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Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 SECRET DoD PSYCHOENERGETICS PROGRAM: REPLICATION STUDIES (S) By: HAROLD E. PUTHOFF EDWIN C. MAY DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20301 CLASSIFIED BY: DIA (DT-5) REVIEW ON: 28 February 2004 Copy No. ..... .... This document consists of 45 pages. SRI/GF-0260 SECRET NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS Approved For Release 2000/08/09 :CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 :EAC1RE6-0792R000600310001-7 CONTENTS (U) DOD PSYCHOENERGETICS PROGRAM--REPLICATION STUDIES (S) A. DoD Psychoenergetics Program (S). . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. Areas of Investigation (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C. Replication Efforts (S) . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Appendix A--A PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER OVER KILOMETER DISTANCES: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND RECENT RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 Appendix B--THE PERSISTENT PARADOX OF PSYCHIC PHENOMENA: AN ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 Appendix C--BIBLIOGRAPHY: REMOTE VIEWING REPLICATION STUDIES (GEOGRAPHICAL SITES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Appendix D--BIBLIOGRAPHY: REMOTE ACTION REPLICATION STUDIES (RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR EFFECTS) . . . . . . . . D-1 SECRET Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CS.E R '92R000600310001-7 (S/NF) DOD PSYCHOENERGETICS PROGRAM--REPLICATION STUDIES (S) A. DoD Psychoenergetics Program (5) (S/NF) Major DoD/Intelligence Community interest in assessing the potential of psychoenergetics (ESP) for military/intelligence applications began a little over a decade ago (1972), and has involved a number of agencies and military units as sponsors. The effort was compartmentalized under the code word "GRILL FLAME" in 1978, and in 1981 the various efforts were brought together under single-agency management and coordination (DIA). (S/NF) The program has involved SRI International as prime contractor, a number of institutes and consultants as subcontractors (e.g., Langley- Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California; Communications Studies Laboratory, Syracuse University), and has been subject to review by an independent Psychoenergetics Science Advisory Panel composed of Dr. Donald Kerr, Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prof. Fred Zacharaison, Physics Department, California Institute of Technology; and Dr. Ross Adey, V. A. Research Center, Loma Linda, California. B. Areas of Investigation (S) (S/NF) Two primary areas of investigation are being pursued in the DoD Psychoenergetics Program. They are: (1) Remote Viewing (RV)/Extrasensory Perception (ESP). Ability of an individual to access and describe remote geographic sites, or to access and describe concealed data, via undefined transmission mechanisms. Examples include the (mental) viewing of a distant military site or the contents of a secure room. (2) Remote Action (RA/Psychokinesis (PK). Mental ability to influence physical or biological systems without the use of known physical mechanisms. Examples include perturbation of electronic components or living organisms, such as the behavior of a micro- chip or the growth of a bacterial culture, by a (mental) effort of the will. SECRET Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 SECRET C. Replication Efforts (S) (S/NF) The results generated in the DoD Psychoenergetics Program by the prime contractor (SRI International) in both the remote viewing (RV) and remote action (RA) areas have found wide replication in several other laboratories across the country, notably at Princeton University under the leadership of Dr. Robert Jahn, Dean of the School of Engineering/ Applied Science. (See Appendices A and B for open literature papers on the original SRI work and Princeton replication efforts.) Following is a summary of replication efforts in both the RV and RA areas. (1) Remote Viewing. A recent survey of the literature on the remote viewing of geographical locations found twenty-eight published formal experimental series. More than half of these (fifteen) were successful, where only one in twenty would be expected by chance. The major successful replicating studies include research efforts at SRI International, Princeton University, Institute for Parapsychology (Durham, NC), Mundelein College (Chicago), and the University of California at Davis. A bibliography of these studies is included as Appendix C. (2) Remote Action. A recent survey of the literature describing apparent perturbation of electronic- diode- or radioactive-decay-driven random number generators found 48 published papers on 214 formal replication attempts. Of these 214 experiments, 74 were successful, where again only one in twenty would be expected by chance. Major successful replicating studies include, in addition to a large unpublished study by SRI International, research efforts at Princeton University, Mind Science Foundation (San Antonio), Maimonides Medical Center (Brooklyn), Psychophysical Research Laboratory (Princeton), Syracuse University, and Bell Laboratories (Columbus). A bibliography of these studies is included as Appendix D. The above studies, carried out under a variety of conditions by numerous researchers at a large number of laboratories, indicate that certain of the remote viewing and remote action effects are robust and repeatable phenomena that can be replicated on a broad scale. 2 Approved For Release 2000/08/09: CI ('gl2R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/0UNMFFiBlY 600310001-7 Appendix 'A A PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER OVER KILOMETER DISTANCES: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND RECENT RESEARCH UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09: CIA-RDFLL PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 64, NO. 3, MARCH 1976 S41iEoD7 A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research I.CPYRGHT HAROLD E. PUTHOFF, MEMBER, IEEE, AND RUSSELL TARG, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE Abstract-For more than 100 years, scientists have attempted to determine the truth or falsity of claims for the existence of a perceptual channel whereby certain individuals are able to perceive and describe remote data not presented to any known sense. This paper presents an outline of the history of scientific inquiry into such so-called paranor- mal perception and surveys the current state of the art in parapsycho- logical research in the United States and abroad. The nature of this perceptual channel is examined in a series of experiments carried out in the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory of Stanford Research Institute. The perceptual modality most extensively investigated is the ability of both experienced subjects and inexperienced volunteers to view, by innate mental processes, remote geographical or technical targets including buildings, roads, and laboratory apparatus. The ac- cumulated data indicate that the phenomenon is not a sensitive func- tion of distance, and Faraday cage shielding does not in any apparent way degrade the quality and accuracy of perception. On the basis of this research, some areas of physics are suggested from which a descrip- tion or explanation of the phenomenon could be forthcoming. I. INTRODUCTION "IT IS THE PROVINCE of natural science to investigate nature, impartially and without prejudice" [ 1 ]. Nowhere in scientific inquiry has this dictum met as great a chal- lenge as in the area of so-called extrasensory perception (ESP), the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by the usual sensory processes. Such phenomena, although under scientific consideration for over a century, have historically been fraught with unreliability and controversy, and validation of the phe- nomena by accepted scientific methodology has been slow in coming. Even so, a recent survey conducted by the British publication New Scientist revealed that 67 percent of nearly 1500 responding readers (the majority of whom are working scientists and technologists) considered ESP to be an estab- lished fact or a likely possibility, and 88 percent held the investigation of ESP to be a legitimate scientific undertaking [21. A review of the literature reveals that although experiments by reputable researchers yielding positive results were begun over a century ago (e.g., Sir William Crookes' study of D. D. Home, 1860's) [31, many consider the study of these phe- nomena as only recently emerging from the realm of quasi- science. One reason for this is that, despite experimental results, no satisfactory theoretical construct had been advanced to correlate data or to predict new experimental outcomes. Consequently, the area in question remained for a long time in the recipe stage reminiscent of electrodynamics before the Manuscript received July 25, 1975; revised November 7, 1975. The submission of this paper was encouraged after review of an advance proposal. This work was supported by the Foundation for Parasensory Investigation and the Parapsychology Foundation, New York, NY; the Institute of Noetic Sciences, Palo Alto, CA; and the National Aero- nautics and Space Administration, under Contract NAS 7-100. unification brought about by the work of Ampere, Faraday, and Maxwell. Since the early work, however, we have seen the development of information theory, quantum theory, and neurophysiological research, and these disciplines provide powerful conceptual tools that appear to bear directly on the issue. In fact, several physicists (Section V) are now of the opinion that these phenomena are not at all inconsistent with the framework of modern physics: the often-held view that observations of this type are a priori incompatible with known laws is erroneous in that such a concept is based on the naive realism prevalent before the development of quantum theory. In the emerging view, it is accepted that research in this area can be conducted so as to uncover not just a catalog of'inter- esting events, but rather patterns of cause-effect relationships of the type that lend themselves to analysis and hypothesis in the forms with which we are familiar in the physical sciences. One hypothesis is that information transfer under conditions of sensory shielding is mediated by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves, a proposal that does not seem to be ruled out by any obvious physical or biological facts. Further, the development of information theory makes it possible to characterize and quantify the performance of a communications channel regardless of the underlying mechanism. For the past three years, we have had a program in the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory of the Stan- ford Research Institute (SRI) to investigate those facets of human perception that appear to fall outside the range of well- understood perceptual/processing capabilities. Of particular interest is a human information-accessing capability that we call "remote viewing." This phenomenon pertains to the ability of certain individuals to access and describe, by means of mental processes, information sources blocked from ordi- nary perception, and generally accepted as secure against such access. In particular, the phenomenon we have investigated most extensively is the ability of a subject to view remote geograph- ical locations up to several thousand kilometers distant from his physical location (given only a known person on whom to target).' We have carried out more than fifty experiments under controlled laboratory conditions with several individuals whose remote perceptual abilities have been developed suf- ficiently to allow them at times to describe correctly-often in great detail-geographical or technical material such as build- ings, roads, laboratory apparatus, and the like. As observed in the laboratory, the basic phenomenon appears to cover a range of subjective experiences variously referred to The authors are with the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory, 'Our initial work in this area was reported in Nature 141, and re- Stanford RegC1011l$t#cHrnFF' !C1# ~~08/09 : CI A-RDPR313t 'I ~"~~UWT=''"sletrer, vol. 13, Jan. 1975. Ui1G SS&id) CPYRGHT Approved or Release PUTHOFF AND TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER end (correct). An airport building also was drawn, and shown to have a large rectangular overhang (correct). The traveler had taken an unplanned one-day side trip to an offshore island and at the time of the experiment had just disembarked from a plane at a small island airport as described by the subject 4000 km away. The sole discrepancy was that the subject's drawing showed a Quonset-hut type of building in place of the rectangular structure. The above description was chosen as an example to illustrate a major point observed a number of times throughout the program to be described. Contrary to what may be expected, a subject's description does not necessarily portray what may reasonably be expected to be correct (an educated or "safe" guess), but often runs counter even to the subject's own expectations. We wish to stress again that a result such as the above is not unusual. The remaining submissions in this experiment pro- vided further examples of excellent correspondences between target and response. (A target period of poolside relaxation was identified; a drive through a tropical forest at the base of a truncated volcano was described as a drive through a jungle below a large bare table mountain; a hotel-room target descrip- tion, including such details as rug color, was correct; and so on.) So as to determine whether such matches were simply fortuitous-that is, could reasonably be expected on the basis of chance alone-Dr. Puthoff was asked after he had returned to blind match the twelve descriptions to his seven target locations. On the basis of this conservative evaluation proce- dure, which vastly underestimates the statistical significance of the individual descriptions, five correct matches were ob- tained. :his number of matches is significant at p = 0.02 by exact binomial calculation. The observation of such unexpectedly high-quality descrip- tions early in our program led to a large-scale study of the phenomenon at SRI under secure double-blind conditions (i.e., target unknown to experimenters as well as subjects), with independent random target selection and blind judging. The results, presented in Sections III and IV, provide strong evi- dence for the robustness of this phenomenon whereby a human perceptual modality of extreme sensitivity can detect complex remote stimuli. H. BACKGROUND Although we are approaching the study of these phenomena as physicists, it is not yet possible to separate ourselves entirely from the language of the nineteenth century when'the labora- tory study of the paranormal was begun. Consequently, we continue to use terms such as "paranormal," "telepathy," and the like. However, we intend only to indicate a process of information transfer under conditions generally accepted as secure against such transfer and with no prejudice or occult assumptions as to the mechanisms involved. As in any other scientific pursuit, the purpose is to collect the observables that result from experiments and to try to determine the functional relationships between these observables and the laws of physics as they are currently understood. 2The probability of a correct daily match by chance for any given transcript is p = -}. Therefore, the probability of at least five correct matches by chance out of twelve tries can be calculated from ... ! (12-!) Pwibvisbuo -- ------------ ----+ - ----- -- ----- -- -- 12l 1 6 = 0.02. in Rhine's work, it would have to be on other than statistical P- it 12-1)l 7~ o he accusations of fraud, the ApprMed For R7ease 2000/08/09: CIA-RDP ?-' 411b0 3 - Organized research into so-called psychic functioning began roughly in the time of J. J. Thomson, Sir Oliver Lodge, and Sir William Crookes, all of whom took part in the founding of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in 1882 in England. Crookes, for example, carried out his principal investigations with D. D. Home, a Scotsman who grew up in America and returned to England in 1855 [3). According to the notebooks and published reports of Crookes, Home had demonstrated the ability to cause objects to move without touching them. We should note in passing that, Home, unlike most subjects, worked only in the light and spoke out in the strongest pos- sible terms against the darkened seance rooms popular at the time [ 5 1. Sir William Crookes was a pioneer in the study of electrical discharge in gases and in the development of vacuum tubes, some types of which still bear his name. Although everything Crookes said about electron beams and plasmas was accepted, nothing he said about the achievements of D. D. Home ever achieved that status. Many of his colleagues, who had not observed the experiments with Home, stated publicly that they thought Crookes had been deceived, to which Crookes angrily responded: Will not my critics give me credit for some amount of common sense? Do they not imagine that the obvious precautions, which occur to them as soon as they sit down to pick holes in my experiments, have occurred to me also in the course of longed and patient investigation? The answer to this, as to all other objections is, prove it to be an error, by showing where the error lies, or if a trick, by showing how the trick is per- formed. Try the experiment fully and fairly. If then fraud be found, expose it; if it be a truth, proclaim it. This is the only scientific procedure, and it is that I propose steadily to pursue [3]. In the United States, scientific interest in the paranormal was centered in the universities. In 1912, John Coover [6] was established in the endowed Chair of Psychical Research at Stanford University. In the 1920's, Harvard University set up research programs with George Estabrooks and L. T. Troland [71, [8]. It was in this framework that, in 1930, William McDougall invited Dr. J. B. Rhine and Dr. Louisa Rhine to join the Psychology Department at Duke University [9]. For more than 30 years, significant work was carried out at Rhine's Duke University Laboratory. To examine the existence of paranormal perception, he used the now-famous ESP cards containing a boldly printed picture of a star, cross, square, circle, or wavy lines. Subjects were asked to name the order of these cards in a freshly shuffled deck of twenty-five such cards. To test for telepathy, an experimenter would look at the cards one at a time, and a subject suitably separated from the sender would attempt to determine which card was being viewed. Dr. J. B. Rhine together with Dr. J. G. Pratt carried out thousands of experiments of this type under widely varying conditions [ 10] . The statistical results from these experiments indicated that some individuals did indeed possess a paranor- mal perceptual ability in that it was possible to obtain an arbitrarily high degree of improbability by continued testing of a gifted subject. The work of Rhine has been challenged on many grounds, however, including accusations of improper handling of statis- tics, error, and fraud. With regard to the statistics, the general j-IL 6LtA3b I r ILL) CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2000/08/09: CIA-RDP96-00792ROoo For Stepanek's run, with pi = -1, pi (j) = 0.619, and an average time of 9 s per choice, we have a source uncertainty H(x) = 1 bit and a calculated bit rate R/T ^' 0.0046 bit/s. (Since the 15-digit number (49.8 bits) actually was transmitted at the rate of 2.9 X 10-4 bit/s, an increase in bit rate by a factor of about 20 could be expected on the basis of a coding scheme more optimum than that used in the experiments. See, for example, Appendix A.) Dr. Charles Tart at the University of California has written extensively on the so-called decline effect. He considers that having subjects attempt to guess cards, or perform any other repetitious task for which they receive no feedback, follows the classical technique for deconditioning any response. He thus considers card guessing "a technique for extinguishing psychic functioning in the laboratory" [ 32 ]. Tart's injunctions of the mid-sixties were being heeded at Maimonides Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, by a team of researchers that included Dr. Montague Ullman, who was director of research for the hospital; Dr. Stanley Krippner; and, later, Charles Honorton. These three worked together for several years on experiments on the occurrence of telepathy in dreams. In the course of a half-dozen experimental series, they found in their week-long sessions a number of subjects who had dreams that consistently were highly descriptive of pictorial material that a remote sender was looking at throughout the night. This work is described in detail in the experimenters' book Dream Telepathy [33]. Honorton is continuing work of this free-response type in which the subject has no precon- ceived idea as to what the target may be. In his more recent. work with subjects in the waking state, Honorton is providing homogeneous stimulation to the subject who is to describe color slides viewed by another person in a remote room. In this new work, the subject listens to white noise via earphones and views an homogeneous visual field imposed through the use of Ping-Pong ball halves to cover the subject's eyes in conjunction with diffuse ambient illumina- tion. In this so-called Ganzfeld setting, subjects are again able, now in the waking state, to give correct and often highly accurate descriptions of the material being viewed by the sender [34]. In Honorton's work and elsewhere, it apparently has been the step away from the repetitive forced-choice experiment that has opened the way for a wide variety of ordinary people to demonstrate significant functioning in the laboratory, with- out being bored into a decline effect. This survey would be incomplete if we did not indicate certain aspects of the current state of research in the USSR. It is clear from translated documents and other sources [35] that many laboratories in the USSR are engaged in paranormal research. Since the 1930's, in the laboratory of L. Vasiliev (Leningrad Institute for Brain Research), there has been an interest in the use of telepathy as a method of influencing the behavior of a person at a distance. In Vasiliev's book Experiments in Mental Suggestion, he makes it very clear that the bulk of his labora- tory's experiments were aimed at long-distance communica- tion combined with a form of behavior modification; for example, putting people at a distance to sleep through hyp- nosis [36]. Aaaroved Similar behavior modification types of experiments have been carried out in recent times by I. M. Kogan, Chairman of the Bioinformation Section of the Moscow Board of the Popov Society. He is a Soviet engineer who, until 1969, published extensively on the theory of telepathic communication [37]- [401. He was concerned with three principal kinds of experi- ments: mental suggestion without hypnosis over short dis- tances, in which the percipient attempts to identify an object; mental awakening over short distances, in which a subject is awakened from a hypnotic sleep at the "beamed" suggestion from the hypnotist; and long-range (intercity) telepathic com- munication. Kogan's main interest has been to quantify the channel capacity of the paranormal channel. He finds that the bit rate decreases from 0.1 bit/s for laboratory experiments to 0.005 bit/s for his 1000-km intercity experiments. In the USSR, serious consideration is given to the hypothesis that telepathy is mediated by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic propagation. (The pros and cons of this hypothesis are discussed in Section V of this paper.) In general, the entire field of paranormal research in the USSR is part of a larger one concerned with the interaction between electromagnetic fields and living organisms [41], [42]. At the First International Congress on Parapsychology and Psychotronics in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1973, for example, Kholodov spoke at length about the susceptibility of living systems to extremely low-level ac and dc fields. He described conditioning effects on the behavior of fish resulting from the application of 10 to 100 uW of RF to their tank [43]. The USSR take these data seriously in that the Soviet safety re- quirements for steady-state microwave exposure set limits at 10 pW/cm2, whereas the United States has set a steady-state limit of 10 mW/cm2 [441. Kholodov spoke also about the nonthermal effects of microwaves on animals' central nervous systems. His experiments were very carefully carried out and are characteristic of a new dimension in paranormal research. The increasing importance of this area in Soviet research was indicated recently when the Soviet Psychological Association issued an unprecedented position paper calling on the Soviet Academy of Sciences to step up efforts in this area [45 1. They recommended that the newly formed Psychological Institute within the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Psychological Institute of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences review the area and consider the creation of a new laboratory within one of the institutes to study persons with unusual abilities. They also recommended a comprehensive evaluation of experiments and theory by the Academy of Sciences' Insti- tute of Biophysics and Institute for the Problems of Informa- tion Transmission. The Soviet research, along with other behavioristically oriented work, suggests that in addition to obtaining overt responses such as verbalizations or key presses from a subject, it should be possible to obtain objective evidence of informa- tion transfer by direct measurement of physiological parame- ters of a subject. Kamiya, Lindsley, Pribram, Silverman, Walter, and others brought together to discuss physiological methods to detect ESP functioning, have suggested that a whole range of electroencephalogram (EEG) responses such as evoked potentials (EP's), spontaneous EEG, and the contingent negative variation (CNV) might be sensitive indicators of the detection of, remote stimuli not mediated by usual sensory processes [46]. Early experimentation of this type was carried out by Douglas Dean at the Newark College of Engineering. In his UNCLASSiFIED CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792RO PUTHOFF AND TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER class of paranormal perception phenomenon exists. At all times, we and others responsible for the overall program took measures to prevent sensory leakage and subliminal cueing and to prevent deception, whether intentional or unintentional. To ensure evaluations independent of belief structures of both experimenters and judges, all experiments were carried out under a protocol, described below, in which target selection at the beginning of experiments and blind judging of results at the end of experiments were handled independently of the researchers engaged in carrying out the experiments. Six subjects, designated Si through S6, were chosen for the study. Three were considered as gifted or experienced subjects (Si through S3), and three were considered as learners (S4 through S6). The a priori dichotomy between gifted and learners was based on the experienced group having been successful in other studies conducted before this program and the learners group being inexperienced with regard to paranormal experimentation. The study consisted of a series of double-blind tests with local targets in the San Francisco Bay Area so that several in- dependent judges could visit the sites to establish documenta- tion. The protocol was to closet the subject with an experi- menter at SRI and at an agreed-on time to obtain from the subject a description of an undisclosed remote site being visited by a target team. In each of the experiments, one of the six program subjects served as remote-viewing subject, and SRI experimenters served as a target demarcation team at the remote location chosen in a double-blind protocol as follows. In each experiment, SRI management randomly chose a target location from a list of targets within a 30-min driving time from SRI; the target location selected was kept blind to subject and experimenters. The target pool consisted of more than 100 target locations chosen from a target-rich environ- ment. (Before the experimental series began, the Director of the Information Science and Engineering Division, not other- wise associated with the experiment, established the set of lo- cations as the target pool which remained known only to him. The target locations were printed on cards sealed in envelopes and kept in the SRI Division office safe. They were available only with the personal assistance of the Division Director who issued a single random-number selected target card that con- stituted the traveling orders for that experiment.) In detail: To begin the experiment, the subject was closeted with an experimenter at SRI to wait 30 min before beginning a narrative description of the remote location. A second ex- perimenter then obtained from the Division Director a target location from a set of traveling orders previously prepared and randomized by the Director and kept under his control. The target demarcation team, consisting of two to four SRI experi- menters, then proceeded by automobile directly to the target without any communication with the subject or experimenter remaining behind. The experimenter remaining with the sub- ject at SRI was kept ignorant of both the particular target and the target pool so as to eliminate the possibility of cueing (overt or subliminal) and to allow him freedom in questioning the subject to clarify his descriptions. The demarcation team remained at the target site for an agreed-on 15-min period following the 30 min allotted for travel.4 During the observa- 4The first subject (SI) was allowed 30 min for his descriptions, but it was found that he fatigued and had little comment after the first I S crssIFIED tion period, the remote viewing subject was asked to describe his impressions of the target site into a tape recorder and to make any drawings he thought appropriate. An informal com- parison was then made when the demarcation team returned, and the subject was taken to the site to provide feedback. A. Subject Si: Experienced To begin the series, Pat Price, a former California police com- missioner and city councilman, participated as a subject in nine experiments. In general, Price's ability to describe correctly buildings, docks, roads, gardens, and the like, includ- ing structural materials, color, ambience, and activity-often in great detail-indicated the functioning of a remote per- ceptual ability. A Hoover Tower target, for example, was recognized and named by name. Nonetheless, in general, the descriptions contained inaccuracies as well as correct state- ments. A typical example is indicated by the subject's drawing shown in Fig. 3 in which he correctly described a park-like area containing two pools of water: one rectangular, 60 by 89 ft (actual dimensions 75 by 100 ft); the other circular, diameter 120 ft (actual diameter 110 ft). He incorrectly indi- cated the function, however, as water filtration rather than recreational swimming. (We often observe essentially correct descriptions of basic elements and patterns coupled with in- complete or erroneous analysis of function.) As can be seen from his drawing, he also included some elements, such as the tanks shown in the upper right, that are not present at the target site. We also note an apparent left-right reversal, often observed in paranormal perception experiments. To obtain a numerical evaluation of the accuracy of the remote-viewing experiment, the experimental results were subjected to independent judging on a blind basis by an SRI research analyst not otherwise associated with the research. The subject's response packets, which contained the nine typed unedited transcripts of the tape-recorded narratives along with any associated drawings, were unlabeled and pre- sented in random order. While standing at each target loca- tion, visited in turn; the judge was required to blind rank order the nine packets on a scale I to 9 (best to worst match). The statistic of interest is the sum of ranks assigned to the target- associated transcripts, lower values indicating better matches. For nine targets, the sum of ranks could range from nine to eighty-one. The probability that a given sum of ranks s or less will occur by chance is given by [ 55 ] Pr (s or less)=Nn k (-1)1(n) (tnN1 1) 1-n 1-0 1 where s is obtained sum of ranks, N is number of assignable ranks, n is number of occasions on which rankings were made, and I takes on values from zero to the least positive integer k in (i - n)/n. (Table I is a table to enable easy application of the above formula to those cases in which N = n.) The sum in this case, which included seven direct hits out of the nine, was 16 (see Table II), a result significant at p =.2.9 X 10-5 by exact calculation. In Experiments 3, 4, and 6 through 9, the subject was se- cured in a double-walled copper-screen Faraday cage. The Faraday cage provides 120-dB attenuation for plane-wave radio-frequency radiation over a range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz. For magnetic fields, the attenuation is 68 dB at 15 kHz and ir4~ o min. The vie vin rbveCaPi~fr -Per&tu6el6yJ616 tr:S&K!PDK S2 through Spl~ I ~a(t 60 esults of rank order judging Te-Ql > ds of Faraday c al UNCLASS1NL1) CPYRGHT prove or Release 2000/1011 PUTHOFF A TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER scientific rigor, one of our primary tasks as researchers is to TABLE II RANKINGS ASSIGNED TO TRANSCRIPTS DISTRIBUTION OF provide an environment in which the subject feels safe to ASSOCIATED WITH EACH TARGET LOCATION FOR EXPERIENCED explore the possibility of paranormal perception. With a new SUBJECT PRICE(SI) subject, we also try to stress the nonuniqueness of the ability Rank of because from our experience paranormal functioning appears Distance Associated Location km Transcript Target to be a latent ability that all subjects can articulate to some degree. Hoover Tower, Stanford 3.4 1 Because of Mrs. Hammid's artistic background, she was ca- Baylands Nature Preserve, Palo Alto 6.4 1 pable of drawing and describing visual images that she could Radio telescope, Portola Valley 6.4 1 not identify in any cognitive or analytic sense. When the target Marina, Redwood City 6.8 1 demarcation team went to a target location which was a Bridge toll plaza, Fremont 14.5 6 pedestrian overpass, the subject said that she saw "a kind of Drive-in theater, Palo Alto 5.1 1 trough up in the air," which she indicated in the upper part Arts and Crafts Plaza, Menlo Park 1.9 1 of her drawing in Fig. 4. She went on to explain, "If you Catholic Church, Portola Valley 8.5 3 stand where they are standing you will see something like Swimming pool complex, Palo Alto 3.4 1 this," indicating the nested squares at the bottom of Fig. 4. 16 Total sum of rank, As it turned out, a judge standing where she indicated would .2.9xl0-s ) (p have a view closely resembling what she had drawn, as can be seen from the accompanying photographs of the target loca- tion. It needs to be emphasized, however, that judges did not who felt that he used his remote-viewing ability in his every- have access to our photographs of the site, used here for day life. illustrative purposes only, but rather they proceeded to each In comparison with the latter two, many people are more of the target locations by list. influenced by their environment and are reluctant under In another experiment, the subject described seeing "an public scrutiny to attempt activities that are generally thought open barnlike structure with a pitched roof." She also saw to be impossible. Society often provides inhibition and nega- a "kind of slatted side to the structure making light and dark tive feedback to the individual who might otherwise have bars on the wall." Her drawing and a photograph of the explored his own nonregular perceptual ability. We all share associated bicycle shed target are shown in Fig. 5. (Subjects an historical tradition of "the stoning of prophets and the are encouraged to make drawings of anything they visualize burning of witches" and, in more modern times, the hospitaliza- and associate with the remote location because drawings they tion of rho who clo p e-rceive thins tg ajo do r3, eneral more accurate than their verbal description.) P - eaA M~tiS sin&il(DPy sb rth~ 94i~9 t~f7Price, the results of the nine- not admit R gl' 4 Appromed PUTHOFF AND TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER r Swann, het wb es 'rv -meCea?sQ~ a~~ subject. It was a demonstration experiment for a government visitor who had heard of our work and wanted to evaluate our experimental protocol. In the laboratory, the subject, holding a bearing compass at arm's length, began the experiment by indicating the direction of the target demarcation team correctly to within 5?. (In all four experiments with this subject, he has always been within 10? of the correct direction in this angular assessment.) The subject then generated a 15-min tape-recorded description and the drawings shown in Fig. 6. In discussing the drawings, Elgin indicated that he was uncertain as to the action, but had the impression that the demarcation team was located at a museum (known to him) in a particular park. In fact, the target was a tennis court lo- cated in that park about 90 m from the indicated museum. Once again, we note the characteristic (discussed earlier) of a resemblance between the target site and certain gestalt ele- ments of the subject's response, especially in regard to the drawings, coupled with incomplete or erroneous analysis of the significances. Nonetheless, when rank ordering transcripts 1 through 8 at the site, the judge ranked this transcript as 2. This example illustrates a continuing observation that most of the correct information related to us by subjects is of a non- analytic nature pertaining to shape, form, color, and material rather than to function or name. A second example from this group, generated by S3 (Swann), indicates the level of proficiency that can be attained with practice. In the two years since we first started working with URQ1 nos 00 bow experiments, he dictates two lists for us to record. One list contains objects that he "sees," but does not think are located at the remote scene. A second list contains objects that he thinks are at the scene. In our evaluation, he has made much progress in this most essential ability to separate memory and imagination from paranormal inputs. This is the key to bringing the remote-viewing channel to fruition with regard to its potential usefulness. The quality of transcript that can be generated by this pro- cess is evident from the results of our most recent experiment with Swann. The target location chosen by the usual double- blind protocol was the Palo Alto City Hall. Swann described a tall building with vertical columns and "set in" windows. His sketch, together with the photograph of the site, is shown in Fig. 7. He said there was a fountain, "but I don't hear it." At the time the target team was at the City Hall during the experiment, the fountain was not running. He also made an effort to draw a replica of the designs in the pavement in front of the building, and correctly indicated the number of trees (four) in the sketch. For the entire series of eight, four each from S2 and S3, the numerical evaluation 'based on blind rank ordering of tran- scripts at each site was significant at p = 3.8 X 10-4 and in- cluded three direct hits and three second ranks for the target- associated transcripts (see Table IV). D. Subjects S5 and S6: Learners To complete the series, four experiments each were carried g eg outwith learner subjects S5 and S6, a man and woman on the St`YE efit"PP>a%0iQ10WV1q9Q1rults in this case taken as a LL 101 A(ZQ1HH) CPYRGHTApproved For Release 2000/08/09 CIA-RDP96-00792R0006U=.5S I EI ED Fig. 8. Subject (S6) drawing of White Plaza, Stanford University. Sub- ject drew what she called "curvy benches" and then announced cor- rectly that the place was "White Plaza at Stanford." Second, when an individual observes a successful demonstra- tion experiment involving another person as subject, it inevi- tably occurs to him that perhaps chicanery is involved. We have found the most effective way to settle this issue for the observer is to have the individual himself act as a subject so as to obtain personal experience against which our reported results can be evaluated. The first visitor (VI) was invited to participate as a subject in a three-experiment series. All three experiments contained elements descriptive of the associated target locations; the quality of response increased with practice. The third re- RESPONSES OF VISITING sponse is shown in Fig. 9, where again the pattern elements in SCIENTIST SUBJECT the drawing appeared to be a closer match than the subject's analytic la e~0(3V dr win$ of merry-go-round target. i~ ff6t#g 1t'RA sg tVd,fI :'CIA-RDP96-007 2'4'0 `~~~ ~b0911 C1 ASS r11711 CPYRGHTApproved For Release 2000/08/09: CIA-RDP96-00792R0006UWASIFIED F PUTHOFF AND TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER 343 ET LOCATION: XEROX MACHINE TARG (TECHNOLOGY SERIES) r Fig. 11. Drawings by three subjects (S2, S3, and V3) for Xerox machine target. When asked to describe the square at upper left of response on the right, subject (V3) said, "There was this predominant light source which might have been a window, and a working surface which might have been the sill, or a working surface or desk." Earlier the subject had said, "I have the feeling that there is something silhouetted against the window." Observations with unselected subjects such as those de- scribed above indicate that remote viewing may be a latent and widely distributed perceptual ability. F. Technology Series: Short-Range Remote Viewing Because remote viewing is a perceptual ability, we consid- ered it important to obtain data on its resolution capabilities. To accomplish this, we turned to the use of indoor techno- logical targets. Twelve experiments were carried out with five different sub- jects, two of whom were visiting government scientists. They were told that one of the experimenters would be sent by random protocol to a laboratory within the SRI complex and that he would interact with the equipment or apparatus at that location. It was further explained that the experimenter remaining with the subject was, as usual, kept ignorant of the contents of the target pool to prevent cueing during question- ing. (Unknown to subjects, targets in the pool were used with replacement; one of the goals of this particular experiment was to obtain multiple responses to a given target to investigate whether correlation of a number of subject responses would provide enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio.) The sub- ject was asked to describe the target both verbally (tape recorded) and by means of drawings during a time-synchronized 15-min interval in which the outbound experimenter inter- acted in an appropriate manner with the equipment in the target area. In the twelve experiments, seven targets were used: a drill press, Xerox machine, video terminal, chart recorder, four- state random number generator, machine shop, and type- writer. Three of these were used twice (drill press, video terminal and typewriter) and one (Xerox machine) came up TO ADD INTEREST TO TARGET LOCATION EXPERIMENTER WITH HIS HEAD BEING XEROXED Comparisons of the targets and subject drawings for three of the multiple-response cases (the typewriter, Xerox machine, and video terminal) are shown in Figs. 10, 11, and 12. As is apparent from these illustrations alone, the experiments provide circumstantial evidence for an information channel of useful bit rate. This includes experiments in which visit- ing government scientists participated as subjects (Xerox machine and video terminal) to observe the protocol. In general, it appears that use of multiple-subject responses to a single target provides better signal-to-noise ratio than target identification by a single individual. This conclusion is borne out by the judging described below. Given that in general the drawings constitute the most accurate portion of a subject's description, in the first judging procedure a judge was asked simply to blind match only the drawings (i.e., without tape transcripts) to the targets. Multiple- subject responses to a given target were stapled together, and thus seven subject-drawing response packets were to be matched to the seven different targets for which drawings were made. The judge did not have access to our photographs of the target locations, used for illustration purposes only, but rather proceeded to each of the target locations by list. While standing at each target location, the judge was required to rank order the seven subject-drawing response packets (presented in random order) on a scale 1 to 7 (best to worst match). For seven targets, the sum of ranks could range from 7 to 49. The sum in this case, which included I direct hit and 4 second ranks out of the 7 (see Table VII) was 18, a result significant atp=0.036. In the second more detailed effort at evaluation, a visiting scientist selected at random one of the 12 data packages (a drill press experiment), sight unseen and submitted it for i n - er with a request for an esti- three time c ~ r 1 ~e ~ ~o - ro~~$i~~8/09 : CIA-RDP9P'- M~RO g t~3~~~~ t Il CPYRG*proved For Release 2000/08/09: CIA-RDP96-00792R0006003100UlJC SS j Fl ES PUTHOFF AND TARG; PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER F 1'. Fig. 13. Subject (S4) drawing of drill press showing belt drive, stool, and a "vertical graph that goes up and down." Thus the primary achievement'of the SRI program was the elicitation of high-quality remote viewing from individuals who agreed to act as subjects. Criticism of this claim could in principle be put forward on the basis of three potential flaws. 1) The study could involve naivete in protocol that permits various forms of cueing, intentional or unintentional. 2) The experiments discussed could be selected out of a larger pool of experiments of which many are of poorer quality. 3) Data for the reported experiments could be edited to show only the matching elements, the nonmatching elements being discarded. All three criticisms, however, are invalid. First, with regard to cueing, the use of double-blind protocols ensures that none of the persons in contact with the subject can be aware of the target. Second, selection of experiments for reporting did not take place; every experiment was entered as performed on a master log and is included in the statistical evaluations. Third, data associated with a given experiment remain unedited; all experiments are tape recorded and all data are included un- edited in the data package to be judged and evaluated. In the process of judging-attempting to match transcripts-- against targets on the basis of the information in the transcripts-some patterns and regularities in the transcript descriptions became evident, particularly regarding individual styles in remote viewing and in the perceptual form of the descriptions given by the subjects. These patterns and the judging procedure are discussed below. a) Styles of response: The fifty-one transcripts were taken from nine different subjects. Comparing the tran- scripts of one subject with those of another revealed that each pattern tended to focus on certain aspects of the remote target complex and to exclude others, so that each had an individual pattern of response, like a signature. Subject S3, for example, frequently responded with topo- graphical descriptions, maps, and architectural features of the target locations. Subject S2 often focused on the behavior of the remote experimenter or the sequence of actions he carried out at the target. The transcripts of subject S4, more than those of other subjects, had descriptions of the feel of the lo- cation, and experiential or sensory gestalts-for example, light/dark elements in the scene and indoor/outdoor and enclosed/open distinctions. Prominent features of S 1's tran- scripts were detailed descriptions of what the target persons were concretely experiencing, seeing, or doing-for example, standing on asphalty blacktop overlooking water; looking at a purple iris. The range of any individual subject's responses was wide. Anyone might draw a map or describe the mood of the remote experimenter, but the consistency of each subject's overall approach suggests that just as individual descriptions of a directly viewed scene would differ, so these differences also occur in remote viewing processes. b) Nature of the description: The concrete descriptions that appear most commonly in transcripts are at the level of subunits of the overall scene. For example, when the target was a Xerox copy machine, the responses included (S2) a rolling object (the moving light) or dials and a cover that is lifted (S3), but the machine as a whole was not identified by name or function. In a few transcripts, the subjects correctly identified and named the target. In the case of a computer terminal, the subject (V2) apparently perceived the terminal and the relay racks behind it. In the case of targets which were Hoover Tower and White Plaza, the subjects (S1 and S6, respectively) seemed to identify the locations through analysis of their initial images of the elements of the target. There were also occasional incorrect identifications. Gestalts were incorrectly named; for example, swimming pools in a park were identified as water storage tanks at a water filtration plant (S 1). The most common perceptual level was thus an intermediate one-the individual elements and items that make up the tar- get. This is suggestive of a scanning process that takes sample perceptions from within the overall environment. When the subjects tried to make sense out of these fragmen- tary impressions, they often resorted to metaphors or con- structed an image with a kind of perceptual inference. From a feeling of the target as an "august" and "solemn" building, a subject (S4) said it might be a library; it was a church. A pedestrian overpass above a freeway was described as a conduit (S4). A rapid transit station, elevated above the countryside, was associated with an observatory (S2). These responses seem to be the result of attempts to process partial informa- UNCLASS iFiED r CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R00 PUTHOFF AND TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER IV. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING TIME If the authors may be forgiven a personal note, we wish to express that this section deals with observations that we have been reluctant to publish because of their striking apparent in- compatibility with existing concepts. The motivating factor for presenting the data at this time is the ethical consideration that theorists endeavoring to develop models for paranormal functioning should be apprised of all the observable data if their efforts to arrive at a comprehensive and correct descrip- tion are to be successful. During the course of the experimentation in remote viewing (Section III), subjects occasionally volunteered the informa- tion that they had been thinking about their forthcoming par- ticipation in a remote-viewing experiment and had an image come to them as to what the target location was to be. On these occasions, the information was given only to the experi- menter remaining at SRI with the subject and was unknown to the outbound experimenter until completion of the experi- ment. Two of these contributions were among the most accurate descriptions turned in during those experiments. Since the target location had not yet been selected when the subject communicated his perceptions about the target, we found the data difficult to contend with. We offer these spontaneous occurrences not as proof of pre- cognitive perception, but rather as the motivation that led us to do further work in this field. On the basis of this firsthand evidence, together with the copious literature describing years of precognition experiments carried out in various other labo- ratories, we decided to determine whether a subject could per- form a perceptual task that required both spatial and temporal remote viewing. It is well known and recently has been widely discussed that nothing in the fundamental laws of physics forbids the appar- ent transmission of information from the future to the present (discussed further in Section V). Furthermore, there is a gen- eral dictum that "in physical law, everything that is not forbid- den, is required" [611. With this in mind, we set out to con- duct very well-controlled experiments to determine whether we could deliberately design and execute experiments for the sole purpose of observing precognition under laboratory conditions. The experimental protocol was identical to that followed in previous remote-viewing experiments with but one exception. The exception was that the subject was required to describe the remote location during a 15-min period beginning 20 min before the target was selected and 35 min before the outbound experimenter was to arrive at the target location. In detail, as shown in Table IX, each day at ten o'clock one of the experimenters would leave SRI with a stack of ten sealed envelopes from a larger pool and randomized daily, con- taining traveling instructions that had been prepared, but that were unknown to the two experimenters remaining with the subject. The subject for this experiment was Hella Hammid (S4) who participated in the nine-experiment series replicating the original Price work described earlier. The traveling experi- menter was to drive continuously from 10:00 until 10:30 be- fore selecting his destination with a random number generator. (The motivation for continuous motion was our observation that objects and persons in rapid motion are not generally seen in the remote-viewing mode of perception, and we wished the traveler to be a poor target until he reached his target site.) At the end of 30 min of driving, the traveling experimenter gener- SSIFIED TABLE IX EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL: PRECOGNITIVE REMOTE VIEWING Time Schedule Experimenter/Subject Activity 10:00 Outbound experimenter leaves with 10 envelopes (containing target locations) and random number generator; begins half-hour drive 10:10 Experimenters remaining with subject in the laboratory elicit from subject a description of where outbound experimenter will be from 10:45-11:00 10:25 Subject response completed, at which time laboratory part of experiment is over 10:30 Outbound experimenter obtains random number from a random number generator, counts down to associated envelope, and proceeds to target location indicated 10:45 Outbound experimenter remains at target location for 15 minutes (10:45-11:00) Fig. 14. Subject Hammid (S4) described "some kind of congealing tar, or maybe an area of condensed lava ... that has oozed out to fill up some kind of boundaries." ated a random digit from 0 to 9 with a Texas Instruments SR-51 random number generator; while still in motion, he counted down that number of envelopes and proceeded di- rectly to the target location so as to arrive there by 10:45. He remained at the target site until 11:00, at which time he re- turned to the laboratory, showed his chosen target name to a security guard, and entered the experimental room. During the same period, the protocol in the laboratory was as follows. At 10:10, the subject was asked to begin a descrip- tion of the place to which the experimenter would go 35 min hence. The subject then generated a tape-recorded description and associated drawings from 10:10 to 10:25, at which time her part in the experiment was ended. Her description was thus entirely concluded 5 min before the beginning of the tar- get selection procedure. Four such experiments were carried out. Each of them ap- peared to be successful, an evaluation later verified in blind judging without error by three judges. We will briefly sum- marize the four experiments below. The first target, the Palo Alto Yacht Harbor, consisted en- tirely of mud flats because of an extremely low tide (see Fig. 14). Appropriately, the entire transcript of the subject per- tained to "some kind of congealing tar, or maybe an area of condensed lava. It looks like the whole area is covered with some kind of wrinkled elephant skin that has oozed out to fill up some kind of boundaries where (the outbound experi- menter) is standing." Because of the lack of water, the dock where the remote experimenter was standing was in fact rest- ing directly on the mud. - ------- U i CIA S 6 i F D CRYRGHT Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000UN D71TUn>rc ANn TAR( PRRC.RPT1IAI. CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER ~~~~ the corresponding target locations. A long-range experimental program devoted to the clarification of these issues and involv- ing a number of subjects is under way. The above four experi- ments are the first four carried out under this program. Currently, we have no precise model of this spatial and tem- poral remote viewing phenomenon. However, models of the universe involving higher order synchronicity or correlation have been proposed by the physicist Pauli and the psychologist Carl Jung [ 62 1. ACAUSALITY. If natural law5 were an absolute truth, then of course there could not possibly be any processes that deviate from it. But since causalitys is a statistical truth, it holds good only on average and thus leaves room for exceptions which must somehow be experienceable, that is to say, real. I try to regard synchronistic events as accusal exceptions of this kind. They prove to be relatively independent of space and time; they rela- tivize space and time insofar as space presents in principle no ob- stacle to their passage and the sequence of events in time is in- verted so that it looks as if an event which has not yet occurred were causing a perception in the present. We shall see in the next section that such a description, though poetic, has some basis in modern physical theory. V. DISCUSSION It is important to note at the outset that many contempo- rary physicists are of the view that the phenomena that we have been discussing are not at all inconsistent with the framework of physics as currently understood. In this emerg- ing view, the often-held belief that observations of this type are incompatible with known laws in principle is erroneous, such a concept being based on the naive realism prevalent before the development of modern quantum theory and information theory. One hypothesis, put forward by I. M. Kogan of the USSR, is that information transfer under conditions of sensory shielding is mediated by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves in the 300-1000-km region [37]- 1401. Experimental support for the hypothesis is claimed on the basis of slower than inverse square attenuation, com- patible with source -percipient distances lying in the induc- tion field range as opposed to the radiation field range; ob- served low bit rates (0.005-0.1 bit/s) compatible with the information carrying capacity of ELF waves; apparent ineffec- tiveness of ordinary electromagnetic shielding as an attenuator; and standard antenna calculations entailing biologically gener- ated currents yielding results compatible with observed signal- to-noise ratios. M. Persinger, Psychophysiology Laboratory, Laurentian Uni- versity, Toronto, Canada, has narrowed the ELF hypothesis to the suggestion that the 7.8-Hz "Shumann waves" and their harmonics propagating along the earth-ionosphere waveguide duct may be responsible. Such an hypothesis is compatible with driving by brain-wave currents and leads to certain other hypotheses such as asymmetry between east-west and west- east propagation, preferred experimental times (midnight-4 A.M.), and expected negative correlation between success and the U index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance throughout the world). Persinger claims initial support for these factors on the basis of a literature search [ 63 ], [ 64 1. , On the negative side with regard to a straightforward ELF interpretation as a blanket hypothesis are the following: a) ap- ASS!FIED parent - detail to require a channel capacity in all probability greater than that allowed by a conventional modulation of an ELF signal; b) lack of a proposed mechanism for coding and decod- ing the information onto the proposed ELF carrier; and c) ap- parent precognition data. The hypothesis must nonetheless re- main open at this stage of research, since it is conceivable that counterindication a) may eventually be circumvented on the basis that the apparent high bit rate results from a mixture of low bit rate input and high bit rate "filling in the blanks" from imagination; counterindication b) is common to a number of normal perceptual tasks and may therefore simply reflect a lack of sophistication on our part with regard to perceptual functioning . [651; and counterindication c) may be accom- modated by an ELF hypothesis if advanced waves as well as retarded waves are admitted [66], [67]. Experimentation to determine whether the ELF hypothesis is viable can be carried out by the use of ELF sources as targets, by the study of para- metric dependence on propagational directions and diurnal timing, and by the exploration of interference effects caused by creation of a high-intensity ELF environment during ex- perimentation, all of which are under consideration in our lab- oratory and elsewhere. Some physicists believe that the reconciliation of observed paranormal functioning with modern theory may take place at a more fundamental level-namely, at the level of the founda- tions of quantum theory. There is a continuing dialog, for example, on the proper interpretation of the effect of an ob- server (consciousness) on experimental measurement [681, and there is considerable current interest in the implications for our notions of ordering in time and space brought on by the observation [691, [70] of nonlocal correlation or "quan- tum interconnectedness" (to use Bohm's term [711 ) of distant parts of quantum systems of macroscopic dimensions. The latter, Bell's theorem [72], emphasizes that "no theory of reality compatible with quantum theory can require spatially separated events to be independent" [73], but must permit interconnectedness of distant events in a manner that is con- trary to ordinary experience [ 74 ] -[ 75 1. This prediction has been experimentally tested and confirmed in the recent experiments of, for example, Freedman and Clauser [69], [70]. E. H. Walker and O. Costa de Beauregard, independently proposing theories of paranormal functioning based on quan- tum concepts, argue that observer effects open the door to the possibility of nontrivial coupling between consciousness and the environment and that the nonlocality principle permits such coupling to transcend spatial and temporal barriers [761, [77]. Apparent "time reversibility"-that is, effects (e.g., observa- tions) apparently preceding causes (e.g., events)-though con- ceptually difficult at first glance, may be the easiest of appar- ent paranormal phenomena to assimilate within the current theoretical structure of our world view. In addition to the familiar retarded potential solutions f(t - r/c), it is well known that the equations of, for example, the electromagnetic field admit of advanced potential solutions f (t + r/c)-solutions that would appear to imply a reversal of cause and effect. Such solutions are conventionally discarded as not corresponding to any observable physical event. One is cautioned, however, by statements such as that of Stratton in his basic text on electro- magnetic theory [781. Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R00060b#-7f ED I --- I-INCI-RRIF TABLE X 5-BIT CODE FOR ALPHANUMERIC CHARACTERS E 00000 Y 01000 T 11111 G,J 10111 N 00001 W 01001 R 11110 V 10110 1 00010 B 01010 0 11101 4 10101 A 00011 1 01011 S,X,Z 11100 2 10100 D 00100 3 01100 H 11011 4 10011 L 00101 5 01101 C,K,Q 11010 6 10010 F 00110 7 01110 P 11001 8 10001 U 00111 9 01111 M 11000 10000 Note: Alphabet characters listed in order of decreasing frequency in English text. See, for example, A. Sinkov [79]. (The low-fre- quency letters, X, Z, K, Q, and J, have been grouped with similar characters to provide space for numerics in a 5-bit code.) In consideration of the uneven dis- tribution of letter frequencies in English text, this code is chosen such that 0 and 1 have equal probability. dundancy. One efficient coding scheme for such a channel is obtained by application of a sequential sampling procedure of the type used in production-line quality control (80). The adaptation of such a procedure to paranormal communication channels, which we now discuss, was considered first by Taetzsch [ 81 ]. The sequential method gives a rule of proce- dure for making one of three possible decisions following the receipt of each bit: accept I as the bit being transmitted; reject 1 as the bit being transmitted (i.e., accept 0); or continue transmission of the bit under consideration. The sequential sampling procedure differs from fixed-length coding in that the number of bits required to reach a final decision on a message bit is not fixed before transmission, but depends on the results accumulated with each transmission. The principal advantage of the sequential sampling procedure as compared with the other methods is that, on the average, fewer bits per final decision are required for an equivalent degree of reliability. Use of the sequential sampling procedure requires the speci- fication of parameters that are determined on the basis of the following considerations. Assume that a message bit (0 or 1) is being transmitted. In the absence of a priori knowledge, we may assume equal probability (p = 0.5) for the two possibili- ties (0,1). Therefore, from the standpoint of the receiver, the probability of correctly identifying the bit being transmitted is p = 0.5 because of chance alone. An operative remote-sensing channel could then be expected to alter the probability of correct identification to a value p = 0.5 + Vi, where the param- eter 0 satisfies 0 < I nP I < 0.5. (The quantity may be positive or negative depending on whether the paranormal channel results in so-called psi-hitting or psi-missing.) Good psi func- tioning on a repetitive task has been observed to result in >y = 50 dZ wW = a 40 Q N L) 30 U. d O12 w g 20 W Z cc cc 10 7 M U 20 30 40 50 60 NUMBER OF TRIALS Fig. 18. Enhancement of signal-to-noise ratio by sequential sampling procedure (po = 0.4, p, = 0.6, a = 0.01, p = 0.01). The question to be addressed is whether, after repeated transmission, a given message bit is labeled a "1" at a low rate po commensurate with the hypothesis Ho that the bit in ques- tion is a "0," or at a higher rate pl commensurate with the hypothesis HI that the bit in question is indeed a "l." The decision-making process requires the specification of four parameters. The probability of labeling incorrectly a "0" message bit as a "1." The probability of labeling correctly a "0" as a "0" is p = 0.5 + Ob = 0.6. Therefore, the probability of labeling incorrectly a "0" as a "1" is 1 - p = 0.4 = p0. The probability of labeling correctly a "1" message bit asa"1,"is given bypl =0.5+Ib=0.6. The probability of rejecting a correct identification for a "0" (Type I error). We shall take a = 0.01. The probability of accepting an incorrect identification for a "1" (Type II error). We shall take R = 0.01. With the parameters thus specified, the sequential sampling procedure provides for construction of a decision graph as shown in Fig. 18. The equations for the upper and lower limit lines are 1 =d1 +SN 0 = -do+SN DECISION 2 Accept "0" as the Bit Being Transmitted DECISION 1 Accept "1" as the Bit Being Transmitted log a log Q d0 -PO 7), 1 - Po P1 1 - log Po 1-P1 log PO I-P1 log P1 1 - Po -- - Po I-P1 0.12, as reported by Ryz1 [31]. Therefore, to indicate the in which S is the slope, N is the number of trials, and d 1 and design procedure, let us assume a baseline psi parameter do are the y-axis intercepts. A cumulative record of receiver- tyb = 0.1 % s ~/e8/ b i~a-RDP*e~1-'dV92 881f (~d31t~b rg~t bit is compiled until either ,~,e PUTHOFF A TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFO' A RA Usually at some places there should be a building, large or small that the courtyard is about. Look at the end or the sides of the courtyard. Is there anything to be seen? I have a sense that there are buildings. It's not solid build- ings. I mean there are some around the periphery and I have a sense that none of them are very tall. Maybe mostly one story, maybe an occasional two story one. Do you have any better idea of what your square was that you saw at the outset? No. I could hazard different kinds of guesses. Does it seem part of this scene? It ... I think it could be. It could almost be a bulletin board or something with notices on it maybe. Or something that, people are expected to look at. Maybe a window with things in it that people were expected to look at. What kind of trees do you see in this place? I don't know what kind they are. The impression was that they were shade trees and not terribly big. Maybe 12 feet of trunk and then a certain amount of branches above that. So that the branches have maybe a 12 foot diameter, or some- thing. Not real big trees. New trees rather than old trees? Yeah, maybe 5 or 10 years old, but not real old ones. Is there anything interesting about the pavement? No. It seems to be not terribly new or terribly old. Not very interesting. There seems to be some bits of landscaping around. Little patches of grass around the edges and periph- eries. Maybe some flowers. But, not lush. You saw some benches. Do you want to tell me about them? Well, that's my unsure feeling about this fountain. There was some kind of benches of cement. Curved benches, it felt like. They were of rough cement. What do you think Hal is doing while he is there? I have a sense that he is looking at things trying to project them. Looking at different things and sort of walking back and forth not covering a whole lot of territory. Sometimes standing still while he looks around. I just had the impression of him talking, and I almost sense that it was being recorded or something. I don't know if he has a tape recorder, but if it's not that, then he is saying some- thing because it needed to be remembered. It's 11:33. He's just probably getting ready to come back. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to thank the principal subjects, Mrs. Hella Hammid, Pat Price, and Ingo Swann, who showed patience and forbearance in addition to their enthusiasm and outstanding perceptual abilities. We note with sadness the death of one of our subjects, Mr. Price. We express our sincere thanks also to Earle Jones, Bonnar Cox, and Dr. Arthur Hastings, of SRI, and Mrs. Judith Skutch and Richard Bach, without whose en- couragement and support this work could not have taken place. ..11NGLASSIFIED 18, 1974. 15] D. D. Home, Lights and Shadows of Spiritualism. New York: G. W. Carleton, 1877. [6] J. Coover, Experiments in Psychical Research. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press, 1917. [7] G. Estabrooks, Bull. Boston Society for Psychical Research, 1927. See also [ 12, pp. 18-191. 181 L. T. Troland, Techniques for the Experimental Study of Telep. athy and OtherAlleged Clairvoyant Processes. Albany, NY, 1928. [91 J. B. Rhine, New Frontiers of the Mind. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1937. 110] J. Pratt and J. B. Rhine at al., Extra-Sensory Perception after Sixty Years. New York: Henry Holt, 1940. [111 C. Scott, "G. Spencer Brown and probability: A critique," J. Soc. Psychical Res., vol. 39, pp. 217-234,1958. [121 G. R. 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New York: syc o- in Proc. 1st Conf. fields on the central nervous system, Schocken Books, 1968. See also W. Crookes, Researches In the tronic Res., JPRS L/5022.1 and 2, Sept. 6, 1974. Phenomena of Spiritualism. London, England: J. Burns, 1874. [441 D. Mennie, "Consumer electronics," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 12, 141 R. Targ and H. Puthoff, "Information transmission under condi- pp. 34-35, Mar. 1975. tions of sensory shielding," Nature, vol. 252, pp. 602-607, Oct. [451 W. P. Zinchenko, A. N. Leontiev, B. M. Lomov, and A. R. Luria, Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 ~ ~I~ICS-Fi Approved For Release 2000/O8Ul4tT-h[kS&%FMO600310001-7 Appendix'B THE PERSISTENT PARADOX OF PSYCHIC PHENOMENA: AN ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08` "Xgtgf Jy00310001-7 Appendix C BIBLIOGRAPHY: REMOTE VIEWING REPLICATION STUDIES (GEOGRAPHICAL SITES) 1. Allen, S., Green, P., Rucker, K., Goolsby, C., & Morris, R. L., "'A Remote Viewing Study using a Modified Version of the SRI Procedure," in J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1975 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1976 . 2. Bisaha, J. P., & Dunne, B. J., "Precognitive Remote Viewing in the Chicago Area: A Replication of the Stanford Experiment," in J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1976.(Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1977). 3. Bisaha, J. P., & Dunne, B. J., "Multiple Subject and Long Distance Precognitive Remote Viewing of Geographic Locations," Proceedings of. the IEEE 1977 International Conference on Cybernetics and Society, Vol. 7, pgs. 512-516 (1977). 4. Bisaha, J. P. & Dunne, B. J., "Multiple Subject and Long-Distance Precognitive Remote Viewing of Geographical Locations," in C. T. Tart, H. E. Puthoff, & R. Targ (Eds.), Mind at Large (New York, Praeger, :1979). 5. Chotas, Harrell G., "Remote Viewing in the Durham Area," Journal of Parapsychology, 1978, Vol. 42, pgs. 61-62 (Abstract). 6. :Dunne, B. J., & Bisaha, J. P., "Multiple Channels in Precognitive Remote Viewing," in W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology, 1977 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1978). 7. Dunne, B. J., & Bisaha, J. P., "Long Distance Precognitive Remote Viewing," in W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology, 1978 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1979). 8. Dunne, B. J. & Bisaha, J. P., "Precognitive Remote Viewing in the Chicago Area: A Replication of the Stanford Experiment," Journal of Parapsychology, 1979, Vol. 43, pgs. 17-30. 9. Dunne, B., & Bisaha, J. P., "Precognitive Remote Perception: A Critical Overview of the Experimental Program," in W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology, 1979 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1980). 10. Hastings, A. C., & Hurt, D. B., "A Confirmatory Remote Viewing Experiment in a Group Setting," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 64, pga. 1544-1545 (1976). C-1 Approved For Release 200010810Y MIA DP96 ~2R0006D00310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/0INJ,,Q K991VT6600310001-7 11. Jahn, R. G., "The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena: An Engineering Perspective," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 70, pgs. 136- 170 (1982). 12. Karnes, E. W., Ballou, J. Susman, E. P., & Swaroff, P., "Remote Viewing: Failures to Replicate with Control Comparisons," Psycho- logical Reports, Vol. 45, pgs. 963-973 (1979). 13. Karnes, E. W., Susman, E. P., Klusman, P., & Turcotte, L., "Failures to Replicate Remote Viewing using Psychic Subjects," Zetetic Scholar, Vol. 6, pgs. 66-76 (July 1980). 14. Marks, D., & Kammann, R., "The Psychology of the Psychic," (Buffalo, N.Y., Prometheus, 1980). 15. Palmer, J. Whitson, T., & Bogart, D. N., "Ganzfeld and Remote Viewing: A Systematic Comparison," in W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology, 1979 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1980). 16. Puthoff, H. E. & Targ, "Remote Viewing of Natural Targets," in J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1974 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1975). 17. Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R., "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 64, pgs. 329-354 (1976). 18. Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R., "Precognitive Remote Viewing," in J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.)., Research in Parapsychology, 1.975 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1976). 19. Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R., "Remote Viewing: A New Research Frontier," in Martin Ebon (Ed.), The Signet Handbook of Parapsychology (New York, New American Library 'Signet', 1978). 20. Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R., "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research," in C. T. Tart, H. E. Puthoff, & R. Targ (Eds.), Mind at Large (New York, Praeger, 1979). 21. Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R., "Direct Perception of Remote Geographical Locations," in A. Puharich (Ed.), The Iceland Papers: Select Papers on Experimental and Theoretical Research on the Physics of Consciousness ,Amherst, Wis., Essential Research Associates, 1979). 22. Puthoff, H. E., Targ, R., & May, E. C., "Experimental Psi Research: Implications for Physics," in R. G. Jahn (Ed.), The Role of Con- sciousness in the Physical World (Boulder, Colo., Westview, 1981). C-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/U9' C 2RIIOD600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/~~K1trRO1600310001-7 23. Rauscher, E. A., Weismann, G., Sarfatti, J., Sirag, S. P., "Remote Perception of Natural Scenes, Shielded against Ordinary Perception," in J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1975 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1976). 24. Schlitz, M., & Deacon, S., "Remote Viewing: A Conceptual Replication of Targ and Puthoff," in W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology, 1979 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1980). 25. Schlitz, M., & Gruber, E., "Transcontinental Remote Viewing," Journal of Parapsychology, 1980, Vol. 44, pgs. 305-317 (1980). 26. Schlitz, M., & Gruber, E., "Transcontinental Remote Viewing," in W. G. Roll & J. Beloff (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1980 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1981). 27. Schlitz, M., & Gruber, E., "Transcontinental Remote Viewing: A Rejudging," Journal of Parapsychology, 1981, Vol. 45, pgs. 233-237. 28. Schlitz, M., & Gruber, E., 'Transcontinental Remote Viewing: A Rejudging," in W. G. Roll, R. L. Morris, and R. A. White, Research in Parapsychology, 1981 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1982). 29. Schlitz, M. J., Sarling, J. M. H., & Weiner, D. H., "Long Distance Remote Viewing: A Conceptual Replication," in W. G. Roll, R. L. Morris, and R. A. White (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1981 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1982). 30. Smukler, H., "A Remote Viewing Experiment California to Rhode Island," Meta-Science Quarterly, Vol. 1 (1), pgs. 25-32. 31. Solfvin, G., Roll, W. G., & Krieger, J., "Meditation and ESP: Remote Viewing," in W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology, 1977 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1978 . 32. Targ, R., & Morris, R. L., "Note on a Reanalysis of UCBS Remote-Viewing Experiments," Journal of Parapsychology, 1982, Vol. 46, pgs. 47-50. 33. Targ, R., & Puthoff, H. E., "Replication Study on the Remote Viewing of Natural Targets," in J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1975 (Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow, 1976). 34. Targ, R., & Puthoff, H. E., "Information Transmission under Conditions of Sensory Shielding," Nature, Vol. 251, pgs. 602-607 (1974). 35. Targ, R., & Puthoff, H. E., Mind Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic Ability (New York, Delacorte, 1977). 36. Targ, R., & Puthoff, H. E., "Remote Viewing of Natural Targets," in L. Oteri (Ed.), Quantum Physics and Parapsychology (New York, Parapsychology Foundation, 1975). Approved For Release 2000/081D9 NIR'RIIPJF= 7UR00'Q600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08(1 .AS 1f D600310001-7 37. Targ, R., Puthoff, H. E., & May, E. C., "Direct Perception of Remote Geographical Locations," in C. T. Tart, H. E. Puthoff, & R. Targ (Eds.), Mind at Large (New York, Praeger, 1979). 38. Targ, R., Puthoff, H. E., & May, E. C., "State of the Art in Remote Viewing Studies at SRI," Proceedings of the IEEE 1977 International Conference on Cybernetics and Society, Vol. 7, pgs. 519-529 (1977). 39. Tart, C. T., Psi: Scientific Studies of the Psychic Realm (New York, Dutton, 1977). 40. Tart, C. T., Puthoff, H.E., & Targ, R. (Eds.), Mind at Large (New York, Praeger, 1979). 41. Whitson, T. W., Bogart, D. N., Palmer, J., & Tart, C. T., "Preliminary Experiments in Group 'Remote Viewing'," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 64, pgs. 1550-1551 (1976). UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08v t4tti,k9 gr@ 9 D 00310001-7 Appendix D BIBLIOGRAPHY: REMOTE ACTION REPLICATION STUDIES (RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR EFFECTS) 1. H. Schmidt, "PK Experiments with Animals as Subjects," J. Parapsych., Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 255-261 (December 1970). 2. H. Schmidt, "A PK Test with Electronic Equipment," J. Parapsych., Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 175-181 (September 1970). 3. F. Matas and L. Pantas, "A PK Experiment Comparing Meditating Versus Nonmeditating Subjects," Proc. Parapsych. Assn., No. 8, pp. 12-13 (1971). 4. L. Pantas, "New Studies with Automated Testing Devices," Proc. Parapsych. Assn., No. 8, pp. 47-49 (1971). 5. H. Schmidt and L. Pantas, "Psi Tests with Psychologically Equivalent Conditions and Internally Different Machines," Proc. Parapsych. Assn., No. 8, pp. 49-51 (1971). 6. B. Camstra, "PK Conditioning," Res. in Parapsych. 1972, pp. 25-27 (1972). 7. C. Honorton and W. Barksdale, "PK Performance with Waking Suggestions for Muscle Tension Versus Relaxation," J. Amer. Soc. Psychical Res., Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 208-214 (April 1972). 8. E. Andre, "Confirmation of PK Action on Electronic Equipment," J. Parapsych., Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 283-293 (December 1972). 9. H.Schmidt and L. Pantas, "Psi Tests with Internally Different Machines," J. Parapsych., Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 222-232 (September 1972). 10. E. F. Kelly and B. K. Kanthamani, "A Subject's Efforts Toward Voluntary Control," J. Parapsych., Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 185-197 (September 1972). 11. H. Schmidt, "PK Tests with a High-Speed Random Number Generator," J. Parapsych., Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 105-118 (June 1973). 12. H. Schmidt, "PK Effect on Random Time Intervals," Res. in Parapsych. 1973, pp. 46-48 (1973). 13. K. Andrew, "Psychokinetic Influences on an Electromechanical Random Number Generator During Evocation of "Left-Hemispheric vs Right- Hemispheric" Functioning," Res. in Parapsych 1974, pp. 58-61 (1974). D-1 PNCkASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/0 I 96- 07928000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/0$/qMRK"IL9FED 600310001-7 14. H. Schmidt, "Observation of Subconscious PK Effects with and without Time Displacement," Res. in Parapsych 1974, pp. 116-121 (1974). 15. H. Schmidt, "Comparison of PK Action on Two Different Random Number Generators," J. Parapsych., Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 47-55 (March 1974). 16. H. Schmidt, "PK Experiment with Repeated Time Displaced Feedback," Res. in Parapsych. 1975, pp. 107-115 (1975). 17. C. Honorton and E. C. May, "Volitional Control in a Psychokinetic Task with Auditory and Visual Feedback," Res. in Parapsych. 1975, pp. 90-91 (1975). 18. E. C. May and C. Honorton, "A Dynamic PK Experiment with Ingo Swann," Res. in Parapsych. 1975, pp. 88-89 (1975). 19. B. Millar and R. Broughton, "A Preliminary PK Experiment with a Novel Computer-Linked High-Speed Random Number Generator," Res. in Parapsych. 1975, pp. 83-84 (1975). 20. W. G. Braud, G. Smith, K. Andrew, and S. Willis, "Psychokinetic Influences on Random Number Generators During Evocation of 'Analytic" versus 'Nonanalytic' Modes of Information Processing," Res. in Parapsych. 1975, pp. 85-88 (1975). 21. R. G. Stanford, R. Zenhausern, A. Taylor, and M. A. Dwyer, "Psycho- kinesis as Psi-Mediated Instrumental Response," J. Amer. Soc. Psychical Res.,Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 127-134 (April 1975). 22. B. Millar and P. Mackenzie, "A Test of Intentional Versus Unintentional :PK," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 32-35 (1976). 23. C. Honorton, "Effects of Meditation and Feedback on Psychokinetic Performance: A Pilot Study with an Instructor of Transcendental Meditation," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 95-97 (1976). 24. R. Winnett and C. Honorton, "Effects of Meditation and Feedback on Psychokinetic Performance: Results with Practitioners of Ajapa Yoga," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 97-98 (1976). 25. D. J. Bierman and N.V.T. Wout, "The Performance of Healers in PK Tests with Different RNG Feedback Algorithms," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 131-133 (1976). 26. S. Hill, "PK Effects by a Single Subject on a Binary Random Number Generator Based on Electronic Noise," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 26-28 (1976). 27. R. S. Broughton and B. Millar, "A PK Experiment with a Covert Release- of-Effort Test," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 28-30 (1976). UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : IA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000108U NC-k[A9-&p 000310001-7 28. 11. Schmidt and J. C. Terry, "Search for a Relationship Between Brain- waves and PK Performance," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 30-32 (1976). 29. B. Millar, "A Covert PK Test of a Successful Psi Experimenter," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 111-113 (1976). 30. B. Millar and R. S. Broughton, "An Investigation of the Psi Enhance- ment Paradigm of Schmidt," Res. in Parapsych. 1976, pp. 23-25 (1976). 31. H. Schmidt, "PK Effect on Pre-Recorded Targets," J. Amer. Soc. Psychical Res., Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 267-292 (July 1976). 32. J. Terry and H. Schmidt, "Conscious and Subconscious PK Tests with Pre-recorded Targets," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 36-41 (1977). 33. R. Broughton, B. Millar, J. Beloff and K. Wilson, "A PK Investigation of the Experimenter Effect and Its Psi-Based Component," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 41-48 (1977). 34. L. Braud and W. Braud, "Psychokinetic Effects Upon a Random Event Generator Under Conditions of Limited Feedback to Volunteers and Experimenters," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 135-143 (1977). 35. R. L. Jungerman and J. A. Jungerman, "Computer-Controlled Random Number Generator PK Tests," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 157-162 (1977). 36 . J. W. Davis and M. D. Morrison, "A Test of the Schmidt Model's Prediction Concerning Multiple Feedback in a PK Task," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 163-168 (1977). 37. H. L. Edge, "Plant PK on an RNG and the Experimenter Effect," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 169-174 (1977). 38. W. Braud, "Allobiofeedback: Immediate Feedback for a Psychokinetic Influence upon Another Person's Physiology," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 123-134 (1977). 39. G. L. Heseltine, "Electronic Random Number Generator-Operation Associated with EEG Activity," J. Parapsych., Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 103-118 (June 1977). 40. H. Schmidt, "A Take-Home Test in PK with Pre-recorded Targets," Res. in Parapsych. 1977, pp. 31-36 (1977). 41. G. L. Heseltine and S. A. Mayer-Oakes, "Electronic Random Generator Operation and EEG Activity: Further Studies," J. Parapsych., Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 123-136 (June 1978). 42. C. Honorton and L. Tremmel, "Psi Correlates of Volition: A Preliminary Test of Eccles' Neurophysiological Hypothesis of Mind-Brain Interaction," Res. in Parapsych. 1978, pp. 36-38 (1978). UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/011 Q -LR*.ggi f8#E0600310001-7 43. H. Schmidt, "Search for Psi Fluctuations in a PK Test with Cockroaches," Res. in Parapsych. 1978, pp. 77-78 (1978). 44. H. Schmidt, "Use of Stroboscopic Light as Rewarding Feedback in a PK Test with Prerecorded and Momentarily-Generated Random Events," Res. in Parapsych. 1978, pp. 115-117 (1978). 45. M. D. Morrison and J. W. Davis, "PK with Immediate Delayed and Multiple Feedback: A Test of the Schmidt Model's Prediction," Res. in Parapsych. 1978, pp. 117-120 (1978). 46. R. Morris, M. Nanko, and D. Phillips, "Intentional Observer Influence Upon Measurements of a Quantum Mechanical System: A Comparison of Two Imagery Strategies," Res. in Parapsych. 1978, pp. 146-148 (1978). 47. A. Levi, "The Influence of Imagery and Feedback on PK Effects," J. Parapsych., Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 275-289 (December 1979). 48. R. S. Broughton, B. Millar, and M. Johnson, "An Investigation into the Use of Aversion Therapy Techniques for the Operant Control of PK Production in Humans," Res. in Parapsych. 1979 (preprint) (1979). UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/09: Wk6 y92R000600310001-7 NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS SECRET 1 j Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600310001-7