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. 196 The Journal gojyr is particularly true discussion of language Moreover, Alvarado, a fo Parapsychology (now the versity of Virginia, has on parapsychological in the United State Ibero-American most extensive ever to be ele psychologic lvarado's rier nta vities in Release 2000/08/11 reviews (1984a, 1985) and his ems in parapsychology (1989a). esearch assistant at the Division of of Personality Studies) at the Uni- a constant flow of information 'n America to research centers r the last eigh psychologists, he 1 n the English-language a member of the Board Association. ars. In addition, among the one who has published als and the only one o ectors of the Para- Mexico Mexico has been known for a long time as the land of the sacred mushroom or peyotl, a plant used by the Indian shaman to induce an altered state of consciousness, which allegedly facilitates the man- ifestation of psychic powers. This country has also been a major source for many parapsychological researchers interested in unor- thodox psychic healing practices. Famous curanderas (healers) such as Maria Sabina and Dona Pachita have been extensively investi- gated by Stanley Krippner and other famous parapsychologists (Krippner & Villoldo, 1986). Although Mexico has been a major source of study for many parapsychologists from foreign countries, psychical research has not flourished there as it has in other countries such as Argentina and Spain. Moreover, even though the country is located on the south- ern border of the United States and has been subject to very strong American cultural influence in almost every aspect of life, the dom- inance of the United States has not been a factor in the develop- ment of parapsychology. Even though in the United States there are more parapsychological research centers than anywhere else in the world, very little is known in Mexico of their research. Most of what is known about serious parapsychology comes from Latin American countries such as Brazil. For example, the writings of Quevedo are well known in Mexico, and also most of what is known generally comes from popular magazines. Early efforts to study psychical research within a scientific frame- work in Mexico began in 1919 with the isolated efforts of such re- searchers as the German-born medical doctor Gustav Pagenstecher, the first researcher to conduct serious psychical research in Mexico. Pagenstecher was a very well-known and respected physician in the : c_t CIA-RDP96-00792R00070009000q 197 iapsychology in the Ibero-Ainerican World Mexican medical community as well as in political circles. In the course of his career he delivered speeches before two presidents of Mexico, Diaz and Obregon (Allison, 1943)." A respected member of the medical profession, Pagenstecher said he had been a materialist for forty years when he had his first encounter with the paranormal. It was during a hypnosis treatment of one of his patients who had insomnia that he discovered the re- markable psychical gifts of Maria Reyes de Zierold. Pagenstecher be- gan a series of psychometric experiments with her in 1919. The re- sults were so striking that he brought them to the attention of the Mexican medical society, which appointed a commission to verify them. Pagenstecher also decided to write to the ASPR and send some of.the results he had obtained. The results induced Walter Franklin Prince, Research Officer of the ASPR, to go to Mexico to investigate the case. After a series of experimental sittings with Zier- old, Prince was so impressed with the results that he decided to pub- lish them in the Journal of the ASPR in 1920 (Pagenstecher, 1920). Prince later published another paper in which he discussed the ex- periments in which he participated (Prince, 1921b). Moreover, the ASPR published a monograph by Pagenstecher entitled Past Events Seers/tip: A Study of Psychometry (Pagenstecher, 1922). According to William Roll (1967), Pagenstecher contributed to two major areas in parapsychology: [He was], as far as I know the first investigator to use hypnosis as a means to cultivate ESP in a gifted subject.... Pagenstecher's studies were also, I believe, the first to indicate that the (parapsychological) associa- tion of objects may be governed by the same laws that govern the (psy- chological) association of ideas. (p. 238) Pagenstecher showed great courage in undertaking these exper- iments. He jeopardized his professional standing as well as his med- ical practice by trying to substantiate the claims for Zierold's psychic abilities. The Medical Commission appointed to investigate the case was skeptical of the reported phenomena. Fortunately, however, the Commission's leading experts obtained successful results in the ex- periments M which they participated (Gomezharper de Trevino, 1990). Obregon was a revolutionary military leader, later President of Mexico. Walter Franklin Prince (1921a) relates an interesting psychic experience witnessed by Ob- regOn, about a precognitive dream ObregOn's brother had about the death of their mother. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP96-00792R000700090001-1 *198 The Journal of Parapsychology Another development in parapsychological activities in Mexico occurred in 1937. A team of medical doctors, headed by Dr. En- rique Aragon, formed a special commission to investigate an alleged case of poltergeist activity surrounding a thirteen-year-old Mexican boy named Joaquin Velazquez Villavicencio. As part of the investi- gation, the team tried to measure the level of RSPK energy, using a special apparatus called a sthenometer designed by the French psychical researcher Paul Joire to detect PK forces (Gomezharper de ,Trevino, 1990). Arag6n's contributions were important to parapsy- Ahology in Mexico because of his prestigious position and his aca- demic attainments. Aragon was at one time president of the Uni- gersity of Mexico and was also founder and Director of the Instituto ale Psiquiatria y Psicologia there. He conducted field research on .iaunting cases, precognitive dreams, and fraud in Spiritism. g In 1939, Aragon founded the Circulo de Investigaciones Meta- 2psiquicas de Mexico." The aim of the Institute was to conduct ,a cientific investigation of a case of alleged materialization produced by the most famous medium in the history of Mexico, Luis Marti- 9nez. The medium started his activity when he was six years old and llegedly could produce incredible phenomena, such as lights, ap- b)orts, direct writing, direct voices, levitations of objects, and so (*forth. The attention drawn by the case led to the participation of medical and political men in the sessions. Two ex-presidents of ?Mexico were said to have participated in the seances (Garofano, .-1988). Other work worth mentioning is that conducted by the Jesuit i-o-priest and psychical researcher Carlos Maria Heredia. He recorded .9..several observations and experiments in which odors (or other stim- uli) associated with forgotten experiences were presented to the sub- ject, theoretically causing an imbalance in the subject's subconscious tow memories associated with the odor which, in turn, induced a tele- cal pathic transmission of the forgotten experience to a nearby perci- pient (Heredia, 1931/1945). For Heredia, telepathy and spontaneous case occurrences were &_ ?fairly acceptable; however, phenomena of the seance room were to u_ -0 him anathema. Having developed some skills as an illusionist, he used to tour the country demonstrating mediumistic manifestations, " 12 tx This research group later changed its name to Instituto Mexicano de Investi- agaciones Siquicas, which also published a detailed account of the seances with the "4. medium Luis Martinez which lasted for over ten years. The publication was called Una Ventana at Mundy Invisible [A. Window to an Invisible World] (Instituto Mexican? de Investigaciones Siquicas, 1960). Another interesting dimension of this case is the participation in the seances of two well-known Mexican psychical researchers, Gustav Pagenstecher and Carlos Maria Heredia. Parapsychology in the Ibero-American World 199 as he supposed, by his methods of nonspiritual conjuring. He wrote a book along these lines debunking the mediumistic phenomena claimed by Spiritists; it was called Los Fraudes Espiritistas y los Feno- menos Metapsiquicos (1931/1945). Unfortunately these efforts to or- ganize serious centers and societies to study psychic phenomena from a more empirical approach never led to a more formal type of organization; most of these centers and investigations were short- lived. Since the 1930s, very little is known of any other serious efforts to introduce scientific parapsychology to Mexico. After 1940, at I mentioned at the beginning of this section of the paper, the 13st known studies have been conducted by anthropologists and pea- psychologists interested in nonorthodox practices of healing, pagic- ularly those of the shamanistic variety. Among the healers was the famous Oaxacan shaman, Bartra Guerrero, best known as "Pachita," who practiced as a psychic gir- geon and who in the 1960s became the subject of enormous atitn- tion. Pachita was studied by Krippner and Villoldo (1986) and gib- ers. Another healer, perhaps the best known of all, was Mia Sabina, who drew worldwide attention because of her use of h@u- cinogenic mushrooms in her unusual healing practices. It was not until 1974 that the first Mexican parapsychologicaBo- ciety was created, the Sociedad Mexicana de Parapsicologia, heed by Carlos Trevino, a psychiatrist and an Associate Member o e Parapsychological Association. The Society at the present time rep- resents the most critical approach to parapsychology in MexicfE It trains researchers and provides education both to the Churchand to lay persons concerning alleged cases of demonic possession nd other manifestations of psychic phenomena. The Society also o ers courses in parapsychology to the general public in an attempt to correct misconceptions about the nature of scientific paraps4ol- ogy. For example, in Mexico the common belief is that parapsydiol- ogy is a mixture of magic, demonology, and sorcery. A paretsy- chologist is thought to be a person who reads Tarot cards uand coffee grounds and prepares horoscopes. Under these cirdim- stances art average Mexican tends to dismiss such beliefs, particu- larly since they are deeply rooted in their tradition and cultural-ler- ? itage (Gomezharper de Trevino, 1990). &_ o. Along with courses for the general public, the Mexican Satiety is the only organization that offers an officially required cours`g for candidates to the priesthood studying at the Instituto de la Argue- diOcesis de Mexico. Members of the Society have also conducted ex- 200 The Journal of Parapsychology perimental research with Kirlian photography (Trevino, 1975) and field investigations of haunting cases and poltergeists. Some parapsychological conferences have been organized in Mexico?for instance, the Congreso Internacional de Parapsicologfa held in 1984 in Mexico City. The Society also organized the Primer Simposio de Parapsicologia Cientifica held in 1984. At this meeting a number of PA members presented papers, among them Marilyn fIchlitz and Stanley Krippner (Gomezharper de Trevino, 1990). (7, Another conference worth noting is the one organized by the gewly created Sociedad Mexicana para la Investigacion Esceptica. ghe first Latin American skeptics' conference was cosponsored by gSICOP and convened in Mexico City in 1989. The conference in- luded speakers such as Ray Hyman and James Alcock, as well as gveral psychologists from the University of Mexico. The new Mex- an society of skeptics headed by Mario Mendez has launched a 4burnal called El Investigador Esciptieo, which will be made available roughout Latin America for Spanish-speaking readers. (.6 An example of the attention to parapsychology given by high- er) . aankmg political figures in Mexico was the visit of the wife of the Tnrmer president of Mexico, Carmen Lopez Portillo, who visited the stitute for Parapsychology in North Carolina to participate in Usome testing demonstrations of ESP. It is also interesting to note 'that the president's sister, Margarita Lopez Portillo, prepared a .?. vvideo about the life of the famous Mexican healer "Pachita." There are also some isolated researchers in Mexico such as Jacob? Grin- erg who in 1977 conducted research in dermo-optic perception. 2 It is unfortunate that one can find no serious parapsychological faoublications in Mexico at the present time. There are only some pular magazines on the topic, such as Duda [Doubt]." Conclusion &_ u_ So far, I have surveyed the past and present positions of para- -a psychology in several Ibero-American countries. But what does this ?conglomeration of names, societies, and research centers mean? tffirst of all, as I have pointed out, my purpose was to familiarize the