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Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 F'ARAF'Sti'GHOLOGY IIV THE USSR. I. Reports of studies of~si in the USSh~c n back__Tta t_he mi.d i.4_th cen?tu~_ ~Accordi~ng to MAR"fIIV EBON, in his book, "F'SI -IN THE,.USSF~, RELIGION t+lITHOUT A CROSS" (see Appendix 1, Reference Literature), Russian scientists and laity have been researching various parapsychological phenomena far decades hefar-e the 1yi7 October Revolution. From 1857 to 18b7, the newspaper "WESTlVIf': EUROF'Y" in F`eter-sburg appeared, which dealt with mediums and other- openly une::plainable phenomena. - The medium phenomenon was reexamined for its veracity around 18bs~: by a special committee of the Physical Society of the University of Petersburg, which was founded just far this purpose, and a dispute developed between Mendelejev and the then-pr-aminent spit-itualist A.N. AEisakov over- the presumptions and methodologies of the study. Mendelejev had openly exposed fraudulent. mediums, - The oldest Einown report of telepathy experiments in Russia describes, as does EBOIV in his book, telepathy experiments in Tashkent through Al e::ander Wi 1 ki ns around 187sa, and was publ i si-ied i n Faris in the "Annals of Physical Science". - The f~ussian Society far E.:perimental F'sychalogy was founded in 1841. It was interested in clairvoyance, psychometry and poltergeist phenomena. Materialism led to a search far new, new, no longer religious truths. Hypnosis, seances, with their connections to ghosts, and a string of une:;plainable, supernatural phenomena such as thought transference and other related areas were popular. - So, research in parapsychology in the USSR was about the same as in the USA and other European countries up until the time of the industrial revolution. II. EE~OIV lists other scientists and works in parapsychology which occurred between the 1417 October revolution and the mid 'SOs: ~-~~~- - VLADIMIR M. BECNTEREV (Leningrad): mental communication between dogs and humans. - LAZAREV 11922): published "Psycho-chemical F'r-inciples of the Nigher (Verve Energies", in which the possibility of telepathic communication due to neurological functions was studied. - F.R. KASCNIfVSE'I: conducted other pertinent studies of mental Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 telepathy with dogs, and published a book: on thought transference in Mnscaw i n 19^.'. - LEQNTD L. VASILIEV (died in 19b6). A student of E~ECHTEREV, joined the Institute far ~Sraln Research in Leningrad in iy~i, and became a member of the committee to study mental suggestion (the e.?:pression for telepathy at that time). - 19?4: The end All-Russia Congress far F'sychoneuralogy recommended a joint-~sark: of the Russian scientists and the International Committee far Parapsychological Studies. ~,wu~{E? ~.-s~~:,e one selected Committee for tt-~e Study of 1~1entC-tl Suggestion came about through the Society for I'+leurology, Refle~olagy, Hypnosis and fiiaphysics was ended. 19L8: The Institute of Drain Research in Leningrad began a study of the Passible practical factors of telepathic phenomena from person to person, resulting in the conclusion that the phenomena of thought transference do oat rest on "electromagnetism". -- 199: Soviet parapsychology received Strang impetus through the french publication of supposed american ship-to-share telepathy attempts with the atomic submarine Nautilus. These attempts were officially denied by the Americans. iii r-~Nr 11 f ?~'~'b~-~ ~.L. VHSILiEV, according to Shiela Ostr-ander and Lynn Schroeder in their hook: "PSI" (see Appendix; 1, Reference Liter-atureS, reprimanded soviet scientists, referring to these Nautilus reports, far their considerable number of ESF' and telepathy studies which were carried out under Stalin's regime, but were as yet unpublished. He stressed the need to shake off the prejudices against parapsychology. He is convinced that the discover-y of ESF' energy will be of the same significance as atomic energy. 1461: L.L. Vasiliev received the leadership of the first ESF' laboratories sponsored by the soviet administratio th ns e Special Laboratory for Parapsychology at the University of Leningrad. After Vasiliev`s death in 19bb, the center of soviet parapsychological research partially shifted from Leningrad to Moscow, where IF'PtILIT ti~OSAN, Director of the Section for L~ioinformation on the totally soviet scientific and t h i ec n cal A.S. Popov Institute far Radiotechnolagy and Electrical Communication was located. - EDUARD }~, NAUMOV and }:ARL NI}.CILAEV were }inawn at this time through telepathy es;periments which were conducted over the distance of Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 Moscow to Leningrad. In the summer of 1968 a conference in Moscow on "Technical F'arapsychalogy" took: place. -- NINA tkULAGINA and WCILF MESSING are the two mast famous soviet "stars" of this time with supposedly especially great parapsychalagicai talent, N. k:ULAGINA fascinated onlaak:ers with psychak:inetic abilities, in which she made compass needles and other articles move with an energy which seemed to radiate from her hands. W. MESSING held Iarge crowds of spectators with his telepathic e::hibitians in Bann, In July, 1970, the russian newspaper "Radio-Technika" published research results of the above mentioned professor F~::QGAP1 in Moscow, which had supposedly convincingly graven the existence of telepathic passxbilities through statistical methods. S, OSTRANDER and L, SCHROEDER in their book "F`ST" maintained that while, by 1970 there were already mare than ,~c~r centers in the USSR far the study of paranormal phenomena, and that by 1967 there were already yearly budgets of at least iti million rubles had been put at their disposal far these studies, and parapsychoingy in the USSR enjoyed official sanction, VLADIMIR LVQV's article in the newspaper LE MONDE (4 AUG 76} denied its tafficial} recognition in the. USSR. He logically pointed out in his article that it is a mistake to accept that parapsychology enjoyed official recognition in the USSR. Moreover, the truth was simply that, parapsychology in the Soviet Union was not recognized as an official branch of science. No institute and na research center in the Soviet Union devoted itself to telepathy or psychokinesis, etc., but there were simply a group of amateurs who associated themselves with the paranormal. According to EBON, this opposing opinion maF;es clear the unpleasant situation in which parapsychology found itself in Russia at this time. It held no official status, but individuals and private groups could carry an such studies without special official intervention. Further examples of the historical development of soviet parapsychology are found listed in Appendix 1, Reference literature of western authors. The book "P'SI" by S. DSi'RANDER and L. SCHROEDER contains an e::tensive source of proof, III. A literature search on the theme, made in open-source databanks in December, 199D, for the time around 1968, turned up ^7 institutes andlar centers in which researchers were occupied with paranormal phenomena, in the widest sense of the term (see List of Institutes, Appendix; ~} , Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 Flere were explored practically all aspects of parapsychology, such as the general concept "ESF"' {in German, ASW), and the subject reports of telepathy, telepathic hypnosis, clairvoyance, as well as the concept of "psychokinesis" {the physical influence of man over matter), which encompasses the study of the human biafield, the application of the N~::IRLIACd effect, and healing through laying on of hands. There appear to be the reports of telepathy and telepathic hypnosis, like hypnosis per se, which the most basic research and the widest developrr!~~~nt of r~=parts of soviet parapsychology. In i'y6 >-=L, VASIL_IEV, in his book on e::perimental st!.!dies of "Rental suggestion", showed the advanced position of (such) pertinent research in the USSR, Efforts toward the aimed telepathic manipulation of human r_ansciousness seem to have played a large role in telepathic hypnosis. Research and application of hypnosis is wide spread in the USSR. It is used in medicine, psychotherapy, physiology, psychology, psychiatry, arrd in e:~tperimental education. Also the possibility. of the development and application of drugs for the augmentation of hypnosis was resear-shed, Soviet scientists such as L.L. VASILIEV, I.M. t~::OGA1V, V. MUTSGHALL, V.F. BASSIIV, M.V. AVAFUMOV, I. D, DtJErROVSF:I, V.L. RAIk::OV and F'. A. SL OErODYAIVIk::, with thei r co-authors have made names for themselves i n the above named reports for the timespan of 1968 on. The exceptional works published just in the .; years 1969-1971 by S.A. EGOf,OV, F'. V. ZAGRYADSF~:I, F. D. MORDVINOV and ht, B. YAI~OVETS and their ea-authors from the #~:irov Military-Medical Academy in Leningrad, fall especially into the area of psychophysiological research in connection with erganometric questions, and only peripherally have something to do with parapsychology (see also Appendix 3, Author list). ITI. It_was r-epor-ted again and again in the rainbow press that the mi 1 i tarp and the secret pol x ce were behx nd the r-ussi an efforts to~ `ecj t a scientific t~rie onM1parapsychalog~. The contents of these statements could never be substantiated and the soviet open-source literature on parapsychology also gives no reliable evidence. Certain revelations in the past years in the USSR have made assumptions that research has been dare here - but these and the research results were and will be held in secret. Signs of the efforts of soviet parapsychologists to use telepathy as a world-wide telecommunications system far cosmonauts between one another- and betiieen earth and the cosmonauts in space were already visible in the 5ra's. In 1967, the russian trade paper "Marine Repar-t" wrote that cosmonauts in space can "get together (mentally) with each Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/15 :CIA-RDP96-007928000500210002-8 SG1 E SG1 B other easier than with people on earth. Psi-training was said to have been taken up on the cosmonauts training program. Supposedly, phenomenal psi es;periments between soviet cosmonauts and scientists an the earth were said to have been conducted. The dates and results of these e: