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Jo .real of the Society for Psychical Apprroved For Releasd1Ob168 1 REBEL WITH A CAUSE: THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF HANS EYSENCK W. H. Allen & Co., London, 1990. 310 pp. Hans Jurgen Eysenck was born in Berlin on 4th March 1916, of parents who were both professional actors. In the first chapter of this autobiography, we learn that his parents soon separated, and the young Hans eventually found himself with a father who later embraced National-Socialism, a pretty, young step-mother who danced in cabaret, a Jewish `step-father' who had retired from being a Professor of Aesthetics to become rich as a film director and author, and an attractive, cultivated mother who guided his introduction to literature and kindled his athleticism, yet without ever being able to relate to him as a child. He actually lived for most of his childhood, in circumstances of relative penury, in the devoted care of his maternal grandmother, a practising Catholic. Physically venturesome to the point of folly, it was only by good luck that he avoided entering adulthood with a shattered arm and one useless eye. Precociously rational and intellectual, sceptical, self-reliant, adventurously curious and distrustful of dogma, he avidly explored a confusion of Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, Socialist and Nazi values. The `psychologising' that Eysenck explicitly forbids himself in the Introduction to this autobiography might plausibly identify in this first chapter the roots of the search for meaning and structure that was to direct so much of his later development. He had fallen in love with science even before he left school, and was looking forward to a career in physics. Eysenck calls himself undisciplined, wild, a bad penny and a sanctimonious prig at this stage of his development. For those schooled in the English art of understatement where self-reference is involved, this exercise in objective self-criticism may render more tolerable a narrative style which, even before the end of this first chapter, they might otherwise find uncomfortably self- congratulatory. Leading into Chapter 2, a wealth of often amusing detail somewhat conceals the heartbreak of voluntary exile, first in France and then in England, to escape from an intolerable Fascist milieu. As an extra turn of the screw, University College, London, found that his German qualifications did not entitle him to read for a physics degree, so he perforce entered the only vaguely `scientific' course that would admit him-in psychology. By the end of the chapter he has acquired a First Class Honours degree and a wife. A son, a divorce, a second wife, and then more children, are introduced later. In the realm of ideas, it appears that the particular stance which has characterised all his work evolved quickly and early. Being a physicist manque, it is hardly surprising that his approach to psychology should be `hard-nosed'. This predisposition was reinforced by the college where he obtained his degree. There, the powerful intellects of Pearson, Haldane and Burt were wrestling with forms of statistical analysis designed for studies in which no accurate control of variables could be achieved. Developing in such a climate, he evolved principles and assumptions which he thought should govern a scientific psychology. For readers of thisjournal, the most interesting of these is to be found in his assertion that psychologists should "plump for" that resolution of the mind/body problem which treats Approved For Release 2000/08/11 CIA4-RDP9Q71921 000700660003-6 both as aspects of a single continuum. `Plump' seems exactly the rig) verb here, in the sense of an abrupt plunge rather than a cautious choic although he himself asserts that the reasons for rejecting Cartesian dualism a "too obvious to require any supporting argument". Later in this review, considering the views on parapsychology which he developed much later, will be interesting to ask whether he considers that his plumping has remain( ghost-proof. Chapter 3 opens with Eysenck, most improbably., having afternoon tea wit Aubrey Lewis, who promptly offered him a job as a research psychologis Lewis, later knighted, was a psychologist manque who had turned to medicir as a second-best and then achieved pre-eminence as.a psychiatrist, directir the work of the world-famous Maudsley Hospital. Of immense ability an influence, he planned to found a post-graduate Institute of Psychiatry with] the University of London, and he eventually found in Eysenck the design( and head of this Institute's psychology department. But there was no hint this at this first meeting. Eysenck accepted the job, at the Mill Hill Emergency Hospital for WZ Neuroses, and found himself free to design his own programme of researcl Using an innovative combination of experimental and statistical methods, an with both the patients and the psychiatrists as his experimental subjects, h started stripping psychiatry down to its nuts and bolts. After years of work, his results challenged dogmatic beliefs in psychiatr} psychology, education and politics. When he went on to investigate the relativ influence of biological and social factors in determining human characteristic his conclusion that genetic factors were important aroused hostilities whic on at least one occasion led to physical assault. Chapter 3 tells of all this, sketches in some of the science involved an~ charts progress up to the stage where he is about to be appointed Reader although not yet as head of his own department, in the Institute whit; Aubrey Lewis has just successfully established. He tells also of the progressiv breakdown of his first marriage and the beginning of the relationship tha succeeded it. In Chapter 4, he tells of his survey of the available evidence on the value o the psychotherapies, and in particular of psychoanalysis, as treatments for th neuroses. He concluded that such therapies seemed to have little demonstrabl, value, and Aubrey Lewis agreed. Eysenck then went on to claim that the onl' function of psychiatry should be to make practical use of the fundamenta insights achieved by psychology. Clinical psychologists should be recognised quite independently of psychiatrists, as being qualified to design and us, treatment regimes properly grounded in psychological theory. He propose( one such regime himself, evolved from the work of Alexander Herzberg. Thi was the method of `behaviour therapy', based on the view that neuroti( disorders are concatenations of conditioned emotional responses, which can b( extinguished by applying techniques fully described in any standard textbool on learning and conditioning. 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