patterns. He then gave a description both of the cardiovascular health of the individual, plus a character reading based on an assessment of what the body-mind interaction was likely to be, e.g. Fin a nice person because my body isn't giving my viscera a hard time. This procedure seemed to represent their main accomplishment so far, and they felt that they had devised a scientifically solid procedure for measuring processes suggested by Eastern technique. The author has since learned that Chinesee practitioners routinely put three fingers on each pulse for several minutes, first one then the other, and that this constitutes a major medical observation for them. The Pulsegraph Lab, then, had been primarily a lab for development of psychophysiological measurements so far, Find their research was only gradually turning toward procedures that would enable measurement of remote influence within a medical context. On the other hand, the ES PER Lab, less than a year old at the time, was to be dedicated to more directly ow apsychuluaical procedures. Its origins had apparently come from a major reassessment of Sony priorities for the 21st maul) by the R and D Corporate Planning Group. In debating between "outer space" and "inner space" they had selected inner space as less expensive and as less likely to be done better in Western society. A Human Science Working Group had identified four areas of interest: brain sciences, social science, highly creative individuals (artists and producers of impressive works), and special mental abilities, including psi and Qlgong practice. They had decided to emphasise China, as country of origin, and through Mr Ibuka and the Chinese government, Sony representatives were allowed to meet Qigong practitioners. They were impressed and reported to the Chairman of Sony, Mr Molita, who set up the ESPER lab in response. One of the first projects was to follow up on some demonswations filmed in rhina by TV S of children who can apparently read hidden characters. A joint project was being designed with media people such that part of the incentive for participants would be to appear on TV. Their tests were not well described, and sounded somewhat informal, so we could not assess how likely the results are to be due to some sort ot trickery by the chikb-cn, Characters from books as well as those written on paper were used. They estimate that at present they had worked with over 100 children, with one in ten doing well, and some showing stable abilities. In convert ation, they seemed reluctant to consider the possibility that some or all of their successful parteipants might just be skilled tricksters, but seemed open to the idea of safeguarding against external criticism. Given the general attitudes toward actual public criticism, it is hard to say how seriously they took this possibility. In general, they seemed more interested in presenting their work rather than discussing it. Their stated general goals for the OPER Laboratory are to conduct research with children and adults, 3 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 02/06 93 14:33 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 to verify the existence of such special skills, developing theory, systems and applications. In general the Pulsegrapti Lab research seems more advanced and on a solid basis; the ESPER research seems in its early stages and we could not get a good feel for how well it was currently being, eouducted. All three researchers seemed intelligent and interested in doing good science. We only saw the Pulsegraph Lab, and its facilities seemed quite adequate for the job. We were told. that in all there were ten individuals employed in the two labs combined. Sony does seem to have a commitment to research in this area with support at the highest administrative levels. THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR PARAPSYCHOLOGY ANNUAL CONFERENCE The annual meeting of the JPS normally lists for two days but was extended for a third day so that its one-day summer tutorial session could he combined, Attendance was approximately 25 people, all male save for a student, a spouse and one of the demonstrators. Some attendees were researchers in corporations such as NEC. Fujitsu. Hitachi and IBM. who were able to tin some small amount of research but only in their spare time, generally something involving RNO's and computeis. Attached are cards from some of the attendees plus the three Sony researchers who did not attend. A few of the presenters seem well worth further interaction, and condensed versions of their papers are enclosed. Professor SO Otani (address in PA Directory) is the leading figure in the Society. Now retired from the Defense Academy, he no longer conducts research but remains active in writing, editing and administration. He has many contacts with academia, industry (including Sony) and the major media, especially television. Attached is a paper by him summarising the Society's research activities over the years. Dr Masayuki Hirafuji is a young cognitive psychologist with the National Agriculture Research Center, in the Minim, of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. He presented two papers, one it connectionist model of ESP, the other an attempted derivation of a precognition model. his current job restricts Ilan to model construction with no empirical testing, although he would in principle be quite happy to do both. He seems very articulate and. has some working knowledge of parapsychology. Mr Hideyuki Kokubo is a young computer specialist with Sanseido, a publishing company. He gave a paper using signal detection theory in a novel application, but also finds that be is Constrained to model construction rather than empirical testing. Professor Shigeki Hagio, a psychologist at Kagoshima-Keizai I lniversity, is now the most active experimentalist and follows the classical Rhinean strategies of psi testing. Enclosed are brief descriptions of several recent studies, involving the local student populations_ He has spent time in the SWIM as well as in Britain, occasionally attends PA conferences and is a PA associate member. He is fairly knowledgeable about modem parapsychological methods, His university is in the southern part of Japan. 4 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 LLIVV-1 02/06 '93 14!4 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Drs Toshiaki Imaizilmi and Osamu Imada are young psychiatrists in Kachi 'Hospital, whose paper on beliefs about the nature of spontaneous taISCS is enclosed. They seemed intelligent and with knowledge of research design and parapsychology. Dr Akiro Ouda Is a retired specialist in Buddhist philosophy, who is a PA member and. has been active in the Society from the beginning. Others presented on the programme as well, but were less involved in research-related topics. SUMMARY The researchers named above seem responsible and good Starting places for exploring serious Japanese parapsychnlogy. '1'here is much popular interest in Japan and many groups who blend claims of special mental power and spiritual practice. Some of thew have dubious reputations, within the parapsychological community as well as the public. Most younger Japanese can use English adequately. Older Japanese can read it but often have trouble with spoken English. Japan is a country with considerable potential for parapsychology, but they need more information about Western techniques for assessment. In turn their culture has many practices which should be explored more systematically and may contribute substantially to our understanding. SG1I 1 June 1993 5 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Ei2,06 '93 1436 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Lienerai Review of Research In JSIT Soil Ohtani Academic research in perspsychology in hiptut started after World War U, beginning with the introduction of the works of Parapsycholohy Laboratory. Duke University directed by Dr.J.D.Rhine. A thesis written by Ohtani was published in the Journal of Parapsychology in 1955. Research in Japan has been strongly influenced by tbe Laboratory since then. In 1963, Parupsychology Studying Group" was established, and they presented their re-Amara in the Japanese Society tor Psychology and the Japanese Society for Applied Psychology. In 1967, the first convention of the Group was held, followed by the establishment of " the Japanese Sodety for Parnmychoingy* . This offered researelsers the opportunities to exchange information dial 4) pivicut their sophisticated research annually. More than 180 researches have been inesented at the Annual Convention. AS for those on ESP, we have the one on the relationship with some psycliulugical sests(Ohnani, Nomura., Taluoshima), the ones on the relationship with physiological variables(Ohtuni, Matsumae, Nagashima, Sugistula, an.sunoki, Saito, Fokuda), the ones on the relationship with environmental condition(Oheani, Matsuda, Kurihara, Yamaguchi, Ito), the ones on the relationship with imagery(Hayasc). A.1 for those on PK, we have the ones using seer 028terills(ralcabashi), die ones on effects to living organisms(Ohtnni, Haruki), the CH1CS on meta/ bending with titled Stibieets(Ohtani, Kasahara, !Won, Ru). We have an international research on remote viewing(Ohtani, Minnkami, Dean). Also, we have many researches on spontaneous cascs(Ontam, Kurihara, Watanabe, Kuori, Hugh), Wade). As for theoretical research, we Nave the one on precognition txmourned with the time issue(Kanazawa).Sorne of us have tried to establish models on the process of ESP(Kolcubo, Hirafuji. Sakurai). Dcsides, we have the one on the relationship between the structure of call and the scores(Koide), the ones on the credibility of ESP targe1S(KurYx18, Hagio), me one with Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 V.V0b V6 /4 .51' ? Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 some manipulation of ESP taigets(ilagio), the ones ott the analysis of the data(Maruyame). At the same time we have some researches rotated to the concerning fields: the surveys on NDE(Bookor), the one on the relationship between mativity and ESP(Onria), the nne on Kirlian photographs(Fujita). We have two long?testies researches: the one is About the theory an precognition (Kanazawa), and the other is about psi =arias around older mental patiente(Nagashima). We have received no direct and decisive criticism. I think it necessary for ns to publish our re..scrichca in many ways and, zposed to constructive criticism, improve them. SG1B Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 VIVVO MO lq:01 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Connectionist Model of ES? Masayuki Hits.fuji 1 the Amount of information Transitlimed with ESP I.a an ESP experiment using targets whose kit rate is 112, the Amount of information transmitted in a trial is shown in the formula in the neat page. At least 1./IESP times of trials arc needed to get 1 bit of iziformation(shown in Fig.1). This means we can get a signifimint result with a large number of trials cvco if die hit fate is close to the chanee level. The amount of iatOrmation transmitted in a nisi in a 'trial is quite small, as seen from the fact that most ESP experiments with siseifieuit results have a large number of trials. That is, the capacity tif ESP is quite small. Based on the idea that this is bemuse signals of ESP specula at a level weaker than wises, I establish my model of t5P. 2 ESP and the Process of Cognition As seen in the Law of Waver, normal senses, such as sight, auditory sense, se= of touch, produce relatively simple responses against Stimuli. On the other hand, ESP produces rather complexed rapines which seem deeply related Ur the subjects' process Of cognition, as seen in sheep?and?goat and prize effect. Tf ESP is closely related to the process, we need a molted induding it to understand ESP. I combined tbe model of 'cognition and a model in which information is extracted from weak ESP sipal below the noise level, and established an ? ESP model(thowa in frig.2). 3 Neural Network Neural network is a model which consists of combined models of nerve es& whose functions are simplified. Because of the differeniaz among the simplification or the combination, several kinds of neural networks have been proposed. The most basic functions related to cognition, such as rewgnition, memory, association, learning, can he erpressed with combination of the network_ Judging from the tact that EP model resembles the actual bruin function so much, the model in which information is coded Of decoded by combining neural networks can be Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 ? . Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : A-14151M-00792R001T4017390001-1 applied to brains if the tratuntission with signals walker than liaise is pomade. 4 ESP Signal Detective Theory We hero no idea which organ SUMAS USP signet as we don't know what carries ESP signals. But they must be transmitted into neural Impulses, If we put it that we have a certain organ which seises them. I presume that ESP signal is micro electrical charge in neural impulses. Can human beings transmit concepts with cleretromegnede WaVta. as presumed that ESP is a kind of eleationiageetic wave and nerve eelia Ise amputee It is the that them axe some parts in our brains and etas which are wectriesay charged, and those parts certainly radiate electromagnetic waves. It duesn't matter that the amount of the radiated energy is smell. The point is that the waves have complimted phase differences. Became the phases cheap tinkeWne and spatewise hi e complicated manlier, they &anise each other so that we caret detect them. Therefore, a simple biological modal can't stand. To the tainnectioxist model of ESP, I regard the each eleelzically?dered part as the source and the receiver of electromagnetic waves. That is. each part has ite own frequency and phase simultaneously. This resembled a huge ember of transmission machines funceloning without confusion, but in the model the transmitted infOrMatiall is always homogeneous and can be contreded imendonally. Theoretically, it is possible to =unit itiformation even in a poor system, only if the informahon is coded in a proper way which fits the feature of the maim. Thus, PM can traustuit information, even if the stool is quite weak, owe we have limper coding method. The proem is expremed by the Formula (1) to (6)? 1 Ceding in Newel Networe When an agues have a target in his mind, the concerned neuron ie activated. By association, other neurons concerned with what is rased to dm target are activated comequently. Thus the brain establishea the patters to send the information. This process biases the information dinewtse and spacewise. The percipient follow the UM process to the opposed direction. The more decoding be doesin his neural networks, the less noise and more accurate informatien he am get. Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 V4.,"?;.p Approved For Release 2000t08/15 re1A-RCIFT813177912M00400-390001-1 This process is actually much more completed, as it is practiced in the tux:amnions level, but 1 would like to focus on ESP sigaal which is weaker than noise, by simplifying the procese(Fig.9 and 10). 6 gestalt of Simulation practiced an experimcut using a computer, with ESP cards as targets. The hit rate shown in Fig.12 indicates that ESP is competent enough to MUM* information and that the association memory has an effect to reduce noises. Thie leads to a hypothesis that 4rven weak ESP signals can transmit information, as an actual brain has an iMMCIISC number of naturals and a bar ainotilit of association memory is involved in the pICcesS. 7 Psi?Missing and Sheep?and?Goat Effect When coded ittformation has dos* related associatin; memory, the ntemotY becomes a large anise, thus causing inevitable psi?inksing(shOwn La Irtg.12). When tbe essociatiod memory is the denial of ESP, psi?missing am= e'en if the ESP signal is received. This is sheep?snd?goat acct. g Displacement Effect When the change of the amount of the stored memory is =Idler than that of the stored noise, displacement effect is likely to occure(Look at Fig.6). 9 Intensity Probability Many of Psi According to the naodol established by Mr. LAW*, the intensity probability of psi is certain figure, 0.01, regardless of the hit rate itself. 1 weld like to prove iWs by using the conneetionist model. I have got the Formula (11), which is just equall to the Formula (7), the formula of Mr. Koimboili usodel(Look at Formula (7) to (I1)). PesslhIlltr ofPreeemitine 42 I rAntua Weal %mkt liretil Netimel Apiculture March caster) Mary at inicelbro. Forestry and Fisbleles. ISOM =Wee= Abetted Csamieszlesist weals far EP els propesin Nirstail (1265.1593) ecoatet for etecheetto inure of Igo eivieft-Sett effecta mei pit- diVisi?sistst sttietS.. 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JP 30 15 21 34 11 21 30 LO 14 is 35 31 21 37 30 34 1I1O43 21. 77. 24 44 13 Le 72 ?LO 37 25 24 4.3 43 44 11 6 20 33 3 9 Li 56 1 11 14 Sc IP 20 14 66 $3 20 17 9 41. 33 27 14 27 32 11 17 37 S 9 14 47 41 ri .37 33 32 11 4 $2 23 24 6 4 44 7 11 24 4 4 4 44 62 45 22 23 25 23 a it 17 24 11 77 30 11 29 24 4011 44 37 27 30 32 38 17 7 34 42 24 9 73 44 12 17 /4 5 7 4 42 34 18 71 42 44 27 1.5 29 29 32 Is 31 332732 /1 15 18 34 29 /9 32 24 11 IA 33 40 27 12 24 37 10 JA 27 4 p2.4 40 33 34 44 40 37 24 7 44 33 13435 74 14 19 5 710 44 471 .14 27 33 35 Thirty fiUtitices &caries 04 Oparitallefoll proccgoitico, %lid) cisrogt of 10 toms of apisoda C A-J )1( 3 gro44 44 Csueawr.7 4 1-3 /. %ere end/wed by 192 Wale oalleeo students. aft call indicated man voltam of pronability cameo ( 4 ) ear 4 larosspratation .411 Up* loft half u2 cause. owl sale data sit rearrangre far 3 ;ma of frowzy in tha right half ag Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 ??????0 1 - 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 life', the top figura, were 24 cases. 23.3 %, followed by 21 casee,..10.4 %, of 'hunch and impression'. The third figure was 'aeeing apparition or psychic phenooena related to the dead or dying person,', having 14 cases. '13.6 %, An Ex erimental ESP Study in the 14L-N Associative Process: To demonstrate the psi effect in human aseociative process, I first selected 100 stimulus noun words. In four paychologiy.classes, 209 students in all, t read sach.of them while the students wrote down a noun word associated .with it in their minds in their record sheets. ThUs. I completed tables uf response words to each stimulus word, Prom each table I extracted four response words low and almost even in the association value to each other. My experimental plan for psi is to IlUe these words in an ESP-association test situation. ? +?????=.? ? An ESP Experiment In A Mountain-Top Shigeki Hag to Kagoehima-Keixsi University JAPAN ABSTRACT Two different sets of ESP experiment in. a. mountain-top situation were accomplished by the associate student members of XPC(Kagoshimariteizai University ParepsyChology Club) and Hagio. The subjects used a deck of Zener carde and Perceptron, a portable-vcype Machine sold for testing SSP. each or two experiments was accompnied by a laboratory-room ESP testing as a control. In. Experiment 1, in the Zener Card series five subjects completed 20 runs yielding the deviation +16 in the Mountain-top condition on the one hand, and -7 in the Control condition on the other hand, the difference being marginal for statistical significance.(CR=1.79, Pw.00) In Experiment 2, in the Perceptron series nine subjects completed 36 runs giving a score with 36 o* extra chance, significant at .01 luvet, its difference from the Control series being significant as,05). Our results were eupportiva to the hypothesis that mountain-tops often provided with a proper condition for the manifestation of psi_ Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 er , Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 My Researches on Psi; Stability of CEP Ecores;A liehavior ESP Target;Survey-Interview Approach to Spontaneous Psi;Psi in the Associative Process KAGOSHIMA -XEIZAI UNIVERSITY 5MIGEKI HAOTO StOility of ESP Scoreo: 77 stadents among others completed four 5e,C1.05 of card ESP teat conducted week by week in a college psychology class, 1979. Each series test consisted of 4 runs. Their overall scores were positive in a significant level / (1)=.0b). Out of six correlative coefficients among the tour- -z-4"4- ' series one was positively significant(P=.01) and another Was ti' -tte'k'44/ negatively so(Pe.05), while the other four coefficients had positive yet small values. The data also was considered from 66 another point of view--"Stability of the score in each 1 subject". The number of those who had a score above MCS(20) every series were 6, that is much more than the theoreticalefAus value 3.1, but insignificant(CR=1.0). tit 1,06.1 r5 An Experiment with Behavlor ESP Tareesl: In an attempt to use human behaviors as an ESP target instead of the card figures, I , selected four ' human actions:standing, writing, lying and ss walking. An experimental amaistant played one randomly-selected Ji behavior for 60 seconds for each trial in one room that the subject guessed in another room. Each of the four experimental subjects completed 120 trials and he also had the Zansi-c.:sia series, 150 trials. One subject obtained a significant positive: score(Pe.05) in the behavior series though the overaii results of the behavior series was not different from that of the card series otatiatically. A Survey-Interview Approach to,SpontanCoas Pei Eneriencqp: Out of 763 students of the 1999 and 1999 college psychology classes who answered questionnaire items on their spotsneous psi experiences, 83 students were interviewed to talk about their experiences in detail, they told 103 stories of their own experiences in all. 'Correspondence between a dream and real Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 ALL-OR-NONE MODELS AND SIGNAL DETECTIVITY THEORY IMMO, Ifineyux; AUSlist ZY. 1992 1 PUblIshed the intensity probability theory at the basic research for the the study of the +statistic experiment at 19th annual convention of the Japanese SocietY for ParapsycholosY. Ink Some intereeting studies have been done since the*thcory 138 pregented. In toe theory. I made a new all-or-none model, often called Ioltubo's model. which vas a 2-pars:toter model. I nee it for the explanation of ObServahle four events following that; hit by psi, else by:peli, hit by chance. ilea by chance. My Audere pernetereil Are and m. La AO...Intl:1d In a trial. Paremeter-m le a Psi IS activated. We can MUMS a *object Setivatad. t,4L.. Pusneter-i IS a probability that pal probabllitY of alas an condition that guesses at randun if his psi is not ? - 2-Parameter-andel is very Useful for analyzing statistic data. But I expand -eti'my research field before long, because ! could find that ve could explain those Sour events by use of another theory. SDT(the Signal Detectivity Theory). Some inportant results go far Cl) A ROLE OP ALL-OR-NONE MOUS Old all-or-none models. 1-parameter sodelt, Can show us better condi- tions for the detection of pet in Heti:tic experiments. (2) ESTIMATION OF UP DATA In BOP tests, values of 1, which means sublect's pei talent, nearly oqual 9,01 On the condition that the ptior Probability is from 1/2 to W52. (This result is rediscovered.) Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 (3) ESTIMATION OF PK DATA Haga.H.(1080) confirmed the central timit theorem for the value of i in 2 PI test with dice, and confirmed two Important assuaptions presented by 1oltubo(19117).Then.Raga foued that I nearly equaled 0.01 se came as in tests. Pros above resulte. Haga has thought that .it is poseiblo to realne the degital PK coeunieation. I agree gill hie. (4) ADVANCED MUDD Wu cart OVelg2te v211183 of ?ad by Iokubb(1947,1048). And maybe Theories. GenerallY, re can obtain 2-parameter models than t-paraeuter i and m vitt the Plural Mod* Method consider se be able to estimate, the Observational gore lar01220011 from experiments by using models. (5) ROC CUIVB OP ESP DATA On the SOT. SsIter2i.H.(11137) reanalyzed Pearce-Pratt's experiment and evaluated a value of d' as 0.45.. And he successed to draw a goc cow a it (len). But, his obtained result sins can be fit the ROC curve introduced free All-or-none socials in parapaychology. I can not select one, because the value of d is very moll. (a) PARADOX OF CDNYIDENTIAL CALL In n theofetitel, otedi fer-Oe,SOTAekubcp(1$89) thew the relation between the confidential iall and the Beerilig ratio or the CR in the Yes-No teat. The obtained results suggested that we eould not expect good exPerieental resulte If we analyzed only vory-higb-confidential calls. And they suggested that we had better plan to let subjects feel easy to $ay 'high confidence' freoventlY, (1) A MANGE AMMO/In In another .theoretical study, 1osube(1181) euceeeeed to find a equation to explain that the value of i vee constant with the $M. But. a veal strange assumption vas essential for introducing the equation. In the asseeptien. the mental scale haa a unit like a quanta of mental energy. Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-007 2R000400390001-1 The japattettu Saelety for Parapsy eliology will celebrate its 25th anniver sary in 191)0. The Si ociety meets month ly at Tokyo t iiiiversity and sponsors at an MN 1 i. ii itif each December. Al 'hough ineethigs attract les than a clone members, this grout might he viiisitIcted a Inanch of the Para psycholog kat Associa tion, since its guela and oriciitadons arc equivalent. Alenlbers conduct orighial research and critically evaluate each other's ef- fnrts. Koten Nsgashisna has conducted psi experiments for 10 years, using pa- tients from his geriatrir psychiatry practke as with:is/ants, He measut es pulse rates and brain functions within dic context of the card guessing and dice predicting experiments. Although his mesal results tend to be ambiguous regarding proof of psychic effects, the society hopes on analysis of the entire 10-year series will generate clearer con- clusions. Ie 1997, Yoraiiiehi Re pre- sented a paper, "Processes of Deforma- tion in Spoon-Bending Phenomena." Hiroyuki Sakurai described a method for applyine signal detection theory to psi research. lildeyuki Kokubn de- scriherl "A Nt?tv Psi Test." Hiroyuki Siituz'sii pi use 6.11 is pawn "Applica- tion of Signal 1 leteetion Theory to Psi Research." Soji Otani spoke "On the Miect 01 External Stimulus to ESP Score," Koten Nagashima presented a paper "On EEC and PK" and Tokild Wada presented "Comparison of Psi Experience SLIITtlyS Between Japan and England." Japanese thenrists are par. ticularly interesied in observational the- ories. For example, Hideyuki Kokuho delivered a paper at the 1988 convert- lion entitled "On an Experimental Method to Evalisiste Observational Theories," During that same yeal Masayuki ilirafuji presented a paper "ESP Modoi by Neural Net," and Kilian Nagashima presented "On the Psi Ability of the Psychopath." Professor Suji Otani, of the National Defense Academy, is a guiding influ- ence Oil the society. In 19/17, he pee- soiled rhe convelition Presitientiul Ad. e PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN JAPAN By James Wellman dreas entitled "The Problem uf Citii it ? Parapsychology." Otani has observed - various Chinese ehl gong masters wit I visited Japan. Chi (ki in Japanese) . is thought to be the universal life en S erg)' that permeates the universe. (hi- ) gutig notsters (ki-ko In japarlese) claim to be adept at controlling this energy. Xi may have a slightly differ- ent meaning in Japanese than chi in Chinese. This variation is derived from both cultural and translation differ- ences. In Japanese, ki has diverse meanings: denki means electricity (den meana thunder) and tenki means weather (tell menus heaven), Seine- times ki, by itself, means "energy" Scientifically, it is difficult tO dcfiiic exactly what ki is. In Uhinese, chi is sometimes translated into English es "gas" even though it is thought to be a form of energy. Although chi-gang masters are part of the medical estab- lishment in some Chinese hospitals, only a few such practilioners cure their clients using this methodology in Japan. About 15 years ago, Otani conducted an RCP card test with participants in u a submatiute producing ejcrimenIJ roults which have not been published. Three conditions welt! Willpared: ii submerged sub, a maimed sub and land-hased situation, Ho found little difference between the (hinting Skil) and hind target, but the submerged target generated signilicantly lower ESP scores. Otani notes that these may be other variables, suds as dislanes and time, which might have porduced this differential effect. Hi draws nn conchs- slims froth this data, Professor Otani has conducted vari- ous forms of psychical research which have not been published. A number of years ago, he conducted, a survey of Japanese war widow's experiences. He polled 100 widows in melt prefecture of Japan, finding that many report- ed apparitional experienres coinciding with their husbands' deaths during World War II. About one-third of the 2,200 questionnaires were returned. Al- though his analysis Is still incomplete, Otani is categorizing the types, cloth- ing, actions and patterns in the impres. dons, as well as times of impression ver- sus time of incident, Although no case reveals perfect correspondence between actual events and the widow's Impres- sions, some car.06 reveal a high degree of coincidence. In a few cases, the hut- Ininti, thought to be deed, returned safely. Otani has noted a wide diversity n thc manner that the widow,: in irr.. net their experiences. Some regard the ipporitional event as extremely Anew. mal while others rinsaify their caperi. ace as ordinary. July?August, 19119 Tosio /Wallas:a has beer) at!I;v6 translating parapsychological works from English into Japanese and getting edited volumes published. He secently completed the translation of Harald* snn's (1987) Modern Miracles alai Stevenson's (1987) Children Who n4 member Previous Lives. His edited vol.; new Sui No Sertfo.. Chushistriryaku Zen- shi (The Battlefield al Psi: ninory All the Debates in Parapsychology); was published by Tleibonslia Limited hi 1907. Kasaltara is presently editing and translating a collection nf articles Ler A book entitled Turuenattia (rhe Elu- siveness Problem) to be printed be Shunes she Publishers, A few years ago, Dr. Rattaharn vis- hod Seoul, Korea, to investigate Christian psychic surgeon, Mrs. Kim, Mrs. Kim seemed to aid patients by ripping out their cancerous growths with her bare hands.. Katailistra return- ed hunt Korea with a videotape sup- plied by Mrs. Kim's organization (my Korean translator settattal to it as the "Seeing-Hearing-Feeding (linirch"), as well as tapes produced by himself dur- ing his CrtiTri visit. Prom the videotape supplied by her organiention, it ap- pears that Mrs. Kim makes incisions into some of her patient'S bodice, in a manner that would seemingly (Dorrnal.t ly) MUM harm raneerous growths are sometimes litetaity (app:nuttily) tutu Dr. Mc:Clown is in the Department of Social Meucci at Elizabeth City State lini. venal), in North Carolina. 13 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 :Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 out of patients' bodies. Although die medical valwe. of her intervention could not be established by Kaaahara's investigation, her organization clabita that her treatments are highly effec. ewe. The organization's videotape shows cases hi which patients' progress toward complete recovery is document- ed over time. Kasahara's private video- tape does not show Mrs, Kim malting incisions, which suggests that she does not regularly engage in this practice. She appeared to be symbolically trett- ing patients by applyittg smell band- ages. I talked about this case with a Korean colleague at my univeristy, Dr. Wuu Jung Ju. Apparently, Mts. IQ" has gained a degree ui fame through- out Korean and even a Korean church group in Dr. Ju's neighborhood, in Norfolk, Virginia, has seen her video- tape. Although Dr. Ju noted that a small percentage of reiigious KOICUld believe in her ability, he feel,' that most Koreans are hiehly skeptical. Di. Ju knows or no formal scientific investiga- tion of her organization's anima. The society keeps abreast of retearch developments in other countries. Take- aki Ota. a high schuol English instruc- tor, regularly paraphrases Western re- ports for the monthly meetings of the society. He is presently reading Margins al Reality by Jahn and Dunne (1987) .uati will be reviewing this book at a meeting this summer. Shigeki Hagio ptesented a paper, "Recent Reseerches ol Parapsychology in USA" at she 191111 , annual convention in Yoesuya, Tukyo. Various other halividuab, besides the members of the Japanese Society for Parapsychology, have conducted psychics.' research in japan. Professor Aoki has dune a remote viewing ex- periment at Chuhu University. Hiroalii Motoyama, founder of the Institute fnr Religious Psyrhology, has conducted longterm research program, seeking to ferret out the relationship between yoga, meridians and chi energy. He uses complex equipment to monitor electri- cal body functions and believes his data, analyzed by computer, reflect personality characteristics, as well as potential medieal disorders. Motoyanta, a Shinto priest, advocates a religions orientation, a position which af- 14 fects his theoretical formulations and arouses suspicion among scientifically oriented observers. Vittious new reli- gious groups, which have sprung up since World War II, also present many claims regarding paranormal teats. Some organizations advocate secular ideologies, somewhat scientific in oil- enlatioze ratliet than religious doe. trines. The Japanese media play a signifi- cant role in shaping the public's im- pressions of the occult. A (anions Jape- nese actor, Tetsuo.) Tanba, had a near- death experience; afterward, he took part in produring a movie about the "after-death" world. His fame and popularity have increased even more since ho devuttd time toward dissem- inating life-after-death information. Mastoid Kiyota, the Japanese metal bender, has starred in a fictional movie, written a book and appeared on vari- ous television programs. Although, In 1906, he attemed to acknowledge on TV that he used trickery, a degree of controvemy surrounds this incident and he denies "confessing" _n i the manner portrayed. lit claims Isis "disclosure" was produced through creative edit- ing. During the early 1980s, Professor Otani conducted a series of experi- ments with Mania Kiyota, attempt- ing VO document his psychokinetic abil- ity on videotape. Otani videotaped various events which suggest that some of Knyota's perlormances are authen- tic. One tape shows Kiyma directing his efforts toward a specially-tagged spoon which has been clamped into position. On various occasions, the spoon's head Jowly, but markedly, twists, without being touched, Otani was present during these experiments and carefully inspected the apumis both before and after videotaping Since the spoons' tags are clearly discernible in theac segments, it would Wm that the test spoons could not have been tam- lined with or :switched. Otani hopes to produce a "perfect" segment of video- tape, one in which he demonstrates his precautions and prim:educes, both be. fore and after the filming of the sub- bet's efforts. Japan is presently experiencing a sej form of occult boom. Porte= telling, astrology and tarot cards are also at- tracting interest, especially among young girls. Sonic people are also studying and advocating Chinese num- erology and fortune telling techniques, using the year, month, day and time in one's birth. Divittations based on the writing of the characters in one's mune make these c.alculations even more romplex. A small, but growing, scg- Merit uf young people has hetorne itt- h-rested in stories about fairies (taken from the European archetype, rather than Japanese folklore). Various popular magazines support belief in the paranormal. One publica- tion, Mu, wbuse name is derived Intim the Pacifin version of the lost cen- tment of Atlantis, has a monthly eir.- culation of about 300,000. Twilight Zone and AZ also attractL I it: attention of those interested in the paranormal. Television programs, although not 04- entifically oriented, have presented pi. formation regarding hauntings in Increasing concern with the occult has stimulated critical activists to be- come more visible. Although this mcive- ment may he an indication that Japa- nese skeptics ale beginning to take the possibility of ESP's existence more seriously, I know of no evidence Aug. gesting that the Japanese scientifie community harbors greater tolerance to parascientific claims then do West- ern eLientista, it may he that they; are more willing to investigate physiologi- cal phenomena asseekted with altered mental states, since sonic inveastitilgega.tore have conducted experiments with in- dividuals claiming specialnb One television program, part of the series "Science-Q," a weekly education- al ducumentary, presented a program that attracted great !mem ainong japans:be parapsychologists. The pro- gram showed various feats performed by a kilso master from China, nr. Yu Yang Chang. Under the supervision of academic researchers, the Master caused paralyzed childien to move their limbs. He also affected a candle's Flame under uncentrolled condWons (the investigators felt that their con- trols were satisfactory during this' feat, Paistslyekelney literiew Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 , Appyoved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 but I believe most Western parapsy- chologists would disagree with them). Jail:mese investigators claimed that the Wiwi] volume and heat In the master's !Lindh increased when lie attempted to radiate energy. A professor from Toler- tutI etiversity used a special device to 1111:41:1111 l:41a 1:111Cly low levels of Merton (4110; he determined that the kik() master could redinte such en- ergy in an unusual, and perhaps anom- aieu.,, Jauntier. Although ealieriknents sreking to detect special emissions .of ,tatie electricity, supersonic sounds and long frequency waves were not success- ful, the muster was able to affect the emission of infrared light. An EEG utialysis of the master's brain iodicated a Pattern similar to that of an miler>. tie patient, as well as changes in alpha feitierns, eveil though no unusual be. 1iii0,W:46 apparent. After the demon- strations, discussants argued regarding Ow meaning of these findings. One speculated that very minor energy en,i,iions of the master triggered bodi- ly ponies in the patient, using the patient's own energy. Another felt this theory was inadequate, since he be- lieeed the master could affect Mani- ma lc ?bier IS. Tusiu Kasabara, a member of he Pa ychnkkn1 Assnelation, had uppottunity to munitut the effet.ts of Dr. Yu's ireatrnents on one of his patients, 'Fla: woman, who NI da4uIIdljk gPi lip in the morning due to a herr- dit.ii y, kidoey problem, was dearly benefited by the hike master's therapy. After treatment, elm arose at a mania' hour and became far more .t ii, tife Dr. Yu allegedly has demonstrated the ability to affect his patients' auto- nomic nervous systems, even when shielded from them. He is quite will- ing to participate in controlled experi- ments investigating the passibility that IIV Can do this at a distance. Western researchers who are interested in this project should contact me so that I can put them in touch with Japanese in- vestigators. On Mat arthe.r, geini K. Sdadki, auggco.., the following conditions: (I) subject (s) in the USA should be young, regaidiess uf sex, hay- ing a high sensitivity and having had much experience with autogenic train- ing; ( ?) the laboratory should he shielded from electromagnetisin; (3) various elements within the autonomic nervous system should be cunipetently meastire.d. Dr. Via would conemitrate via plaxisgraillih of that: holnalattny and subject(s) in an attempt to cause psy- chological effects. A television program which au-rd in wally 1909 may also affect pubik pet- ceptions of the paranormal. A proles. sional magician, Marik, gave demon- strations of what he referred to as "psydrukitiesis" and "telekinesis." bent splarais, transfrirmed keys, made coins seem to pass through glass and performed mentalist feats. Although he alined Met tie was "tea it psychic.," he did not explain the means by which he accomplished his feats and uu.uuy uta- servers interpreted his performance as a demonstration of paranormal ability. Those familiar with sleight-of-hand rnugio would have no difficulties in per- ceiving normal means by which Marik could perform his frets. lir portrays himself as a performer, rather than an Individual who requests scientific in- vestigation, and seems cautious in mak- ing outright declarations regarding "magical" powers. Ihe members of the Japanese boa clety For Parapsychology recognize the problems that media presentations ere - ate for sc lent if IC elly oriented researcl,. ets, but icutain itategesled 111 die fiumi,! bility that humans radiate special em. ergies associated with psi. The prac- tices of acupuncture, shiatsu and other therapies based on Asian ideologies are prevalent in Japan. They feel that Chinese kik?, a practice associated with seemingly psychokinetie performances, may constitute a fruitful realm for the scientific investigation of psychic heal. ing, Although Chinese researchers in- vestigating kiko masters tend to accept loose proofs of "artronnhatta" feats!, Japanese scientists demand far higher levels of evidence. The main interest of Japanese investigators is not whether kik() masters have special abilities, but the nultale of the energies pnal ducing observed effects. Although sucl abilities may not be related to psi, dui, investigation of them will contribute to the understanding of huntan physiol. OgY, IIILIOGMPXY Iteralehmen, B. (MM. Modern Attrachu, Art Invertigative Report as Psychic Phe- Contemn Andeidtiti with Sahya Sal Betas, New York; Fawcett Columbine. Jahn, R, C. and Dunne, B. J. (1957). Marl gins tri Rodlier Ti,, Role el CollieRObisJ Edit is the Phyrical World, Sac Diego: Haunt! Brace Javanovieh, Stevenson, Ian (1987). Chi:drat no Re- member Preview Liver, Charlottesville, VA: Univerrity of Virenin Prrce ..1.1?111110111. PARAPSYCHOLOGY LIBRARY The Eileen J. Garrett Library of the Parapsychology Foundation, 228 Gas+ 710 SE, New York, N.Y. 10021, is open to students and researchers, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 0.m, to 4:30 p.m. and Tuesday until 840 p.m. July-August, l'OtlY Approved For Release 2000/08/15 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000400390001-1 is