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Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Commercial and industrial buildings, commonly classified as "heavy construction," are built mainly of steel, concrete, and masonry. They represent a more perma- nent type of construction than residences and other types of small buildings, which, for the most part, are built of wood. Because of the necessity to protect concentrations of people within these larger buildings, fire and zoning codes are understandably more restrictive and thus require the use of fire-resistive materials. When reading working drawings of commercial buildings, we must remember that there is a distinct difference between the purpose of the architectural drawings and the purpose of the structural drawings in the set. The architectural drawings show materials, dimensions, and general esthetic design?much of the structural information is omitted in them. The structural drawings, prepared by the structural engineer, chiefly show the structural features?size and placement of steel or concrete members, steel connectors, placement and bending of reinforc- ing bars, and related notes and information. The intent is to avoid the duplication of information. Consequently, the structural drawings represent a careful analysis of the structural requirements only and indicate an accurately calculated solution. The two types of drawings are compatible, however, and the reader must be able to relate each to the other. 278 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 200831W,29611-010ILREOP961301472R000900100001-2 Although commercial buildings vary in appearance on the exterior because of design and choice of materials, their structures are usually variations or combinations of several basic types of structural systems? namely, bearing-wall, reinforced-concrete, or steel-frame construction. Because of advanced techniques in chemical treatment, lamination, and the structural grading of lumber, some buildings are still built of massive wood members and are classified as heavy timber construction. A. BEARING-WALL CONSTRUCTION As the name implies, bearing- wall construction utilizes the strength of the walls to carry the weight imposed on the floors and roof of the building. In this type of construc- tion, the walls are usually limited to one or two stories in height; higher buildings employ other types of structural systems. In general, bearing walls are economical and feasible only when spans are limited to 30 or 40 ft., otherwise it becomes necessary to use thicker walls or intermediate columns and beams. If we examine the wall sections in a set of drawings carefully, we can detect if bearing walls are employed. If the floor and roof supports bear on the wall materials and no structural beams or columns are shown along the wall on the plan, we can be reasonably sure that the walls support the weight. Thickened wall piers or buttresses may be shown for the purpose of carrying beam loads or for strengthening the walls to resist lateral loads, yet they are still load bearing. Usually materials like brick, concrete block, stone, and structural tile, which have good compressive characteristics, are used for bearing walls. B. REINFORCED-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Concrete is one of our most adaptable building materials. In addition to its wide use as a masonry material, concrete cast with steel reinforcing provides architects with a versatile material known as reinforced concrete, which finds universal application. Almost unlimited design and architectural expression have been made possible by this combination of materials in today's en- gineered buildings. The size and spacing of steel reinforcement in concrete members are based on the spans and the anticipated loads they will be subjected to. Details normally conform to standard practice as shown in the American Concrete Institute Detailing Manual. Bar reinforcing is usually designated with a note giving bar size and the number of bars or the distance between centers of adjacent bars. For example, the note #3@ 12" indicates " diameter bars spaced 12" on center. The rod number is based on the approximate number of eighths of an inch in its dia- meter. A No. 5 bar would measure r in diameter; a No. 8 bar would measure 1" in diameter, etc. However, a No. 11 bar measures 1*" in diameter, which is a slight variation. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Releasec28ioncifr/8BroMfDP9611gb1172R000900100001-2 Fig. 5-1 Reinforced concrete construction is now used In a wide variety of commercial structures. In order to protect the reinforcing from corrosion (rusting) and to provide insulation against heat due to a possible fire, the bars are spaced a definite distance from the outside surface of the concrete. A note, " Cl., indicates that the surface of the bar is to be covered with a minimum of I " of concrete. Expansion joints are also commonly located on drawings, and details of their construction are often shown. These vertical joints in long buildings allow freedom to expand and contract without ruptur- ing the concrete. Usually the joints appear at junctions of L, T, or U shapes, where perpendicular intersections occur. Complete separation of both concrete and steel must be made, and premolded joints and metal coverings are used to conceal the joint. Flexible caulking is also used for this purpose. Frequently expansion joints continue completely through the building. Slabs require expansion joints where large open- ings occur, around columns, and along the periphery of a slab when it abuts a wall. Although sometimes not shown on a drawing, construction joints appear during extensive pouring of concrete. Theoretically it is prefer- able to cast concrete in one continuous pour, making it a monolithic structure, but this practice is often impractical. Neat, either vertical or horizontal, joints are made where they will produce the least amount Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 20MitaffeLdIWIMEitt9613018172R000900100001-2 of weakness to the structure when the pour is terminated at the end of the day. When construction joints can be anticipated by the engineer, they are shown on the drawings. Intersections of column footings or beam columns frequently carry this notation. Where shown on a draw- ing, this notation indicates a permissible location for the joint. Any other location would have to be approved by the enginner. You will be able to recognize reinforced-concrete construction on drawings by the use of concrete structural members and the designations of rod reinforcing throughout. The structural drawings typically show a plan view of each floor level with its relating details, notes, and schedules. Much of the technical information is placed in schedules to eliminate cumbersome and numerous unnecessary drawings. C. STEEL-FRAME CONSTRUCTION Steel-frame construction, utiliz- ing a skeleton frame throughout the entire height of the structure (see Fig. 5-2), is commonly used for high-rise buildings. Typical structural steel shapes like the I beam and wide-flange (v\F) sections (Fig. 5-3) are Fig. 6-2 The appearance of the steel structure or skeleton in a steel-frame building. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 \VE' !I 1, AokomPookows0/01 'FLA noe 411 dlIIItI " Sym bol DeAM (I) wIDe-rLAnaff. (w-) fl OL chAnnffL STffff-L TUM (E, STQUCTU QAL T 21 JL T (15.T) ?707,000,000"1,6%.100 coLumn PLA-T-ff- Fig. 5-3 Typical structural-steel sections and their symbols used on drawings. 282 (c) (P-) Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28C:OCAMEAMOM2R005300100001 -2 used to construct the main skeleton, which resembles a rigid steel cage when completed. The connections between each member may be riveted, bolted, or welded; some buildings employ several types. Availa- bility of labor and the job location are important factors in determining the type of connectors to be used. Various other steel shapes may also be necessary around openings in floors, for resistance to lateral wind loads, and so on. Each building requires some special variation from standard framing procedure to accommodate individual requirements. Thus the steel members and their connections arc sized to carry the dead and live loads of the building by transferring these loads from floors and roof to the beams and girders, down through the columns to the footings below. Weights of the exterior walls and partitions of each floor level are thereby carried by the columns only, on which tremendous compressive loads can be supported without the need for massive load- bearing walls on the lower floors. To protect the steel framework from failure due to a possible fire, each member is encased in concrete or other fireproofing material; yet the steel supports the loads. Like a reinforced-concrete building, this is an engineered structure in that sizes for each member and their con- nectors must be carefully calculated according to accepted standards and codes, and allowances must be made for safety factors as well as local conditions. Steel columns are usually placed in uniform bays or grids on the plan, and compatible floor systems are designed to be accommodated within the spans of the bays. Structural drawings reveal plan layouts, sizes of each steel member, and accurate information about each con- 0-112Dr12 bL'AMS coLumn Fig. 5.4 The appearance of steel frame on a floor plan. 0112Dt12 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release n G r2eLier An GL.C? 72R000900100001-2 Fig. 5-5 The steel frame is encased In a fireproof material for protection. nection. The plan layout is ordinarily a schematic diagram showing beams and girders as heavy, solid lines (see Fig. 5-4). Sometimes they may be broken lines. Sections, schedules, and notes used on drawings are similar to those mentioned under reinforced-concrete construction. The use of steel-frame construction is soon evident when reading a set of working drawings. Wide-flange or I beam members used for column and girder layouts in plan, similar steel shapes shown in the details, and drawings of steel connectors give evidence of this type of construction. Notice that steel members are specified with a note giving the depth of the web, type of profile, and the weight per foot. Thus a note, 121 24.6, indicates an I beam 12" deep that weights 24.6 lb. per foot. Other standard notations are also used for other steel shapes. D. HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Construction with heavy tim- bers, which was commonplace in mills during colonial days, still finds acceptance in many types of buildings even today. Southern Yellow 284 sPAn DC? rm -nr2npr2oortno- Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 App lease 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 DffArn --ro pJp coLu n rn con r) ec -no n oGe st-tot- reA..r.r) CQL-Ufllfl PLAT TIE 5TP mETAL. itanGerz L_AminA-rff-o Put2Ltn rn Fig. 6-6 Metal connectors for heavy timber construction. Many heavy timbers are glue-laminated. Pine and Douglas Fir, both in abundant supply, are the two main species of structural lumber. Lumber carefully graded according to strength and resistance to fiber stress is required. In general, buildings only one or two stories high (in areas where codes are nonrestrictive) are built with this method. 285 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96B0-11W2R0009001000 connecrot2s SPLIT 12na SPAn =mogul,' Pagil LI 1,140I C.AVt2 CI-IC>C20 Fig. 5-7 A wood truss used in timber construction. 1=1 Although wood burns readily, it can be classified as "fire resis- tant" if heavy, massive members are used. Extremely severe fires are necessary before timbers burn through and fail under loads. Actually, heavy timber has a better fire rating than exposed steel. An increasing number of wood structural members are glue- laminated to specified sizes in fabricating plants and transported to the site ready to be erected. Many churches, for example, are constructed with laminated arches or beams and masonry bearing walls. Wide spans are possible. The laminated beams with plank roofs result in interesting interiors for many applications. Wood trusses (Fig. 5-7) made with heavy members also find use in wide-span roofs. Various truss designs and shapes found on drawings are evidence of continued acceptance of timber roof structures for commercial buildings. Remember that actual cross-sectional sizes of timbers are slightly smaller than the nominal sizes given on drawings (see Fig. 2-61). All engineering design computations, of course, are based on actual sizes. In present-day timber construction, various metal pieces are necessary at critical points in the structure where compression con- centrations may cause fiber crushing, where complex connections must be made, where joints must be held in shear, and for bearing seats. Typical of these metal pieces are strap hangers, brackets, rods, metal bases for columns, pintles, split rings, and gusset plates. Bolts and lag screws are needed as fasteners at critical connections. Details for the metal pieces or manufacturers' designations are indicated on the draw- ings. Drawings of timber buildings utilize systems for giving informa- tion that are similar to systems used in drawings of steel and concrete buildings. Plans are necessary to show the horizontal layout of the columns and horizontal members of each level. Wood columns are often darkened on the plan, with their footings shown in broken lines, and detail sections and schedules are used to give specific information 286 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 287 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 about individual members. Similar marking systems are used for mem- bers commonly represented on the plans with a single heavy line. As in other structural drawings, wood members are often identified by the first letter of the name of the member. For example, B for beam, G for girder, C for column, J for joist, T for truss, etc. Details of symmetrical wooden trusses usually show only half of the actual truss, to eliminate repetition. The bottom chord of a truss detail is commonly drawn as a section through the truss looking down- ward. Therefore, although it is placed below the elevation view, it is nevertheless the top view of the bottom chord. As we mentioned, details are scaled from actual size dimensions. E. STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS?GENERAL Structural drawings are usually laid out with the large plan in the upper left of the sheet and the accom- panying sections and details directly below (see Fig. 5-8). Schedules are then placed in the upper right and their relating notes are located in the lower right-hand corner. Plans are often drawn with the north direction toward the top of the sheet. However, a north-point arrow PL, fl SffCTIons Anc Off-FAILS SCHE?01)1___ e- n OT'ff 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? -T-* --r SH rreT Fig. 5-8 The general layout of a structural drawing. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 206graMTCM1-019?6B0l9572R000900100001-2 is commonly used for orientation, for directional reference is often made in details for erecting individual members. Framing plans for larger buildings are frequently drawn at the I- " = 1'0" scale. The relating sections usually are drawn at 1" or -2- " = 1'0" scales. Two general systems for identifying columns are in use. When the structure is small, a sequential numbering system may be used (see Fig. 5-9). The system most often used for larger buildings, however, is the grid system, as shown in Fig. 5-9(2). Both systems identify each column within the structure. Column B-2 in the grid system corresponds to Column 7 in the sequential system. It should be remembered that grid lines are not always equally spaced, nor do they necessarily pass through the column center. This fact must be closely observed in the layout. Sometimes a grid line will be offset to include one or more columns not aligned with the others. Most drawings utilize a letter, as mentioned before, combined with numbers to identify beams, girders, joists, and slabs. A notation 2B4 would indicate the fourth different beam on the second floor. Or a note 3G6 would indicate the sixth different girder on the third floor. Slight variations in identification systems used by draftsmen can be clarified by relating views to verify them. Footings are usually identified in the same way as the columns. Footing B-2 would support Column B-2. Many times, however, foot- ings are given an additional identifying notation. When footings vary as to size or reinforcement, they are given a "mark" number to identify all the identical footings. For example, footings B-1 and B-2 could both be referenced as Mark(. This would indicate that a schedule listing of Mark would apply to both. As we have already seen, schedules are commonly employed on both architectural and structural drawings for the purpose of compiling YO-C-r - '.W-Cr _I C) 0 0 , it tl A 1.-0...._/L___202,...4__z2.i 0.- - Etet-d' 1 a a a U b _. 0 III -111 a al a gi a a Fig. 5-9 Systems used for identifying columns on plan views. (A) Sequential. (B) Grid. 13 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 1 Approved For Release 2008MIng8n0110)*(191;19613021472R000900100001-2 complex information into a small, convenient space. It is much simpler for a draftsman to place the information in a schedule than to place it in note form throughout the drawing. However, interpreting informa- tion in complex schedules requires, in many cases, an intimate knowl- edge of the proposed construction and all the procedures involved. It is not unusual for members listed as identical in the schedule actually to have slightly different characteristics. Even contractors sometimes have difficulty in reading involved schedules; so the novice should not be discouraged if he sometimes finds a schedule on a drawing difficult to understand. In practice, explanations by the architect or engineer are occasionally necessary before schedule information is entirely clear. co Lu m n ff?L-r:Tr- no- SC t-tE- OU L_ff- MAK t. col_ seCT ri-c, it7 lir Ft. Rein r? cOnc.cOL COL secT. MR. ri 1ZavF WM& size frOOTInG DePTIt at ryff- STEEL COL. rh/S.SE It AnCl-t02 501-Ts CAP Ft. 12 EMARVS 2 1Vx 17" . :4' 4.rtra,"; A xV.': fiV-11.1, 4. -so ? ,; . ' 0 O. 4. ,., t - '''' . .411. EUxSTeetit'?ii?Dieggrga .. ,. , --. _ (21' 9-4.1:5 D. 0. D. O. , ?,... ,R.. ?-- 4 Fig. 6-10 Reading a column and footing schedule. The column and footing are similar to those in the Medical Arts Building. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 SCHEADULE or Fit:25T fterns ;73- ST1122UPS SIZE REM/11214S lbAl2S f51: b412.5 ,SPAC I inG- e,cN en0 5 lob; 20e., 309'; 301'2" '33;33; X MAUI r)-4 s-naaups JoisT5 Fig. 5-11 Reading a beam schedule. The beam shown Is similar to those in the Medical Arts Building. - norct-r rO12 DQIC1C berTT STI2A1G-11-r b.A.25 ? cOLurnn F. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS TO DRAWINGS Like our other major industries, architecture and construction have been affected by the use of the computer. Numerous architectural and engineering offices now use the digital computer to more efficiently conduct various aspects of their services. Basically, the computer is an electronic calculating machine that adds and subtracts, yet with the capacity for internal memory storage. It even has the ability to correct itself. The advantage of the machine is its accuracy as well as its tremendous speed in solving complex problems. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172a000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 291 Carefully conceived instructions, known as programs, must state the problem in the computer language before it is fed into the machine. These instructions may be in the form of punched cards, paper tape, or magnetic tape. Some computers have automatic typewriter components for typing the results of imput instruction on a paper output sheet. One type of work in which computers have found application is in the preparation of schedules for reinforced concrete structural drawings. 41)Att. 7:11,101.- s Ivan 14, 5rAm g)12: s-// c 5-12 04 VEAr/cAt 0 &Ace Lerr R/aNT 0/4 1,404/z. c. say PtACE 8or ro 5- 24.$124 5-23,sn't 5 5-22 vrt 8/-6/' DicAl 56-1. Do-)4 / REINF-AT S1-CT ION Bli 81: S *STAIR BARS S -11 Ix 15 * 3 5 -6 AT 12 IN S -12 Lx 6 * 3 4 -2 AT 12 IN S -13 Ix 6 * 3 7 -4 AT 12 IN -14 Ix 6 C 3014 AT 12 IN -15 2x 4 * 4 4 -6 AT 12 IN S -16 7x 1 * 4 4 -0 AT 12 IN S -17 7x 1 * 4 3 -6 AT 12 IN S -18 7X 1 * 4 7-11 AT 12 IN -19 7X * 4 2 -5 AT 12 IN -20 2X 1 * 4 1-10 AT 12 IN S -21 2X 1 * 4 9 -6 AT 12 IN S -22 7x 1 * 4 9 -6 AT 12 IN S -23 2X 1 * 4 7 -6 AT 12 IN -24 2x 1 * 4 5 -6 AT 12 IN -25 2x 1 * 4 4 -0 AT 12 IN 141111r. 5-12 Example of a computer printout on structural drawings. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 or e ease 005/07/28: CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 292 Their use has resulted in greater speed in drawing preparation, simpler drawings, and fewer errors on the project. Conventional detail drawings for steel placement are prepared by the detailer, and the quantities and descriptions information are put on the output sheet by the computer. This saves considerable time, yet the reader of the drawings must have some familiarity with the computer language. Often a "label system" is used to relate the bars shown on the drawing to the machine printout sheet. Using this system, detailers merely assign a label number to each bar-placing operation?either each individual reinforcing bar or a group of bars. The label number relates the detail drawings to the printout sheet, which shows bar sizes, spacing, etc. Other programs are used to produce entirely machine- printed column schedules, beam schedules, and slab schedules. Similar applications are made in steel-frame construction. The computer may be used in calculating results of the frame moment distribution or the steel column design. The printout sheets are used mainly as engineering aids in this case. Some contour maps and sub-division layouts are now also made with the use of the computer. A graphical-output device, known as an XY plotter, in connection with the computer is able to make actual contour maps from input data programs. Probably the most universal application the computer has pro- vided architectural offices is in the preparation of specifications. In large offices where complex projects require extensive sets of specs, a library of master architectural and engineering specs, which have been punched into cards or loaded on disks or magnetic tape, are used repeatedly. These comprehensive master specs form the base from which individual job specs are printed out by the computer. Before the master spec cards or tape are fed into the machine, the spec writer delets or adds any special paragraphs to customize the material to each individual set. Job deck cards or tape are made of these changes and then inserted into the master cards or tape before they are fed into the machine for final printout. The final tailormade specs are automatically typed out on stencils or offset masters by the high-speed computer so reproductions can be easily made. Approved For Release 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 293 G. HEAVY-CONSTRUCTION TERMS tjciAL LOAD: A load applied on the axial center of a structural member; usually refers to the load cen- tered on a column. JOISTS: Structural units made from various bar and rod-shaped steel for supporting floors and roofs; also known as steel joists (see Fig. 5-22). 'Ay: Square or rectangular areas, usually in a uniform grouping, surrounded by columns (see Fig. 5-9). icAjvi HANGER: A metal strap formed into a stirrup shape, which lies over a supporting member and supports the end of a horizontal beam (see Fig. 5-6). WILED PILE: A pile with a flared bottom for better bearing support (see Fig. 5-14). gELB TEE: An inverted T-shaped steel member with its vertical stem enlarged into a bulb shape; usually used for the support of poured roof deck forming panels (see Fig. 5-22). NTILEVER BEAM: An overhanging beam with a rigidly fixed support at only one end. CAST-IN-PLACE PILE: A pile made by sinking a hollow tube into the ground and pouring concrete into it. OLkIRS: Metal supports made of heavy wire to hold the steel bars in place during the pouring of concrete in a form. LUMN CAPITAL: The upper part of a column, usually enlarged or decorated (see Fig. 5-19). COMPRESSION: A squeezing force applied to a material, creating a tendancy for it to become compressed. CONTROL JOINT: A loose joint in a long masonry wall or concrete slab to prevent cracking during expan- sion and contraction?similar to an expansion joint. ITAIN WALL: A nonload bearing wall placed above a spandrel beam or girder in skeleton-frame con- struction (see Fig. 5-5). CAISSON: A watertight compartment sunk below ground water level to facilate the removal of earth and the pouring of piers or piles. 1.EcTION: The amount of sag at the center of a horizontal structural member when subjected to a load. %IliELS: Short lengths of steel rod cast into footings or columns for fastening adjoining structural mem- bers. P PANEL: A thickened area of a flat slab directly above the column capital (see Fig. 5-19). PIN: A metal pin used in lining up holes and temporarily joining members in steel-frame erection. ECCENTRIC LOAD: A load applied off of the axial center of a structural member; usually refers to an unbalanced load on a column. ERECTION MARK: An identification mark or number placed on the end of each steel-frame member to aid in the erection of the structure. EXPANSION JOINT: See control joint. FIELD RIVERTS & BOLTS: Rivets or bolts to be as- sembled at the site. FILLET WELD: The weld along the interior corner of two steel plates that are at right angles (see Fig. 5-25). FIRE RATING: The comparative resistance of a material to failure, as stated in hours, when subjected to fire. Ratings are standardized by fire underwriters. FLANGE: The bottom and top portion of an I beam, wideflange (VW), or channel member (see Fig. 5-3). FLAT SLAB: A type of reinforced-concrete floor or roof construction having no beams or girders below the underside (see Fig. 5-19). GAGE (Rivets): The distance in inches between rows of rivets. GLUE-LAMINATED MEMBERS: Structural timber units constructed from smaller pieces fitted and glued under pressure in the shop. HEADER COURSE: A course of brick with the ends exposed, to bond brick veneer to the subwall. It is usually placed every sixth course. HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTS: Fastening bolts made of superior strength steel used to connect members together in steel-frame construction. INVERT ELEVATION: The height at which a drainage line must join a manhole or main for proper drainage. KICK PLATE: A metal plate fastened to the lower part of a door to prevent damage to the door (see Fig. 5-40). KIP: A unit of 1000-lb. load. LATERAL BRACING: Usually diagonal bracing in the structure to counteract wind pressures (see Fig. 5-2). LOAD FACTOR: The number that results by dividing the failure load by the working load. Often sub- stituted for the safety factor in codes and specifica- tions. LIGHT-STEEL FRAMING: Construction utilizing light steel members for the structure in smaller buildings. LUG SILL: A stone or concrete sill under windows. The sill is wider than the window opening and is set into the adjoining masonry. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 294 METAL SHOE: A boxed steel plate used to receive a wooden beam, arch, or column (see Fig. 5-6). MOMENT: The result of a load on a member, creating a tendancy of the member to rotate about a given point or axis that is within its cross section. Moments are measured in foot-kips, foot-pounds, or inch- pounds. MOMENT DIAGRAM: A graphic description of the moments along a structural member. PANS (Forming): Steel forms in the shape of pans, used in forming ribbed and waffle-type concrete floors and roofs. PEDASTAL: A column base or support that is placed between the column and its footing. PILE: A long shaft of wood, concrete, or steel driven or cast into the ground to give added support to a foundation supporting heavy loads. It may also be used when stable soil or rock is far below unstable surface soils (see Fig. 5-13). PITCH (Rivets): The distance between centers of each rivet. PLATE GIRDER: A steel girder built up with a plate web and angle sections as flanges. POSTENSIONING: A type of prestressed concrete that is given compression after the concrete has set. PRETENSIONING: A type of prestressed concrete in which the steel is given tension stresses before the concrete has set. PRECAST CONCRETE: Concrete units cast and finished before being erected into place. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE: Concrete members that have been placed in a state of compression prior to being loaded. The compression is generally induced by tensioning steel tendons. The technique allows longer spans with less materials. RELIEF ANGLE: A steel angle attached horizontally to the structural frame of a building for the support of masonry veneer that is beyond the support of the main framework (see Fig. 5-5). RIBBED SLAB: A type of concrete floor construction having ribs (sometimes called joists) formed on the underside of the slab. RIGID FRAME: A structural system utilizing rigid structural connections between the beam and column elements. Frequently the beam elements are placed on a slope. ROLLED SECTION: A structural steel member, such as an I beam or wide-flange (W) section, that is formed into its shape by hot rolling at the mill. SAFETY FACTOR: The number that results from divid- ing the ultimate strength by the allowable working stress. Codes regulate the minimum safety factor required in many areas. SCARFED JOINT: A joint (usually in wood beams) made by notching or grooving adjoining pieces so that the ends lap over and are firmly joined into one continuous piece. SCUPPER: An openiug in a wall for the release of water from a floor or roof. SEATED CONNECTION: A connection in steel-frame construction having a horizontal seat, formed by an angle connector, for a beam or girder to rest upon (see Fig. 5-31). SHEAR: A condition in a member resulting from forces or load placement that causes a sliding tendancy within the cross section of the member. SHEAR DIAGRAM: A graphic description of the shear forces in a loaded structural member. SHOP RIVETS: Rivets that are fastened in the shop before the steel members have been delivered to the site (see Fig. 5-24). SHORING: Wooden posts or shores used to support walls or other parts of a building during construc- tion. SKEW BACK: A sloping surface or a diagonal unit against which the end of a curved arch rests o abuts. SLIP SILL: A beveled cast concrete or stone pi placed below a window to shed water. It is the sa length as the width of the window opening. SOIL BORING: Boring of subsurface soil for the purp of investigating the load-bearing and stabili characteristics of the site. SOIL-CEMENT: A mixture of soil and cement for purpose of obtaining an economical, stable maten Mainly used as a paving underlayment. SPANDREL BEAM: A horizontal beam supported columns on each end in skeleton-frame constru SPLIT-RING CONNECTOR: A split, circular ring inserted into grooves between two wood ro bers of a joint. A bolt in the center passes thr0 both members and creates extreme resista shear. SPREAD FOOTING: A concrete footing that is than the structural member it supports and is f purpose of spreading the load to the soil or tion (see Fig. 5-10). STEEL JOIST: A light steel beam made from or angles welded into rigid units (see Fig. They are also made from light rolled sectiO STRIPPING: The process of removing the fo poured concrete after it has hardened. STIRRUPS: Wood construction?vertical steel_ to support the ends of a beam or joist. Concrete construction?steel Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 295 formed to surround the horizontal reinforcing near the ends of a concrete beam for the purpose of increasing the resistance to shear (see Fig. 5-15). SUSPENDED CEILING: A ceiling hung below the un- derside of a concrete slab or other structure. Wire and channel sections are commonly used to support the ceiling material (see Fig. 5-34). TEMPERATURE RODS: Steel rods placed perpendicular to the main reinforcing in slabs to counteract the tendancy to cracking during the concrete hardening process and later from expansion and contraction during temperature changes. TENSION: The stress or force in a material caused by a pulling action, which tends to create a lengthening of the material. TIMBER CONNECTORS: Metal pieces and devices used in timber construction to contribute greater rigidity and strength to bolted connections of the members (see Fig. 5-6). TRANSOM: A small window above a door or other window. TWO-WAY SLAB: A concrete slab floor or roof in which the reinforcing steel in placed in two per- pendicular directions (see Fig. 5-18). ULTIMATE STRENGTH: Generally used in reference to the testing of structural materials. The strength of a material varies during the application of stresses; the point at which the greatest strength is obtained is called the ultimate strength. VESTIBULE: A small entrance hall next to the entrance of a building (see Fig. 5-38). VERTICAL STIFFENER: Metal angles or plates fastened to steel members where concentrations of stress Occur. WEB: The center portion of an I beam, wide-flange (VF), or channel member (see Fig. 5-3). WEEP HOLES: Small holes near the bottom of masonry walls to allow release of moisture accumulating in the walls. WEEP WICK: A short length of small rope placed in weep holes to allow seepage of moisture from masonry walls to the exterior, yet not having an actual opening. WELDED WIRE FABRIC: Steel wires welded together to form a mesh for concrete slab reinforcing. WIND BRACING: Diagonal struts placed within the structure of a building to resist lateral wind pres- sures (see Fig. 5-2). WIND LOADS: Lateral forces acting against a building that must be considered in the design of high-rise buildings especially. WORKING LOADS: Those definite forces, used in design calculations, that act upon the structural members. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Fig. 5-13 Piling used to support a steel column footing. H. FOUNDATIONS 1. Boring Logs Investigation of the soil load-bearing qualities at the site is an important prerequisite before the footings of heavy buildings can be designed. The characteristics of soils vary widely throughout the country and even in local areas. It is general practice to have soil-testing firms make representative borings in the building area so that realistic as- sumptions can be made. Normally the locations of the borings are indicated on the Site Plan, and sometimes the test results are shown on the drawings in the form of boring logs. These graphic logs show the soil, rock, and ground water encountered and their depths. 1 Cc-)Lum n Foon n 1 296 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 1,111-Ft.1.1,1 .,42-1g1,11?.15 5 Approved For Releasgb244?Wiafin:L&I.AIRDP9a1301172R000900100001-2 2. Piling Depending on the nature of the subsoil and the contemplated weight of the building, piling may be necessary for stable support of the foundation. Piles are long lengths of wood, concrete, or steel forced down through soft or unstable strata until they will support the esti- mated load. Many factors about the structural concept are considered in the selection and use of piling. On drawings in which piles are used, a pile layout in plan is necessary. Detail drawings of the piles showing sizes, reinforce- ment, and information about the pile caps are also included in the drawings. Elevation heights are given for the top surface of each pile. Sometimes a pile layout is shown with each pile darkened and the pile footing shown in broken lines. Other layouts may show the piles in broken lines and the footings above in solid lines. Schedules may also be employed to give extensive pile information. 3. Drilled Piers Some foundation situations may be solved better with the use of drilled piers or caissons. These are holes drilled to stable soil or rock and filled with concrete. Some may have belled bottoms to disperse the load over larger areas. Generally, they are not reinforced except for anchor bolts or dowels at their tops. Here again, a plan layout must be shown for the piers, and detail drawings giving sizes, shapes, and elevation heights are needed. Schedules may also be used if extensive piers are shown on the drawings. ; 4. Grade Beams Another system for supporting moderately heavy, as well as light, ? buildings is with the use of grade beams. These are continuous rein- _ forced-concrete beams below grade under the exterior walls of the a building. They are designed to carry the weight monolithically, with strategically placed piers below the grade beams where concentrations of load occur (see Fig. 5-14). Actually, the piers or caissons act as columns below the grade beams to carry the weight to stable soil levels . below. The grade beams are usually reinforced at top and bottom with straight bars rather than bent reinforcing, as is found in typical concrete ? beams. Stirrups are not required, as a rule. The bars may be indicated 7. with a note on the plan or they may be given on a schedule. Sizes and elevations are also shown by notes on the plan or on typical section ? views. 5. Wall Footings Walls (whether load bearing or not) that rest on the ground must have continuous spread-type footings below. The size of the footings is determined by the loads they will carry and the load-bearing capacity of the soil. Frost depths, of course, also determine the depths the - footings must be placed below grade. For various reasons, footings are Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 ?cgargwowagliguR000mol0000l-2 often placed at different depths below a building; this will be evidenced by the elevation heights shown at different points. Notice in Fig. 5-37 that the top surface of the footings is shown throughout on the eleva- tion views, where the different levels can be easily seen. Poured concrete, because it can be reinforced to counteract failure from shear and bending, is the most universal material used for foot- ings. Some wall footings may be integral with column footings, requir- ing only enlargement below the columns where concentrations of load develop; others may show isolated footings for both. To conserve concrete mass in footings, some are formed in stepped cross-sectional shapes and are termed stepped footings. Ideally the footings are designed to provide uniform settlement throughout the building. Uniform settlement of the entire building is not objec- tional; eccentric settlement, on the other hand, can lead to extensive structural damage. Fig. 5-14 The appearance of a grade-beam foundation. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Releasec2ellgifirletV-ifDP96M1172R000900100001-2 Continuous footings are ordinarily shown with broken lines on the plan and are detailed in section views to reveal sizes and steel placement. Footing schedules may also supplement the sections in giving size and reinforcement information. 6. Column Footings Isolated footings are often used to support the concentrated loads at the columns in heavy buildings. The footings are square or rectangu- lar in shape and are reinforced with rods in both directions near the bottom (see Fig. 5-11). Sometimes a combined footing is designed to carry the loads of several adjacent columns. Reinforcing steel dowels are cast into the footings to anchor concrete columns, whereas anchor bolts are used to attach steel-frame column bases. When necessary, piles or drilled piers may be indicated below isolated footings. Each footing is identified on the drawings with a mark?often the mark identifies both the footing and the column it supports. Some drawings give each footing a different mark in uniform sequence. Others give the same mark to all footings having the same size and 5ICCI reinforcement to avoid repetition in the schedules and notes. Each type of column footing is also drawn in section to show the shape and steel reinforcing. Schedules commonly identify size, top elevation, steel reinforcing, and dowels or anchor bolts (see Fig. 5-11). Location dimensions are seldom needed for footings, for their centers coincide with column centerlines. I. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 1. Masonry Bearing Walls As we mentioned earlier, masonry bearing-wall construction utilizes the strength of the walls to support the weight from the floors and roof of the building. Many small commercial buildings employ this structural system, and it is frequently used in parts of larger buildings having other types of structures. In reading a drawing, you should be able to recognize the principle by the absence of columns throughout the walls and by the nature of the section details. Structural members for support of floors or roof with the bearing walls may be wood, trusses, steel bar joists, steel beams, or precast concrete joists. Many variations are possible; some may have intermediate columns or posts throughout the interior if long spans are necessary, yet the walls are made load bearing. For economy and appearance, most walls are veneered and may he either cavity or solid. Codes regulate the thicknesses according to heights and loads imposed upon them. Frequently, metal ties are shown to bond the veneer to the subwall, and horizontal and vertical reinforce- ment may be required within the walls. Metal bearing plates are often used below steel bar joists and beams to spread the load to the wall. All openings in the walls should have lintels (usually steel angles) to Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS support the weight above the openings. You will notice that metal flashing is shown within the walls at critical points to protect the structure from moisture seepage. Bond beams are widely employed in concrete block walls to pro- vide bearing for beams or joists. They also may serve as lintels or as a continuous tie around the entire upper part of the wall. Usually the beams are made with hollow units filled with concrete and steel reinforc- ing bars. Various types of metal anchors embedded into the mortar joints of masonry walls are used to prevent lateral movement of beam or joist members. a. curtain walls Curtain walls may be placed within the vertical framed planes of a skeleton-frame building, or they may be placed outside the framework to form the complete outer skin of the building. They carry no loads other than their own weight; therefore their function is somewhat dif- ferent from bearing walls. This difference should be kept in mind when reading the working drawings. In high-rise buildings, the curtain walls are generally the same thickness throughout. As a rule, 8" subwalls are supported on the spandrel beams with a 4" thick veneer bonded to the subwall or supported with metal anchors and relief angles attached to the framework. Masonry curtain walls are made from concrete block, brick, tile, stone, precast concrete panels, etc. In some buildings, the walls are formed mainly of glass set in aluminum frames throughout the major walls of the building. Also, many paneled materials (sandwich panels) having good weather resistance and insulating qualities are used for curtain walls. Details of the curtain walls must be carefully studied to under- stand their relationship to the frame and their method of support. Sometimes the curtain walls are keyed to the frame, and the frame is left exposed. Other details may show the frame enclosed within a cavity type wall. Many architectural treatments are possible with the selec- tion and treatment of the curtain wall materials. b. partition walls Partitions within a building may be load bearing or nonload bearing. In small buildings with exterior bearing walls, the major partitions very often are also load bearing. This results in economy of floor and roof framing because of the shorter spans. In larger, skeleton-frame buildings, the partitions are commonly nonload bearing and are made with light-weight masonry materials. Major considerations are rigidity, fire resistance, and good sound isolation qualities. On ground floors, light partitions may rest on slabs that have been thickened to carry their weight, or small footings may be shown below the walls. In upper levels of multistory buildings, the partitions usually are placed directly over beams, or additional support is provided in the floor framing for them. Generally 4- or 6"- thick concrete block or Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 301 toe with plaster finishes is used for single-story heights. Lighter parti- tions may use metal studs and gypsum board or plaster coverings. Some codes allow the use of wood studs for interior partitions. The interpretation of partition walls is not complex on drawings. plan views indicate both their placement and the materials required; a typical section may also show further information. 2. Concrete Until lately reinforced-concrete structural systems have mainly been used for large, complex buildings; but in recent years, with advanc- ed techniques in design, quality control, forming, etc., many smaller buildings are being built with the system. As we mentioned, this material seems to have the brightest future in the construction industry. Basically a reinforced-concrete structure employs the material for all its structural members, including footings, columns, girders, beams, floors, and roof. Elaborate schedules are often necessary to reduce the number of drawings. Yet many sections are still required, and a careful organization of the various drawings is an important task of the architect and the engineer. The steel reinforcing bars are shown on the structural drawings with bold, heavy lines, whereas the outlines of the concrete are made with somewhat lighter lines. No concrete symbol is ordinarily shown on the sections other than, perhaps, a light pencil shading within the concrete area. Sometimes it is even left blank to save drafting time. Openings in a concrete slab floor for stairs, elevators, chases, etc. are ften indicated on the plan with light diagonal lines drawn from the corners of the openings, with the word OPEN placed within. Diagonal fines through areas of a slab may also indicate variations in the slab Fig. 5-15 Stirrups used in concrete beam reinforcement. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Fig. 6-16 (A) Horizontal ties used In column reinforcement. 1 I !it k 01111111111 211 I 1 rib 41i111111111?11011 00111111 Pti i I 0111Prdeilleikki SPIRAL. rYn-cf-l? 04,11LIZIOUPIZIO1 ilk!Iirri;1111111W,dilf ! '711Pormiliji:',41 I. 1 0, 'MI - SPIRAL 12rinroacina, VERTICAL EARS cow m n Fig. 5-16 (B) Spiral reinforcement in columns. " Fig. 6-17 Beam-and-girder construction Is commonly used to support one-way slabs. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 302 Approved For Release 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP 6601172R000900100001-2 beArT15 Fig. 5-18 Two-way slab construction. Important structural heights, such as the top or bottom surface of footings, the tops of beams or girders, or floor levels, may be indicated With an elevation on the plans. These elevations may be shown in feet iid inches (Elev. 99'6") or as feet and decimal parts of a foot (Elev. %.5'). Sometimes these heights are placed on typical sections. One of the numbering systems is commonly employed to identify the column footings (often the same as the columns) on the plan, and the sizes and reinforcement needed are placed in the footing schedule. Because of the load variations often imposed upon various columns st a building, column schedules are the simplest method of handling all size and reinforcing information (see Fig. 5-11). Columns may have vertical bars enclosed either with ties or with a continuous spiral. s of column splices at the different floor levels should be shown vertical section. Sometimes one will notice that column loads kips) are placed near each column. This may prove helpful if upper rs are to be added later or if future remodeling becomes necessary. 11. slab floors and roofs than slabs-on-ground, which are discussed in Chapter 3, a number Systems are used to construct the floors and roof of reinforced- ete buildings. A one-way slab, with the main reinforcing rods placed in one ion (the shorter dimension in rectangular bays), is the simplest 303 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 IDI2OPPED PAnff CA PiTAL- - TA.P ER CD COL-LJ Fig. 5-19 Flat slab construction. type of concrete floor. The slab must be supported by a concrete or steel beam. For a single span, details will show the bars spaced at regular intervals in the bottom of the slab. If the slab is supported over several beams or parallel walls, the bars are usually bent to the top of the slab over the support. One-way slabs are typically supported by beam-and- girder type construction (see Fig. 5-17). In concrete slab roofs and floors, "temperature" bars are often noted. These bars are placed perpendicular to the main or load-carrying reinforcing and resist shrinkage cracking during the "setting-up" period of the concrete. They also help resist cracking due to temperature changes during the life of the slab. A note such as #4 @ 12" TEMP. indicates reinforcement for this purpose. Beams or girders are the horizontal structural members supported by the columns. Girders support beams and are in turn supported by either other girders or by columns; beams may be supported by girders or columns. Details shown on the drawings should reveal a logical system of showing spans, cross-sectional sizes, both horizontal and vertical steel arrangements, as well as bar sizes and spacing. Beams often vary in size and amount of steel required to sustain the various loads. There- fore each beam or girder in a complex building is listed in a beam schedule (see Fig. 5-10). Another system, called a flat slab, is constructed without beams and with the main reinforcing placed in two or more directions. Only columns, usually having enlarged capitals, are used throughout the interior for the slab support. Thickened areas of the slab directly over the columns are called "drop panels" (see Fig. 5-19). Generally the steel is placed in "bands" and is specified as either a "column strip" over the Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172ROOH00100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Fig. 6-20 Ribbed slab construction. r.2115s oa Joisys Fig. 5-21 "Waffle" floor construction. 306 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/27/211 RQP9.6 (1)172InD0900100001-2 4111144i7 % truLt5 1-Me. \Vel-D areeL r5eArrl --ru elatZ, JO( ST (r2t-t4) 12ezz-c, rLoolz canc. JOIST sTrUlatfr 15/112 bcar I/112 conc. COLumn Guouno ELA W4TeraVo0e= mem 75r2Ane- COLUmn fataarriar veinroaci no. (e.w Fig. 5-22 A pictorial section of the Medical Arts Building structure at a mortar Waal 306 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 1111.11.11.1111111111111111 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Pi2eC,A.T pL_Ani4 u n 1-1-5 eT/.1--? CL1 PS _ rnsuLATinG- conc r25-rE-- ri L L- Fig. 6-23 Precast concrete units used for roof and floor decks. columns or as a "middle strip." The middle strip consists of that half of the span midway between the columns. Careful details of these important points must be shown on the drawings. A floor framing plan with this type of slab ordinarily shows the steel band locations with shaded areas, the drop panels with broken lines, and the columns with darkest tones. Another popular concrete floor system, called a ribbed slab or joist construction, consists of a thin slab (2" or 2-i-" thick) supported on concrete joists spanning between beams (see Fig. 5-20). When the joists run in two directions, it is called a waffle slab (see Fig. 5-21). The ribs are cast between metal pans placed in the forms, or sometimes filler blocks may be used. The system therefore decreases the amount and weight of the concrete needed; yet long spans are possible. Two rein- forcing rods are usually placed in the lower part of the ribs, and wire fabric or small bars span between joists. Sometimes stirrups are re- quired. Because of their appearance, waffle slabs are often exposed from below to produce interesting ceilings. Otherwise, the ceilings are ordinarily covered with suspended ceiling materials. As a rule, the shape of the supporting bays is influential in determining whether one-way or two-way slabs are best employed. Doti TL'e _ Li 11 1T5 b. precast units In many cases precast concrete joists, made with light-weight aggregate and steel reinforcing bars, are used as the floor structure, with either Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP9613014312R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 308 concrete or steel-frame construction. Some are placed on bearing walls. The precast units are manufactured to specifications supplied in the drawings and delivered to the job, ready to be lifted into place. Slabs placed over the units may be poured in place or they may be precast units also. For longer spans, prestressed units may be employed. Numerous plants now manufacture custom-designed prestressed beams and joists, as well as other standardized units, for various applications (see Fig. 5-23). Prestressed units are cast with the steel reinforcing under tension (pretensioning), producing longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete and resulting in less deflection when the unit is subjected to load. Economy in both the material and weight is effected and longer spans are possible. In some units, the steel is given tension after the concrete is cast (postensioning). Some units are made in the form of a wide "T" section and placed against each other in the floor, thereby eliminating the need for slab forming or for placing cast units over them. Various other shapes and units are available for prestressed con- crete floors and roofs. Precast joists or other units in the structure require a placement layout or diagram and an identification method, either by note or with the use of a schedule, as to sizes and placement. After engineering ?lett) SHOP RIVETS rzive-rs WITS IpOr / Alf 17 \'? N N.. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-R610961!0?72R8009019119000app2ruation drawings. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 309 f Du-n- weLD sm&Le LAP \VELD Fig. 5-25 Typical construction welds. DOU15LE LAP \VELD rILLeT weLID calculations have been furnished in the structural drawings, shop drawings are made by the supplier for the different units before they can be fabricated. Further information on the technical characteristics of the various types of reinforced concrete roof and floor slabs can be obtained from the Portland Cement Association, Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Ill. 60076. 3. Steel Steel-frame buildings may have one or several structural systems employed throughout. High-rise steel-frame buildings, generally use the beam and girder system. Here the columns resting upon isolated footings continue up to the top of the structure. At each floor level, .Orders are attached to the columns and beams are attached to the girders, which, in turn, create rectangular or square bays for the purpose of supporting the floor slabs. Variations, of course, exist for almost every building, but in simple terms this is the framework of the major steel members. Beams framing directly into columns are referred to as Vandrel beams, as the discussion on concrete buildings mentioned. Various masonry materials may be used for the walls; even glass lbaY be used for considerable expanses of the walls. The masonry is :11sually veneered on the exterior with thinner weather-resistant materials 'laving attractive textures and colors. Angle shelves anchored to the I frame, called relief angles, or various other metal anchors are zed to support or attach the veneer to the subwalls. Each column and its bearing plate must be anchored to its footing anchor bolts. Although the column lengths are generally several es. high, each tier is erected one at a time, with careful considera- given to the column splices. Wide-flange sections are the most mon ones used for the columns, and the splices are placed 2 or 3 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 310 BASIC WELD SYMBOLS PLUG GROOVE OR BUTT BACK FILLET OR SLOT SQUARE V BEVEL U J - FLARE V FLARE BEVEL -v .____/IIVVY I -- 1 IC SUPPLEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS WELD ALL CONTOUR AROUND FIELD WELD FLUSH CONVEX STANDARD LOCATION OF ELEMENTS OF A WELDING SYMBOL Finish symbol Contour symbol Gforroopvluegawngelldesor included angle of countersink Root opening, depth Length in inches \ of weld of filling for plug and slot welds Pitch (c. to c. spacing) of welds in inches Size in inches ? Reference line Specification, process or other reference S R ... __, Weld-all-around symbol Field weld symbol 3 ,.. Tail (may be omitted / -c when reference is not used) Arrow connecting reference line to arrow side of joint (also points Basic weld symbol to grooved member in bevel and detail or reference J grooved joints) Note: Size, weld symbol, length of weld and spacing must read in that order from left to right along the reference line. Neither orientation of reference line nor location of the arrow alter this rule. The perpendicular leg of L, V, V r weld symbols must be at left. Arrow and Other Side welds are of the same size unless otherwise shown. - - Symbols apply between abrupt changes in direction of welding unless governed by the "all around" symbol or othe,r- wise dimensioned. These symbols do not explicitly provide for the case that frequently occurs in structural work, where duplicate material (such as stiffeners) occurs on the far side of a web or gusset plate. The fabricating industry has adopted this convention; that when the billing of the detail material discloses the identity of far side with near side, the welding shown for the near side shall also be duplicated on the far side. Fig. 5-26 Welding symbols used on drawings. (Courtesy of the American institute of Steel Construction.) Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/2.8 ? CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 50uAl2e Gaoove fILLaT weLa IteVeL C71200ve Fig. 5-27 Weld-joint symbols commonly encountered on construction drawings. ft. above floor levels for structural reasons as well as to prevent inter- ference with girder-to-column connections. Although steel manuals provide the allowable loads for the standard types and their various sizes, connection details must be shown on the structural drawings (see Fig. 5-28). Column schedules for steel buildings give the steel section for each floor, location of splices, elevations of floor levels, and lengths of the columns. Typically, a space between two vertical lines is used to represent each column, and the schedule is arranged to appear similar the height of the building (see Fig. 5-32). Associated details often ompany the schedule. Structural drawings must be complete and understandable so that fabricator can produce and erect the members accurately and eco- illomically. Shop drawings by the steel fabricator show how each piece tut and fabricated, plus how it is erected. Each steel member is given erection mark, usually on one end, to aid in the erection. Concrete floor slabs of one type or another are universally utilized steCl-frame buildings. Many are similar to those used with reinforced- ete construction; in fact, steel buildings are often combinations both steel and concrete construction. In addition to one-way or two- floor slabs, steel decking floors, tile or concrete block filler floors, ete pan floors, precast concrete floors, or slabs on open-web steel may be shown on the drawings. 311 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 .94 LI x CO di 0 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172R000900100001-2 A E. SOLrFt-f erA = I (- ? 4 CUT 1-7 " U - 1? - le \AI= c24 1 4 it% A- 5 I - 1E3 OF 70 x /V-10 izz" I II _ t. 4 _ -71p 2 4$ 4 x 5h2 x t4,x I1 (a) I ii - A13C ST ff.12J_ CO. ' 3r-top r312.A\\,,,i--)G- Ng. 1-29 A typical shop drawing of the stmd beams shown in Fig. 6-28 plan. Fig. 5-30 Pictorial view of the framed Imam connection shown In Fig. 5-28. 313 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 opt n ttoLes (f-or2 le?LO- ouivtn 12vars) 4 \AP- 105 COLA) M IS V\F G4 seAT G-L-ff 5T1Frtneas si-rop 121VffTS FILL PLTe Fig. 6-31 Pictorial view of the stiffened-seated beam connection shown In Fig. 6-28. coLu mn scrtffouLt- 155, C 5, CG A5, AG C7111200F 142-0 ?a r L-00Q 152 -0 2 no FL-00i2 CL. /20-0 GT FLOOR EL-. loG -0 5ns PLATe L c to 1/49 c-3 24x 22.x 2 51 x28 22x 19x1 Fig. 5-32. A typical steel column schedule. Fig. 6-33 A concrete slab poured over metal forming and steel joists. a. steel joists Light steel joists, often called bar joists (Fig. 5-41), are widely used in many commercial buildings for spanning floors and roofs where moderate loads are anticipated. Many standard types and sizes are available from manufacturers in nearly all areas of the country. Normally they form the structure for flat or low-pitch roofs of one or two-story buildings. Often steel lath and plaster or channels and acoustical board ceilings are hung from their lower bars. They are easy to handle and are quickly erected. Ducts, wiring, or piping can be easily run through Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 314 Approved For Release 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 315 their open spaces. Forming panels can be laid over the joists and either concrete or gypsum can be poured over the forms, requiring only wire mesh as reinforcing, to produce adequate floors and lightweight roofs. Precast concrete panels, formed steel decking, fiber panels, or other manufactured products can be used for the decking. Rigid insulation is often included in the roof deck if insulating concrete or gypsum is not shown. Insulating properties are important considerations in the selec- tion of roof decking material. Because of their widespread use, steel joists are standardized according to their span and depth. Properties of steel joists may be found in the Manual of Steel Construction, published by the American Institute of Steel Construction, or in literature from the Steel Joist Institute, 1346 Conneticut Ave., Washington, D.C. 20036. Joists are seldom completely detailed on drawings; they, of course, must be partially shown in details revealing their arrangement at bear- ing ends or at points where they influence the construction of other components (see Fig. 5-42). A framing plan is needed to show their layout; sizes or manufacturers' identification numbers are given in a note. Cross bridging between the joists, if needed, is also indicated in the layout. The details may show the joists welded to a steel beam (Fig. 5-22) or to a bearing plate anchored to a reinforced concrete beam, or they may show the joists bolted to plates supported by masonry walls. Many applications are found for these versatile building units. For long spans in field houses, auditoriums, and similiar buildings, large, steel trusses are often used for the roof structure. Details of the trusses and a layout diagram are shown on the structural drawings. b. prefabricated steel buildings Recently the use of small prefabricated steel buildings has in- creased substantially. For small industrial-commercial type buildings, prefabricated units possess a number of advantages. They are very economical, can be erected quickly, and can be dismantled and re- erected if necessary; they are rigid and can be made resistive to most of the destructive elements. Basic prefabricated designs can also be varied in exterior appearance by variations of exterior coverings, by various arrangements of window and door treatments, and with additional architectural wall effects. Besides the original shop drawings, only simple architectural drawings are needed to show modifications, floor and footing dimen- sions, and erection directions. Partitions, which are not usually furnish- ed by the fabricator, must also be indicated on the drawings if required. Manufacturers' specifications, supplied with the prefabricated com- ponents, eliminate much of the expense of professional architectural service. J. DETAILS Depending on the purpose of a building, many details other than the structure must be defined on the set of drawings. Some details are typical of nearly all buildings; others Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 316 may be highly specialized features found only in those buildings in- tended for nongeneral use. Consideration for these details is important in reading working drawings; often their inclusion results in various modifications of the structure itself during the design stage. A few typical details are mentioned here; other specialized details may require further reference to manufacturers' catalogs for full understanding of their representation on drawings. 1. Stairs One of the typical details necessary in most buildings of more than one story is a detail of some type of stair connecting the floor levels. Terminology and information about wooden stairs are discussed in Chapter 3. Many of the terms and the drawings involved apply to stairs in commercial buildings as well, although stairs in commercial buildings are usually constructed of steel or reinforced concrete. Stairwells are commonly constructed with fireproof masonry materials, and adequate railings must be provided for safety. Usually platforms are employed throughout flights of commercial-building stairs to eliminate fatigue and discomfort during ascent and decent. Steel stairs are often prefabricated, requiring shop drawings for their construction. The units are installed after the floor levels are completed. Details on the architectural drawings reveal their support at both the base and the head of the units, total rise and run, riser and tread sizes, and size and location of platforms, if required. Often full sections through the entire stair flight are shown, along with isolated details of a stair tread, bearing support, and railing profile and anchor- ing. Reinforced-concrete stairs are, of course, cast in place, often monolithically with a concrete structural system. Sections show the bar reinforcement running both ways and the anchoring at walls and floors. Substantial support must be provided at the base of a concrete stair; in general, it is provided by a bearing wall or a beam. Essentially, the stairs are similar to an inclined beam with the steel placed accord- ingly. Treads are often covered with a nonslipping, wear-resistant material on both reinforced-concrete and steel stairs. Interior stairs are commonly provided with elaborately designed railings having the hand rail of wood or other material that is comfortable to hold. Steel pipe or square tube railings are often used with concrete exterior stairs. Plan views of stair layouts show not only their widths but also the riser height and the total number of risers in the flight. 2. Windows and Doors Metal window units vary widely in type and size. As a rule, only high-grade metal units are used in commercial buildings. On the architectural drawings, units are identified on the plan view and a window schedule gives the necessary information, which is similar to the method used in residential drawings. Also, sections through a head, jamb, and sill show exactly how the window units are mounted and Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 ecgmapjavmpRoomooi 00001 -2 attached to the walls. Many metal windows are glazed after installation. Doors in commercial buildings are identified in a similar manner. Door schedules give the types and sizes; as with windows, better quality doors are specified in commercial buildings. Many are fire resistant, having at least a one-hour fire rating. The door details are commonly limited to details of the jamb arrangements in the various walls through- out the building. Ordinarily, sections showing the head and side jamb are all that is necessary in the details. Steel jambs set into the masonry openings and attached with metal anchors are universally used. Spaces within the hollow metal jambs are commonly filled with cement grout. Many window walls as well as windows combined with door units are made of extruded aluminum frames for use in commercial build- ings, especially buildings used for retail sales. Careful drawings of these alluminum and glass units are needed in order for the supplier to pre- fabricate and install them in their openings. For the most part, they are custom built. Usually an elevation of each unit is shown, with the glass or panel materials indicated and with a series of sections showing the aluminum profiles at heads, jambs, mullions, transoms, etc. Stock profile moldings are normally indicated with manufacturers' numbers. Complete dimensions must be given for the aluminum surround so that accurate bids can be made from the drawings. Neoprene plastic gaskets or caulking are the most common types of setting beds for the glass in the aluminum frames. 3. Interior Finishes Finish materials are the final surfaces applied to the interior of the building as the construction nears completion. Both the drawings and the specifications will furnish detail information about this final stage. Of particular concern is the final surface applied to walls, ceilings, and floors, plus the application of all moldings and trim. Careful work- manship is required in this phase, and complete details on the drawings help to provide it. Aside from the finish materials shown on specific details, interior elevations are often needed for walls of rooms requiring special consideration. Care must be taken when reading drawings to orient these elevation views to their proper locations. Also, finish sched- ules frequently compile the room-by-room interior materials and the painting that has to be done on the different surfaces. Portland cement plaster is a popular wall covering in fireproof buildings and is applied over expanded metal lath or bonded directly to masonry. Gypsum plaster is also popular; many ceilings are covered With gypsum acoustical plaster. Other acoustical ceilings are constructed with fiberboard panels hung on metal channels with wires, called "suspended ceilings." Various walls may have ceramic tile, wood panel- ing, gypsum board, brick or stone, or even plastic laminate. Many buildings are now economically finished by merely painting the exposed concrete block. Base trim materials are compatible with the material used for the finish floor. That is, ceramic tile base is usually used with ceramic tile floors, rubber base with resilient tile, wood base with wood floors, etc. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 1 i CopltiG- \VA.5 t-f 0121 P PARAPET WALL_ CAP F-1-AS l`t ncr (,2 SusPen OM) C1 LI flc3 cHAnnaL. mrra. LATti 41 PI-A. ST="12 conc. m-r4L- ,.flCftOQ. sTc2n vn m-et2 Fig. 6-34 A parapet wall and stone veneer detail, showing a suspended ceiling. Finish flooring Materials are also indicated on the architectural drawings as well as the specifications. Typical flooring materials used in commercial buildings are. 1. Wood (attached with mastic or over sleepers) 2. Troweled concrete 3. Terrazzo 4. Terra cotta 5. Ceramic tile 6. Mastic materials?magnesite, asphalt, epoxy resin 7. Resilient flooring?asphalt, linoleum, vinyl, rubber or cork tile. K. READING THE MEDICAL ARTS BUILDING WORKING DRAWINGS Included with this material is a complete set of working drawings for a small medical arts building. Several doctors and their staff would find it appropriate for conducting their general medical practice. Although not large compared to many coniercial buildings, it represents a variety of construction elements? both, concrete and steel. Hence the drawings will be appropriate for prov ing various construction examples and their representations on drawings. For a manual of this type, the actual drawings naturally had to t4 regIARP4141riegkcti5 Was% lifiN/Trila rigilikage9 i>1 7R,000900100001 -2 318 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 319 which is typical of many used in practice. Further reduction would have made them difficult to read; yet the reduction allows you to refer back and forth through the set with less effort than with the originals. In general, follow the points listed below in orienting yourself to this set of drawings; the procedure is equally as effective in reading other sets that are totally unfamiliar to you. Keep in mind that draw- ings must be interpreted together and that they should not be taken as isolated sheets of information. 1. First, Get a Good General Impression of the Building Look over the elevations and floor plans quickly to create a preliminary mental image of the shape and size of the building and, possibly, the general structural systems employed. Relate the elevations to the plan, and keep in mind the front of the building, where the main traffic will enter. Concern yourself with the exterior features first. Study the materials and where they appear. Look for irregular features on the elevations so that you can identify them on the plan and be positive of the orientation. All the information you can assimilate in your first inspection will naturally save time later on when you are hunting for specific items. Of course, remember the purpose of the building: in this case it will be used by several doctors and nurses, as mentioned, for general medical practice and minor surgery. The ground floor will accommodate a small drugstore. Notice that a stairway in one corner of the building allows interior communications between the two floor levels. The building is square in plan, with a built-up roof that is nearly flat. Its overhanging fascia is covered with copper having uniformly spaced battens. A ramp leads up to the front door of the waiting room. Major partitions in the first-floor level are constructed with steel studs covered with gypsum board. The wall sections indicate that the first- floor exterior walls are offset from the ground-floor walls, which makes the upper level slightly larger than the lower level. These are features that should give you a quick, general impres- sion of the building. There will undoubtedly be other features that contribute to this first impression. 2. Orient the Building to the Site Next, refer to the Site Plan in order to learn how the building is positioned on the site in reference to the north-point arrow. Be sure you understand which sides are east and west, for these can be sometimes confusing when you are looking down on the layout. It is common practice to find the drawing placed on the sheet so that north is toward the top, but this practice is not always feasible because of the shape of the property, as you will see on this plan (Fig. 5-36). The medical building required a definite relationship with the adjoining health building, shown lightly on the right. The medical building, however, has been given more emphasis. Notice that the layout of the parking area is shown and that all improvements, such as recontouring and paving, are included on rivan?i6efigirtP 0Fiqkfileak6a2i3P3//eiliktf fit3 IADRDP96 B01172 R000900100001 -2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS $20 throughout the area. Important information about utilities locations is also a part of the plan. This drawing provides the builder with dimen- sions for excavation work and the preliminary layout of the building, inasmuch as no excavation plan is included. 3. Locate and Identify the "Bones" of the Structure Study both the architectural and structural drawings to see where columns, girders, beams, etc. are located. See if you can understand the structural system being used; perhaps it is a combination of several systems, as previously mentioned. But you should be able to visualize the skeleton before you try to visualize the details that are attached to it. Look for grid and reference lines in both plans and on elevations. Usually the floor levels are the horizontal reference lines. In most cases, the skeleton members are closely associated with the reference lines. Look for offsets or variations of typical spacing of lines so as to be familiar with the purpose of their being offset. Be sure you understand where horizontal members shown in sections are supported and how their loads are transferred to columns or bearing walls. Sizes of all structural members are given by notes or listed in schedules. In the medical building, the columns, beams, and joists are rein- forced concrete up to and including the first-floor level. However, steel tubes within the cavity walls are used as columns in the tier above. In reading the Foundation Plan (Fig. 5-37), note that footings for the concrete columns are shown in broken lines and are sized according to the loads they will carry. Sizes, together with the amount and placement of steel for both footings and columns, are shown in the accompanying schedule. Elevation heights of footings are shown on the elevation views. Other reinforcement (labeled dowels) is noted in the floor slab below masonry partitions and below the stairwell. Notice that part of the lower ground level is unexcavated. Information about the wall footings is shown in the section details. The First-Floor Framing Plan, one of the structural drawings (Fig. 5-46), gives us information about the layout of the ribbed slab at the first-floor level. Each rib (joist) is shown with broken lines. The longer joists throughout the center span are flared at their ends to allow easier removal of the pan forms. Because the beams between columns vary in size and amount of steel, individual marks (B-1, B-2, etc.) are used to label them. Complete information about beam size and steel reinforcing is given in the schedule and in the details. Not all beams will require stirrups. Bending points of the steel bars are based on the span of the members. Notice that A bars are straight and B bars are to be bent. These structural drawings provide the steel fabricator with enough information to cut and bend the steel. Information about the concrete joists is presented in a method similar to the one shown for the beams. In looking at the Roof-Framing Plan (Fig. 5-47), we see that the roof structure consists of bar joists welded to steel beams. Support of the beams is provided by the steel-tube columns placed within the cavity walls and the partitions. Shear splices of the horizontal beams are called for where the least amount of bending stress occurs. Several standard Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/2143iagReal2FB'OR60410272R0g900100001-2 sizes of bar joists are noted in the layout, and some must be modified by cutting and welding to provide positive slope to the roof drains. Observe that two heavier joists are inserted near the center to support air conditioning equipment that is to be placed on the roof. Both the structural drawings and the architectural drawings show details of the roof overhang arrangements. Bulb tees are clipped over the bar joists, and gypsum formboard is laid between to support the poured gypsum deck. This creates a roof deck that is light and rigid and yet still has good insulating qualities. The soft-copper covering on the fascia provides a durable yet pleasing exterior material on the overhang. Figure 5-39 shows the uniform layout of the copper battens. 4. Look for Consistent Methods Used by the Draftsman to Depict Information You will find that working drawings by different offices often vary somewhat in the way in which drawings, notes, and schedules are ex- ecuted and presented, even though, to a large extent, standardization exists in the industry. Observing how these minor variations appear is a part of interpreting the drawings. Notice that throughout the medical- building drawings diagonal marks instead of arrowheads are used at the ends of dimension lines, and fractions have no cross bars. On the plans, numbers within small circles identify doors, letters within triangles identify interior elevation views, and interior metal stud partitions are located to their centerlines. The symbols for ceramic tile, concrete block, or wood may be slightly different than those found on other sets of drawings. Some pictorial drawings have been used to describe the size and construction of the copper fascia battens. Notice how leaders relate notes to features, how titles are arranged, and how cutting-plane lines are drawn to show locations of sections. Variations of these seemingly minor points exist on drawings; yet you must understand their purpose. Structural, mechanical, and electrical drawings, usually prepared in separate offices, are especially noted for the way minor points are handled in comparison to the architectural drawings. Abbreviations, too, vary with draftsmen and sometimes are troublesome for the novice. 5. Relate Details and Schedules to the Larger Views After you understand the labeling system employed throughout the drawings, relate the details to their position on the plans or eleva- tions. Reference to various drawings may be necessary before this is accomplished. Some sections, of course, are typical and have no definite Positioning planes, but you should learn from observation to what extent on the plan the typical construction applies. Some walls or parts of walls, for example, usually vary from the typical condition, and other specific details are included to explain the variation. The wall section in Fig. 5-43, for instance, is a variation of the typical wall in that the en- trance ramp and the canopy above needed to be shown; otherwise the wall materials are similar. Be sure you understand the Stair Details (Fig. 5-43) and how they are related to the floor levels. Section A-A relates to both the enlarged Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 322 Ground and First-Floor Plans shown. The first-floor view shows all the treads; yet the ground-floor view shows how the upper part of the stairs is supported. Observe that rubber tread-and-nosing surfacing is required and that the aluminum handrail will need special anchors. On the Exterior-Stair Detail, a steel pipe railing is shown. Other details show how to construct the lead shields in the X-ray room walls, the vertical brick joint in the exterior brick walls, the roof overhang, etc. To help you understand much of the interior of the building, both a longitudinal and a transverse full-section are shown in Fig. 5-41. You may need to examine the plans and elevations again to orient these sections correctly, since the square nature of the plan will make it questionable as to which plane is transverse and which is longitudinal. The Room Finish Schedule (Fig. 5-44) lists the interior finish mate- rials to be used in each room of the building?both ground floor and first floor. Even finish ceiling heights are indicated. Information is also self-evident in the Reinforced-Concrete Schedules (Figs. 5-45, 5-46), if you can relate each entry to the plan views. Each structural member has an identification mark. Notice that the abbreviation "DO." (ditto) through- out the schedules indicates that the information in the space above also applies; diagonal lines in a space indicate that no information is needed in the space. 6. Determine How the Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Is Accommodated into the Structure As mentioned previously, the mechanical (plumbing, heating, and air conditioning) and electrical drawings are made by consulting engineers who specialize in the respective fields and who work closely with the architect during the design stage. Their design work is tailor- made for each building project. The first mechnical sheet (Fig. 5-48) describes the exterior layout of the utilities connections. The sewage drain had to be run through the adjoining property, requiring a 10' easement, to the existing sanitary sewer. Six-inch vitrified clay pipe is specified for this line with a cleanout indicated about midway in the line. Elevations of the sewer line at the connection (invert elevation) must be shown on layout drawings or on a section view. On the profile drawing below the plan, the 5 per cent slope required indicates that the line will slope 5 ft. for every 100 ft. of run. Notice that a storm drain is shown leading from the low point of the rear exterior stairs to an Outfall away from the building. The Plumbing Plan (Fig. 5-47) shows the layout of the drainage lines and the hot-and cold-water feeder lines in the ground floor. Much of the piping will have to be placed below the ground floor slab. Notice that risers to the upper floor are indicated with symbols, pipe diameters are given with notes, and standard plumbing symbols are used through- out. To the right of the plan is shown a pictorial layout of the drainage lines only. Three-dimensional isometric drawings are commonly used for these single-line plumbing layouts so that both vertical risers and horizontal rfipoo)48 iiNdRiarbffistfiggeflooynarntwomp,4fienitig R000900100001 -2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 823 lines for the upper-floor fixtures are given. The pictorial layout for only the hot- and cold-water feeders is included on this sheet. Observe that many of the pipes are run through the ceiling bar joists where pos- sible. Cold-water lines are shown with a dot and long dash; hot-water lines with two dots and a long dash. An 80-gallon hot-water electric heater is to be installed in the mechanical room. In reading the Air-Conditioning and Heating Plans (Figs. 5-51, 5-52), we see that a major cooling unit is to be installed in the mechanical room, and that also an auxiliary unit is to be located on the roof near the center of the building. Automatic resistance-type heater units are to be placed in the ductwork to furnish heat to the building when tempera- tures drop. A large chase in the concrete floor provides space for both riser ducts and a large return-air duct to the unit. Individual ducts from the unit provide conditioned air to five zones in the building. Notice that two ducts are circular as they pass through the unexcavated area of the ground floor; otherwise they are mainly rectangular in shape. The duct at one end of the sales area had to be concealed by furring, as shown in the architectural drawings. All horizontal and riser ducts are shown and their cross-sectional sizes indicated with a note. All ducts will be insulated. Much of the ductwork in the upper level passes through the dropped ceiling of the hallway; minor leads go up and through the bar joists where feasible. Register outlets in the rooms are shown by symbol, size, and capacity in cubic feet of air per minute. Most of the return air from rooms, you will notice, is planned through door grills of various sizes; it then recirculates back through a large return-air register, located in the back hallway, to the central unit below. Some ceiling and floor registers, in addition to the wall registers, are shown. Fresh-air intake provision is made through louvers in the mechanical room and a vent in the roof. Fully automatic controls will be installed to balance the system and to maintain desirable temperature levels in the building throughout the year. The Electrical Drawings (Figs. 5-53, 5-54), which are plan views of each floor level, show only the electrical work to be done. The power service is brought into the building, with overhead leads located in the rear, and is run to the main distribution panel located in the mechanical room. A separate meter and by-pass is furnished to panel B nearby, which is the distribution panel for circuits to the lower sales area. Notice in the panel schedule that panel B will have 18 circuits, each having a capacity of 20 amperes, and that only 15 of the circuits will actually be used. The main panel provides for circuits to the air conditioning unit, unit heaters, lighting and receptacles, and a major circuit to panel A, located in the first-floor back hall. This is a subpanel furnishing lighting and receptacle circuits to the top floor. Circuits are numbered at the arrowheads pointing toward the panel, but they are not completely drawn in. All wiring is to be run through metal conduit. Symbols for all the fixtures, outlets, switches, etc. are given on the drawing. Dimensions shown near a symbol on the plan indicate the height the outlet is to be placed above the finish floor. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 324 Complete information about the lighting fixtures is included in the fixture schedule. Special electrical equipment will be needed in the X-ray room. Telephone outlets and installation of telephone equip- ment, as well as outdoor lighting, are also shown on the electrical drawings. crer/11- TI ? STLTULbe coLum n .51-A15 rL-0012 rysArn 5-5 (5ee sceouLe) Co nceere, CoLu s-ronE Ven=nt2 Fig. 545. The appearance of the exterior well construction and slab neer the columns In the Medical Artg ?, Building. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Next 181 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 STAT Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 STAT Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 STAT Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 HERCULES AEROSPACE DIVISION Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH QualltyAssurance ? High-energy, Real- Time X-Ray assists non-destructive testing efforts. Graphite Structures ? Antenna for tracking and Data Relay Satellite _ Systems uses graphite ! Struts and Ribs. The Hercules Challenge To You Selecting the company that pro- vides the best opportunities for your career is one of the key decisions of your life. In order to evaluate Hercules and its opportunities, it is important that you know more about us, what we expect of you, and what you, in turn, can expect from us if you join our company. Hercules is a large, diversified chemical company, multi-national in scope, with an excellent growth record. Our research and develop- ment efforts reflect the strong commitment we have for the future of our company, the nation, and our employees. Hercules has several busi- ness Divisions including the Aero- space Division located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Aerospace Division utilizes almost every branch of Engineering, as well as selected areas of Physics, Manufacturing ? Computer controlled filament winding machine laying aramid fiber on Trident C-4 motor. Chemistry, Material Research, Com- puter Science, and other related scientific disciplines. Opportunities exist at the Hercules Aerospace Division for technical graduates at all levels ? B.S., M.S., and PhD. We are involved in the develop- ment, manufacture and operational support phases of high technology solid propellant propulsion systems. Unique capabilities exist at the Hercules Aerospace Division for design and development of high technology items such as thin wall graphite/kevlar composite cases, high performance propellants, lightweight carbon nozzles, and thrust vector control systems. Additionally, we are one of the largest producers of con- tinuous graphite fiber in the world; we are the only fully-integrated pro- ducer capable of composite structural design, fiber production and resin- impregnation, and manufacture of complex graphite composite structures. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 3 Approved For Release 2005107128: CIA-RDP96B01 72R000900100001-2 CPYRGH Graphite Structures support truss for applications satellite, was first primary space structure made from graphite. 4.0 IMMINIR ? Manufacturing ? Mit rowave ovens greatly reduce cost of wing motor cases. What does Hercules expect of you? Technical competence in your field, diligence, and above all, the willingness and desire to grow in your profession. Broadly speaking, the technical aspects of your work at Hercules will pose some of the same challenges that were presented in your university coursework with the added dimension of application to product development and technical support applications encompassing a broad range of industries and custo- mers. The principles and techniques you have mastered are often directly transferable to Hercules' programs. At the Bacchus Works of the Aerospace Division near Salt Lake City, Utah, professional engineers and scientists constitute approximately 20% of the Plant's employees. The plant is large enough to have the fin- est facilities for research and devel- opment, yet small enough to encour- age cross-fertilization of ideas. Our size and diversity of interests provide opportunity for our people to have a wide variety of technical interactions, experiences, and career development avenues. We emphasize personal interchange and minimize organiza- tional boundaries. We also encourage continuing education, development of technical skills, outside contacts, and seminar and meeting attendance. While most of our personnel are located at the Bacchus Works in Magna, Utah (a Salt Lake City sub- urb), there are also a number of our people located at our Clearfield Plant about 30 miles north of Salt Lake City. Product Engineering ? Infrared thermography test to locate composite defects. Manufacturing ? Filament winding layup of rocket motor cases. Clearfield facility. The Bacchus Works is divided into a number of major technical departments. A brief description of each follows. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 4 or Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172R000 Computations/Product and Tool Engineering ? CADAM analysis and design. Product Engineering ? resting hardware fit on MX 3rd stage prototype. Quality Assurance ? Shock/ vibration data analysis system. Product Engineering ? Testing advanced nozzle design. Product Engineering The Product Engineering Department is comprised of special- ized high technology sections involved in design analysis, and development work. The latest in finite element methods and computer sup- port equipment are used in perform- ing ballistic, heat transfer, combus- tion, fluid flow and stress analyses in the design of rocket motor compo- nents. This department uses state-of- the-art computer graphics analysis techniques to design and analyze composite thin walled rocket motor cases, insulators, propellant grains (properties and internal shape), flew- seals, nozzles, 1VC (thrust vector con- trol), hardware and various composite structures. Manufacturing drawings are created by computer-aided design programs whether as an output from automated design synthesis programs .-14?00or by designers interfacing with the computer via computer graphics. Once the design is initially estab- lished using the above analysis and computer-aided design techniques, development engineers coordinate component fabrication, development testing and performance analysis. Component design integrity is exper- imentally verified or redesign is indi- cated, based on evaluation of the test data. The design engineer has the responsibility for definition and analyt- ical 3upport of the designing and the development engineer has the responsibility of converting the design into a form (drawings, specs, manu- facturing plans) understood by the factory of our suppliers. Analytical and development-type support continue through the production and opera- tions support phases. Product Engineering personnel interface constantly with customers, associate contractors and suppliers. They get a broad background in pro- ject management, planning and con- trol as well as technology. Opportuni- ties exist for advancement along technical or management lines dependent upon individual preference and ability. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 5 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96B0 172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH Graphite Fibers ? Industrial line of graphite fiber products ? cloth, prepreg tape, and yarn. Graphite Structures- Car chassis Mandrel disassembly. Materials Technology The chemical formulation for rieW or modified products with supe- rior performance is the responsibility of the Materials Technology Depart- ment. Members of this group special- ize in either propellant research or resin compound development. Through the expertise of this department and others, Hercules has long been a leader in the develop- ment and formulation of tough high- energy solid propellants. We strive for better performance in rubber-based insulation materials and bonding agents. Continuing research in epoxy, acrylate, and other resins has given us the capacity to design many unique properties into present and future graphite-based products. Materials Technology is a valua- ble member of our team in staying ahead of our competition, developing materials for our other technical departments and economizing pro- Graphite Structures ? Formula I racecar chassis. Structures ? Graphite shaft reinforcement increases stiffness, reduces weight and improves stability and performance. cesses for production. Graphite Fibers The Bacchus works of Hercules, Inc. is the largest producer of graphite fiber products in this country. Grap- hite fiber is a remarkably versatile construction material. It can be used by itself, bound in a thermosetting resin matrix or employed as a reinforc- ing or stiffening agent to other struc- tural materials (most metals, fiberglass or other synthetic fibers, metal threads, etc.) in composite systems. This fiber demonstrates exceptional lightness (in composite form, about 80% lighter than steel) yet retains very high tensile (up to 400,000 lbs./in.2) and stiffness characteristics. The fibers are used extensively in the newest generation of vehicles in the structural members and control surfaces of both commercial and mil- itary high performance and fuel- efficient jet aircraft, in fuel-efficient automobiles, in sporting goods and in other applications where low weight and extreme stiffness are required. Hercules supplies industry with grap- hite filaments (yarn), several widths of resin-impregnated tape, woven cloth, and chopped graphite fiber. Graphite Composites Our engineers at the Bacchus Works are designing simple and com- plex graphite composite structures to meet our customers' specification requirements. Graphite composites have excellent fatigue life, high chem- ical, corrosion and creep resistance, and a very low friction coefficient (self-lubrication properties). Graphite composite structures demonstrate an insignificant coefficient of thermal expansion. These structures can be formed to final shape through many manufacturing processes, including filament winding, hand lay-up injec- tion molding, pultrusion, mandrel winding and vacuum molding, with- out many of the limitations and hid- Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 di% 6 or Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96B01172R000900100001 Quality Assurance ? Precision computerized gauging equip- ment used for tolerance and runout tests. Graphite Structures ? Drive- shaft (top). Steel driveshaft (bottom). Weight savings with hybrid truck driveshaft approached 70%. Qua IltyAssurance/Research & Develop- ment Lab. ? Advanced testing and formulation of resin compounds and constituents. Manufacturing ? 23 foot MX cannister (launch tube) section. Quality Assurance ? Stress, tensile and other physical properties are routinely tested on our fibers and resin products. den costs (high energy and labor, machining loss, etc.) of competitive metal products and their production processes. We've produced space vehicle frameworks and antennas, aircraft floor support beams, automotive driveshafts and internal engine parts, Formula I race car chassis, and the MX cannister/launch tube (70' long, 98" diameter, walls 1-1/2" thick). Hercules was the first to use fiber composite materials in pressure ves- sels/rocket motor cases. Graphite fibers now comprise a portion of the structural material used in our motor cases and nozzle designs. The Quality Assurance Depart- ment is a highly diversified depart- ment motivated to improve and main- tain an exceptionally high level of quality and reliability in our product lines. Our Quality Control Engineers achieve this goal through process and materials control; design and calibra- tion of many different precision mea- suring tools (often one-of-a-kind tools); development and performance of many unique testing procedures, both of a destructive (motor firing, hydroburst tests, etc.) and non-de- structive (real-time high energy x-ray, laser, infrared thermography, acousti- cal holography, and ultrasonic) nature. The department is staffed with chemists and technicians who per- form a number of routine and non- routine chemical tests to assure the continuing quality of our raw mate- rials, resins, and fibers. Computer-supported data reduc- tion techniques are commonly used to assemble data into usable form. A sta- tistical support group performs relia- bility studies to assist our team of quality assurance engineers in main- taining the quality levels we've come to expect from our products. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 7 Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH Manufacturing ? 46 foot graphite MX Cannister (launch tube) prototype. Quality Assurance Receiving Lab ? checking quality sub- intracted work. Manufacturing ? MERZ pneumatic drilling machine for first stage trident motor. Manufacturing Ii spection of finished C-4 Trident motor. Research and Development Analytical Chemists and Applied Physicists comprise most of our Research and Development Depart- ment, where answers to specific complex questions are sought out and solved on a non-routine basis. A scientist in this department typically is involved in venture projects; research into new areas never before attemp- ted by one or more of our develop- ment departments. The majority of the work is in the formulation, test- ing, and analysis of new and highly advanced rocket motor propellants in cooperation with one or more of our other departments. This overall team approach develops higher perfor- mance and better reliability in our rocket motor systems. Manufacturing Our Manufacturing Department is actually two separate engineering groups responsible for translating developmental prototypes and theo- ries into actual production line manu- facturing processes and finished products. Our plant, located 30 miles north of Salt Lake City in Clearfield, Utah, houses our large filament winding and machining equipment and has approximately 9 acres of work area under one roof. At Clearfield, we manufacture our composite rocket motor chambers (pressure vessels) and other large filament-wound structures. The resin curing of these structures is accomplished in the world's largest microwave ovens. The manufacturing process at the Bacchus Works in Magna includes preparing the rocket motor chamber for the mixing, curing, and casting of the propellant charge (grain). The internal grain configuration is con- trolled through the use of a complex precision fin core tool placed in the chamber prior to the casting opera- tion. The bore grain design controls the ultimate burning surface area and the resulting pressure and thrust curve characteristics. The nozzle, igni- tor, external insulation and brackets, are then mounted to complete the manufacturing process. Our engineers working in these manufacturing engineering opera- tions are developing equipment and processes to acquire the high quality products and production volume our customers have come to expect. This is an engineering area that requires creativity, initiative and a good amount of hands-on engineering work. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 : CIA-RDP961301172R000 tor' Works (Plant) Engineering Operational support to our tech- nical departments is supplied by the Works Engineering Department. These engineers are involved in the design, construction, and mainte- nance of the physical facilities, tool- ing, machinery, power equipment (electricity, steam and climate control circuitry) and energy conservation efforts on plant. This department generally employs the widest group of engineering disciplines on plant, including Civil, Manufacturing, Elec- trical and Mechanical Engineers. This is another group that exposes engi- neers to hands-on work. Quality Assurance ? Statistical reliability analysis group monitors performance of our product. Other Engineering Groups In addition to the aforemen- tioned groups, the Bacchus Works also employs a number of other engi- neers doing specialized work. They include: Industrial Engineers are involved in performing advanced time and motion studies using the compu- ter method MOST, planning plant and office equipment requirements and layout schemes, analyzing cost saving suggestions formulating feasi- bility studies for a number of special projects, performing human factor studies, and completing many other non-routine studies as required. Safety Engineers monitor pro- cesses or construction activities to ensure a safe working environment free of fire, explosion, or other chemi- cal or physical hazards detrimental to our work force. The Tekol test range near Bacchus is one of the most modern in the free world. Tooling ? CADAM design and analysis of the tools required in testing and production areas. Program Office Engineers develop and administer programs as necessary to comply with our custo- mers' needs and requirements. They provide an open liaison function to solve engineering problems, maintain schedules and control cost on all major programs. This function includes management support of all missiles in the field. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 9 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96B0 72R000900100001-2 CPYRGI-1 Computations/ Computer Systems Division This department is composed of personnel with skills in math, statis- tics, electronics, mechanics, logic and computer programming. Its activities include the development and mainte- nance of instruments and instrument/ computer systems performing mathematical and statistical data reduction to assist researchers in Her- al les laboratories, engineering analy- sis groups and production departments. 10 Computations ? changing tape drive for IBM computer. The computations group special- izes in direct technical problem- solving support of our engineering and scientific groups, often using sophisticated computer software packages developed in-house to aid in the analysis and design of rocket motor components. A strong mathematical background through partial differential equations, numeri- cal analysis, and FORTRAN program- ming skills are required in this area. Computer Services Division is responsible for the systems analysis and business-related computer sup- port on plant. They require COBOL, JCL(IBM), IMS, or other data base management knowledge as mioimum skills. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Computations ? The Bacchus Works is a major Hercules computer center. elease 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP968 1 Beyond Your Salary When you are deciding on a company, you should consider total compensation in the factors affecting your decision. A liberal benefits pack- age, one that completes your financial security picture, can be viewed as the equivalent of additional income. The Hercules Employee Benefits Program offers a comprehensive medical plan and a dental expense assistance plan for you and your family; group life insurance and long-term disability insurance for you; savings and pen- sion plans; and, to encourage your professional and personal develop- ment, an excellent tuition reimburse- ment program. The medical, life insurance, and tuition plans are available to you shortly after your employment. Also, after 12 months of company service you will be entitled to two weeks' vacation. If you start working before July 1 of any calendar year, you will receive a week's vacation during that year. The dental plan, group long-term disability, and savings plan are availa- ble after one year of credited service. The Hercules Employee Savings Plan is designed to provide a conve- nient, systematic method of saving money. A year after you start work, you become eligible to begin invest- ing up to 10% of your monthly gross salary in a number of different invest- ment modes. As an incentive for you to participate, Hercules contributes 25 cents to your fund for every dollar you invest. The company contribution is invested in Hercules common stock. The pension plan is funded entirely by Hercules, and after work- ing only five years, you will have the right to receive a pension from Hercules upon retirement, no matter where your career may lead you. Hercules pays the full cost of some employee benefits, while the costs of others are shared with you Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 11 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 CIA-1RDP961301 72R000900100001-2 CPYRGH About Salt Lake City, Utah Metropolitan Salt Lake City, the largest city in Utah, has a pop dation of approximately 500,000, making it one or are largest cities in the Moi i itain West Salt Lake City is located on the western slope of the Rockies dr Id is bercming the home of an increasing number of corporations and inttiustries. It is one of the fastest-growintlareas in the rountry, due to an abundant supply or VI len-Ay resources and stable work- nrc with a very strong work ttthic. Salt ake City has an unexcelled stindard of ri,,ing arid life-style. Housing 1 ;ousinq is readily available in all parts of the city at reasonable cost. While most of the city's housing con- sists of single family dwellings, an abundant supply of apartments. L dominiums, and rental units are avail- able with many of the commonly desired amenities. Schools Salt Lake City has one of the nation's few growing populations of school-aged children. Historically Utah and the surrOunding area has tin recognized for its exceptional educational system, placing more individuals per capita into college i.ban any other state. Utah aiso Itivests a major part of its tax revenuc its educational system ? one Or if in highest education dollar oer tax- ]iaver in the United States. nere are three universities fun a 50-mile radius ot the Sal! tike City area. the University of Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 elease 2005/07/2 : CIA-RDP96B011 Now' Garden City ? Sweetwater Resort on Bear Lake. Salt Lake City ? Bicentennial Arts Center (Symphony Hall). Southern Utah ? Water skiing on Lake Powell where there are many beautiful deserted canyons. Hiking in the High Uintah mountains. Utah, located in Salt Lake City, with enrollment of approximately 25,000 full-time students, currently has many graduate programs available and evening courses for the working community. Brigham Young University is located 40 miles south, in Provo, and is approximately the same size as the University of Utah. BYU also offers a number of extension courses in the SLC area each semester. Weber State College is located 35 miles north in Ogden. The close proximity of these large universities provides strong intrastate sports rivalries and cultural activities and allows our professionals to continue their education in advanced coursework. Cultural Activities SLC fosters a very strong cultural environment, far out of proportion with its population base. Facilities are lvailable for large displays and exhib- NoPrts, concerts, and professional sport- ing events (NBA Basketball, Central League Hockey and AAA Baseball teams). The Utah Philharmonic Orchestra, Ballet West, repertory theater companies, and a local opera company have production schedules each season. Several Utah cities spon- sor Shakespearean festivals, melodra- mas, and other special events each summer. The Mormon Tabernacle Choir performs twice weekly for the public, free of charge. Art, cultural, and historical museums are available throughout the area. Recreational Activities Tourism is Utah's largest industry. The state is unequaled in its scenic splendor and diversified terrain. Utah has numerous National and State Parks, mountain ranges, forests, sand- stone canyons and formations, deserts, and lakes; all open for hiking, camping, and fishing activities throughout the summer months. Skiing at one of Utah's many winter resorts. Winter brings the skiers to Utah; we have seven major world-class ski resorts within a 30-45 minute drive of the city, all exhibiting the best powder skiing available. Utah is known for its excellent big and small game hunting and fishing opportuni- ties. Recreational vehicles abound in Utah's wide open country. SLC is known for its friendly, open, and active people and its mild climate and beauty. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 200510 28 : -RDP96130 CPYRGH A Word About Vportunities -veryone in top manage] tient at Hercules learned early in their profes- sion the importance of humat resour- ces. or that reason, a major 'Clog is inade to create a working atrf los- phere that will attract and keep the talented people we need. Jot) satis- faction is paramount. Another mea- sure Jt the importance we pi, ice on peoe is the salary and othei com- pensation that our employee', receive. Should you receive a salary orter from us, tie assured that it will be Fair and reasonable, and that it will take into lull account your academic a nieve- menis and applicable work eApe- rierice. if you should choose To join your future cornpensatior will be dire( tly related to your own -rforts ..ind ambition. With the Aero pace Divrion of Hercules. Inc. the is a unique combination of oppo' [unity for professional lob satisfactsi in, excel- lent working benefits and ot.the-job lifestyle. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 UNIVERSITY OF UTAH elease 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP96801172R00090010000 -2 The Bacchus Works is one of the original Hercules plants, beginning production in 1915 to produce powder and dynamite for the mining industry in the intermountain area. In the late 1950's, research and development work was started on solid propellant rocket motors for the Polaris and Minuteman systems ? Missile work has been the emphasis of our work since that time including continual development of Navy Fleet Balistic Missiles. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 15 iiHERCULES Hercules Aerospace Division Bacchus Works P.O. Box 98 Magna, Utah 84044 (801) 250-5911 Equal Opportunity Employer M/F Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 STAT Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 STAT Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 STAT Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 DESTRUCTION CERTIFICATE CFDC NO. A. ? roved For Release 2005107128: CIA-R0P96 01172R000900100001-2 - -- -- (Include subject or title, data of document, etc. DESCRIPTION Identify so as not to reveal classified information) CLASS. COPY NO, DESTRUCTION CERTIFICATION WITNESS I certify that I have this date destroyed the document(s) described above in accordance with DOD Industrial Security Manual. WITNESSED SIGNATURE) BY ( DESTROYED BY (SIGNATURE)DATE Approved For Release 2005/Ciii28: CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 4 .2-7:- 11., 111?11111111111111 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 CPYRGHT ABOUT THE COVER Hercules' new corporate headquarters building at 13th and Market Streets in downtown Wilmington is nearing completion. Relocation to the building is scheduled for second- quarter 1983. Located on the banks of the historic Brandy- wine River, the building was designed as an architectural statement of quality to enhance Hercules' image in the community as a leading international chemical company. It incorpo- rates the most modern communications energy conservation, and office automation equipment to enhance office productivity and at the same time provide a pleasant environment for Hercules employes. CONTENTS 2 Letter to Shareholders 4 Management's Discussion and Analysis 8 Business Segments 28 International Business 30 Research & Development 32 Energy Conservation & Raw Material 33 Financial Section 52 Management's Report and Auditors' Report 53 Directors, Committees of the Board, Management Executives, and Advisory Council 54 Principal Associated Companies 55 Plants and Sales Offices 56 Investor s Quick Reference Guide Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP961301172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH A S. oved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Selected Financial Data (Dollars and shares in millions, except per share) 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 For the Year Net Sales $2,469.0 $2,718.4 $2,485.2 $2,345.4 $1,946.5 Profit from Operations 113.7 211.7 154.9 211.5 186.2 Income Before Taxes 83.6 180.4 114.7 238.4 157.8 Income Before Extraordinary Gain 86.8 136.5 114.0 172.5 103.3 Extraordinary Gain 11.6 - - - Net Income 98.4 136.5 114.0 172.5 103.3 Dividends 56.9 53.6 50.9 45.6 42.4 Per Share of Common Stock Earnings Before Extraordinary Gain 1.97 3.09 2.60 3.89 2.36 Extraordinary Gain .25 Earnings 2.22 3.09 2.60 3.89 2.36 Dividends 1.32 1.26 1.20 1.075 1.00 Research and Development 70.7 61.4 53.5 46.7 40.1 Depreciation and Amortization 120.5 118.8 114.5 106.5 106.7 Capital Expenditures 165.0 167.2 229.2 186.0 115.8 At Yearend Working Capital 431.4 518.9 386.7 379.4 332.7 Ratio 2.2 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.9 Property, Plant and Equipment - at cost 2,079.7 2,018.6 1,882.3 1,703.5 1,615.4 Total Assets 2,001.4 1,997.1 1,889.7 1,761.2 1,596.6 Long-Term Debt 431.9 454.4 334.5 280.6 296.0 Stockholders' Equity 1,078.9 1,051.4 1,009.7 945.4 818.5 Per Share 24.18 24.73 23.79 22.31 19.31 Common Shares Outstanding 44.6 42.5 42.4 42.4 42.4 Number of Common Stockholders 35,390 37,696 37,263 37,744 38,199 Number of Employes 21,598 22,777 22,928 24,387 24,431 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 1 Approved For Release 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH 2 Alexander F. Giacco, chairman, president and chief executive officer To Our Shareholders The year 1982, the second year of the longest business decline since the 1930s, was certainly a continuing test of our strategy. In the 1975 recession, Hercules was unable to completely earn its dividend payment, which was nevertheless paid. This year it was earned in just over eight months, reflecting the many improvements we've made in our operations. For 1982, we reported net income of $98.4 million, equal to $2.22 per share, compared with $136.5 million, or $3.09 per share, in 1981. Sales for 1982 were $2.46 billion, down from $2.71 billion in 1981. During the past four years, we have worked hard at reducing the cost of doing business, and over the past few years we have lowered our break-even level by at least 10 percentage points. In July, our plants reached their low point in capacity utilization, operating at under the 55 percent level, yet we were still able to generate an operating profit. To break even five to seven years ago would have required our facilities to operate at 65 to 68 percent of capacity. An important reason for this improvement has been a significant decline in overhead costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses (ex-research and development), SG&A, have been reduced from an average of 11 percent during most of the 1970s to under 10 percent during the 1980s. If 1982 sales had remained at the same level as those of 1981, the average would have dropped well below 9 percent. However, because of the sharp decline in sales caused by the recession, the SG&A percentage of sales actually increased. Nonetheless, in terms of dollars, SG&A expenses declined in 1982 from those of 1981. Accordingly, our upside earnings potential has been considerably enhanced as the business recovery results in higher sales levels. As part of our previously announced effort to improve operating efficiencies, in 1982 we accomplished a significant reduction in the total number of people in Operations without sacrifice to either the quality of our products or the safety of our employes. There is no simple formula for an excellent safety record. We believe it to be the result of positive and active concern expressed both in words and action, which translates down the line into day-by-day, minute-by-minute awareness of safety in each worker's mind. This translation, reinforced by continuous training, is the path to continued excellence. In 1982, Hercules achieved its best record since its inception in 1912. For the year, the accident frequency rate of 0.12 is the equivalent of less than one injury for every 1.5 million man-hours worked. By comparison, this accident frequency rate is approximately four times lower than the chemical industry average accident frequency rate for 1982. During the year, we continued to make strides in reducing the volatility of our earnings. Prior to the 1970s and our heavy commitment to commodity petrochemicals, Hercules earnings had been quite stable and on a solid growth path. In the four years following the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, our earnings averaged $1.56 from the continuing business, but during that same time period there was a range of plus or minus 51 percent variation around this average. The reason for this was that a large percentage of our revenues was from petrochemical commodity products. At the very heart of our strategic plan and management philosophy is the idea of minimizing these wide earnings fluctuations and thereby making our earnings more predictable. A greater degree of financial stability is of immeasurable value in the strategic planning process. We have demonstrated progress in this vital area. For instance, between 1978 and 1982, our earnings, affected by two recessions, averaged $2.74 per share from the continuing business, with a range of plus or minus 24 percent variation around the average. There is room for further gains, and we are working to achieve them. A positive change in investors' percep- tions of and expectations for Hercules has been reflected in the performance of our stock in 1982. The price:earnings ratio at yearend stood at 15, one of the highest among the major chemical companies and an indication that we have regained our position among the leaders in our industry. During the year, we cut our capital spending program from an originally fore- cast amount of $200 million to an actual Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH $165 million. It is our intention to finance capital projects through internally generated funds rather than through borrowing. We are essentially still on target for our $1.4-billion, six-year investment program, which we announced in 1978, although we have delayed a number of projects rather than borrow money to finance them. Between 1960 and 1970, Hercules was transformed from a relatively small domestic producer of value-added chemicals to a worldwide manufacturer of chemicals with a very large petrochemical commodities exposure, which accounted for 43 percent of the asset base in 1975. By 1984, we will have completed a second major transformation that will have minimized our commodities exposure to 19 percent of our asset base, and that will be based on products and markets unknown to the company in the early 1970s. In almost all cases, these new products will perform a specific function such as covering, filling, protecting, strengthening, or thickening. We will not be making a direct one-on-one substitution for an existing product, as was the case with the petro- chemical commodities. Rather, our new products will be bringing additional properties or functions to the marketplace. Graphite fiber is a prime example of one of these new products. You will read more about it in this report, under Explosives & Aerospace. It is truly a new material and does things no other material has done before. Polypropylene films are another example, and several other new value- added polypropylene products are further testament to our concept of selling chemicals as properties rather than as a cheaper substitute for existing products. A number of our businesses continued to make progress in 1982. Aerospace and Electronic Products reported improved sales and profits over 1981, as did PFVV, a small but important segment of our specialties business. Film also had increased sales, although profits were about the same as those of last year. Adria Laboratories, jointly owned with Montedison S.p.A., reached the $100 million sales level for the first time, and is now poised for real growth. In the third quarter, we exchanged 2,038,154 shares of our common stock for $50 million of Hercules' 6.5 percent convertible debentures. The debentures were selling at a discount, which enabled us to generate a book gain on the transaction, while at the same time reducing debt and interest expenses and increasing equity, thereby strengthening the balance sheet with only a nominal dilutive effect on future earnings per share. Total debt at yearend declined over that of 1981, and the debt:equity ratio stood at 45 percent, a sharp reduction from the peak of 78 percent reached in 1975. Once again, it is appropriate to comment on the Agent Orange litigation. A Phase 1 trial is now set for June 1983, to determine, among other things, whether the U.S. Government "knew as much as or more than the defendant about the hazards to people that accompanied use of Agent Orange." We are optimistic that Hercules and the other manufacturers will be able to demonstrate that there was no significant risk, and that in any event, the Government's knowledge was at least equal and probably superior to our own. If we are successful in the Phase 1 trial, most of the litigation will be terminated at the U.S. District Court level, subject, of course, to appeal. In August, we announced the retirement of John R. Ryan, senior vice president and a member of the Board of Directors since 1967. At yearend, Stephen R. Clarke, senior vice president and a member of the Board of Directors since 1971, elected to take early retirement effective February 1, 1983. The many years of dedicated service to the company by these men have been greatly appreciated. Special mention should also be made of the loyalty and devotion of each member of the Hercules family, who have contributed to implementing our strategic plan. They have faced difficult problems and to a large measure have solved them, with Hercules emerging stronger and with a sense of purpose that will carry it forward through the '80s and beyond. As the new year begins, the economy is giving many indications that the recovery process is already underway. We are anticipating relatively modest GNP growth in 1983, with the economy gaining strength throughout the year and into 1984. act-if aA.,e07 Alexander F. Giacco, Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer February 1, 1983 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 3 CPYRGH 4 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Net Sales (Dollars in billions) $3 78 79 80 81 Physical Volume (1967= 100) )50 200 191 213 189 184 82 78 79 80 81 82 Selling Price (1967 = 100) 78 79 80 81 82 Results of Operations Cost per Unit Consolidated Net Sales for 1982 were (1967 = 100) 9% lower than 1981, and approximately the same as 1980. As can be seen on the adjacent chart covering the most recent five years, sales have shown steady growth over the years, resulting in an average growth rate of 8%. The increase from 1980 to 1981 was the result of a 12% increase in selling prices and a 3% decrease in sales volumes. During 1982 the decline in volume continued by 12%, while sales prices in a generally poor business environment improved by a modest 3%. The charts to the lower left demonstrate relative volume and price performance over the past five years. Profit From Operations was 46% lower in Research and Development 1982 than 1981. In 1981, profit from (Dollars in millions) operations had increased 37% from 1980. The 1981 improvement over 1980 $75 was the result of slightly better gross margins as well as an improved relationship between sales and selling, 50 47 general and administrative expenses. These improvements during 1981 were 40 the result of concentrated efforts in cost effectiveness and our ability to increase 25 prices. The unit cost chart to the right demonstrates our efforts during 1981 when, despite increases in raw material costs of 12% and energy costs of 15%, the rate of increase in costs lessened. During 1982 the rate of increase in raw material and energy costs declined significantly (particularly in the last quarter) and our aggressive attitude toward cost control continued. However, as noted earlier, sales volumes declined appreciably. This decline in sales volumes effectively offsets the gains achieved in gross margins and operating margins during 1981, causing the decline in profit from operations. Research and development costs, which represent future-oriented expenses, have experienced healthy growth over the past five years, as demonstrated on the chart to the right. These costs account for all of the dollar increase in selling, general and administrative expenses in 1982. 300 278 78 79 80 81 82 61 53 78 79 80 81 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 71 82 Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 CPYRGH Nonoperating Income was relatively stable during 1980 and 1981; however, during 1982 it increased by 32%. Most of this increase resulted from interest income received on tax refunds; gains on sale of know-how and fixed assets also contributed. Interest and Debt Expense in 1982 increased 9% over 1981. The increase is primarily the result of higher debt levels experienced during the first six months of 1982. The 25% increase experienced in 1981 over 1980 was the result of the very high interest rates prevailing during the period. Provisions for Income Taxes reflected an effective income tax rate of 24% for 1982, 28% for 1981, and 20% for 1980. The major cause of the reduction from the statutory rate of 46% is investment tax credits; however, the details of the causes for the respective tax rates are covered in Note 6 of Notes to the Financial Statements. Equity in Net Income of Affiliated Companies for 1982 increased, thereby reaching levels achieved in years prior to 1981. The primary cause of the increase in earnings is the disposition of certain ventures that affected 1981 results negatively and, to a lesser extent, increased foreign currency translation gains. Earnings per Share results were under recessionary pressure during the past two years. An analysis of the change in per-share earnings, which highlights factors discussed earlier, follows at the upper right: Per-Share Earnings Increase (Decrease) 1982 vs 1981 Variance 1981 vs 1980 Profit from Operations Increased selling prices $ 1.11 $ 5.43 Reduced volumes (1.28) (.32) Manufacturing costs (1.21) (3.67) Depreciation (.03) (.08) Other (.05) (.06) Increase (decrease) in gross profit (1.46) 1.30 Increased research and development (.15) (.14) Decrease (increase) in SG&A .06 (.16) Increase (decrease) in profit from operations (1.55) 1.00 Other Causes Increased other income, net .08 .32 Increased interest costs (.07) (.17) Lower (higher) effective tax rate .07 (.32) Increase (decrease) in equity income .35 (.34) Increase (decrease) from other causes .43 (.51) Extraordinary Gain .25 Increase (Decrease) in Net Income $ (.87) $ 49 Earnings and Dividends per Share of Common Stock (Dollars per share) $4 3 2 1 0 00 78 79 80 81 N Earnings per Share Dividends per Share 82 The chart shown to the left demonstrates a rising trend in earnings per share from 1978 to 1981, with the business slowdown causing a decline in 1982. In addition, dividends represented an average payout of 42% and increased slightly year to year. In addition to the preceding discus- sions, more specific information is presented regarding business seg- ments, international business, research and development, and energy costs within their respective sections of this report. The impact of inflation is included in Note 13 of Notes to the Financial Statements. Approved For Release 2005/07/28 : CIA-RDP96601172R000900100001-2 5 CPYRGH Approved For Release 2005/07/28: CIA-RDP96B01172R0100900100001-2 Management's Discussion and Analysis ot rinancial ConditIon and Results of Operations icontd1 Internal Sources and Principal Uses of Funds (L1 in millions) ftd 03 79 80 81 82 Ai Provided from Operations Capital Expenditures increase in Working Gapital Cash Dividends Total Capitalization at Yearend (I lies in billions) /8 79 80 81 82 Notes Payable ft I ongderm Debt 111 Stockholders Equity ilnancial Condition liquidity must be considered fror both he short-term and long-term trspectives. Accordingly, in scussing the company's relativ,, .rength, the current position as well as he ability to generate funds internally ; -id externally is considered. Hercules' quick ratio (current assets, ,