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October 18, 1991
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Friday October 18, 1991 DaiIy SNAP FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION Author: Konovalov, B. (Flight Control Cen- ter) Title: COST OF SOVIET-AUSTRIAN CREW'S RE- SEARCH PROGRAMS NOTED Primary Source: Izvestiya, October 4, 1991, No. 237 (23503), p. 7, cols. 5-8 Extract: The docking of the spaceship "So- yuz TM-13" with the orbiting complex "Mir" proceeded successfully. Five cosmonauts have begun joint work. The week ahead will not be an easy one, because time must be found for carry- ing out two programs at once: a Soviet- Austrian program called "Austromir" and a republic program called "Kazakhstan--Kos- mos" (Kazakhstan-.-space). Kazakhstan is the second republic of our Union from the standpoint of territory; objectively, it will be unable to manage without space equipment in solving problems of communications, ecological monitoring and observing the condition of farmlands. The Kazakh Academy of Sciences has there- fore taken an active part in drafting the research program, and it has even allocated an extra 2 million rubles for this, despite hard times. This mission will cost Austria much more. Austria must pay the Soviet Union 85 million schillings -- about 7 million dol- lars -- for Franz Viehboeck's mission. And this space mission will cost 230 million schillings when expenditures for the exten- sive program of 14 scientific experiments are taken into account. (SNAP 911018) Title: TEXT OF TREATY ON THE ECONOMIC COM- MUNITY Primary Source: Izvestiya, October 4, 1991, No. 237 (23503), p. 4, cols. 1-8 Abstract: The full-page article is the text of the Treaty on the Economic Communi- ty which the heads of Soviet republics re- cently initialed.* A preface to the treaty states in par- ticular that it has been concluded by inde- pendent states which, aware of the advan- tages of economic integration and a common economic space and of the expediency of preserving economic, trade, scientific- technical and other relations, wish to es- tablish mutually-advantageous economic re- lations among themselves and seek drastic economic reforms, taking into account com- mon problems which these states face in connection with tasks for ending the cri- sis, transferring to a market economy and joining the world economy. The 64 paragraphs of the treaty are divided into 12 chapters entitled respec- tively: "Basic Principles"; "Entrepreneur- ship"; "Movement of Goods and Services, Prices"; "The Money and Banking System"; "Finances and Taxes"; "The Labor Market and Social Guarantees"; "Foreign Economic Rela- tions and Currency Policy"; "Legal Regula- tion of Economic Activity"; "Institutions of the Economic Community"; "Agreements"; "Associate Membership in the Economic Com- munity"; and "Final Provisions." Chapter One states in particular that the treaty is concluded for a period of three years and that the member-states of the Economic Com- munity created by the treaty shall decide the question of extending, amending or re- placing it not less than 12 months before the end of this period. The Economic Com- munity is formed by independent states on the basis of voluntary participation and equal rights of all member-states, for the purpose of forming a unified market and carrying out a coordinated economic policy as a necessary condition for overcoming the crisis. Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600450019-3 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600450019-3 Paragraph 5 lists the areas in which Article 64 stipulates that the treaty shall the member-states of the Economic Community go into effect after being signed and rati- agree to reconcile their economic laws and fied by at least three of the states which carry out a coordinated policy. They are: wish to join the community. entrepreneurship; the market for goods and services; transport, power engineering and information; the money and banking system; finances, taxes and prices; the capital and securities market; the labor market; cus- toms rules and tariffs; foreign economic relations and currency policy; standardiza- tion, patenting, metrology, statistics and accounting; and state scientific-technical, investment, ecological, humanitarian and other programs (including programs for eliminating the consequences of natural and other disasters) which are of common inter- est to the Economic Community. Paragraph 3 stipulates that relations between the Eco- nomic Community and former states of the USSR which remain outside the community shall be structured on the basis of gener- ally recognized principles and norms of international law, and that questions of common interest which require settlement shall be decided by special agreements be- tween the community and the other states involved. The founding of a Banking Union on the principles of a reserve system is provided for and the functions. of this union are listed in Chapter Four. Article 24 pro- vides for creating a number of special funds within the framework of the Economic Community's budget, including a fund for targeted programs and a fund for emergency situations and eliminating the consequences of natural and other disasters. Chapter Nine stipulates, among other things, that a council of heads of governments of the mem- ber-states shall be the highest coordinat- ing agency of the Economic Community. The functions of an Interstate Economic Commit- tee operating as the executive-managerial agency of the community are defined. Chap- ter Ten lists specific questions in regard to which agreements among the member-states shall be concluded after the treaty is signed. Chapter Twelve contains provisions in regard to sanctions against member- states which violate the treaty, procedures for ratification of the treaty and special agreements within its framework, and admis- sion of new member-states and states with observer status to the Economic Community. *See the Daily SNAP, October 17, 1991, p. 3, col. 1 (SNAP 911018) Author: Volkov, 0. Title: SCIENTISTS DIVIDED OVER VALIDITY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL-WEAPONS R&D Primary Source: Komsomolskaya pravda, Sep- tember 27, 1991, No. 222 (20222), p. 2, cols. 2-4 Abstract: The article reports on contro- versy over research of unconventional phys- ical fields and military applications of this work. Some scientists are said to be- lieve that 'psychotronic generators' based on new physical principles can be used for remote control of people's minds and behav- ior, and that original weapons for this purpose can be developed on the basis of generators of "spinor (torsion)" or "micro- lepton" fields, in particular. Other sci- entists are highly skeptical of such re- search. It is recalled that a resolution enti- tled "On the Unsound Practice of Financing Pseudoscientific Research out of State Sources" was published, together with an opinion submitted by the USSR Academy of Sciences' department of general physics and astronomy, on July 4 of this year. The USSR Supreme Soviet's Committee on Science and Technologies issued this resolution. It accused several ministries of spending, without a proper expert review, half a bil- lion rubles on pseudoscientific and anti- scientific developments involving spinor or microlepton fields with which scientists are already familiar. The resolution named the USSR Ministry of Defense (Minoborony), the USSR Ministry of Nuclear Power Engi- neering and Industry, the USSR State Secur- ity Committee (KGB) and the USSR Cabinet of Ministers' Military-Industrial Commission as clients and sponsors of this work. More than 20 institutes were identified as exec- utors and developers. First on this list was the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences' In- Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600450019-3 Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600450019-3 stitute of Materials-Science Problems, which is headed by academician Trefilov. The interagency scientific-technical center "Vent" (formerly the Center for Unconven- tional Technologies of the USSR State Com- mittee for Science and Technology) was identified as the country's "chief" firm engaged in developments in the area of un- conventional fields. According to unveri- fied data from A. Akimov, director of this center, the cost of unconventional-field projects has been 23 million rubles in Min- oborony's sector alone, while the overall amount which has been allocated for such research through all of the different chan- nels is as great as 500 million rubles. Seeking more information about uncon- ventional-fields research and the purposes of this research, the author spoke to an associate of the USSR Supreme Soviet's Com- mittee on Science and Technologies and sub- sequently went to the armed forces' General Staff. He was told that the committee had received no information in this regard from Minoborony, the KGB or other agencies in- volved. Representatives of the General Staff referred the author to the USSR Acad- emy of Sciences' Section on Problems of Ap- plied Science. Nikolay Prudnikov, deputy chairman of this section, said that it sometimes orders projects to be carried out for the General Staff, but he disclosed no details of this work. One such project, which was called "Obezlichiye" (de-individ- ualization), is mentioned. It is recalled that in 1986, a scientific research insti- tute informed the academy's section that the institute was prepared to carry out this project. An associate of the section who knew more. about the project was not available for questioning, however. At the "Vent" center, the author was told that di- rector Akimov was away on a business trip. Ye. Aleksandrov, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences and a sci- entific opponent of Akimov's, sent the au- thor a report of the Center for Unconven- tional Technologies. According to this document, the center is engaged in research of long-distance production of medical-bio- logical and psychophysical effects on troops and the population, using torsion radiations; and also in research of medi- cal-biological protection of troops and the population against effects of such radia- tions. Aleksandrov expressed doubt that equipment capable of producing such effects can be developed. A letter which the edi- tors received from Aleksandrov is quoted, in which the scientist denounced research of unconventional fields as pseudoscien- tific, citing a decision of the academy's department of general physics and astrono- my. Aleksandrov went so far as to accuse state enterprises of producing fake "field generators" and selling them to defense agencies for large sums. Scientists who hold opposing views of unconventional-fields research reportedly include V. Kaznacheyev, who is believed to be working in this direction for the de- fense complex and has signed an interna- tional convention on the non-use of "mental weapons"; A. Veynik, corresponding member of the Belorussian Academy of Sciences, who has put forward a number of theories; and other academy figures, who have published works abroad. The author suggests that the Academy of Sciences organize a roundtable discussion on the topic of psychological weapons, with all sides in the controversy represented. (SNAP 911018) Comments and additions or deletions to the distribution list should be addressed to: FTD/SCIR Attn: Edward Humphrys WPAFB, OH 45433-6508 Recipients of the Daily SNAP are advised that SNAP is intended solely for U.S. gov- ernment agencies and their designated con- tractors. Approved For Release 2000/08/09 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000600450019-3