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(b)(1) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 ~(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Soviet and East European Parapsychology Rerearcl~ 51 77-10012 April 1977 (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 April 197 7 Soviet and East European Parapsychology Research Project Officer Thomas C. Hamilton Some recent US research suggests that it may be possible to use certain paranormal abilities for military or intelligence purposes. There are major uncertainties, however, about the extent to which such abilities exist, their reliability, and their mechanisms of operation. The practical utilization of these abilities has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. Analysis of information from a number of sources indicates that the Soviets have a parapsychology research program whose existence is classified and whose funding and control reside largely with the Ministry of Defense and possibly the KGB. A small number of well- funded, closed institutions and research centers in the Soviet Union reportedly are staffed with competent scientists engaged in research on the potential military and intelligence applications of parapsychological phenomena. The accomplishments and importance of the Soviet research cannot be assessed accurately at this time. The program has been broad in scope, but its focus appears to be narrowing to those areas identified as having the greatest potential for applied use. Concurrently, the Soviet government appears to be exerting continually tighter control over unclassified parapsychological research. Researchers in the classified program apparently are being assigned an increasingly greater portion of the research, while the publicly acknowledged, academically oriented researchers are finding it increasingly difficult to conduct experiments, to disseminate their research results, and to communicate with foreign colleagues. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 -~EF_?FIET SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN PARAPSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH Project Officer Thomas C. Hamilton SI 77-10012 April 1977 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 PREFACE The quality of most published parapsychology literature has been poor, or at best suspect, and often has been totally unscientific. The field frequently has been associated with the occult. Reported parapsychological phenomena often have seemed to conflict with prevailing beliefs Consequently, evaluations of research data and of research projects frequently have been based largely on highly polarized emotional biases rather than on the scientific competency of the research effort. These factors make it difficult to assess accurately the intelligence importance of parapsychology. The small fraction of scientific open literature that is based on well-documented research using the scientific method has dealt largely with non-applications oriented aspects of parapsychology. Afew closely monitored experiments recently conducted in the West, however, indicate that there are several paranormal phenomena that potentially could be used for such things as acquiring information of intelligence value or influencing electronic circuitry remotely. A recent study by the DCI's Scientific and Technical Intelligence Committee refers to in~hat a new direction in science lies in the area of parapsychological research " Soviet scientists have long shown an interest in applied paranormal phenomena. Their interest has sometimes reflected research experience in areas of parapsychology that are not discussed in Soviet open literature Previous analyses of the large volume of Soviet parapsychology publications from the past several decades provided no clear indication of the quality, extent, or intent of the potentially applied areas of Soviet research. Nor was there a clear indication of Soviet military or intelligence involvement in parapsychological research. To fill the information gap, two contractual investigations were undertaken. In the first study, recent Soviet emigres were interviewed in an attempt to determine if the Soviets had instituted classified research programs for the study of paranormal phenomena. The interviews provided the names of Soviet scientists and research institutes reportedly dedicated to classified research programs involving various aspects of parapsychology The second study employed an interdisciplinary team of research scientists to evaluate the scientific merit of Soviet and East European open literature on parapsychology. This analysis considers the results of these contractual studies, along with additionally available intelligence information, and assesses the current organization, scope, quality, and potential national security implications of Soviet parapsychology research. The report was prepared by the Office of Scientific Intelligence and was coordinated within CIA. The cutoff date for information is January 1977. 'V~eHS on Emerging Areas of Science and Technology Potentially Important to National Secunty STIC i~-4, December 19T (Confidential) iii (b)(1 (b)(3 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 TECHNICAL FOREWORD The term parapsychology has become somewhat of a catch-all label used to denote the study of unexplained and seemingly inexplicable (hence paranormal) phenomena. The phenomena usually are associated with mental (psychological) functioning, but they also include unexplained physical processes (such as dowsing). Because many parapsychological phenomena often appear to be magical or spiritual, the popular image of parapsychology includes the occult. When considered as a science, parapsychology research basically consists of controlled experiments designed to determine whether reported paranormal phenomena can be reproduced under laboratory conditions, to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena; or to determine and to improve the reliability and mformation quality (usability) of the phenomena. Terms frequently used to define parapsychological phenomena include the following. Telepathy. The mental communication between a sender and a recipient. Clairvoyance. The perception of information about definite events, phenomena, or objects without the participation of an active sender Precognition. A special case of clairvoyance in which a person perceives mformation about future events Psychokinesis. The influencing of matter by force of the mind, such as mentally moving objects or mentally affecting electrical circuits. These four phenomena, although not a complete set of all those usually associated with parapsychology, encompass the areas judged to have the greatest potential for applied uses Scientific investigations of other paranormal phenomena are also potentially important because they may provide greater insight into the fundamental physical mechanisms, if any, underlying these four phenomena A few? recent experiments that were closely monitored and reasonably well controlled indicate that at least some potentially significant paranormal phenomena can in fact be reproduced under laboratory conditions Several theoretical studies have concluded that such phenomena are not at variance with known physical laws, and a number of mechanisms of action (such as extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation acting as an information carrier) have been hypothesized. Nonetheless, the existence of paranormal phenomena having potential national security implications remains a moot point that can be determined conclusively only through further scientific research, if at all. But before an accurate assessment can be made of their potential usefulness, the reliability and information quality of paranormal phenomena that are determined to exist under controlled laboratory conditions will need to be quantified. Evaluations of the importance of foreign parapsychological research therefore must be made in this light, and paranormal abilities must be regarded as tools whose intelligence/military significance is potentially great but whose significance cannot yet be assessed accurately. (b)(1) (b)(3) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 CONTENTS Page PREFACE "' ................. .... ...... ....... ................... iii TECHNICAL FOREWORD ............... .............. . ............ v PROBLEM .. .... ............ ..... ................. .. .. ... 1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .. ... ......... 1 Background ...... ............................................... 1 Research Organization .......... ... ......... ..................... 2 Research Progress .. ..... ..... ... .................... ........ 3 Clairvoyance (Remote Viewing) .... ..... ............... ........ 3 Telepathy ........ ............ .... ............................ 4 Psychokinesis ........................ ..... ................. 6 Hypnosis, Autogenic Training, and Yoga ......... . ............ ..... 6 Black Magic .... ..... ..... .................................... 6 Covert Research Facilities ........ .. ......... ..................... 6 Significance of the Soviet Program ...... .... .. ........... ....... 7 Potential Uses ... .... .... .... .. .... ........... 7 Success Probability ..... ... ... ... .... ...... ....... ... 8 Related Research Benefits .. .... .......... ... ........ , 8 APPENDIX Page Classified Soviet Parapsychology Research Facilities ....... .............. 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN PARAPSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH PROBLEM To assess the organization, scope, potential intelligence value, and military significance of Soviet parapsychological research. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Analysis of information from a number of sources indicates that the Soviets have a parapsychology research program ~?hose existence is classified and whose funding and control reside largely with the Ministry of Defense and possibly the KGB. This program reportedly has been active since the early 1960s, is staffed by competent scientists and technicians, and includes about 10 research units that range in size from a single laboratory to large institutes employing se.?eral hundred people (e. g., the parapsychology institute on Vorobyovyye Gori in Moscow } The classified research has included virtually all areas of paraps}'cholog~ but has emphasized heavily those areas that the Soviets apparently believe have the greatest potential for intelligence and military uses. These include cla-rvoyance (remote viewing) to acquire intelligence information about remote locations not accessible by other means, telepathy to influence remotely the physical and/or mental state of targeted -ndividuals, and telepathy to establish covert, possibly undetectable, communications channels. They also may include psychokinesis to affec__t._the_ operation of remote electronic circuitry. Although available information does not permit a confident judgment to be made of Soviet ac- complishments, over the past decade the classified program probably has had at least some success in improving the reliability and quality of information obtained from certain paranormal phenomena. It apparently has instilled at least moderate confidence in the feasibility of developing significantly useful, applied paranormal systems. Furthermore, the Soviet researchers have gained experience with a greater variety of research methods than have their US counterparts and probably have completed more of the critical experiments needed to evaluate adequatel}' the potential applications of paranormal abilities. Although information is available on the objectives of the projects included in the classified Soviet program, specific research results are not known. The government also influences or controls most of the unclassified parapsychology research in both the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe This has enabled the USSR to maintain tight control over the research -nformation published in open literature. Research results from the classified program have not been found in the open literature, and only minor indications of cogent, scientific research associated with a classified, applied program have been detected Furthermore, researchers in the classified program apparently are being assigned an increasingly greater percentage of the research, while the publicly acknowledged, academically oriented researchers are finding it increasingly difficult to conduct experi- ments, to disseminate their research results, and to communicate with foreign colleagues. DISCUSSION Laboratory investigations of paranormal phe- nomena have been conducted in the USSR since at least the 1930s. The initial research, with the exception of the excellent work by Vasilyev on telepathy,' usually was conducted without government sponsorship and lacked formal direction, critical scientific review, and dedicated research efforts. Consequently, the overall quality of the research was poor. Furthermore, the political climate caused Vasilyev's work to remain largely unpublished until the 1960s s 1 -FrEC-ftE~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 (b)(1) (b)(3) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 During the late I9SUti and early 1960s, the status of parapsychology in the? Soviet Union changed 3 During the early and mid-I9fi0s, an apparently officially tolerated popularization of Soviet parapsychology' ` occurred concurrently with a rapid proliferation of East-West scientific contacts 5_e But this policy suddenh changed " "' around 1968, when independ- ent parapsychological investigations and investigators were suppressed and scientific contacts with the West were sharply curtailed Numerous articles were published expotiing parapsychological frauds' and dismissing the? enure area of research as totally unscientific s At the same time, however, official Soviet policy !announced under the authorship of several eminent Soviet scientists) supported the continuation, under full governmental control, of scientifically sound investigations sz One result of the changed Soviet policy was a dramatic decrease in information available to the West about the status of Soviet parapsychology Some reports suggested that this represented official Soviet efforts to suppress parapsychological research and to restrict the travel of the more prominent researchers. Other reports suggested that a government sponsored covert research program had been initiated and that the new policy indicated government efforts to gain tight contra! over all parapsychological research while using the negative press coverage to camouflage the continued, now secret, applied parapsychological research 9 10 is-2P Determination of the actual state of paraps} chology in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe has been impeded largely by the closed Soviet society, H?hich has sharply limited the availability of analvticall~ useful information ~' RESEARCH ORGANIZATION Soviet and East European parapsychological research appears to be divided into two separate categories Officially supported research groups reportedly funded by the KGB and the military; and part-time, often hobbiest type researchers supported or tolerated only by their universities s is za The officially supported groups perform virtually all of the applications-oriented research. They appear to include only Soviet researchers, with East European investigators being kept isolated from details of the applied Soviet research.21 zs ze The Soviets may be influencing the direction of selected East European research projects in order to acquire additional experimental data.'e +s The first official Soviet research program reportedly included, during the earl}? through late 1960s, -nvestigat-ons into a broad range of parapsychological phenomena and utilized a large number of researchers.9 i3 2' 23 ss Historically, L' S research has dealt largely with attempting to prove statistically that paranormal processes exist By comparison, Soviet research has generally accepted the existence of paranormal phenomena, which assumedly obey known physical and chemical laws, and has attempted to determine the biophysical and physiological aspects of the reported phenomena ' i3 zz so Soviet research also has been more concerned with demonstrating practical uses of paranormal phenomena. These differences in philosophy have resulted in the development of awes!-integrated, multidisciplinary approach to parapsychological research in the USSR. In contrast, US research has been, and largely continues to be, fragmented in organization and quite narrow in scope. In addition, Soviet emphasis on interdisciplinary, physical-science research probably has served to reduce the degree of mysticism normally associated with parapsychological research, and may have made it easier, and politically more acceptable, for Soviet policymakers to fund proposed research projects During recent years the number of research topics of the official Soviet program have been reduced and now? include only those areas evaluated to be, based on the previous years of study, potentially the most useful." s3 Also, the selection and control of researchers have become more strict, with only government-chosen investigators allowed to conduct research in the areas identified to be potentially the most useful 0 23 26 Z' Many of the publicly known Soviet researchers who have been active in parapsychology for numerous years are being inhibited from continuing their research efforts.zs z' The replacement of known researchers by new, government selected ones has enabled the Soviets to gain effective control over the dissemination of research data and thus has served to establish an effective covert research effort. The publicly known researchers who are continuing active research in "parapsychology" are involved in areas of research such as dermal optics (skin vision, such as identifying colors or reading newspaper print only through touch) or Kirlian {high voltage} photography,ss zz sa This group of researchers, in conjunction with East European researchers, nonetheless provides the Soviets with a channel for Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 gaining access to Western research data At the same time, this channel can be used to provide the West with information vieHed b~ the Soviets as having little or no potential for significant applications Unofficial parapsychological research is scattered broadh~ throughout the USSR and East Europe (particularly Czechoslovakia). Much is done on a part-time basis by investigators who often are poorly qualified to conduct serious research. The resulting publications, H hich comprise virtually all of the available Soviet open literature, have been scientifically poor, often anecdotal in nature, and frequently have included topics dealing with the occult or with areas of research that are related only peripherally to actual paranormal research 13 The few publications that appear to have scientific merit do not include sufficient data to permit a reliable analysis of the qualit}~ of the work This has produced a confusing picture of Soviet parapsychological research and has provided an effective cover for the officially sanctioned, applied research program The government-sponsored, applied program appears to be organized much more efficiently. Research during most of the 1960s apparently included a broad range of "parapsychological" phenomena and reportedh was conducted at roughly 11 facilities ranging ~n size from single laboratories to institutes with several hundred employees s z3 The research now has been narrowed in scope and has been consolidated into a smaller number of facilities Furthermore, the major research activities seem to have been confined to Moscow, with supporting or collaborating facilities located near Baku and in Alma Ata and Novosibirsk z3 The Soviet research program has been moderately large in comparison to L S investigations and has been given considerable support. For instance, most of the several hundred employees said to be working in the parapsychology institute of the Institute for Problems of Information Transmission (IPPI) in Moscow were said to be technicians who designed and built much of the instrumentation needed by the actual research scientists Furthermore, substantial support has been provided for record keeping and library The applied Soviet research program is efficiently organized, but the strict control being exerted over it by the KGB and the military makes it possible for non- technically based managerial decisions to retard the programs progress In some instances, decisions may have been made ~tthout the benefit of sound scientific anah~sis and practical research experience. The effectiveness of the applied program also is being affected by the gradual replacement of traditional parapsychologists b. government researchers new to the field za In addition to losing sources of funding, the "traditional" researchers are experiencing officially directed pressure designed to inhibit their continued experimentation in parapsychology zi This situation probabh will affect the program adversely in the short run but most likely will prove beneficial in the long term The investigators being chosen to take over research projects appear in general to be better trained ~n the physical and the physiological sciences than those the}' are replacing and thus should be more capable of elucidating the physical and physiological mechanisms responsible for paranormal phenomena The new researchers also are more applications oriented and therefore can be expected to identify useful projects more efficiently and to produce useable products more quickly These benefits should compensate for the temporary slowdowns in research progress that can be expected to occur while the newly appointed researchers acquire the necessary expertise and background in their assigned fields Some evidence is available on existing applied Soviet research projects and on the degree of progress they have achieved thus far Clairvoyance of remote locations and objects appears to be among the paranormal phenomena the Soviets have selected for additional study This phenomenon, often termed remote. viewing, also as een identi ied~by searchers as having high potential for applied use ze zs In addition, the Soviets reportedly have been studying telepathy, psychokinesis, and black magic in their covert program, as well as integrating biomedical instrumentation technology with various techniques used -n hypnosis, autogenic training (biofeedback), and yoga,s za Clairvoyance (Remote Viewing) The experimental methods used by the Soviets for remote viewing research differ significantly from those in the U S. Whereas U.S. experiments are conducted with the subject (the "remote viewer") in a completely normal, conscious state,30 the Soviets reportedly rely heavily on hypnotism, biofeedback, yoga, and drugs to induce trances and trance-like states.23 Further- more, the Soviets apparently have tested, and may be trying to develop, training techniques for teaching subjects who previously had not demonstrated any 3 rernrr Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 remote view tng abilities to acquire and to use this paranormal ability, and for improving the reliability and the quality of the information received zs Regardless of whether the Soviets have successfully produced improved remote viewing capabilities using these diverse procedural methods, they have established a data base of experimental methods that ~s not available to L'S researchers The kinds of questions that Soviets have asked US parapsychologists regarding remote viewing ex- perimentation indicate that the Soviets have been encountering similar, and perhaps greater, experimen- tal difficulties than those being experienced in the US For instance, at the June 1973 parapsychology conference in Prague, Czechoslovakia, an inter- nationally known American psychic was asked mdependentl~ b~ each Soviet delegate a standard set of questions on remote viewing The questions, which were asked m approximately the same order, indicated that the Soy lets 1) were trying to learn as much as possible about Western work without giving up anything, 2) ma. have encountered some problems with emotional reactions on the part of their psychic subjects, and 3) considered paranormal perception to be a more fru-tful area of investigation than psychokinesis 31 More recently, tw?o visiting Soviets, a cosmonaut and a space s}~stems engineer, neither of whom was a parapsychologist, sought out a group of US scientists prominent in remote v~ew?ing research Although the cosmonaut repeatedly claimed that the visit was in a pnvate capacity, it was obvious that he had been beefed and w?as probably following an agenda of items to be discussed Furthermore, although the Soviets asked numerous technical questions, they responded to similar questions by their hosts in a less than forthcoming manner. The Soviet questions on parapsychology were primarily directed at remote viewing experimental methodologies Specifically they asked whether US scientists used trance states to enhance paranormal abilities and seemed surprised to hear the answer was "No." They also asked about methods of inducing trance states and whether the techniques of suggestion, hypnosis, trance states, special training, repeated practice or repeated experimental runs, or machines were used in training personnel to use "abnormal" abilities.32 These reports are consistent with other information indicating that the Soviets are using hypnosis and other means to induce altered states of consciousness in experiments on clairvoyance and telepathy. s s3 as Because no comparable well-controlled US laboratory research has been conducted, however, the potential value of the Soviet techniques-in terms of their ability to produce gifted subjects or to improve information acquisition capabilities-cannot be evaluated quantitative]} at this time. Nonetheless, the apparent intelligence collection efforts described above indicate that the Soviets either have encountered research difficulties and are trying to gain expertise from US researchers or are trying to acquire details about what they believe to be a large, covert US research program Both reasons for the Soviet intelligence collection activities are likely. Since most of the results of applied L'S research have been published in open literature, the Soviets probably believe this to be only asmall- and probably the least interesting-portion of a large, covert research effort Also, US research results suggest that the apparent Soviet remote viewing methods, if applied incorrectly, could affect adversely their research progress Subjects attempting_ to_ "remote view" often have )jeen poor at interpreting the data they acquired through paranormal means if they attempted to analyze the data too quickly. Apparently, memory interfere with the accurate reception and interpretation of information.30 Soviet attempts to train subjects to acquire paranormal abilities probably have involved training experts to obtain information relative to their areas of specialization 23 The knowledge (memory) possessed b~ these specialists thus may have significantly reduced the accuracy of the acquired information if they were allowed to "dump to conclusions" based only on their initial impressions Also, the reported reliance on hypnosis, biofeedback, and other such non-mystical (materialistic) techniques suggests that the Soviets have attempted to obtain high quality, quantitatively useful, analytical data from this channel It may not be possible, however, to obtain such reliable, highly accurate data through clairvoyant techniques, and the Soviets, therefore, may unw?ittingIy be making it more difficult for them to achieve the goals of their research. If such is the case, the USapplications-oriented research that recently has been published in open literature ao as probably leads the Soviets to believe that US researchers have experimental expertise that would significantly benefit the Soviet program. Telepathy The Soviets also reportedly are conducting research on telepathy which includes sender-to-recipient 4 -.~;.r~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 communications, mind reading, and the_causing of involuntary physiological and behavioral changes in target -ndividuals 4 za so I M I:ogan's c~cellent work on information theon?3' also probably is included in the telepathy (and remote viewing) portions of the Soviet covert research program 50 This work, which deals with applied mathematics rather than parapsychology, probably has helped the Soviet program. Specifically, it has provided Soviet parapsychologists with mathe- matical]} sophisticated tools to analyze their research results Such analyses would be significantly less susceptible to criticism than are many of the studies published by mathematically unsophisticated US researchers This increased analytical sophistica- tion, H hich has resulted from the fact that the Soviet research program is organized on integrated, multidiscipl~nar} lines, can reduce the amount of time lost b} having to replicate poorly controlled and poor]} e~ aluated experiments Reports of telepath}? research-including one often quoted Moscow-to-ltiovosibirsk experiment-have appeared to Soviet open literature since the mid- 1960s -But the only indications that similar research is being continued m the covert Soviet program are a few reports from human intelligence sources.9 s3 +'-++ According to this information, the Soviets are attempting to use tele athv in connection with their manned space ro ram23 and are twin to influence remotel}? t e behavior an or the physio ogy of unw~ g argeted individuals zs +' - - - - ---- Anal}t~cally useful experimental results from the telepath} portion of the applied Soviet research are not available, and little comparable, well-controlled US laboratory research has been conducted. The single noteworthy exception is one telepathy_ experiment conducted about 1970 in the USSR36 and repeated, with similar results, about two years later in the US 34 These experiments, both reported in__t_he open literature, demonstrated than p siological_ changes could be monitored in a recipient to indicate when a light was flashed (at a repetition rate of 16 Hz) at a remote sender The primary Soviet investigator, at least in the published version of this study, was G. A Sergeyev, who specializes in applying statistical techniques to the study of biological objects. Although he has published several articles on the use of statistical methods to analyze electroencephalograms and "bioplasmagrams" (composite graphical representa- tons of all electromagnetic emanations from a living organ~sm)36-~s his involvement in parapsycholog} seems to have been only on a part-time basis. His publications indicate that he has devoted considerable time recently to developing statistical methods that have only broad general applications and that are not related specifically to parapsychology?39 +? It is unlike]}, therefore, that he is a major participant in the applied Soviet paranormal' research program,sa although he may be serving as a consultant (and although he reportedly has been directing a small instrumentation laboratory involved in the program). Nonetheless, Sergeyev's methods are sound scientifically, and his initial experiments may have been followed up by other researchers involved in applied research Only a few competent researchers with backgrounds in electrical engineering and in biomedical physiolog}?, plus a moderately small level of support, would be required to extend Sergeyev's initial research for the purpose of evaluating its applications potential Again, however, no subsequent Soviet research results are available, and no relevant L'S work has been conducted to permit a meaningful evaluation of the potential ,applied uses (e g., a communication system utilizing physiological instrumentation in coniunction with this paranormal channel) The Soviets also reportedly have investigated mind reading capabilit-es,23 but no detailed information is available to validate or repudiate these reports Although it is not knoH?n if the Soviets are continuing serious or sigmf-cant research in this area, initially it probabl} was included in their broadly based effort. It is important to note that no US rESearch has indicated that information can be obtained telepathically from a target individual without his active participation. A recent report indicates that the Soviets are attempting to develop hardware (probably electronic equipment) that can induce remotely-apparently by mimicking the biological processes involved-the same physiological and behavioral effects reportedly caused by telepathic suggestions.41 It is possible that this information is a misidentification of other research projects. The Soviets reportedly have been studying the behavioral effects induced by non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (NIEMR).46 This area of research is often categorized as parapsychology by both Soviet and Western researchers, but those applications of NIEMR that have been reported are distinct from applied telepathy research. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Psychokinesis Open literature on Soviet telekinesis research clearly shows that the publicly known, non-applied Soviet parapsychologists have a continuing interest in the telekinetic ability of psychics to move small objects, such as pencils,' but these studies have little if any intelligence significance. Applications-oriented US studies involving the psychokinet~c perturbation of the output of electronic equipment has indicated that such effects may be possible_28,The Soviets probably have conducted similar investigations, although no evidence indicating this is available. Some of the reports on Soviet research to affect target individuals remotely by paranormal means categorized such research as psychokinesis rather than telepathy All the classified Soviet work on psychokinesis that has been reported may all fall into this category (which in this study has been labeled arbitrarily as telepathic suggestion instead of psychokinesis) Hypnosis, Autogenic Training, and Toga Soviet interest in these areas appears to be centered primarily on using the relevant aspects of each area for training subjects either to gain psychic abilities or to accelerate the development of these abilities 23 Thus, these are research topics relevant to applied parapsychological research but are not actually areas of paranormal research themselves They have become tightly integrated in the research effort, however, as a result of the Soviets' multidisciplinary approach to parapsychology Black Magic About 1969 the Soviets reportedly established an official group in their covert program devoted to collecten_ g information on black magic. This group, headed by D G Mirza, was given its own secret laboratory (M4 in the Appendix) in Moscow and was assigned the tasks of identifying, locating and evaluating the capabilities of sorcerers, witches, and the incantations used by such individuals 23 It is unlikely that this avenue of investigation has produced any applied paranormal systems, but the data collected may have benefited other areas of research and may have improved their techniques for training subjects to acquire or to improve paranormal abilities. Thus, the research may still be included in the Soviet program COVERT RESEARCH FACILITIES Some information is available about the activities, size, location, personnel, and organization of covert So. yet parapsychology research facilities,9 za as but much of it is old (mid to late 1960s) and is second or third hand Hence, it is not possible to provide a complete or accurate description of current Soviet facilities Enough information is available, however, to indicate strongly that the reported facilities did exist during the 1960s and that they were continuing to conduct research into the early 1970s ss as Of 11 facilities (listed in the Appendix) that apparently have been or are involved in covert Soviet parapsychology research, at most five (Al, Bl, M3, M~, and N1) appear to represent major applied research centers. Two (Ll and L2) were small (10 people or less), one (M1) was basically an assessment facility, and another (M4) was dedicated to studying black magic Of the final two, very little is known about the actual existence or the size of Rl, and M2 reportedly has been applications oriented but has not actually conducted classified research,za yloscow apparently has been the center of the co.?ert research activity, with the facilities in Baku (Cape Zykh), Alma Ata, and Novosibirsk probably conducting collaborative or supporting research.23 The Ministry of Defense and possibly the KGB appear to fund portions of the program, with the KGB playing the dominant role in overseeing and coordinating the research e The information available indicates that the most noteworthy research activities during the 1960s were those directed by D G. Mirza and S. G. Gellerstein Their activities, which encompassed a broad range of applied parapsychological investigations, were believed to be supported by the Ministry of Defense at three "research" facilities. These three (M1, M2, and M3 in the Appendix) formed a functional unit that allowed people and research projects to be compartmented into separate levels of classification and security. Facility M 1 was a small laboratory that provided a base from which potential employees and reported psychics could be met and evaluated without exposing either the extent of the covert program or its personnel. Serious applied research was not conducted at this laboratory. M2 was a larger facility than M 1 and was staffed by competent, serious researchers ~?hose activities were monitored by the KGB. The existence of facility M2 permited serious, but unclassified, research to be conducted without the danger of exposing the covert projects to uncleared 6 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 personnel and without the necessity of providing security clearances to a large number of additional personnel s3 Facility M3, which Has staffed with technicians and with applications-oriented researchers, served as the base for covert research activities Both the research actrv~t~es and the existence of the facility reportedly were treated as restricted information. The research data obtained at M2 and the useful talent obtained from M 1 routinely were made available to researchers at M3,23 and their activities consequently could be channeled more efficiently and more directly -nto productive research activities Furthermore, the covert status of the institute, combined with the logistics support and the "political" power provided b~? the KGB and the 1\linistry of Defense, permitted the researchers a wide latitude in accomplishing their research goals About 1969 the Soviets reportedly established a new facility (M4 in the Appendix) to investigate black magic At the same time the activities of facility M3 supposedly were declassified 23 The current status of M4 is unknown, and its actual exisfence and goals have not been verified vet It ma~? still be active, but it is also possible that b~ this time the Soviets have reestablished the Iy13 activities as part of the covert program and/or have dropped black magic as a major subdiscipline of research There also is another possibilit}~ The same source who was told about the establishment of M4 had been told previously that people ~?ho had been exposed to details about the covert program were "disinformed" prior to their separation from the program. Since the source was given the information on the black magic facility while he was waiting to emigrate_from the USSR, it also may have been a disinformation attempt. In addition to Mirza and Gellerstein's program the famous hypnotist and psychic Wolf Messing reportedly also was directing a covert research program in Moscow. His facility, which was believed to be the only one funded by the KGB, supposedly investigated clairvoyance and the telepathic influencing of the behavior and/or physiology of target individuals. In addition, Messsing's activities reportedly included a heavy emphasis on the training of these abilities ss The two small reported facilities in Leningrad probably interacted with the covert program only in a supportive role. But information provided by a Dutch researcher at a US clinical hypnosis convention indicated that Leningrad researchers were investigat- mg clairvoyance in conjunction with hypnosis_33 This suggests that even if Leningrad researchers do not constitute a large proportion of the covert Soviet program, they may be aware, in at least their own areas of expertise, of some details about the covert program and of current Soviet research developments Several of the covert research facilities listed in the Appendix probably have terminated their parapsycho- logical activities. Also, the information available on a few of the facilities is not sufficient to list them with an.? high degree of confidence as actual participants in an applied, covert Soviet parapsychology research program Nonetheless, the data_available strongly indicate that such a program was initiated around 1960Vand that the research activities in selected areas of" investigation are continuing. Furthermore, the information available probably is not sufficient to provide a complete list of the covert Soviet parapsychology research facilities active during the 1960s and cannot be expected to identify any facilities that may have been opened during the 1970s. The facilities listed in the Appendix, therefore, are only an approximation of those now active in what is believed to be a continuing applied research program. Available information indicates that the Soviets will continue their attempts to develop the paranormal abilities of gifted subjects to the point that these abilities can be used successfully in applied tasks. The major questions raised by this finding concern the ways in which the Soviets will attempt to use paranormal phenomena and their probability of success Based on the areas apparently chosen by the Soviets for applications development and on the results of US research, the major potential impact of Soviet applied parapsychology researc is in the area of intelligence c llection.23 Clairvoyance, particularly in the context _of _ remote viewing to acquire information about objects and locations that are inaccessible by other means, appears to be the prime candidate for applied use. Telepathic means o agef~n ommunicatio~so appear tore un ed r'consideration~Inlparticular, the Soviets may use physiological sensors (perhaps in combination with a preestablished binary code) in an attempt to develop a reliable, quantifiable communications channel. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 The Soviets also may try to develop military; intelli- gence applications from the telepathy experimenta- tion In particular, they apparently have attempted to develop methods for using telepathy to induce l2ehaviora] and/or physio ogical modifications in target individuals a s3 a~ as The black magic experimentation that they reportedly conducted also appears to have been military/intelligence oriented,23 and the Soviets still may hope to achieve useful applications Although no actual research data are available to help evaluate this Soviet effort, it is Iudged as highly unlikely that any useful black magic abilities were uncovered that were paranormal in nature Nonetheless, significant results relevant to paranormal research may have been achieved. For instance, they may have gained psycho ical and .sociological data useful in dealing with _ and influencing individuals, groups, and societies Also, information useful in paranormal training programs could have been obtained In particular, the developed training methods may have made paranormal abilities more consistent (predict- able), more accurate, or easier (faster) to learn. Insufficient US data are available to make a meaningful overall Iudgment at this time. Nonethe- less, the Soviets probably now g_pssess a large data base concerning specialized training methods not available to l~'estern researchers In addition to the intended paranormal applica- t~ons, the Soviets have benefited from-and may have anticipated-research developments related to other fields of investigation The non-contact Sergeyev physiological sensor and Kirlian photography are illustrative of this point Also, Soviet experience with drugs (such as nitrous oxide) and, to some extent, with hypnosis raises the possibility that the associated techniques could be used to develop techniques for covertly obtaining human intelligence by non- parapsychological means. This possibility raises significant counter-intelligence concerns Success Probability As was discussed previously, sufficient US research has not been done to fully evaluate the probabilities of success of the various areas of applied Soviet parapsychological research. From the data available, it appears likely that useful intelligence information ~~~ ca_n be obtained via remote v_iewing,tech~niques,za zs?si' but the degree~of detail and reliability that can be obtained are not yet known Apparently it is possible to .acquire. general information about o~ cations, objects, and facilities, but it is not known if more quantitative data, such as written material, can be obtained reliably through this channel. Recent preliminary US experimentation does suggest, however, that data about significant, geographically definable events can be obtained ~on a real-time basis,zs ' f It also may be possible for the Soviets to develop (telepathic channels of information transmission. Based on U.S. data the probability of the successful development of a fully functional, operational system is considered to be less than that assigned to remote viewing "technology." The extensive Soviet work utilizing information theory, statistical evaluation techniques, and biomedical, physiological sensors (such as the Sergeyev detector) believed to have been devoted to this area of research13 probably has given the Soviets a sufficient data base to evaluate this probability fairly accurately. Neither the Soviet data nor the Soviet conclusions are known. The potential for using telepathic channels of information transmission actively to ind_uce_ behavioral and/or physiological changes in an unwitting, preselected target cannot be addressed meaningfully based on currently available US data. Many claims have been made in the popular press that such effects are possible, but no documented or well-controlled laboratory experimentation has been completed. Again, only the Soviets have what is probably a sufficient data base to assess meaningfully the potential applications It is considered highly unlikely that the Soviets will be able to develop any operational black magic systems that are paranormal in nature. However, as discussed earlier, they may obtain some practical information and expertise useful in dealing with psychological or sociological problems. They also may derive information that could benefit their paranormal training programs. Apart from the question of whether paranormal phenomena themselves can be developed successfully into meaningful applied tools is whether useful research developments can be expected from parapsychological investigations. Viewed from this perspective, parapsychology research can be categorized as a highly adaptable, interdisciplinary, basic research effort capable of producing technologi- cal and methodological advances significant to other, sometimes unrelated, fields of research, This apparently has occurred already in the Soviet 8 -SfeRE~- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 program, as exemplified by Kirlian photography and the Sergeyev detector. Kirlian photography, the "exposure" of photographic plates by placing them in high voltage, alternating electric fields, usually is included as a subcategory of parapsychology because the objects placed in the high voltage field during exposure are outlined by a visual "aura." Since auras traditionally have been used in connection with occultish and mystical descriptions, and because the auras recorded from living objects reportedly varied depending upon the objects' emotional and physical state, many unscientific parapsychologists assumed that Kirlian photography was producing a visual image of the paranormal energy fields surrounding the object. There is no reason to assume anything paranormal about Kirlian photography. Experimentation in both the US and the USSR, however, indicates that this technique may be an excellent biomedical sensor of several physiological states As such, i may prove oT~e useful for medical diagnosis and for developing novel lie detectors or stress (emotion) evaluators. The Sergeyev detector is a remote physiological sensor developed by G.A. Sergeyev of the Ukhtomsky Research Institute, Leningrad State University. This detector reportedly registers variations in the electrical (and possibly magnetic) fields surrounding living organisms.13 These variations are correlated with various bodily functions such as respiration and the electrical activity of the heart and nervous system. The detector apparently has a reasonably short time constant and even can detect changes occurring in the range of milliseconds. 13 a' sB .Recent US thP?~o+c..~~ ^^n~;~P*ations of possible paranormal information transfer mechanisms have led to speculations about detectors similar in principle to the Sergeyev detector. These considerations suggest that such detectors could be eve ope into remote physiological monitors and oerhans ev_r, Pn covert, short range communication systems." Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Classified Soviet Parapsychology Research Facilities Al Research Institute of Parapsychology A secret institute. Research includes developing training programs to teach paranormal abilities These programs reportedl} utilize yoga, hypnosis, and autogenic training ~~'ork may also include studies of black magic and telepathy Facility reportedly has a military P O Box address. It is also reported to be well funded and equipped Baku BI Navy Psychology Laboratory Reportl~ located near Baku on Cape Zykh. Work supposedly includes using telepathic means to affect remotely the physiology and/or the behavior of target individuals There is some disagreement among knowledgable sources about H~hether parapsychology research ? as actually conducted here If so, it was highly secret and was funded and controlled by the navy or the Ministry of Defense Leningrad LI ~'asilyev's Former Laboratory Moscow M1 Physiology Laboratory of the Psychiatric Institute of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences Small laboratory used for meeting and evaluating potential employees and psychics No serious applied research was conducted here. Reportedly located at Bolshaya Kommunisticheskaya 13 Telephone number (1963) Zh-3-O1-02. Associated with facilities M2 and M3 M2 Institute of Research in Communication Branch of Institute of Problems of Information Transmission. Located at Aviomotornaya 8-A, Building ~2, gate #1. Telephone Number (1963). Zh- 4-04-01 On first floor Research was not officially secret but was camouflaged. Used for applications- oriented research that supported M3 Research included most areas of parapsychology and related topics such as yoga and autogenic training. M3 Institute on Vorobyovyye Gon Highly classified institute directed by D.G. Mirza until about 1969 Located at Partizanskaya Ulitsa 2 i Telephone number (1963). G-9-76-35 Occupied ~-entire eight story building. Research included applied aspects of clairvoyance, telepathy, and yoga. Work now may be unclassified Probably was controlled and funded by the military. Employed several hundred people, most of whom were technicians and electronic engineers. M4 Mirza's new laboratory Secret laboratory reportedly given to Mirza about 1969 to study black magic. Believed to be funded by the military. Probably was not a large group. Current status is unknown. First applied parapsychology lab to be organized in the USSR (late 19~Os) Located at Kommunisticheska- ya Naberejonaya i, on the third floor of the Biology- Geology Building of Leningrad State University. Gulayev's lab reportedly is on the same floor. Has probably ceased to operate since Vasilyev's death. Employed only about 10 people L2 Special laboratory with the Navy School of Electronics (Popov) G.A Sergeyev reportedly is chief. Started about 1968 and employs about 10 people, most of whom are engineers Lab probably is concerned primarily with developing biomedical instrumentation to analyze biological signals statistically. Parapsychology work probably is only part time. MS Messing's secret laboratory Little information available. Reportedly trains people in clairvoyance and telepathic suggestion. Probably is funded by the KGB. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 lion and drugs. Believed to be funded by the Ministry of Defense Reportedly ~?orks closely with R1. NI Section ~8 of the Institute of Automatics and Electrometry Highly classified laboratory created in 1965. Vitaly Pavlovich Perov was appointed director. Reportedly had about 150 scientific employees plus a technical staff Reportedly works on clairvoyance, psychokine- sis, and paranormal training programs and on the amplification of telepathic abilities by instrumenta- RI Rostov laboratory Reportedly works intensively on clairvoyance and hypnosis in collaboration with N1. No other information available. 12 ~EER~E~~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100010041-2 REFERENCES The source references supporting this paper are identified in a list pub- lished separately Copies of the list are available to authorized personnel and may be obtained from the originating office through regular channels. Requests for the list of references should include the publication number and date