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on the right hgnisphere. Also, the analysis mentioned earlier, which revealed that the most striking RTE/WRO trum for RTES at C4, showed that C3 evidenced a steady left-hemisphere site in frequencies greased from Condition One throug The diffe tion discriminant of consciousness (i.e: it codes the processing data). was 40 Hz. This is import activity, characterized by arousal and 40 Hz EEG. I The Neuropsychology of L Park Press, 1976). though not the State, di occurs during internal, tion (W.J. Ray and H.W mands, and beta activit Science, 1985, 228, 750 quired for performance spectra, SDA classifi to objective psi beha ploying the methodo Papers Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-00792R000701020003-5 ve 25 Hz as the subject pro- ng Prediction Task data suggests ay code awareness of the contents a) in a way different from the way cause of evidence linking 40 Hz 36 and 44 Hz) to problem-solving ghts and D.J. Bakker [Eds.], riminant models. Cole, EEG alpha refl reflects emotional and 1 focusing of atten- gnitive processes. e, internal information-pro essing is re- effects, results of t-tests of .tions of subjective states, and p phenomenological model and its r gy presented here it is possible to si-mediated behavior. frequency rformance-- ationship by em- Editors' Note: A this volume was going to press, the authors discovered a pro lem with the statistical programs which affects the results. Therefore, this report should be considered tenta- tive, pending reanalysis of the data. DREAM STATES AND ESP: A DISTANCE EXPERIMENT FEATURING A PURE CLAIRVOYANCE, FREE-RESPONSE DESIGN Betty Markwick (5 Thorncroft, Hornchurch, Essex, RM11 1EU, England) and John Beloff (University of Edinburgh) At the 1982 PA Convention in Cambridge (RIP 1982, 228-230) we reported a study of ESP in dreams composed of 100 trials car- ried out under a simple, but watertight, postal protocol. A rank- sum analysis yielded an overall p value of 0.030, one-tailed. The p value reached a peak of 0.0015 at Trial 64, but (coinciding with a crisis in B.M.'s life) scoring thereafter fell to chance level. We here report a second series of 100 trials, spanning the period November 1982 to July 1987. The results for GESP and clairvoyance in the original series had been closely comparable, and it was decided to concentrate upon clairvoyance designs in the present work. Four experimental modes were explored: clairvoy- ance ("C," three runs), clairvoyance with deferred selection of controls ("CD," two runs), pure clairvoyance ("PC," three runs), and precognition ("PRE," two runs). The basic clairvoyance procedure was as follows. For each trial a new judging pool was assembled, consisting of five maximally contrasting, or randomly selected, picture postcards. Having alerted B.M. at her home in the London area, J.B. , at his home in Edin- burgh, would randomly select a target card and insert it, sight unseen, into his "psi box." B.M. would then, over a period of several days, record her impressions from selected dreams and hypnagogic imagery. Eventually B.M. would open the duplicate judging pool and rank the five pictures in order of their corres- pondence to the dream protocol. She would then post the dream protocol with her ranking to J.B. In the "deferred" mode, the four control cards were not specified until after B. M. had had an opportunity to record her Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-00792R000701020003-5 78 Approved For Release 20=08/15: CIA-RDP96e00 92R000701020003-5 impressions, in the hope of reducing displacement effects. A sys- tem of concealed code tags and complement judging pools was em- ployed to preserve rigor. For the pure clairvoyance runs a com- plex design, devised by B.M., was used. The question whether pure clairvoyance exists is of crucial importance. If clairvoyance were to be demonstrated under condi- tions that eliminated telepathy, precognition, and feedback chan- nels, the observational theories would be largely undermined. More generally, theoretical systems based on the assumption that clair- voyance is impossible would need to be modified. Until recently, reported studies of pure clairvoyance have been confined to forced-choice designs. Tyrrell's experiments with an electrical apparatus in the 1930s included a pure clairvoyance condition under which highly significant results were claimed. In 1941 Humphrey and Pratt reported an apparently successful "chute" experiment in which subjects "posted" concealed ESP cards through labeled openings. With the advent of computers the testing of pure clairvoyance became greatly simplified, and some successful studies have been reported. The disadvantage of computer designs, in particular, is the sterile nature of the task. Yet the idea of testing pure clairvoy- ance using free-response target material hardly seemed feasible. However, in JASPR (1985, 493-500), Elisabeth Targ et al. reported an ingenious attempt to do just that. The procedure involved a complex system of target handling and encoding such that no one person ever had sufficient information to deduce the result of any trial. The results appeared to support the hypothesis that clair- voyance can function in the absence of feedback. The devising of a pure clairvoyance design suitable for home dream research demanded a very different approach. A solution emerged in combining the "chute" idea of Humphrey and Pratt with the technique of associational remote viewing (in which a forced- choice task is mediated through free response to arbitrarily associ- ated material), B.M.'s procedure preserves the rank ordering of five pictures. On each trial, an envelope containing 15 identical "target pointers," divided into sets of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1, is placed in the psi box. At the end of a run, the 150 target pointers are sorted into five response boxes (labeled A, B, C, D, E) according to how B.M. has voted on each judging pool; the rank sum can then be determined. Optionally, a target-response matrix may be compiled--but this would allow the recovery of individual results by collation with the response data. The standard experimental approach to the investigation of dream ESP was set by the pioneering research at the Maimonides Dream Laboratory during the 1960s. Typically, the subject's dream phases are monitored by EEG equipment and the whole dream record constitutes the ESP response. In the context of home dream research, it is more appropriate to select dreams that relate specifically to the experiment: dreams about meeting the experimenter, doing psi experiments, opening boxes, drawing pictures, playing cards, and so on. Symbolic "tracers"--notably the telephone in B.M.'s dreams--may serve as psi indicators. Unusually bizarre, or mysterious, dreams also seem worth recording. Hypnagogic imagery, lucid dreams and--above all--translucid (out-of-body) experiences merit special attention. Trial 6: translucid dream. "I imagined my hand floating down on to the psi box (which stood on the floor beside the bed). I couldn't get the box open at first--until I remembered to relax. Inside, my hand encountered a mass of cloth--then, within this, something hard. I tried to run my fingers over the object, but again my efforts were inhibited until I relaxed. I then sensed a sea-shell ... I awoke suddenly." Trial 16: hypnagogic image. The word "QUOTATION." It occurred to me that QN might be the code for the target card--and so it proved. (Each of the 30 cards in the grand pool carried a two-consonant identity code; my chance of a hit was thus effec- tively 1 in 30.) Trial 29: nonlucid dream. "I came across you [J.B. ] mixing bright yellow ice cream, which I understood to have been made from crushed fish. This was apparently intended to be eaten as a prize if I scored a hit.... I mixed a portion of the ice cream in a large leaf and tasted it: it had that characteristic tang (not fishy) that ice cream always has in my dreams. I gazed down into a pool at a shoal of fishes, searching for a yellow fish--but they were all grey." This bizarre dream left no room for doubt as to which picture to choose from the judging pool: the target was a black and white photograph of a model of the Beatles' "Yellow Submarine." Trial 80: nonlucid dream. A "security officer" for ESP data "made a photocopy of a card bearing a black-and-white drawing. She lay the card askew on the duplicator plate, and before I had a chance to adjust it the copy had been done. To my astonishment the duplicate picture came out straight!" The "skew" idea was very Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-00792R000701020003-5 Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-00792R000701020003-5 Papers II Brief Papers strong and served to pinpoint a photograph of the "Leaning Tower of Pisa." Results The ten runs produced the following rank sums: 27 (CD) 29 (CD) 32 (C) 26 (PRE) 37 (PRE) 33 (C) 33 (C) 29 (PC) 33 (PC) 27 (PC) The total rank sum of 306 (MCE = 300) comprises 22 rank is, 16 rank 2s, 19 rank 3s, 20 rank 4s and 23 rank 5s. The results are not significant on a rank-sum analysis, either overall or in any of the four experimental modes. The "deferred" mode showed initial promise: in the first run, four direct hits were scored on the eight trials for which the de- ferred condition held. Run-score variance. The total run-score variance is 116 against chance expectation of 200. The effect is even more pro- nounced at the half-run level: observed 80, expected 200, p < 0.01, two-tailed (Monte Carlo method). This post-hoc finding sug= gests a psi effect in "balancing out" the rank sums: the variance at the trial level being greater than expectation. Exclusion of the precognition runs (which B.M. regarded as merely "baseline" runs) would give for the half-run score variance: observed 43, expected 160, p < 0.005, two-tailed. Displacement and psi-missing. Some striking hits were ob- tained on attractive control pictures, and it is surmised that dis- placement may have vitiated the results. The drawback with clair- voyance designs is that there is little difference in status between target and controls: the whole array may thus constitute an ESP stimulus. (See, e.g., Schmeidler, JASPR, 1985, 13-26.) There are also indications that B.M. tends to react against disliked conditions or minor hitches in procedure by producing an extreme miss. The occurrence of a familiar target picture in runs utilizing a mixture of new and reused material proved a decidedly unfavorable condition, accounting for a disproportionate number of the rank 5s. Conclusion This study is presented principally for its methodological interest. It shows, after all, that it is possible to conduct dream research without elaborate apparatus using a protocol that eliminates sensory leakage. At a rate of 200 trials in eight years, our experiment may well be the slowest on record! However, given a more concentrated effort there is no reason why the comparative speed of the Maimonides work could not be emulated. Dreams remain the "royal road," not only to the unconscious but to insight into the manifestation of psi. Home dream research has much to contribute to this exciting field. IN SEARCH OF "PSYCHIC SIGNATURES" IN RANDOM DATA Rick E. Berger (Science Unlimited Research Foundation, 311-D Spencer Lane, San Antonio, TX 78201) A pilot experiment was conducted to determine (1) if subjects interacting with a hardware random number generator (RNG) in a psi game experiment produce temporal patterning in the random data and (2) whether such patterns, if present, are unique enough to allow the computerized "blind matching" of two independent subject- generated data sets when embedded in a matrix of 20 decoy data sets. By epoch averaging the data, it was anticipated that, if psi processes are operational, idiosyncratic temporal patterning would emerge in putative random data. One may view the present method- ology as within-subject majority voting of data at selected experimen- tal epochs. Hypotheses (1) Correlations of signal-averaged data derived from two independent experimental series will show that subjects, when in- teracting with randomly generated data through a "gating" process, idiosyncratically pattern such data and that such patterns are con- sistent within individuals. (2) Within the context of a matrix of 20 sets of computer- simulated game data, individual subject's second data set ("replica- tion") will be identifiable as the match to first data set ("template") of that given individual by the highest correlation coefficient (i.e. , the best match to the template data will be the subject's own repli- cation data). Experimental task. Volition is a PsiLab// RNG-sampling video Approved For Release 2000/08/15: CIA-RDP96-00792R000701020003-5