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74 Journal of the A>rtent~argved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP96-00792R000700290001-9 ty for Psychical Research Reviews of Scholarly Books sentation is attractive and largely free from typographical errors. There is a combined subject and name index; this seems to be less detailed than it could be, particularly in regard to the indexing of authors. These reserva- tions notwithstanding, Wings of Illusion is highly recommended. REFERENCES ARGYLE, M., & BEIT-HALLAHMI, B. (1975). The Social Psychology of Religion (rev. ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. BERGIN, A. E. (1983). Religiosity and mental health: A critical reevalu- ation and meta-analysis. Professional Psychology: Research & Prac- tice, 14, 170-184. GORSUCH, R. L. (1988). Psychology of religion. Annual Review of Psy- chology, 39, 201-221. IRWIN, H. J. (1991). A study of paranormal belief, psychological adjust- ment and fantasy proneness. Journal of the American Society for Psy- chical Research, 85, 317-331. ROSENBERG, M. (1979). Conceiving the Self. New York: Basic Books. SANUA, V. D. (1969). Religion, mental health, and personality: A review of empirical studies. In H. N. Malony (Ed.), Current Perspectives in the Psychology of Religion (pp. 173-190). Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans. SCHUMAKER, J. F. (1987). Mental health, belief deficit compensation, and paranormal beliefs. Journal of Psychology, 121, 451-457. TAYLOR, S. E., & BROWN, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193-210. TRIGG, R. (1985). Understanding Social Science: A Philosophical Intro- duction to the Social Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell. Department of Psychology University of New England Armidale NSW 2351 Australia and nonexperimental research has been carried out either in English- speaking countries or in countries where the authors have a command of English fluent enough to place their articles in the major parapsychological journals. In addition, these countries represent the industrial, technologi- cal, "developed" nations where at least a few people have enough job security to pursue parapsychological interests on either a part-time or full- time basis. However, some key parapsychological research studies have been carried out in non-English speaking and/or "developing" countries as well. In addition, historians of parapsychology need information about the worldwide development of the field. Therefore, Alejandro Parra's com- prehensive survey of Argentine parapsychology comes as a pleasant-and important-surprise. The History of Parapsychology in the Argentine serves three key func- tions. It surveys the history of Argentine parapsychology; it discusses the social milieu in which Argentine parapsychology developed; and it under- scores key investigators and their findings. Parra divides his historical survey into four general periods: spiritism (1869-1896), mesmerism (1896-1924), "metapsychics" (which can be translated as "psychical studies") (1924-1953), and parapsychology (be- ginning about 1953). The parapsychological era has three subdivisions: parapsychology in private institutions (1953-1960), in university settings (1960-1970), and in various settings outside of universities (beginning about 1970). Parra claims that there were two subdivisions in the spiritism era: 1869 to 1877 and 1877 to 1896. The first phase was marked by the impact of Allan Kardec's writings, which made an even greater impression in neigh- boring Brazil. Kardec was a French educator whose best known works, The Spirit's Book and The Medium's Book, provided a world view as well as a pair of manuals for "spiritists" (a term that was coined to distinguish them from the "spiritualists" operating in the United States). Spiritism was highly organized by 1877 and eventually registered some 15,000 followers. But an Argentine Society of Magnetism was formed in 1896, which sponsored research on purported psychic phenomena produced by the "magnetic passes" developed by another French practitioner-Franz Anton Mesmer. The society had its own laboratory and eventually meta- morphosized into the Scientific Society of Psychic Studies (i.e., "Meta- psychics"), which began to interfere with the European psychical research societies. "Psychic photography" was scrutinized in the first decade of the 1900s, as were physical mediumship and telepathic communication. From a sociological point of view, Western European movements, es- pecially those of France, strongly influenced various aspects of Argentine life. Another organization, the Scientific Society for Psychical Studies, was established in 1912 with the French Nobel laureate (and psychical researcher) Charles Richet as honorary president. According to Parra, Richet used the term "metapsychics" or "psychical studies" to refer to "the science that studies phenomena which seem to operate as a result of CIA-RDP96-00792R000700290001-9 HISTORIA DE LA PARAPSICOLOGfA EN LA AR ;I [THE HISTORY OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE ARGENT E By Ale- jandro Parra. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Author, 1990. Pp. 91. [Avail- able from author at Muiiiz 539, Segundo Piso, Departamento A, Buenos Aires, Argentina.] $10.00, paper. The parapsychological literature is basically an English-language liter- ature. In part, this is justifiable because most of the rigorous experimental The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research Vol. 86, January 1992 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 CD cD AMP C w,a'co w ~~?~ :C a a. ,, cu n F 00 L" ? cnG K y? aC'o a~ Fg ' on rD. ww CD a -o o ~. vw r. o Ow 0.4 0. " CD CD PD 1. 0a 2111-cDa4 o c cD as w R" ~' w G G w .CAD CD `~ w c?u o cRD o o ? a I'D w xw R~ U ?+ G CD o b av o ro ~; ro ? 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