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Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 ~~ . PACT (U) ...... NYe:'r ' ?`'ri.-:~~:a.:~: _ : -'ate ..: ;:.r.: .. ,r'+-~"'.~.-~ 1::-4511? . l..~ryar~~ $_ ~ ~:. iA ?.i. :r('1' 1 !-'mot.. S1!li.? lYS `1r. ~' f I,`.. Z . ~J _'iI1' 4x:!'r :. ,:4 Cia~dlid 8~: DWDT R~vir- a~ 1 Octob~: 1fM .:?~.,. .' PARAPHYSICS RED-wARSaw ~ ~ - ~-~ `~ti~~~ PREPARED BY U.S. AIR FORCE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS NOT RELEASABLE TO COIYTRACTOR,B OR CONTRACTOR CONSULTANTS - ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ WARNING NOTICE ~ - II~'PELLIGENCE 80URCE8 AND METHODS INVOLVED ~~'~'-: - - ~? ~` DBT-18108-909-78 ~LLGQLT v ~~.-r~c-r- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 -. t,.~ SUBJECT: Notice of Change (DST-18105.202_78-Chg 1) Recipients of DST-1810S-202.78 1. (U) Reference DST-1810S-202-78, "Paraphysics R&D-Warsaw Pact (U)," dated 30 March 1978. 2. (U) New, revised or reprinted pages ue to be posted in accordance with the attached AF Form 1565. Deleted p es ue to be destroyed in accordance with applicable security directives. Marginal lines reflect the changes in this study. 3. (U) File this Notice of Change and copy of AF Form 1565 in the back of the study after the above action has been taken. 4. (U) This Notice of Change may be downgraded to UNCLASSIFIED when attachment is withdrawn. 1 Atch 2 cys, AF Form 1565 w/revised pages as listed on AF Form 1565 (54 pp) (SECRET-NOFORN- N000NTRACT) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 ENTRY, RECEIPT ANO DESTRUCTION '~ LocAL COtiTROL/REGISTER ?AGE Nc. 2. CERTIFICATE PAGE OF .AGES ~? REMOVAL AND ENTRY DATA ) T0: ,. FROM (To be filled in then eertilieate is required by oripinatarj S. BASIC DOCUMENT (Till!. date snd control number) fi. AMENDMENT (Change no.. date, copy no..~nd Conrrof/ DS'T-18105-202-78, Paraphysia R&D-Warsaw Pact (U), ~'~~~lOSP 2P02 78-~1tg 1 dated 4 February 1980 dated 30 March 1978 ?~ DESCRIPTION OF SECTIONl51 AMENDED.(Parl, Chwpter, annes attachment, appendia, ere.) d. REMOVE PAGEf51 9. ENTER PAGE15) Front snd Back Covers ~ OW New Title Page ~ Old New Preface / - v v (Revere Blank) vii cad viii Summary - ix and z is cad z Section II . ? 5 through 10 . 5 through 6.2 7 through 10.2 Section III " 15 through 18 15 through 18.1 (Reverse Bhtak d Section V / 31 cad 32 31 an 32 Section VII ~~ 43 through 46 43 through 46 49 through 54 49 through 52.1 (Reverse Bhtak) 53 and 54 ~ Section VIII ~ 57 and 58 57 through 58.1 (Revere o ~ Annex A ,, 65 through 68 68 thr b5 2t 71 and 72 71 and 7 77 through 80 77 through 80.1 (Revere ` Black h Appendix II ~ 117 through 119 117 t rough 120 When dtange 1 has been posted, this study will consist of the ollowing pages (exclusive of cover unnumbered pages): i-x, 1-6.2, 7-10.2,11-18.1 (Reverse Blaak),19.52.1 (Reverse B ), 53-80.1 (Reverse Blank), 81.133 (Reverse Blank). II? CERTIFICATE OF RECEIPT 1C.~.~ I aeknorlydgc rrce,Pt of document Ile?ser,brll in ,tam 6. 1t ~_, IacknowledRereceipto[rrmoved pages 12. DATE 13 ORGAN12A710N AND OFFICE 1~.SIGN ATL'P.E AND GRADE 1~. a ;,nF.ST CL4:'S!FI-A- - Ti^v OF ?aGES ill? CERTIFICATE OF REMOVAL AND ENTRY 16. I certify that all applicable pages listed ,n,tcm g have been removed. All applicable pages listed to Item ~) have been entered to copy x o[ basic document. DISCREP ANCIES; L: i None. J As :,s led on reverse . 17. GATE 10. ORGANIZATION AND OFFIC? 14. SIGNATURE AND GRAUE ,n, ,.~^.nEET =LASS F:tA- IV. CERTIFICATE OF DESTRUCTION 21 ~ I certify that al! removed pages have been "~ destroyed r-' committed to the special destructton acty accordin>; to AFR 2Q5-1. 22. DATE DESTROYED 73. PRINTCD NAME AND GRADE tDeatroy,nQ off,cia!) Za. SIGNATURE :5. CERTIFICATE N0. 26. PRINTED YAME ANO GRAGE ,tneAr,rlp SIGNATURE AF F~BR;2 1565 - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 ?- Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 1 ENTRY, RECEIPT AND DESTRUCTION '? L?~AL CO\TROI./PEC15TF.R PAGE NO. :. CERT 1 F I LATE ~ PAGE OF PAGES I. REFfOYAL AND ENTRY DATA ?? TG: a? FROM (7'o be tilled in when eertirreate ix required by originator) 5. BASIC DOCUMENT (T+t/c, date and control number) 6. AMENDMENT (Change no., date,eopy no. and Control/ DS?-i810S-202-78, Pasaphysica RBtD-Warsaw Pact (U), I~~~'=~~~0~~2-78-i~tg 1 dated 4 February 1980 dated 30 March 1978 .~ DESCRIPTION OF SECTIONISI AMENOED.(Par/, Chapter, P. REMOVE PAGE(51 9. ENTER PAGE(SI annex attachment, appendix, ate.) Frost and Back Covers Old New Title Page Old New Preface v v (Reverse Blank) vii sad viii S ix sad z iz sad z Seca~D 5 thmugh 10 5 through 6.2 7 through 10.2 Section III 15 through 18 15 though 18.1 (Reverse Blaalt) Section V 31 and 32 31 sad 32 Section VII 43 through 46 43 through 46 49 through 54 49 through 52.1 (Reverse Blank) 53 sad 54 57 and 58 57 through 58.1 (Reverse Bh-ak) Amex A 65 through 68 b5 through 68 71 sad 72 71 sad 72 77 through 80 77 through 80.1 (Reverse Blank) Appendix II 117 through 119 117 through 120 When Change 1 hat bees posted, this study will consist of the ollowittg pages (exclusive of cover d unatuabered pages): i-x, 1-6.2, 7-10.2,11-18.1 (Reverse Blaak),19-52.1 (Reverse Blaa ), 53-80.1 (Revere Blank), 81-133 (Reverse Blank). II. CERTIFICATE OF RECEIPT t~ L_.I I aeknowl edge rrcr+pt o F ?lcument 'f.?srribrll in + trm 6. tt _ 1 acknowled ge receipt of removed pages 12. DATE t7.ORGANIZAT10N AND OFFICE 14. SIGNATURE AND GRADE f5. ~??:,wCST CLA55'Fl~a- T,^NvF p4?FS III. CERTIFICATE OF REMOVAL AND ENTRY I5. I certify that all applicable pages listed in +tem R have been removed. All applicable pages listed in ,rem 9 have been entered in copy R o[ basic document. DISCREPAVCIES: r ~ yore. [] As listed on reverse. t7. DATE IR. ORGANIZATION AND OFFICE 1?. SIGNATURE AND GRAVE 24, r11 .'?r1E.T :L455 F~CA- ~ Ti ~~ ]F o4GE? ar.anYE~ IV- CERTIFICATE OF DESTRUCTION zf ? I certify that all removed pages have been ~- destroyed r~ comm+tted to the spec+al destruction acty according to AFR 205-1. ?2. DATE DESTROr ED 23. PRINT[D NAME aND GRADE (Desrroy+ng 2a. SIGN ATL RE serer;./) $5. ~ER71f KATE N0. 2fi. PR INTEO NAME 4N0 GRADE I +tnesa+nR orric+a/) 51 GNATL'P.E FORM AF :ES -2 1565 -Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 PARAPHYSICS RED-WARSAW PACT (U) DATE OF PUBLICATION SO MARCH 1978 Information Cutoff Date 1 October 1979 Thin is a Department of Defense Intelligence Document prepared by the Foreign Technology Division, Air Force Systems Command and approved by Assistant Vice Directorate for Science and Technolo~r Intelligence of the Defense Intelligence Agency. This docment has been processed for CIRC WARNING NOTICE-INTELLIGENCE 30URCE9 AND METHODS INVOLVED NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS NOT RELEASABLE TO CONTRACTORS OR CONTRACTOR CONSULTANTS DST-18105202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 D 8T-18108-20$-78 Cla.dtled By: DWDT Review on 1 October 1gYi (Reverse Blank) (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED "I did the best I could, let those who can do better." L. L. Vasil'yev, 1961 iii UNCLASSIFIED (Reverse Blank) DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 PREFACE (C) The purpose of this study is to review and assess Warsaw Pact country activities in paraphysios research. This includes assessment of trends, current research, and potential future achievements. Main concentration is on the USSR. Those topics that are considered of high potential are emphasized, although other topics that may have an indirect influence are also considered. This study has also been updated to include recent paraphysics research and activities that have occurred since the 1978 publication of the original study. (C) Thia product is intended for use by US Department of Defense research facilities, the intelligence community, and other government agencies. (U) Constructive criticism, comments or suggestions are encouraged and should be forwarded to the Defense Intelligence Agency (ATTN: DT-1), Washington, D. C. 20301. (Reverse Blank) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST_181os-202.78 30 March 1978 rage r o. Preface ......................................................................................................................................................... Ezecutive Summary ...................................................................................................................... ....... v iz Section I Introduction (U) ............................................................................................................ 1 1. Terminology (U) ....................................................................................................... ................ 1 2. Scope (U) ................................................................................................................................... 1 Section II Specific Investigations (USSR) (U) ......................................................................... 3 1. Information Processes (U) ..................................................................................................... 3 2. Energetic Processes (U) ..............................................................................................._......... 6.2 Section III Historical Review {U) ................................................................................................. 11 i. USSR (U) ................................................................................................................................... ii 2. Other Warsaw Pact Countries (U) .................................................................. ................... 1? Section IV Subception (U) .............................................................................................................. 21 1. Introduction (U) ....................................................................................................................... 21 2. Dowsing (U) .......................:....................................................................................................... 21 3. Ideomotor Response (U) ........................................................................................................ 23 4. Myotransfer (U) ........................................................................................................................ 24 ~. Electroencephalogram Response (U) ...:.............................................................................. 25 6. Suppressed Neuromuscular Response (U) ........................................................................ 26 7. Involuntary Physiological Changes (U) ............................................................................. 28 Section V Theoretical Aspects (U) .............................................................................................. 29 1. Electromagnetics (U) ............................................................................................................... 29 2. Quantum Physics (U) .............................................................................................................. 30 3. Gravitation (U) ......................................................................................................................... 31 4. Holography (U) ........................................................................................................................ 32 5. Other (U) .................................................................................................................................... 32 Section VI Paraphysics Research Environment (U) ................................................................ 35 1. Belief Structures (U) ............................................................................................................... 35 2. Perceived Threat from the Weat (U) ................................................................................ 40 3. Organizational Politics (Ul ................................................................................................... 41 4. Net Assessment (U) .........................................................................:....................................... 41 Section VII Level of Research Effort-Quantitative Measures ~(U) ..................................... 43 1. Barriers to Assessment (U) ................................................................................................... 43 2. Number of Paraphysics Researchers (Ul .......................................................................... 46 3. Facilities Housing Paraphysics Research (U) .................................................................. 48 4. Government Support for Paraphysics Research (U) ..........................:........................... 48 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS (Coat) Page No. 5. Support for Related Disciplines (U) .................................................................................. 53 6. Summary of Governmental Support (U) ........................................................................... 54 Section VIII Summary and Conclusions (U) ................................................................................ 55 1. Paranormal Processes (U) ..................................................................................................... 55 2. Other Paraphysica Topics (U) .............................................................................................. 57 3. Research Environment (U) .................................................................................................... 58 Appendix I Personalities and Facilities Associated with Paraphysics (U) ....................... 61 Annex A Personalities and Facilities-Prime Paraphysics Areas (U) ........................... 63 Annex B Personalities and Facilities--Secondary Paraphysics Areas (U) ................... 83 Annex C Journalists Who Have Reported on Paraphysics (U) ...................................... 113 Annex D Anti-Paraphysics Writers (U) ................................................................................... 115 Appendix II Biographical Notes--.Selected Personalities (U) ................................................. 117 Appendix III Methodological and Data Considerations (U) .................................................... 121 Refesences ................................................................................................................................................... 125 LIST OF TABLES Table I Academic Specialty of Paraphysics Researchers-Prime Areas (U) ............... 44 Table II Tvpe of Facility Housing Research-Prime Areas (U) ....................................... 45 Table III Number of Cities, Facilities, and Personalities Involved in Paraphysics Research-Warsaw Pact (U) .................................................................. 47 Table IV Most Important Research Facilities-Prime Paraphysics Areas (U) .............. 49 Table V Comparison of Two Interviews with the Same Source (U) .............................. 124 viii UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 cow DST-1810S-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY L General (U) (C) USSR research on paranormal phenomena (i.e., telepathy, ESP) was begun in the early 1920's by a few researchers, was interrupted at the start of World War II, and was re-initiated in 1959. At that time, and shortly after, established scientists from various disciplines entered this research field, and the scope of research was increased to include all types of paranormal phenomena (e.g., psychokinesis). Recently, additional researchers have become active, with some of their work addressing a wide range of human sensitivities (e.g., to subtle electromagnetic fields). A trend toward multidisciplinary research is emerging which could accelerate understanding of various paranormal phenomena. Additional investments and increases in scope of this research will very likely occur in the future. (C) Most of the current research on paranormal phenomena appears to be performed as an adjunct to other official duties; however, it is likely that some researchers are involved on a full-time basis and are receiving government support. The level of funding and ezteat of research is unknown at this time. At least three and possibly more officially sponsored research groups ezist in Moscow, Leningrad, and Alma-Ara. (C-NOFORN) Recent data indicate that this research has recently received the backing of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Several basic research facilities are now beginning to investigate this area ~~~~~ (in Moscow) and a previous paraphysics laboratory at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow is ezpanding its research. In addition, there are indications that a new parapsychology laboratory has been established in Novosibirsk The main orientation of the new research is in the psychokinetic area. (C) The level of research has been cyclic in nature responding to criticism and encouragement. Through the mid-1960'x, the main conflicts were over ideological issues (scientific and Marust). Recent trends indicate that serious ideological conflicts have been resolved and that official attitudes at least tolerate, if not openly accept, such research. Open, highly visible support from prominent scientists has recently been given through official party organs, and increases in interest have been noted in a wide sector of the scientific community, from cosmonauts, and others. While criticisms continue, they are not as intense or frequent as during earlier periods. The party has much to gain and little to lose from properly represented paraphysics research. Either new scientific discoveries or applications are actually achieved, or research results could be used to revise or refute certain popular beliefs associated with such phenomena that are considered un-Marzist. 2. Research Trends/Achievements (U) (C) The striving for ideological acceptance has led researchers to create a variety of new terms for this research and to emphasize theoretical eaplanaiions based on known or yet-to-be discovered physical mechanisms. While this may lead to improved research in some areas, it could cause other possibilities to be ignored. An emphasis on application potential is also apparent. Ideological objections have usually given way, in the USSR, to practical considerations regardless of the controversial nature of a new idea or unusual phenomenon. {C) Moat Soviet research has been with people who demonstrate consistently high paranormal performance ability. It is known that there is a program to screen "gifted people" from the general population and that training techniques are used to enhance such abilities. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1978 (C) The data for assessing achievements in paranormal phenomena research ara quite limited, and very little information is available from reliable researchers. wren their data usually lack sufficient backup material. This may be due, in some cases, to lack of proper publication channels for such research or possibly to factors of a political or security nature, Although limited, however, the data available from reliable researchers are highly significant. (C) In 1967, the most statistically eigaificant telepathy ezperiment is the history of paranormal phenomena research occurred. An experiment by Kogan's group in Moscow adueved 105 out of 135 correct caorrelations to random-selected digits from 0 to 9. The "sender" and "receiver" were separated by a few meters to a few kilometers. Kogan's getup also achieved atatieticallj- significant results in long-distance (3,000 km) ezperimente. These ezperiments and others demonstrate the basic communication potential of paranormal abilities. Similar ezperimenta have probably been repeated, since the communication application is a knows USSR research goal. Similar ezperiments carried out from submarines, space, or command and control locations, perhaps involving simple codes, may occur in the near future (if not already) to demonstrate practical use, The application of similar paranormal channels for information access (i,e,, in an intelligence role) should also be possible; however, practical limitations for such applications are not clear. (C) In addition to communication application potential, other experimental result$ indicate that some people can generate unusual energetic "field" effects which interact avith sensitive devices and material objects; certain people can induce desired reactions (physiological, ideomotor) in other people, and some individuals have unusual sensitivity to subtle electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields The application of such "energetic" phenomena to induce certain types of responses in others might be considered by Warsaw Pact countries although the effectiveness of such influences, if any, on unwitting people is unknown. There is also evidence that sensitive interrogation deviors are being developed that respond to subtle paranormal effects. (C) Most research in paranormal phenomena reported by other Warsaw Pact countries is considered unreliable. Improvements in this research and its scope will probably occur in the future. However, their research in other areas of paraphysics, such as dowsing, does appear to be reliable. This research could provide clues for explaining, in part, other unusual paranormal abilities, such as telepathy, and could indicate ways of enhancing such abilities for wider practical use, It is also possible that certain adverse influences will be discovered that could have potential for military applications, 3. Summary (U) (C) During the past few years, worldwide research on paranormal phenomena has also increased. Although moat research is of questionable value or is difficult to evaluate, a few experiments have unique results and have some degree of repeatability, particularly when "gifted people" are used, Some of these results and observations are similar to those reported by USSR researchers. (C) A major methodology for this study involved evaluating reliability and credibility of the Warsaw Pact paraphysics researcher. If the researcher is assessed to be responsible and reliable, then results of his work are considered likely to be valid. On that basis, and with other factors considered, some of the research in paranormal phenomena in the USSR is assessed sa highly significant, and some basic applications may already have occurred. Increases in scope and diversity of paranormal -esearch in Warsaw Pact countries and pursuit of various application options will probably continue :n the future. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of such research, increases in theoretical understanding of various unusual paranormal phenomena will probably also be achieved. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 SECTION I INTRODUCTION (U) DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 1. Terminology (U) (U) Paraphysics generally refers to the investigation of unusual (paranormal) mental functioning and includes a variety of conditions or interactions that may be directly or indirectly related to such functioning. For example, unusual or unexplainable mental processes would include telepathy; unusual interactions would include certain sensitivities (e.g., to subtle electromagnetic fields) or unusual dynamic influences (e.g., psychokinesis). Paraphysics includes other research involving infrequently studied or unusual physical or biological interactions if such research has the potential to assist in understanding paranormal mental functioning. Some aspects of paraphysics may even overlap into biophysics. A main thrust of the various paraphysics research is to try to explain paranormal phenomena in the context of known physical mechanisms and to pursue particular applications. (U) Other terms that relate, in part, to paraphysics are psychic research and parapsychology. However, this research has usually been concerned with statistical, psychological, and physiological aspects and has not necessarily investigated biological or physical interactions that could explain such phenomena. (U) Recently, a Soviet term, "psychoenergetics," has been gaining popularity. This refers to the study of informational and energetic processes associated with paranormal mental functioning. Soviet researchers had previously introduced terms such as bioinformation (e.g., telepathy) and bioenergetics (e.g., psychokinesis) to describe some paranormal phenomena. Another term used by Warsaw Pact researchers is psychotronics; this is similar in meaning to psychoenergetics but is intended to emphasize instrumentation aspects. (U) These recent terms include and expand upon investigation previously listed under other labels, and tend to lessen or avoid adverse views sometimes associated with the older terminology. This appears to be a central concern in the USSR where such research in the past has had mystical or occult implications that definitely conflicted with Marxist doctrine. (U) An older term commonly used in relation to such phenomena is extrasensory perception (ESP), which includes telepathy and clairvoyance. Telepathy refers to apparent mind-mind communication ability without known sensory means; clairvoyance refers to apparent mental ability to obtain information without known sensory means and without mediation through other people. These categories are very difficult to differentiate, and many researchers currently refer to them as "general .ESP" (GESP) without attempting to distinguish the particular mode. Another general term in current use is "remote viewing" which is similar to general ESP but usually refers to a specific ability (i.e., describing remote geographic locations). An older term in general use is psychokinesis (PK), which refers to apparent mental influencing of configuration or motion of material objects. Certain mental states also appear to influence material properties or biological processes (in people and organisms) and seem to have elements of ESP or psychokinesis. These apparent interactions are also considered part of paraphysics or psychoenergetics research. 2. Scope (U) (C) In this study, primary attention is given to Warsaw Pact country activities and investigations that directly relate to paranormal informational processes (telepathy, clairvoyance, remote viewing), and torparanormal energetic processes (psychokinesis, bioenergetics). Other material Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DS'T-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 is included if it appears to provide additional insight for understanding such processes or if it helps clarify thin research in general. (C) In addition to assessing validity and sigaificanoe of available research, assessments of degree and nature of possible classified research are made. Official attitudes (political, scientific) toward such research are ezamined; these attitudes have a direct bearing on current or future research levels and therefore can have significant impact on estimates of current or future achievements. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED SECTION II DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 SPECIFIC INVESTIGATIONS (USSR) (U) (U) In this section, USSR paraphysics research that relates to paranormal mental processes is reviewed. This includes research on information processes (telepathy, clairvoyance, bioinformation) and energetic processes (psychokinesis, bioenezgetics). The data available are very limited and have been reported by only a few researchers. Due to the relative diversity of each researcher's interests and research approach, it is convenient to organize this section according to researcher, rather than specific research topics. The most credible data available at this time are from I. M. Kogan and G. A. Sergeyev; their reported data are reviewed first. (U) Most of these data, however, are difficult to adequately evaluate. Usually, sufficient information on experimental procedure is not clear, or the number of experiments reported is very small. Data from the es*,ablished researchers are considered more likely to be reliable than that from others. Data from other researchers of lesser involvement or credibility are also presented if the research appears to have some potential significance. (U) Research on similar topics for other Warsaw Pact countries is summarized in Section III. L Information Processes (U) a I. M. Kogan (U) (U) Of all the data available, Kogan's experiments, which began in 1965, appear to be the best documented and controlled. (U) Kogan's emphasis is on information theory aspects of telepathy, and his initial theoretical goal was to show that electromagnetic theory is not necessarily incompatible with apparent telepathic phenomena. During 1966-1970, he published results of some of his successful experiments in the USSR technical journal Radio EnBineeiing. In 1969, some of the results were summarized in a paper, "The Information Aspects of Telepathy," for a symposium on ESP at UCLA. Although he has released no data since 1970, he is definitely known to be still involved in extensive research and experimentation. {U) The types of experiments reported by Kogan include short-distance telepathic suggestion of "mental orders" and transmission (or perception) of single digits, and short- and long- distance telepathic transmission (or perception) of simple objects. (U) The early short-distance experiments may have been performed to verify some of the research? conducted by L. L. Vasil'yev* in the 1920's and 1930's and used a hypnotic state as well as normal consciousness. Some experiments were also conducted in shielded rooms. Kogan was sufficiently satisfied that the results were far greater than expected by chance and that further research was warranted. For example, in one experiment involving selection of one of ten cards numbered one through ten, with "inductor" (sender) in a separate room, the "percipient" (subject, or receiver) selected 13 correct cards in 26 attempts (probability around 10-6). The hypnotic state experiments, which involved the well-]mown Moscow medical hypnotist V. L. Raikov, were limited to study of correlations between time of waking intent by the sender and the actual waking of a hypnotized subject. Kogan states the results to be far greater then chance occurrences. However, Kogan appears to have abandoned further studies involving the hypnotic state and has instead selected individuals with natural abilities in the conscious state for further experimentation. 3 UNCLASSIFIED - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED (U) Most short-distance experiments ahd the long-distance experiments involved attempts to "transmit" images of specific objects that were unknown to the percipient. Kogan observed that in such experiments the exact image, particularly of complex shapes, was not generally perceived. Instead, general attributes of the intended target were described. Kogan, therefore, developed an index for evaluating the percipients' descriptions. This index included target attributes such as sensation or general feature (color, shape), action, or emotion. The description of the percipient would then be evaluated and matched, if possible, to one of the target objects. A typical experiment would have six objects selected at random from a large target pool by a commission of several individuals acting as a control and evaluation group. One of the long-distance experiments was also of the Zener card variety (similar to J. B. Rhine's approach at Duke University), and yielded 12 of 25 correlations. The probability for such a result is about 10-s. There is no indication Kagan pursued this form of experimentation any further. (U) Kogan's long-distance experiments have been between Moscow and Leningrad, Moscow and Novosibirsk, and Moscow and Tomsk. In each of these experiments, the percipient's description could be matched correctly to three or four of the six intended targets. (U) Kogan also demonstrated a basic communication application in one of the Moscow- Novosibirsk experiments, Two simple but contrasting objects were chosen to represent the Morse code; a three-letter word was then selected (unknown to percipient) and the appropriate series of "dots" and "dashes" were identified for this word. The percipient (in Novosibirsk) subsequently identified the correct sequence of target objects (and therefore Morse code symbols), and the intended three- letter word could be reconstructed. However, this procedure required considerable redundancy and was very time consuming. It is doubtful that Kogan has pursued additional experiments of this type. (U) Perhaps the most meaningful experiment in terms of ease of evaluation and apparent potential in a communication mode was performed in 1967. This involved attempts at transmission of randomly selected digits between 0 and 9. Distance between "sender" and "receiver" was varied from several meters to several kilometers. Reported results, as attested to by at least five members of the All-Union Technical Society of Radio Technology and Communications imeni A. S. Popov (the Popov Society), indicates 105 of 135 numbers were described (received) correctly by the receiver. The article states this to be 78?k correct; however, this is a significant understatement since it does not reflect the overall probability of such an occurrence, In fact, in terms of probability, this would have to qualify as the most statistically significant result ever reported in psychic research literature; the probability of duplication via random occurrence would be about 10-~'. (U) It also appears that with planned redundancy, a similar approach could yield highly reliable results, perhaps sufficient for certain application attempts. For example, each of the numbers 0-9 could correlate to specific instructions or messages, and in this way basic ' `messages" could be transmitted to or received from remote locations (space, submarine, etc.). Kogan has made frequent reference to such applications and very likely considers them to be reasonable objectives. (U) Kogan apparently has been using some type of screening test since 1965 for selecting gifted people. Subjects most often associated with his experiments apparently exhibit vivid internal imagery in a conscious state, enabling experimentation without the need for special techniques (such as hypnosis). Kogan shows no serious interest in the traditional card guessing experiments or usual statistical methods. He appears to be mainly concerned with experiments involving people who have already demonstrated a high degree of paranormal ability, and he is very likely seeking a degree of repeatability suitable for reliable applications, (U) Kogan may also be investigating the possibility of a person other than the intended receiver to perceive the target objects. In the 1967 Moscow-Leningrad experiment, a second receiver, in Leningrad, did describe very accurately the target intended by the sender in Moscow. It is not known, however, if the sender was aware of the additional person involved in the experiment. However, this 4 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 C DST-1810S-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 type of experimeat has probably bees repeated by Kogaa, perhaps with additional receivers not known to the sender, or with receivers attempting to obtain information from a person without his knowledge (i.e., as unwitting "sender" ). Kogan is also known to be experimenting with "targets" concealed in metal containers, although results are not known. Such experiments could have intelligence application potential, although extent of such involvement, or interest, by Kogan is unlmown. b. G. A. Sergeyev (U) (U) G. A Sergeyev, at the Ukhtomskii Physiological Institute in Leningrad, has published a few experimental results on telepathic investigations. In one of these experiments he claims to have observed a synchronization of certain electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns between sender and receiver when the sender was observing flashing lights (different frequency for each eye). The EEG patters in the intended receiver was apparently unique enough for easy recognition and could be utilized in a "code" sense. A long-distance experiment (Leningrad-Moscow) was subsequently conducted with the duration of flashing lights shown to the sender in Moscow to be either 15 seconds or 45 seconds. The short period corresponded to a Morse code "dot"; the long period, to a "dash." Sergeyev claims to have correctly identified the intended word with this technique from EEG pattern variations in the receiver. Sergeyev also claims to have used a similar approach to send s coded word with the sender simulating unpleasant emotions for fined periods, instead of viewing flashing lights. It appears Sergeyev worked with the same people as Kogan when Kogan performed his Moscow-Leningrad experiments. However, they have not cross-referenced the joint nature of this long- distance experiment. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) There are also data indicating aflashing-light type of experiment recently has been conducted between Leningrad and Moscow, although the facilities involved are not known. Results are claimed to have been successful. The experiment was witnessed by a visiting researcher from Czechoslovakia. It is likely that the Moscow researcher imrolved was V. N. Pushkin. (U) Although his telepathic-type experiments are difficult to evaluate, there may be some degree of validity to them. Other researchers, in the US and Canada, have also noted the possibility of correlations in EEG patterns between sender and receiver in telepathic experiments under certain conditions. a Other Investigators (U) (U) There are other researchers in the USSR that conduct investigations into topics directly or indirectly related to psychic perception. Most of these investigators appear to pursue their work on a part-time basis and are probably not associated with any formalized laboratory program. However, some of their techniques or results could certainly be of interest to those in official research positions, particularly if the data were considered significant and the experiment repeatable. (U) The investigations reported by Larissa V. Vilenskaya are an example. She has been conducting research with E. K Naumov (who is not currently active) and now appears to be involved with a variety of her own investigations. One aspect is her study of a phenomena initially referred to as "skin vision" or, more recently, "dermo-optics." This relates to an apparent ability of some people to identify colors of concealed "targets" simply by touching the opaque outer covering. Although iniiaal experiments on dermo-optic phenomena were open to severe criticism mainly due to lack of proper experimental control, later experiments appear to have overcome some of these criticisms. 5 _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 19 i 8 (U) In one recent experimental series, a subject with apparent psychic ability identified the correct target color in 113 out of 200 trials (probability of 10-41). There were four color card possibilities, with 50 correlations being chance Level. In a similar aeries, the subject was a few meters from the concealed target and identified the correct target color ?7 out of 200 trial (probability of 10-s). Additional ezperiments were conducted with the subject attempting to describe various undisclosed objects that were placed in opaque containers. The descriptions given were in close correlation to the target object. Other ezperiments, such as locating concealed magnets, were also reported to be aucceasful. However, sufficient data are not reported to permit thorough evaluation of these particular experiments. (U) A variation to this type of experimentation involved sn application of this apparent paranormal ability in a communication mode. Eight ezperiments were conducted where the target colors were deaigaated to represent a dot or a dash, in order to evaluate the possibility of simple Morse code type "transmission." Three-letter words were correlated to the color targets and siz of the eight words were reported to be received correctly, Each word was attempted three to five times since redundancy had been observed to improve reliability. The subject was located several meters from the concealed wlor targets. The ezperimenters concluded that this method with trained and motivated subjects could be applied in transmitting information over long distances. (U) The ezperimentera also conclude that this type of apparent paranormal perception may be related to a mode commonly referred to as clairvoyance. I. M. Kogan has also referred to "dermo~optica" as very likely being a form of general ESP, probably clairvoyance, This ezplanation is supported by reports of some subjects having the ability to describe not only the intended color of the concealed target, but also the specific shapes that were drawn on the color card targets. (U) Apparently, considerable research on "dermo-optics" also occurs in the USSR with the objective of improving tactile reading ability of people who are blind. (U) Vilenskaya initially used hypnotized people as subjects. Later she found hypnosis was not necessary and eventually chose people who appeared to have a natural aptitude and who could develop their abilities through practice. She apparently uses an ESP testing device, perhaps for identifying people with psychic aptitude as well as training. This device appears similar to one described by a US researcher at the University of California, which is based on selection of aeve:al possible targets via electronically generated random processes. She also appears to ezperiment with psychic perception in various alfered states of consciousness (such a8 dream states). (U) Additional reports on possible psychic perception investigations involve S. V. Speranaky's experiments a-ith mice at the Novosibirsk Medical Institute. Behavior of a normal well- fed group of mice was similar to that noted in an isolated group that was starved. Initially, both groups had been together for a considerable time. There was no similar activity in a nearby control group of mice that had been selected from a different set. Speransky apparently plans to continue such investigations, since he suepec.~ts there is a telepathic basis for the noted correlations. Kagan is also interested in e=perimenta with animals, though it is not known if he has conducted any. (C) Recently, numerous USSR scientists have shown new interest in various forms of paranormal perception. Some Soviets have been writing to US researchers for the latest information on US experiments; e.g., at least 10 USSR scientists have contracted US researchers experimenting with a general form of ESP termed "remote viewing." Some of the Soviet scientists apparently have attempted to replicate such experiments; however, results are not known. Reference has also been made recently to high level Soviet interest in the psychic research by a leading USSR plasma physicist. s (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 parapsychological research facility in November 1978. DST-18105-202-78-Chg i 4 February 1980 (C) In other instances, a visitor to Leningrad in 1975 apparently observed an informal "remote viewing" type demonstration with a hypnotized subject. In 1976, a USSR attendee at a US technical conference indicated the possibility of ESP experiments in connection with the L'SSR space program using remote locations such as Antarctic bases. Also in 1976, a Soviet cosmonaut, V. I. Sevastyanov, while on a general tour of the US, visited a west coast facility to discuss remote viewing ezperiments performed by the US researchers at that laboratory. The cosmonaut was accompanied by L. N. Lupichev, laboratory chief, Institute of Control Sciences in Moscow, and a Soviet consulate member, O. N. Sidorenko. During the visit, the cosmonaut indicated high interest in psychic research in general and hinted that psychic-type incidents had been experienced by various USSR cosmonauts. Some of these included an apparent ability to sense equipment failure before the failure actually took place, and the occurrence of intense rapport with fellow cosmonauts that apparently led to improved cooperation and intuitive conditions. Although Sevastyanov insisted there was no official psychic investigation in conjunction with their space program, he was aware of Kogan and the application potential of Kogan's ezperiments. (S-W1VIN'TEL) The most significant recent indication of Soviet research interest occurred with the visit of Soviet scientist Yuriy Vasilyevich GulyEyev to a West Coast US He further indicated that he planned to begin paranormal research at the Institute for Radioengineering and Electronics (IRE) in Moscow. (C-WNINZ'EL) Professor (Dr.) Yu. V. Gulyayev has been with the IRE since 1959 and is currently the institute's Deputy Director. He also holds the position of professor at the Moscow Physical Technical Institute. He is a highly respected scientist and frequently travels outside the USSR. Gulyayev is best known in the USSR for his work on bulk and surface wave phenomena in semiconductors, and has discovered a particular acoustic-magnetic-electric effect. He is also in charge of an optical fiber communications system research program utilizing semiconductor lasers, and is applying surface wave acoustic principles to this communication system. (C-WNIN'TEL) During his visit to the West Coast facility, Gulyayev stated that he and other IRE staff members have been actively researching paranormal phenomena for at least 1-year on an "unofficial" basis. IRE director V. A. Kotelnikov supports these investigations. (GWNIIVTEL) Gulyayev indicated that his research results have been presented to USSR Academy of Science members, and its president, A. Aleksandrov. Aleksandrov apparently supports and encourages this research. Gulyayev intends to begin a "full-scale" paranormal research program, with "much backing", after March 1979. He planned to wait until he had become a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences.* After March, he intends to significantly ezpand research activities and to openly publish results of his research. (C-WNIN'TEL) Gulyayev stated that he had performed remote viewing experiments with Nma Kulagina, a well-known USSR subject, and stated that "she does this all the time." He provided no further details. Gulyayev indicated that remote viewing wax a very important area of research, but declined to offer specifics on any of his future plans in this area. At this time his actual research data are not available for evaluation. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 D3T-18103-202-78-Cbg 1 '~' 4 February 1980 ~- (GVi~1~TIIV1'EL-NOCONTRAGT) There has a18o been a repeat indication that a new official parapgrchology laboratory has been established in Novosibirsl~. This laboratory may have doss ties to as uaidenti$ed parapsyehology laboratory in Moscow; however, no detail are available at this time. t Easrgetic Processes (U) (Tn The moat unusual psychoenergetic phenomena is the apparent ability of certain individuals to influence matter via mental volition. A form of energy transfer, which appears to be generated or regulated by mental activity may be the basic source for such effect. The nature of this energy transfer and its interaction mechanism is being investigated by various researchers throughout the world. The process involving apparent interaction with inanimate material is usually referred to as peyrholdnasis and is associated with unesplainable motion or configuration changes. Thin term is somewhat limited in that it does not generally include all unusual "energetic processes." T (Thin Page ie Con i 'alb Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 (U) There are unezplained phenomena that suggest changes in other materiel properties (e.g., electric, magnetic) may also occur during psychcenergetic ezperiences or ezperiments. Other unusual phenomena have been noted that appear to affect people. Some of these appear to involve physiological parameters; others may be psychosomatic in nature. The most controversial of these would be the apparent phenomena referred to as "psychic healing" (or variants). Researchers consider some of these effects to be possibly ezplainable by generation or interaction of various naturally occurring "fields," or by some type of telepathic influence on the self-regulation system of the other person. (U) The popular press in recent years has carried many acxounts of a rather spectacular type of psychokinesis; this has been referred to as the "Geller effect," named after the Israeli, Uri Geller. Unfortunately, these accounts of metal deformation or breaking have been difficult to verify, and due to his sometime apparent attempts at deception, ao firm conclusions can be made. At least one physics laboratory (Kings College, London, England) has studied Geller and others who claim similar ability,* and has released confirming reports. Some of the ezperimental information reported appears suspect and this apparent controlled study should be treated cautiously. Another physice laboratory has studied fracture patterns of material alledgedly "broken" by Geller. Their conclusion is that the cause of these fractures was not mechanical in nature, nor a result of usual methods of fracture. This would tend to suggest unusual interactions did indeed occur and that this form of psychokinesis should be open to further study. However, there are no data to indicate Warsaw Pact countries have investigated this specific type of psychokinesis. The few energetic-type investigations reported appear to be of a "field effect" type; unusual low energetic level dynamic effects have been reported, and unusual interactions with other people or biological specimens have been reported. a. G. A. Sergeyev (U) (U) Although open criticism of people who have given apparent psychokinetic demonstrations has frequently ocxurred in the USSR, a few investigators have nevertheless studied such individuals under informal conditions and in a laboratory environment. G. A. Sergeyev is known to have studied Nina Kulagina,** a well-known psychic from Leningrad. Although no detailed results are available, Sergeyev's inferences are that she was successful in repeating psychokinetic phenomena under controlled conditions. G. A. Sergeyev is swell-respected researcher and has been active in paraphysics research since the early 1960'x. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) There have been recent data indicating Sergeyev has moved to Moscow; however, it is not known if he is continuing paraphysics research. If he is, it is considered likely that he might at this time be associated with V. N. Pushkin who appears to be gaining support for paraphysics research at the Institute of Psychology, RSFSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, Moscow. "(U) Research is also under way in Paris with J. P. Giraud, and at a Londoa Physics laboratory where evidence for paranormal "metal softening" has been reported. There also has been similar research in Japan recently, apparently with some positive results. ?"(U) Also ]mown as Nelia lYlikhailova. C Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1978 (C) Western researchers have also observed Kulagina's psychokinetic abilities on numerous occasions; however, adequate documentation and verification of apparent effects are not available. In a recent demonstration, under informal conditions, an observer claimed Kulagina was able to cause small nonmagnetic objects, suspended from springs in a plexiglass container, to move. In another experiment she apparently caused a plastic object, in an inverted glass container, to move toward her. There have been many similar reports from other USSR investigators and visiting Western observers over the past decade. Other effects claimed to have been observed during her attempts at object movement include generation of weak magnetic and electric fields and also interactions on photographic plates. (U) Sergeyev has also studied characteristics of normal and diseased tissues, and for some specimens, he notes differences in their emission spectrum. He claims people who have a "healing" ability can influence diseased tissue in a way that the emission spectrum returns to its original characteristics, and resumption of normal tissue functioning occurs. Although Sergeyev includes no data to prove this contention, he does appear to have performed considerable work along these directions. Sergeyev has also reported data on the apparent ability of a healer to influence the emission spectrum of ordinary water. He suspects that this involves similar principles to those noted in reaction with living tissue or cells. He considers these interactions to be the basis, in part, for certain people to apparently influence states of health, including accelerated recovery, of others. (Ul Unfortunately, his reports do not contain sufficient data for conclusive evaluation; he does not define what spectrum band he is reporting, nor does he report on any form of control experiment. !U) It is interesting to note that Sergeyev is actively doing research on "healers," as well as on people with psychokinetic ability of the type demonstrated by Nina Kulagina. His experiments include instrumentation to study electromagnetic influences during healing activities, similar to those already reported for experiments with Nina Kulagina. (U) Sergeyev has also investigated psychoenergetic effects of people with psychokinetic abilities (i.e., N. Kulagina) on other people and on biological specimens. In one experimental series, frog hearts were placed in an appropriate solution, and Kulagina attempted to influence their activity. Sergeyev claims that normally frog hearts remain active in solution up to 1.5-2 hours after removal from the frog. In the first of the experiments the electrocardiogram (EKG) indicated activity ceased about 7 minutes after Kulagina began concentration on "stopping the heart." The heart had been in a ceramic container. In the second experiment, with the heart in a metallic container, heart activity ceased after 22 minutes. In both these experiments, Kulagina was 1.5 meters from the "target" hearts. (U) Sergeyev measured weak electric and magnetic fields at the target heart that correlated with some of Kulagina's physiological activity. This may have been responsible for the effect noted on heart activity. (U) In another experiment, Kulagina attempted to increase the heart rate of a skeptical physician. Electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and other parameters were measured in both. Abrupt changes in these parameters were noted in both people within 1 minute after the experiment began. After 5 minutes, Sergeyev judged the heart activity of the physician had reached dangerous levels, and the experiment was terminated. Subsequent analysis indicated a definite synchronous effect was noted between certain heart parameters for both the physician and Kulagina. Sergeyev apparently views psychokinetic-type phenomena as being closely related to healing-type phenomena and apparently has done (and is doing) considerable investigations in this direction. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 C DST-1810S-202-76-Chg 1 4 February 1980 (U) This view is also held by researchers in England. They have also reported on physiological parameter synchronization effects between "healers" and another person. There are also other researchers investigating similar "healing" phenomena in the USSR. Well-known researchers are the Krivorotovs (at Tblisi); however, sufficient data are not available for definitive evaluation of their claims. (U) Such investigations are certainly unique and are worthy of further attention. Sergeyev's research could have considerable impact on theoretical, as well as practical, aspects of these types of energetic processes. It could improve understanding of other energetic processes sad also paranormal information processes. b. V. G. A.damenko (U) (U) Another person reported to have been studied by several USSR researchers is Alla Vinogradova,* a Moscow resident. V. G. Adamenko, a Moscow physicist, has been the key investigator. His work appears to be credible and well controlled, although sufficient data are not available for final evaluation. As with Kulagina, Alla Vinogradova appears capable of causing small nearby objects to move in various specified directions. Adamenko claims to have measured small electric fields on the target objects during her acts of volition and has noted correlations in motion to intensity of motivation and to physiological conditions such as pulse rate. Another of his observations is that once an object has been initially affected by Vinogradova, others can cause motion in that object as well. In addition, he claims to have trained inexperienced people, via bio-feedback methods, to accomplish similar tasks. (U) Adamenko suspects this form of psychokineses can be ezplainable mainly on an electrostatic basis. He has noted that objects placed in high electric fields show similar dynamics; however, these ezperiments are not adequately reported. He also suspects friction coefficients are affected due to ionization and polarization of air molecules around the target object. However, other researchers suspect that not all reported psychokinetic-type phenomena can be explained on electrostatic or other field effects alone. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) Although Adamenko had been at the Institute of Physiology in Moscow, it appears that he and Alla are now working with V. N. Pushkin at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow. a V. Pushkin (U) (U) Another Moscow researcher, V. N. Pushkin, has performed investigations on psychoenergetic processes involving apparent interaction with organic matter such as plants. One ezperiment reported recently involved apparent correlations in responses from a polygraph that was attached to a plant and emotional states induced in a hypnotized person. The ezperiment was repeated several times, it was checked for electrical interference, and was run under nail conditions. Although no firm evaluation can be made, Pushkin does appear to be a respected researcher and he may in fact have observed some type of valid interaction. One of Pushkin's ezperimenia suggests an interest in an interrogation role; a correlation was noted between instrument response and times the subject was giving intentional incorrect answers to a series of questions. 9 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 (U) Pushkin has also studied other aspects of psychokinetic phenomena, particularly the alleged ability of B. Ermolayev, a Moscow resident, to cause small objects to remain suspended with no apparent support. ]~molayev apparently is very close to the objects during such tests, which is suggestive of Adamenko's view that electrostatic fields may somehow be involved. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) Recent data indicate Pushkin is emerging as a leading paraphysica researcher in the USSR. He is ezpanding paraphysics research in his laboratory at the Institute of Psychology, RSFSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, Moscow. He has also intseased his staff by adding the Adamenko's. He is known to have worked with Kogan, particularly on developing xcaeening techniques for identifying "gifted subjects." His search for gifted people is not limited to psychic ability, but includes other talents such as photographic memory and special mathematical ability. It appears this search concentrates on young people, but is not necessarily limited to any age bracket. It is likely a portion of his research is based on conventional psychology or biophysics research; however, it appears the portion devoted to paraphysics is increasing. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) It is known that a Czechoslovakian researcher, Z. Rejdak, has established strong ties with Puahldn and that he travels frequently to Pushkin's laboratory in Moscow. Rejdak has set up a laboratory similar to Puahkin's at a hospital facility in Prague. d. G. Krokhalev (Ln (U) Another type of investigation into paranormal energetic processes was reported at the Third International Psychotronics conference by G. P. Krokhalev, a psychiatrist from Perm. His experiments involve attempts to have "mental images" appear on photographic film. He claims to have recorded this effect under wntrolled conditions. Ae an ezample, a person who could visualize images well, even to the point of hallucinating, was able to specify the image beforehand that was later observed on the film. Although much of his work appears to be very nonprofessional, his later ezperimente with the apparent recording of mental imagery appear reasonably well ,controlled. However, no firm evaluation can be made of his experimental procedure or results at this time. Other researchers, such as L. Vilenakaya, have apparently observed some of Krokhalev's experiments and judged them valid. (U) This form of apparent paychoenergetic-type process is not new to parapsychological researchers. Krokhalev's investigations appear similar to those reported in the US by Dr. J. Eisenbud, who is a psychiatrist at the University of Colorado Medical School. Dr. Eisenbud conducted eztensive controlled investigations into the alleged ability of a subject, Ted Serios, who appeared to cause specific images to appear on films when under intense concentration. Eisenbud's recent work appears to be valid but is subject to the same evaluation difficulty as most all investigations involving such phenomena. Since the early 1960'x, USSR researchers have ezpreseed an iaterest in Eiaenbud's work, along with all the other forma of apparent psychoenergetic processes. There has also been recent evidence of similar research, apparently with positive results, in a Japanese psychic research laboratory. (U) Sergeyev also noted Nina Kulagina* appeared to cause some type of observable effect at times on unezposed photographic film during an attempted pxychoeaergetic ezperiment, eves though there was no intent for any effect. This effect has also been noted by other researchers, though few attempts to induce specific images have been made. '(U) New data indicate Nina Kulagina was recently invited to Moscow to demonstrate her abilities to Academician Alebandrov, President of the US4R Academy of Sciences, who is also Preudem of the Ioedtuta of Atomic Enersy. 10 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 e. Yu. V. Gulyayev (C) . (C-WNINTEL) Yu. V. Gulyeyev's research has centered on the apparent "energetic" abilities of Nina Kulagina, a housewife from Leningrad who has previously (since 1960) been researched by G. A. Sergeyev of the Ukhtomskii Physiological Institute there. Gulyayev has made a 2.5 hour movie sad video tape of his experiments that he has shown to several basic research institutes, such as the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences imeni Lebedev (FIAN). (C-WNINTEL) One of the criticisms he received from academy members was that he needed additional scbjecta. As a result, he located other people with peychoenergetic abilities and now has at least four such "gifted subjects." One of these is a young girl who has a severe schizophrenic disorder; another is a female writer from Moscow; and another is a man with "precognitive"~ abilities. (C-WNINTEL) When asked how he located "gifted subjects," Gulyayev indicated one method was to visit villages in the rural areas and to seek out the local people who claim to have paranormal abilities. Those that appeared to be congenial to work with were tested; those with repeatable paychcenergetic (paranormal) abilities were then brought to Moscow for further testing. He also contacted other Moscow paraphysics researchers who introduced him to paranormally gifted individuals. (C-WAIIIVTEL) Gulyayev has observed swell-known Moscow psychic (Boris Eroleyev) who previously has been researched by biophysicist V. N. Pushkin. Erolayev is known for his apparent abilities to cause objects to rise and remain suspended (with no apparent physical support) for several minutes. Gulyayev indicated research with Erolayev could also be one of his future objectives. (C-VPNIlVTEL) The following are some specific experiments that Gulyayev claims he has (1) (C-WNIIVTEL) Movement of small nonmetallic and metallic objects: Gulyayev, and other USSR Academy of Science members, have observed the apparent psychokinetic (PK) ability of Nma Kulagina to move (slide, rotate, roll) small objects a few meters removed from her. Gulyayev is convinced this phenomena is genuine and has observed these effects under tight control. He now plans to develop more tightly controlled experiments, with objects in sealed plastic bozes, and to further develop Kulagina's ability to "focus" on objects at greater distance. During these experiments, Kulagina's blood pressure is typically 240!200, her pulse rate is 180-200 beats per minute, her blood sugar is five times normal, and her electroencephalogram (EEG) is similar to epileptic-type people. (2) (C-WNINTEL) Sine wave suppression: He has also tested Kulagins's ability to influence electronic signals. In one experiment, using an acoustic surface wave transducer inside a plastic boz, Kulagina was able to cause the amplitude of the output sine wave to drop to zero, and also to "allow" it to return to its original value when so desired. It appears that some type of field interaction occurred that caused the surface wave to cease for several seconds, during her intention for this to happen. (3) (C-WrTIIVTEL) Induced "burns": Gulyayev claims Kulagina's most repeatable affect is to cause burn marks to appear on other people. During acts of intention, and with her hands placed near the desired burn area of willing observers, aburn-like welt appears, with acxompanying pain. These "welts" eventually heal, consistent with normal burn recovery times. Gulyayev has experienced this himself, and has attempted to put physical filters between Kulagina's hands and the subject's skin. Some filters (metal, rubber) appear to have no influence; but others (glass) appear to block the "effects." Gulyayev suspects a surface wave phenomena may be responsible for the burns; however, he has not as yet detected unusual acoustic or electromagnetic fields during this particular experiment. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DB'!'-18105-Z02-78-Cbg 1 4 February 1980 (4) (C-WNINTEL) Suspension of objects: Another subject (the schizophrenic girl) appears to have the ability to cause material objects to bccome partislly suspended. According to Gulyaysv, she can cause a wooden object (ruler) to "rise" to a 46? angle with only one end remaining in contact with the table or floor. The ruler usually remains is this position for several minutes and does not slide when placed on glass. This has bees photograghed, observed by other Academy members, and has bees thoroughly checked for hidden strings. Gulyayev concludes it is a genuine phenomenon, and plans to pursue this type of ezperiment further. L A. Berezina sad D. Gubarev (C-NOF'ORN-NOCONTRACZ7 (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) A. Herezine, a physician, and D. Gubarev, a physicist, who are with the Moscow Institute for Biological Testing of Chemicals, have recently shown interest is psyehokinetic investigations. It appears they have also investigated Kulagina, and claim to have also observed her ability to move small objects, via mental volition. It is not ]mown if these iigations are related to official duties, or are performed on an off-duty basis. 10.2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED SECTION III HISTORICAL REVIEW (U) i. USSR (U) a. Prior to 1960 (U) DST-18105-202-78 30 March 19 i 8 fU) Investigation of paranormal mental phenomena generally began during the latter part of the 1800's in various countries, including the Soviet Union. Initially, only a few independent researchers pursued such study, since paranormal phenomena were usually associated with superstition, mystical, or occult beliefs. Their intent was to find ascientific-based explanation for the purported phenomena, if true: Many of these studies involved collecting and evaluating naturally occurring "spontaneous cases" suggestive of unusual phenomena. Other investigations examined claims of people with unusual abilities; however, many such people were also known to fake the alleged phenomena, thereby discrediting cases when the phenomena may have been legitimate. Some of these investigations included phenomena associated with hypnotism, which was another highly controversial issue. Study in this area was further complicated by the tie at that time to psychology, another emerging field that was experiencing difficulties of its own. t U) The first indication of specific USSR interest in investigations into paranormal phenomena from a scientific viewpoint was around 18 ~ S, several years before the first attempt at such study was formalized by establishment of the British Society of Psychical Research. This early USSR effort was initiated by D. I. Mendeleyev who submitted proposals for such study to the Physical Socieh.? of St. Petersburg (Leningrad) University. He also pursued his own private investigations and continued to urge that the topic in general should be examined nn a thorough scientific basis. Several tether USSR im?estigators also began study of paranormal phenomena around this time. IU) One such investigator was V. G. Iiotik, a physician whose book Spontaneous Thourghl Transmission appeared in 191?. Kook's r,bjective was to separate what he considered "natural phenomena" from m}?sticism and related topics. The Soviet public in general has alwa}?~ appeared to he open to mystical-type phenomena, an openness that way somewhat officially acknowledged by Czar Nichnla~ II and his family's association with the highly controversial Rasputin. (U) After 191 ~ , open interest in ps}?chic t}?pe phenomena was greatly suppressed since Marxism was thought to definitely exclude anything associated with nortmaterialistic issues. On the ether hared, the revolution also initially appeared to generate a desire for new knowledge even in unconventional directions. (U) In 1919, V. M. Bekhterev, a noted physiologist at the Institute of Brain Research of the University of Leningrad, began investigations into unusual psychological and physiological effects associatedi with the h}?pnotic state, including cases of apparent telepathic experiences. Pavlov had also made reference to unusual abilities snmetimes.obsen?ed in animals and man and was open to such investigations. Bekhterev organized a special group (Commission for the Study of Mental Suggestion) to continue and elaborate ort his early work. L. L. Vasil'yev, a research physiologist who joined this institute in 1921, was part of this commission. Vasil'yev's initial work was on effects of magnetic fields rin psychr~ingical states; eventually he became the prime researcher in the area termed "mental suggestion." (U) In addition to laboratory experiments with hypnotized people, Vasil'yev also began m coller?t and evaluate naturally occurring incidents (i.e., spontaneous cases) that were suggestive of telepathic processes. He also established contact with researchers in other countries, particularly with the noted French physiologist, Charles Riche(, who also conducted psychic experiments with hypnntizeci people. 11 UNCLASSIFIED - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED (U) In 1926 Vasil'yev published results of this early research and postulated electromagnetic radiation from the brain as a possible explanation. In the same year a special board was established at the Brain Research Institute to duplicate his findings, but its study did not yield definite results. However, later experiments with a different test person (subject) were stated to be positive and supportive of Vasil'yev's initial observations. (U) After Bekhterev's death in 1927, little work on telepathy studies occurred. This may have been due to some ambiguous results or possibly to the negative viewpoint on telepathy by the Institute's new director. (U) In 1932 the Institute was given an assignment to initiate an experimental study of telepathy with the aim of determining, if possible, a physical basis for its explanation. Vasil'yev was selected to direct this investigation. This work continued until 1938 when World War II interrupted activities. After that, Vasil'yev continued to collect evidence of spontan::ous cases and pursued unofficial investigations on his own. (U) The main orientation of his research during this period was on telepathic induction of specific motor acts, on transmission of visual images from one person (sender) to another (received. and remotely induce sleep or awakening in a hypnotized subject. His initial subjects were easily suggestible or hypnotizable hysteric or neurasthenic patients. Later, Vasil'yev found certain normal people appeared to have repeatable psychic aptitude without being hypnotized. (U) Some of these experiments involved attempts at transmission of black or white targets and also specific drawings. Vasil'yev found a few cases where results were far greater than chance expectancy (10''}, and he also reported data showing high correlation between some of the complex drawings used as targets. f U) His most famous was the long distance experiment between Leningrad and Sevastopol' (1.700 km) which involved "sending" sleep and awake commands to a subject who had been involved in similar experiments at short distances. The sender selected the time for both the sleep and the subsequent awake command at random during a preselected 2-hour period. The experiment was performed on 2 days, with the first being a null test (i.e., no commands intended) unknown to the subject. In this case, no response was noted in the subject. In the second experiment, the subject. responded within 1 minute to both sleep and awake commands. This was consistent with numerous previous short-distance experiments and was considered to at least demonstrate the potential for long- distance mental "influence," or telepathy. (U) Vasil'yev's experiments have the same evaluation difficulties as most similar experiments.~Sufficient detail on experimental protocol and test procedures is usually not available, and usually a sufficient number of experiments are not conducted. However, these early experiments were apparently sufficiently encouraging to at least help motivate later USSR researchers toward further investigations. (U) Since Vasil'yev was also trying to explore the validity of electromagnetic models for explaining telepathic processes, much of his later work was with subjects in an electromagnetically shielded room (Faraday cage) and with "senders" located elsewhere. His data indicated there was little or no difference between results with subjects in or out of the shielded room. This led him to conclude telepathy may not be an electromagnetic phenomena. He later modified this view when it was realized usual shielding does not significantly affect the low-frequency portion of the spectrum and that telepathy could at least in principle still be related to known physical phenomena. It is clear Vasil'yev and other Soviet researchers were highly desirous to at least fir-d hints of an electromagnetic connection; they apparently needed a clear link to known (or materialistic) concepts to justify such research in view of Marxist ideology. Lack of apparent electromagnetic correlation may have been a key factor for his discontinuation of formal experiments in 1938. Stalin had already begun his purges of anyone who appeared to advocate any antimaterialistic or antipolitical activity or belief. 12 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST-1810S-202-. 8 30 March 19 i 8 (U) There were other researchers at this time (B. B. Kazhinskiy and S. Y. Turlpgin) in Moscow who thought they had found differences between experiments in shielded and nonshielded rooms. However, the quality of these experiments is open to question. (U) Earlier (1924) a Moscow physicist, V. Arkad'ye~?. concluded that electrical acti~yty in the brain (cortex level) was of insufficient intensity to be effective at a distance. These results conflicted with Vasil'yev's findings. Theoretical attacks from this direction may also have caused Vasil'yev and others to withdraw from any open experimentation. (U) In 1956, Vasil'?vev began corresponding with the F~?ench researcher, R. Warcollier, and apparently received updates on worldwide parapsychological studies. Subsequently, he wrote a book for the popular press, Mysterious Phenomena of the Human Psyche, which was published in 1959 in Moscow. This book discussed a variety of subliminal sensory influences from known Pavlovian concepts. Vasil'yev extrapolated some of these to account for possible telepathic phenomena (with the cortex of the brain viewed as an electromagnetic signal generatorf and emphasized the ~~ew that paranormal abilities in general would eventually be explained on a purely physical basis. This modified approach, emphasizing "yet-to-be-discovered" ph}?sical explanations, apparentl~? was necessary to avoid Marxist ideological conflict as well as to gain interest and support of scientists in conventional disciplines. (U) Appearance of this book made a considerable impact in the USSR, and particularly with parapsychological researchers elsewhere who were shocked to learn that any interest in psychic research existed at all in the Soviet Union. In 1962, Vasil'vev published more details of his early experimental work in Long Range Suggestion and Experiments in Distant Influence. (U) These first publications apparently caused other unknown USSR researchers to publish articles and books. One such researcher was B. B. Kazhinskiy, an electrical engineer, whose book Biological Radio Communication appeared in 1962. The surfacing of paranormal phenomena issues in the open press appeared to be one of Vasil'yev's aims; in this he was certainly very successful. fL') Ironicall~?, the most significant event that assisted in bringing paranormal phenomena into the open was a F~?ench magazine article in 1959. This article described an alleged successful telepathic experiment between a Nautilus crew member at sea and an experimenter on Tiore: (This experiment was eventually revealed as a hoax; however, its appearance at this time certainly helped call attention to Vasil'yev's early work and suggested that the apparent telepathic phenomena had definite military potentia~ l~r, u ~'~ t ~ ~ ~~ ~ "~ ~~ ; ~ '?. - '; -~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ `.\ ,~ - (U) Subsequently, Vasil'vev, then head of the Physiology Department at the University of Leningrad, was appointed as director of a new laboratory in the Physiological department to study telepathy on an official basis. Vasil'yev also devoted much time to making presentations nn his work and parapsychology research in general to many scientific groups, laboratories, and institutes in Leningrad and Moscow. (U) Shortly after Vasil'yey's first publication, the issue of telepathy became hotly debated by many in the Soviet Union. Some chose to attack the protocol of Vasil'yev's experiments; some attacked such phenomena as contradictory to either Marxist theory or scientific principles, while others felt the phenomena did not contradict either Marx or science. (U) There also appeared numerous reports in the popular press on apparent replication of some of Vasil'yev's experiments. Anecdotal literature appeared regarding accomplishments of well- . known public figures who were purported to have unusual abilities (such as Wolf Messing). Many prominent individuals considered the subject was at least worthy of further study and should not be 13 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 U N C LAS S I F T E D 30 March 1978 ignored even from a purely scientific basis. If nothing more, in their view, such study could provide a firm basis for rebuking those who claimed such abilities. In sum, there were both attacks and acclaims for such research. Vasil'yev also began disseminating research results from other countries to help generate a variety of new research interest. (U) In his presentations, he often quoted the views of the well-known USSR missile pioneer, K E. Tsiolkovskiy, who suspected the reality of telepathic phenomena, felt it should be investigated, and saw its potential in future space travel. No doubt this view, in light of the Sputnik success in 1957, assisted in achieving an openness toward his research in many conventional circles. Vasil ;vev was also known to have opened some public lectures by referring to Upton Sinclair's popular book Mental Radio; 1930). This book discusses telepathic experiments that were wi Hesse by Albert Einstein who a so felt the subject worthy of scientific study. (U) Vasil'yev continued with his laboratory association until his death in 1966. P. I. Gulyaev succeeded him but has apparently emphasized other investigations involving various biological interactions not necessarily related to telepathic issues. (U) In addition to the work at Vasil'yev's laboratory, research was also initiated in the Ukhtomskiy Physiology of Labor Laboratory, which is affiliated with Leningrad University. Initial researchers were G. A. Sergeyev, L. P. Pavlova, and E. K Naumov. This laboratory had electroencephalogram (EEG) equipment and apparently other sensitive devices useful for detecting weak electric or magnetic fields. Such fields are suspected by some researchers to be associated with certain psychic events. D. G. Mirza, a psychiatrist, also showed interest and began research at this time, apparently as part of his normal responsibilities at the Institute for Problems of Information Transmission (IPPI), in Moscow. (U) In 1965, I. M. Kogan, a Doctor of Technical Sciences at Moscow Higher Technical School (M~"I'iJ) imeni Bauman, was appointed as chairman of a special group to study problems of telepathy in affiliation with the Moscow gection of the Popov Society. This group was called the Section of Bioinformation. E. K Naumov was also involved in early phases of this group's activities. (U) Kogan's stated objectives included study of telepathic phenomena (at both near and long distances) under controlled laboratory conditions, study of various techniques for enhancing telepathic phenomena, and collection and analysis of spontaneous phenomena reported worldwide. A goal of the group was also to establish a special laboratory with appropriate research equipment. Kogan also viewed telepathic phenomena as possibly explainable on an electromagnetic basis (i.e., in the extra-low frequency region) and much, if not all, of his work appears oriented toward this perspective. . (U) Between 1965 and 19?0, Kogan's theoretical views and results of some of the Bioinformation section's experiments were published in the technical journal, Radio Engineering. It is difficult to fully evaluate most of his findings, mainly due to the small number of experimental trials reported. Also, experimental procedures and controls are not adequately reported in some cases. However, his results have passed the review of the Popov Society, and members of his group who serve as experiment monitors are qualified scientists. (U) Another early research group was established in Moscow by E. K Naumov, probably at the Polytechnical Musem, which he called the "Laboratory of Technical Parapsychology." Stated objectives were to study telepathy, psychokinesis, and psychoenergetics in general. Some specific objectives included potential application for long-distance transmission of messages, and the development of sensitive instruments for measuring electromagnetic or physiological parameters that might be associated with such phenomena. Naumov was also interested in behavior modification possibilities. 14 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 (r` DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 19"8 (U) However, it became apparent that Naumov's objectives were coming into increasing conflict with Kogan. Naumov may also have been too uncritical in his experiments, and postulated concepts or models for paranormal phenomena that Kogan felt were un-Marrist. In addition, Naumov became very active, gave numerous public appearances, and was very open to Western researchers. He was also known to associate with people of questionable political orientation and was openly critical of Kogan, accusing him of being too conservative. Kogan eventually began to break with Naumov, which may have contributed to Naumov's decline as a serious researcher. In 1974, Naumov was arrested by the KGB and sentenced for over a year to a labor camp in Siberia. The officsal KGB charge against him was taking fees for a lecture he gave on parapsychology. Research he initiated was probably discontinued. (U) Between 1965 and 1968 Kogan was also very active. He presented papers on his research at various technical society meetings and chaired symposiums on parapsychology. His last known appearance was in February 1968 when he chaired a session on "The Scientific Problem of Telepathy" in Moscow. After this, he ceased open activities and publications, although he is known to have continued his research efforts. (U) In June 1968 Naumov also chaired a parapsychology conference in Moscow which was open to Western researchers. However, Pravda carried a very critical article on parapsychology, especially on alleged psychokinetic abilities. The basis for this criticism was centered on the showmanship aspects of some psychic subjects and on various explanations that seemed to challenge strict Merriam. Reference was also made to a telepathy experiment in May 1968 involving Kogan, Mirza, and others, which apparently failed. This experiment had been given much advance publicity by the popular magazine Literary Gazette. Publicity and resulting pressure were considered by the experimenters to be the key reason for the failure and may have led to a more cautious attitude in publicity of all future activity. Kogan and his group, nevertheless, continued to express great confidence is the validity of earlier experiments that were judged successful. Kogan had previously indicated that his experiments do not work all the time, and that on the average only about one half of the experiments are considered successful. (U) During this period, investigation was initiated in a wide variety of psychoenergetics topics throughout the USSR. Many of these were with small and unofficial groups, although some research also began at various laboratories. Kazak State University at Alma-Ate appears to have initiated several new research efforts. This research addressed many issues. of the psychoenergetic process ranging from usual paranormal aspects to the study of biological interactions with natural or induced energy sources (i.e., electromagnetic fields, magnetic fields, laser interaction or stimulation, and others). The most active researcher at Alma-Ate, V. M. Inyushin, has had numerous interchanges with research groups in Leningrad, Moscow, and elsewhere. A large amount of material is available from these investigations; however, this generally is difficult to evaluate and does not directly relate to main paraphysics topics. Some of this work may contribute toward development of a more complete electromagnetic model for paranormal phenomena. (C) Statements by Naumov and a Czechoslovakian researcher (M. Ryzl) indicated that closed or classified research was also initiated during this period, although the validity of this information is uncertain. G 1970 to the Present (U) (U) In 1970, a book by two journalists for the popular press was released in the L'S. This book, Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron. Curtain, was written in a highly sensational and exaggerated style and contained numerous factual errors. It received heavy criticism from serious US researchers, as well as being heavily criticized in the USSR. Naumov was frequently referenced and identified as being the source for much of the book's data, which did not help his already tarnished image. Although this book appeared to generate new interest in many countries, it had an overall Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 negative influence in the USSR Increased open criticism of parapsychology appeared, and publication of open research decreased. Naumov continued to hold conferences and, for a while, was instrumental in inviting foreign parapsychological researchers into the USSR to visit with USSR investigators. This activity ceased in 1974 with Naumov's arrest. Consequently, USSR research was no longer readily available, ezcept for a few popular press articles. (U) Although Naumov's international involvements ceased, some aspects were continued by a Czechoslovakian researcher, Z. Rejdak. In 1973, Rejdak organized the International Congress on Psychotmnic Research. Emphasis in this organization was stated to be on all phases of peychcenergetic processes and was to focus on instrumentation aspects. This congress, or forum, has provided at least one avenue for some open research publication in lieu of Naumov's conferences and the popular press journals. Another publication avenue used frequently is the International Jor~nwl of Paraphyaics, published in London. However, it appears most Soviet work published through these channels has been done by independent investigators and not necessarily those involved in careful research or with classified projects. Many of the papers appear to be very basic, mostly speculative, and are not well supported. However, these publications provide at least some insight into specific interests and potential directions for research in general. (U) Despite the various open controversies, an article, "Parapsychology: Fiction or Reality?" appeared in 1973 in Questions of Philosophy (Vopmsy F~losofii), an official publication of the Soviet Academy of Pedagogical Sciences. Authors of this article were leading scientists who acknowledged the reality of some "so-called parapsychological phenomena," called for the removal of ignorance as to how the phenomena operates, and urged a multidisciplinary research approach in their investigation. This article also recommended that individuals with strong paranormal abilities be studied in scientific laboratories. {C) In view of the prestige of the authors, this article is suggestive of official USSR high- level interest in scientific aspects of paranormal phenomena. Such attention may be a continuation of interest ttenerated by Vasil'yev, or may in fact be a new trend. This is consistent with previous indications of closed research activities and is further supported by observations of a Czechoslovakian researcher who visited one of the suspected research laboratories in Moscow (Kogan's). This visitor also indicated Kogan and other researchers, such as V. N. Pushkin, are actively searching for psychically gifted people and are investigating methods for improving such abilities. (U) Although his open publications ceased in 1970, Kogan was suspected to be continuing paraphysics research. This was confirmed in 1974 when an interview appeared in the Moscow newspaper Leninskoye Znamya. In this article, he affirms his continuing study of the physical and theoretical nature of the telepathic process from a communication channel point-of--view. Kogan also affirmed continuation of long-distance experiments and research with animals, and indicated an interest in "telepathic transmission of emotions." The article implies he is actively screening the population for people who clearly show paranormal capabilities. He stated that a major goal of his section is to use telepathy for information transmission from or to remote locations or during certain emergency conditions. His reference to remote locations is consistent with goals expressed earlier {submarine or space locations). The reference to emergency conditions could refer to times when normal communication links are blacked-out or jammed (i.e., during nuclear attack). (U) Although Kogan hea openly ezpressed his wncern about premature release of ezperimental data, and no doubt the effect of pressure on ezperimenta due to e:oeesive publicity became clear from the 1968 failure (Moscow-Ketch ezperiment), it is nevertheless unusual that Kogan would not have published since 1970. This lack of publication, in light of his on-going involvement in psy~choenergetic research, is highly suggestive that aspects of his research are classified and that he may be receiving direct government support. Z:a1VFiDE#F~IAL_ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 (C) In general, specific data on research in prime paraphysics arses have been very limited since 1970. It does appear, however, that considerable research ezists and that some of this research has government support and backing. 2. Other Warsaw Pact Countries (U) a. Csechoslovakia (U) (U) In the early 1920'a a Czech researcher, B. Katka, began investigation into paranormal phenomena. He worked with hypnotized people, since he believed hypnotism was essential to heighten paranormal abilities. He claims to have trained sad perfected clairvoyant abilities in people, and stated that his result8 were convincing. However, no clear data are available sad his work cannot be evaluated. There are claims that he employed paranormal perceptional modes during both World War I and World War II for locating enemy troop positions. (U) In 1950, Dr. M. Ryzl began serious research into paranormal perception from the point of view of developing this ability in ordinary people. He used hypnotic training and suggestion techniques, and found certain people's abilities did appear to improve with practice. In his research, Ryzl chose to keep target possibilities to one of two colors to permit easy and quantifiable evaluation of ezperimental results. This was acxomplished by creating a large target pool of cards, with a uniform color on each aide. These cards would then be sealed in lightproof envelopes, and randomized so that their orientation was unlmown. The subject would then attempt to determine which Dolor was on the top side from thousands of cards presented during a particular ezperiment. Ryzl found that certain individuals did ezceptionally well on this type of ezperiment. His most successful and consistent subject was observed by a Western researcher who visited Ryzl and noted an experiment with a su~ocesa probability of 10-s. Ryzl also claims to have sua~ssfully transmitted athree-digit number with this technique by using considerable redundancy. In this experiment, a binary code was constructed from the two color possibilities. Probability of success for this ezperiment was about 10-'s. In 1967, Ryzl left Czechoslovakia for political reasons. (U) In the early 1960's considerable publicity appeared in Czechoslovakia on psychokinesis ezperiments in the Physics Department at the University of Hradec Kralove in Prague. The investigations centered on the alleged ability of R. Pavlita, a factory department chief, and his daughter to cause movement of light metal foil by mental concentration. The foil, mounted in a sealed container, could apparently be made to start or atop rotating in specified directions. After 2 years of periodic testing, the ezperimenters concluded results were not sufficient for a scientific paper. However, in informal discussion, they felt some unusual and unezplainable effects ocxurred that could be an example of psychokinesis- Unfortunately, the popular press greatly ezaggerated these "unofficial remarks," and the publicity apparently led to a discontinuation of formal research with Pavlita at that time. Dr. M. Ryzl also investigated Pavlita and was unable to find convincing evidence of paychokiaetic ability. Apparently, considerable difficulty was encountered in separating ordinary energy transfer (such as body electrostatics or thermal radiation) from what might be considered + paranormal effects. i (U) In 1973, a Czech social psychologist, Ik. Z. Rejdak, formed the International i Congress on P~otronic Research, which was intended to address a wide variety of paraphysica-type ~ issues. This organization has had four meetings (1973, 1975, 197?, 1979) and has had considerable ? support from other investigators on a worldwide basis. Material presented by moat Czech investigators at these conferences have been highly speculative and of a theoretical nature. Although interest is ' shown in both paranormal information and energetic aspects, it appears most imrestigations are of the type made public earlier by R. Pavlita. Some of these investigations have been reposed to eztend over 10-15 years. Unfortunately, the data available are not adequate for meaningful evaluation of the DS'T-18105-202-78-Chg 1 ,~ 4 February 1980 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 various claims. The investigations in general appear to be poorly controlled and poorly reported. Considerable publicity has once again been given them by the popular press which emphasizes applications that appear to far ezoeed that suggested by the meager ezperimental evidence (even if ezac~ly as reported). The major difficulty is that it is not clear what effects can be ezplained from known physical effects and what may be paranormal. The ezperimenters involved appear to be conducting such ezperimente on a part-time basis with limited equipment, which further affects reliability of results. (U) Aa an ezample, a physicist, J. Krmessky, reports ezperiments where lightweight objects suspended on liquid film or thread supports have apparently been caused to move by mental volition. Another investigator, F. Kahuda, claims to have observed influences on radiometers. However, supporting data are either unavailable or unclear. Such ezperiments are by their nature sensitive to known energy transfer mechanisms and ezperimental control must be very high. Yet, these researchers may be observing some unusual effects at times, perhaps of the sort observed by Adameako and Pushkin in Moscow. The energy transfer mechanism may somehow involve electrostatic-type phenomena, perhaps transferred in unusual ways. Researchers elsewhere (Canada, France, England) have also performed similar ezperiments and report similar results. (U) Although R. Pavlita was involved in much debate in the early 1960'x, he apparently continues to pursue his own research and has submitted reports to Rejdak's organization. Hia recent papers describe e:perimenta where unusual specified motions have been induced in lightweight suspended objects, and where nonmagnetic material has apparently been made to behave as if magnetized when placed in metal containers that have been "acted on" by mental volition. These demonstrations have been observed by other researchers, who think there may be a degree of validity to them, since no apparent fraud has been detected. (U) Pavlita refers to these containers as "psychotronic generators," or "biogenerators," since he believes they score "psychic energy" that can be transferred to other objects. This transfer, he believes, can cause new properties to appear in matter, or cause unusual motion to be induced (even by someone not considered to have psychic aptitude). Thin latter condition rnuld be similar to that observed by a Western researcher visiting in Moscow, who apparently was able to mentally affect an object that Alla Vinogradova had previously "influenced." (U) Pavlita's "psychotronic generators" have been widely publicized in the popular press, and much speculation on their military potential has been made. However, at this time these effects appear to operate at low energetic levels and may be due, in part, to static electricity. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) Z. Rejdak is openly active in serving as a ooosdinator for psychotronic imrestigationa, and is increasing his research activities. He travels freely sad visits researchers in the USSR and other Warsaw Pact countries. His activities appear sanctioned by Czech political officials, and he receives considerable support in his role as president of the Psyrhotronics Organization. (C-NOFORN-NOCONT'RACT) Z. Rejdak has recently established a paraphysics research laboratory in a hoxpital facility in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Part of this laboratory's function includes ecseening the general population for gifted subjects, i.e., people who can perform well in memory, mathematical computations, and in psychic tasks. The emphasis is on discovering young people, but is sot limited to any age class. These people are viewed as "national treasures" to be studied and assisted in developing their abilities further. Rejdak's lab, having about 15 researchers, is modeled after Pushkin'a laboratory in Moscow. It appears, however, Rejdak investigates a variety of topics (such as holistic medicine) that are not pursued by Pushkin. Rejdak frequently travels to Moscow and has taken part in several of Puahkin's ezperimenta. 18 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 (C-NOFORN-NO CONTRACT) Rejdak's laboratory appears to be well equipped, and has considerable bio-feedback type equipment. Some of his ezperiments involve hypnosis (similar to Ryzl's), particularly in relation to modifying behavior (in hospital patients) and in studies of eztending consciousness to be aware of remote ezternal stimuli. Other imrestigations involve medical diagnostics, where a subject is given only a patient's name and, according to Rejdak, can provide an accurate description of major medical problems. These subjects have also been involved in ezperimenta where they have demonstrated an ability to accurately describe concealed objects. However, at this time, Rsjdak's research data are not available for evaluation, and no firm statement can be made regarding reliability of his claims. (C-NOFORN-NOCONTRACT) Official support for psychotronic research in Czechoslovakia appears to be inczeasing, apparently a result of Rsjdak's efforts over the years Although energetic-type phenomena will probably continue to be im-estigated, there is also new interest shown in paranormal perception. b. Bulgaria (U) (U) Active investigations into paranormal phenomena began in the 1940's by G. Lozanov in Sofia. These early ezperiments were similar to Vasil'yev's sleep-wake ezperiments and were judged to be successful. Later, in the mid-1960'x, Lozanov performed other ezperunenta with blind people and noted some had an ability to distinguish differences in colors, and some could also describe drawings by "touch." In these ezperiments, the targets were underneath glass. These were similar to Soviet investigations generally referred to as "dermo-optics," and may be a form of clairvoyance. Dt. Lozanov also claims some of these blind subjects (usually children) improved their performance through training end practice. 18.1 ww~~r~wcuTfAf vv~~ ^ ~ (Reverse Blank) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-203-78 30 March 1978 (U) Around this time, agovernment-funded facility was created for the study and development of an accelerated learning method developed by Lozanov and included the study of parapsychological phenomena. This was called the Institute of Suggestology and was claimed by Lozanov to have a staff of about 30. Some of their investigations were with people who apparently had proven paranormal abilities. (C) In 1966, Lozanov described ane of his experiments at a parapsychology conference in Moscow. In this, a sender attempted to influence another person's selection of one of two telegraph keys. In nearly 2,000 trials, the appropriate key was selected about 700 of the time (probability of about 10'R). There is also recent information indicating Lozanov continues to work with gifted people. Although objectives are unknown, they are believed to be directed toward communication applications. (U) Lozanov is very active, making many public appearances to discuss his accelerated learning techniques and paranormal phenomena in general. His work appears to be well accepted and he has stated that an open climate exists in Bulgaria for such investigations. Apparently, folklore that contains accounts of such phenomena has helped create this openness. (U) Lozanov is best known worldwide for suggestology, his accelerated learning technique. This is not based on conventional hypnosis, but it has similar elements. Typically, a foreign language is taught by having students listen only indirectly to the teacher's lesson in a very relaxed, tensionless atmosphere. Music is usually in the background and the instructor's voice ranges from loud statements to low whispers. The next day, without further instruction or reading, the students are apparently able to recall most of the lesson's content. By such a technique, Lozanov claims that assimilation of new material can be 5-50 times faster than normal learning. Although his claims for suggestology are difficult to evaluate, it does appear to have some success. There is considerable interest in this technique on a worldwide basis; several centers currently exist in the US and Canada where such learning techniques are offered, usually for foreign languages. fU) It appears Lozanov methods have been derived from various Yoga tech~iiques. One of his early research objectives was to demystify some Yoga concepts and apply them in a practical sense. Lozanov has also studied paranormal phenomena claimed to be associated with certain Yoga practices. He claims to have observed, at times, evidence of telepathic abilities in some people during suggestology learning sessions. (C) It is also known that Sergeyev is interested in Lozanov's methods, perhaps to adapt them for his own research or possibly for some type of joint investigation with Lozanov. (U) Investigations into telepathic phenomena occurred in the early 1920's at the University of Krakow, apparently with objectives similar to those of Vasil'yev's. Most of the 30 experiments were attempts to transmit sleep-awake commands to a highly suggestible subject and were conducted by staff members of the Physics and Chemistry Department. Although no formal reports are available, informal data indicate the experiments were considered successful. However, additional research was not continued. (U) Investigations were also performed by several European researchers during the 1920's and 1930's on the abilities of Stefen Ossowiecki, a well-known Polish psychic. These investigations all concluded Ossowiecki displayed highly unusual abilities of a clairvoyant nature, including the ability to describe objects and written material sealed in lead containers and opaque envelopes. His achievements with numerous controlled tests of this type and his, public psychic activities became well known; this publicity contributed to an openness toward paranormal phenomena in the general population. ' 19 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 ;' DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1978 (U) Recently, another Polish psychic from Warsaw, C. Klimuszko, has been recei~zng considerable publicity. He apparently has abilities similar to Ossowiecki (who died in 1944) and has been tested by the Psychotronic Section of the Polish Cybernetic Association. Specifics of such tests are not available, although they are claimed to confirm his abilities. L. Stefanski, a researcher from Warsaw, has also studied Klimuszko and claims he has the ability to obtain accurate information on lost or missing people. (U) Stefanski believes hypnosis is necessary to develop and enhance paranormal perception, and apparently employs techniques similar to Kafka and Ryzi (the Czech researchers). He has also apparently had success with people who had not previously displayed any psychic aptitude. (U) Another researcher, Dr. S. Manczarski, a physics professor, is also active in research, although specifics are unknown. Most of his work appears to be theoretically oriented, (U) Although there is no indication of an extensive research effort in Poland, it appears there are at least a few dedicated researchers and people with reliable abilities (natural or developed). The backing of such investigations by the Polish Cybernetics Society will probably generate additional investigations and research in the future. 20 (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED iU) In this form, dowsing has been used for at least four millennia; it is known that both the ancient Egyptians and the Romans used dowsing for water location. In recent years, the forked stick has yielded to a variety of more complex instruments; the dowser sometimes traverses the target territory by auto or light plane? the range of indicated phenomena sought for has expanded to include virtually any geological or archaeological anomaly; and the detection of an anomaly may now be indicated or quantified by a wide range of electronic measuring and recording equipment a Nonetheless, the principle remains the same: action of a subliminal sensory input is registered by involuntary neuromuscular response. (U) Dowsing has existed in the Slavic countries since time immemorial. Scientific study of the phenomenon was started in pre-revolutionary Russia in the first decade of this century and has continued unabated to the present day, irrespective of political changes in the Soviet Union! In fact, although all other areas of politically sensitive scientific research were repressed during the late Stalinist period,* dowsing seems to have been unaffected. Dowsing was both used and researched freely throughout even the worst days of the Zhdanoushchirta. The reason seems clear: dowsing assisted the Soviet Union in the development of its natural resources and industry. Consequently, the pragmatic Stalinist regime was prepared to allow it to exist while suppressing other areas of paraphvsics with less immediate utility. (U) The above should not, however, be taken to imply that dowsing (or the biophysical effect (BPE), as it is called in the Soviet Union) is unequivocally accepted in the Soviet scientific community. A recent popular journal article by a Soviet scientist relegated dowsing "more to the ranks of pure quackery and fraud than parapsychology."s Amore balanced appraisal was given by the editors of a scientific journal which printed a favorable article on dowsing: "The possibility of using the Biophysical Effect for investigation of ore deposits is of concern to some segments of geology,. There are both enemies and supporters of this method. This journal will grant both sides an opportunitr~ to illuminate their respective points of view."R (U) The claimed reliability of BPE observations by trained operators is excellent: "In 3 years of research, in only 10 percent of all cases did the results of one operator differ from those of another." ~ The range of claimed uses is equally impressive. In addition to location of underground water, researchers have used BPE for location of petroleum and natural gas deposits at depths of up to ?,800 meters,8 mapping hidden mineral deposits at depths of up to 300-400 meters,9 locating underground cavities,10 geological mapping of hidden mineral deposits, detecting lost underground communications networks," and mapping fifteenth-century archeological sites,'= V~'ith all this activity, it is certain that the Soviet researchers have considered military applications, Although an article on dowsing techniques did appear in Czech military journal in 1925, no recent military-related research reports can be found.13 Furthermore, at least one researcher has found that the BPE manifests itself sometime after the removal of the object which caused the deflection;'+ this allows potential application to location of movable targets sometime after their departure. (U) In 1968 aquasi-official organization** was established in the Soviet Union to act as a coordinator of all research activities on BPE. Under the auspices of this commission, there have been two All-Union conferences (in 1968 and 1971) to discuss "a broad range of problems related to application of the Biophysical Effect; guidance was also given for future work in this field."'s However, although there are a fairly large number of researchers and practitioners at educational, scientific, and industrial facilities, there is no evidence of a formal Soviet program of research in the field, nor of official organs chartered to study or apply dowsing techniques. In fact, although the leading Soviet proponents of BPE techniques claim that "around 40 groups which use the biophysical method to solve various geological problems are operating in different regions of the Soviet Union," they admit that these groups are operating "outside the Plan"'g (i.e., without official government support). "(U) See Section VI, paragraph l.a. ""(U) The Interdepartmental Commission for the Biophysical Effect, "in association with" the Central Administration of the Scientific-Technical Socien.~ of the Instrument-Making Industry. 22 unlcLASSIFIEQ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 19; 8 (U) One of the obstacles standing in the way of universal scientific acceptance of dowsing- BPE is the lack of a convincing body of experimental data to explain the information carrier and receptor mechanism. Although there is at least one East European report which insists that the information is carried through acoustic action of free water molecules on the inner ear,17 most East European researchers believe that the information carrier acts through magnetic or electromagnetic waves or fields. The body of experimental evidence for an electromagnetic carrier is extensive, if not exactly clear. Some researchers feel that the shape and composition of the dowsing rod are not important,'" while others claim that the rod can be tuned, by its shape, composition, or the addition of capacitors, to selectively indicate any of a wide variety of materials.'9-=3 At least one researcher claims that the information carrier can be transmitted for some distance by an ungrounded electrical conductor 24 Even while dismissing the role of the rod itself, a prominent Czech researcher cites experimental data that tend to confirm the electromagnetic hypothesis. Jiri Bradna claims that, "myotensiometry proved that the effect of water and metals changed the muscles' resting and action tonus even without holding the dowsing rod,"ZS and suggests that this finding might help to explain the correlation between illnesses and place of residence noted elsewhere in the literature. He further states the muscles of the forearm both radiate and are sensitive to electromagnetic waves in the 40 and 68 MHz range, "as well as other harmonic frequencies."ZS Other prominent researchers feel that the carrier is most likely in the I-10 Hz range ?' f U) As seems to be true in other areas of paraphvsics research, the presence of an artificial magnetic field seems to affect BPE performance, although a static electric field seems to have no such effect 2e (U) Whatever the information carrier channel or sensory mechanism, a significant portion of the population can show the effect. The exact percentage of the population remains in some doubt: one researcher "assumes" that 3~ of all persons possess BPE sensitivity,29 while another report puts the number at 20-30~c:'0 Yet another indicates that there is a high correlation between hvpnotizability and sensitivity to BPE, but also indicates that hypnotizing the subjects did not increase their sensiti~~ry.~' In any event, it is clear that BPE sensitiviry is not merely the province of a select few persons. 3. Ideomotor Response (U) (U) The ideological need of the Communist countries to express all paraphvsics observations in materialist terms has led to an unfortunate grouping of two different phenomena under a single name: the biophysical effect (BPE). As the preceding discussion indicates, BPE has been applied to sensorimotor response to subliminal cues from the external environment (dowsing). In addition, one group of Romanian researchers has applied the same term to ideomotor response to subconscious ideation; in this case, the so-called Wedding Ring Test. (U) Subliminal Ideomotor Response (SIR) as used here refers to muscular activity caused by the subconscious mind in response to an explicit or implicit question put to the subject. In its traditional form, it is carried out by suspending a light, dense object (typically, a wedding ring) from a thread held in the hand by the thumb and forefinger. After assigning meaning to various forms of motion of the suspended object,* the subject can be asked questions, and the response will indicate the answer as it is known to the subconscious mind, Often this method allows the subject to answer questions for which the conscious mind does not believe there is an answer available, or believes an answer different from that resident in the unconscious. 'IUI For example: forward and back set to mean yes; to mean no; circular motion to mean unknown. The arbitrary meanings thus set are then tested by asking questions to which the answer is unequitimcallp known. Obviously, any possible response with a simple choice answer lveslnn, boy~girl) can be asked if the subject properly assigns the meaning of a muscular response in the subconscious. 23 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED (U) In the form outlined above, SIR has been used by a number of Western clinical ' psychologists for decades, because it gives limited direct access to the contents of the subconscious t memory without the need to alter the consciousness state of the subject. However, the technique is not easily explained in the Pavlovian model of psychology nor in strictly materialist terminology. ' Consequently, use of and research into SIR has not been encourged in the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries. (U) By classifying SIR as a manifestation of the BPE, the Romanian team has met the demands of ideology. However, that taxonomic decision has impacted on their model and methodology of SIR research. (U) The most recent set of Romanian experiments reportedly attempted to make the sex determination with the subject unaware of the question being asked."az While single or double blind experimental protocols are desirable when the intent is to isolate the subject from external cues, it is hardly helpful when trying to extract information already known to the subject. The results and the conclusions drawn from them suffer accordingly. fU) In the earlier of two known Romanian experiments in SIR, expectant mothers were able to determine the sex of their children with 66tJ~ accuracy (n 15). In the later, larger test, 829c was achieved (n 46.)3 (L--) The report of the earlier experiment suggests a medical use of SIR as a diagnostic tool. By freeing SIR of the artificial conceptual restraints imposed by the BPE model, the possible applications to medical diagnosis appear considerable. The import of SIR as used to report internal physiological conditions is that a condition existing within the body** can be perceived at the subconscious level and is available at that level for processing to a high level of abstraction without being accessible to the conscious mind. Although there has been no known attempt in the Warsaw Pact to make the extension, conceptually the technique could be applied to the detection and diagnosis of ~zrtually any medical condition. (U) Myotransfer refers to the direct transfer of information or energy from the muscles of one organism to those of another, without mediation through the nervous system. (L'1 Although there have been persistent, unconfirmed reports of research on this field in the Soviet Union, the most important known Warsaw Pact researcher is Jiri Bradna, a medical doctor at the District Institute of Public Health, Kutna Hora, Czechoslovakia. Bradna maintains that energy can be transferred from one person to another by moving or tensing the muscles. The energy transfer is "(U1 There are, of course, several ways in which the subjects lexpectant mothetsl could have subconsciously reacted to the intent of the test. The protowl was not double-blind: the researcher could have cued the subject either by subliminal cues or through telepathic leakage. Since the intent of the test was identical to the use of SIR in popular mythology, and in wide- spread tree among the general population, the possibility of subconscious response to an unasked question is obvious. ?"f U) Such as, for instance, the composition of the amniotic flttic and the correlation of a particular composition nr rnnstituent with a particular sex of the child. 24 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 said to be effected up to a distance of several meters. On the basis of experiments with a wide variety of electromagnetic shielding and transmitting equipment, Bradna claims to have firmly established that the primary energy transfer takes place through electromagnetic waves in the VHF band.* (U) The effects of myotransfer can be noted in several ways. The most direct is the contraction or tensing in a target muscle, caused by the tensing of a muscle some distance away. Bradna also claims that myotransfer affects a dowser, and that the activity of other persons in the ~~cinity of a dowser will register a reaction of the dowsing rod as In fact, Bradna reports deflection of a dowsing rod when, unknown to the operator, a nearby preparation of frog muscle was artificially stimulated.~R (U) The most dramatic effect reported was the use of myotransfer for therapy of paresis. Bradna cites extensive clinical experience to support his contention that myotransfer techniques can be of considerable value in treatment of paralysis, even in cases which had not responded to traditional ph~~sical therapy.** ' {U} Although it is entirely likely that some or all of the claimed healing effects can be accounted for on the basis of suggestion, autosuggestion, and feedback, the evidence and controls reported by Bradna are sufficiently extensive to have impressed other researchers in the field. Zdenek Rejdak, for instance, who is quite critical of the work of some other researchers, seems to fully accept the findings of Bradna: ~R It is known that Bradna's work and results have been publicized to some degree in the Soviet Union,z" but to date there is no e~zdence of research along similar lines outside Czechoslovakia. 5. Electroencephalogram Response (U) (U} Presumably, if a sensory or extrasensory input reaches the brain at a subliminal level, it should have some effect on the activity of the brain, even though the subject had no conscious knowledge of it. The most direct means of measuring this possible response is through the EEG. However, the EEG record from an area of the brain is the resultant of all mental activity**~` from the area, and contribution to the EEG record made by a single subliminal input could be vanishingly small. Furthermore, there is a high degree of randomness in an EEG record~o much so that some researchers have despaired of using the EEG as an indicator of paranormal information reception {" iU) Gennadiy Aleksandrovich Sergeyev, the most prominent Soviet proponent of EEG analysis in paraphy~sics, has applied the theory of nonstationary random functions to EEG research;~ Using this technique, Sergeyev reports a correlation between the degree of turbulence in external (solar and geomagnetic) fields, and the EEG records of humans. In Sergeyev's ~~ew, there is a causal relationship between the external fields and psychic functioning. In normal persons, accuracy of motor reactions (for fine motor skills) decreased by a factor of about 3 to 5 during periods of solar and magnetic anomalies. In a psychically disturbed person, the "deterministic functions are weak, and to a significant extent he is exposed to the effects of the external physical fields. This fact is confirmed by the increased probability of psychic relapses in persons with weak mental activity, during periods of solar, magnetic, etc., anomalies."42 (U} On this basis, Sergeyev has determined that the brain does respond directly to external magnetic and electromagnetic fields and indeed changes its patterns of functioning in response to them. *(I') 1Vlvntransfer could be stopped with metal filters and aluminum foil. The field could be deformed with magnets, ferrites, and first-class conduct"rs; it could be reflected and transmitted over waveguides, and filtered with grids." `*fU) In his most recent extant article nn the suhject, Bradna reports his results obtained with myotransfer in 243 patients:'' '**IL'1 These could also be influenced by some muscle activity nn the head. 25 (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 (U) In another experiment, Sergeyev investigated the electroencephalographic response to optical stimuli. "Flashes of light directed at the eyes of the agent were used as stimuli, the rhythm of the flashes varying for each eye."'3 Both Sergeyev, in his report on the experiments, and Milan Rvzl, in a separate report on the same experiments, claim that the EEG of a remote percipient was affected. Neither report, however, makes explicit the exact nature of the EEG response recorded in the percipient. Sergeyev does note that the EEG of the agent (the sender) exhibited a pulsation with a frequency equal to the difference between the pulse rates of the two lights. This indicates that the EEG record reflects the sensory inputs only after considerable processing by the visual cortex, involving both hemispheres of the brain. Furthermore, Sergeyev indicates that the remote percipient had a subjective impression of moving light and dark bands in the field of vision, similar to an interference pattern, when the two frequencies were relatively close. This would seem to imply that the percipient was receiving a message from the agent which reflected the agent's post-processing perceptions ioutput from the visual cortex) rather than the input stimuli directly. (U) There are indications that Sergeyev would logically be led to more sophisticated applications of his statistical techniques. However, the implied follow-on work has not been published, even though Sergeyev is known to be active in the field. Other researchers have worked in the field of EEG recording and interpretation, and have done at least some work in relating the EEG to paraphvsics. Prior to his death in the early 1970's, Dr, Pavel Gulyayev and his team* were known to be doing research in the field, although little directly related to paraphysics has been published since the early 1960's. Presumably, the research effort continues at some level, but little is known about its scope or direction. (C) It has also been reported that, as of 1972, Professor Pavel I. Bul' was doing similar research at the First Leningrad Medical Institute. 6. Suppressed Nueromuscular Response (U) {U) Under sensory or ideational stimuli, there is often a subliminal or reflexive muscular response made which is not consciously desired. Under these conditions, the conscious mind can usually inhibit most or all of the muscular action. Nonetheless, there is usuall~? some small neuromuscular response during such inhibition. (U) Although this inhibited response is normally quite small and subtle, a sufficiently sensitive person or sensor can make use of it to derive a significant amount of information from the conscious mind of the subject. This neuromuscular response is often used by stage performers to make it appear that they are reading the mind of a subject. Such performances have been given for decades by such Soviet performers as Mikhail Kuni and Wolf Messing~s and are commonplace amongst such Americans as Kreskin. In such a demonstration, the performer typically asks a member of the audience to think of a specific command for him to do, and then performs it without apparent instruction from the subject. To the unsophisticated observer, it appears that the performer has read the mind .of the subject. However, even the performers themselves will sometimes admit that their information comes from subtle cues in the behavior of the subject. (U) While the sort of performance outlined above does not present convincing evidence for telepathy, it is indicative of the amount of highly specific information that can be read from the suppressed neuromuscular responses of a subject. The implications have not been missed in the Soviet Union. As early as 1962, it was known that the Institute of Psychology, Moscow,** was attempting to 'f U) Subordinate to the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, RSFSR Until recently, psychology in the Soviet Union was considered a branch of Pedagogy. "'(U) At the Laboratory of Physiological L~berneti~ of the Bekhterev Brain Institute, and also at Leningrad State University. 26 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 derive meaning from signals sent to the lower lip during questioning. It had been discovered that such signals are invariably sent and could be detected, even when the subject did not speak. "We have performed many experiments and it has turned out that, when the subject thinks of something, his tongue and lips make imperceptible movements, registering his thoughts."~ Although the press report indicated that the Soviet researchers at that time had not been able to read out speech directly on the basis of such signals, research was being carried out in that direction: "Deciphering of the signal is in principle ...apparently possible. Some scientists are now working on the creation of a scheme for reading the code of internal speech."47 (U) The application to interrogation techniques, whether for the police or for the intelligence organizations, is obvious. Direct readout of unintentional signals sent to the lips and tongue by a subject (called subvocalization) could be used to extract highly specific information from a source involuntarily and painlessly. (C) Although nothing further has appeared in the Soviet press subvocalization, it appears that work in this area has continued. A recent report from a Czechoslovakian researcher who has access to some of the Soviet paraphysics facilities indicates that the Soviets have developed a throat mike which, when attached to the subject, allows direct readout of subvocalized thoughts. (S-NOFORN) Another report indicates that a similar sensor, possibly for the same purpose, had been developed at the Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Leningrad, by 1969. (C) In another application of suppressed neuromuscular response to interrogation techniques, the same source reports that N. Ye. Fedorenko has developed a sensor which, when attached to the intermgator, provides an indication of his subliminal response to subtle cues given by the subject. Fedorenko and A. M. Marits are known to have conducted research on the electrical activity of organisms since at least 1961,* and the claim seems to be a credible extensiun of their known work (U) If the above work on sensors to derive information from suppressed neuromuscular signals is a credible indicator of the current state-of-the-art in Soviet technology in the field, it should also be reported that much more ambitious work is being undertaken for much longer term development. Academician Viktor Mikhaylovich Glushkov, Director of the Instititue of Cybernetics, Kiev, claims that his institute is working on a means to interface human thought directly through a transducer attached to the head, and read directly for mental activity by a computer: "Thus, all information, the entire cognitive process, will enter directly into the electronic computer. It will memorize the entire mode of thinking of its partner, all nuances of his creative processes and it will be able to receive any orders from him, as soon as he will have time to think of them. "Just as it is possible to obtain the full symbiosis of man and machine, so is it possible to obtain full compatibility of the work of our brain and that of a computer. I think the scientists can attain this somewhere in the region of the year 2020."48 '(UI At the Lab of Phpsinlo~ 'and Biochemistn? of Animals, Institute of Zn~logy, Kishinev. 27 T ~~~..~ .~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-2U2-78 30 March 19?8 (U) While the above, somewhat fanciful account for a popular magazine is clearly well beyond the current Soviet state-ofart, it could describe one direction toward which Soviet research is known to be headed.* 7. Involuntary Physiological Changes (U) ' (U) There is no longer anything mysterious in the fact that the body experiences certain subtle physiological changes under emotional stress. Changes in blood pressure and volume, heartbeat, muscle tonicization, and galvanic skin response under stress have long been known to physiologists and polygraph operators. It is worth noting, however, that changes in blood volume (as measured by the plethysmograph) have been noted during periods of telepathic reception and are being used by Soviet and East European researchers as indicators of subconscious telepathic reception. In addition, Bradna has reported changes in galvanic skin response and skin electrical potentials between the hands of BPE operators in a dowsing area. 'iU1 The suggestion that the Soviet Union may be involved in use of computers for direct reading of human thoughts may be less fanciful than it appears. Academician Gluahkov, quoted above, is also a member of the Scientific Council of the Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD-, Moscow. The purpose of the academy is to provide graduates with a mastery of the "most up to date criminological methods." (Sovetsaya Estoniya, 31 August 1974. No. 204, p 4.1 (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED distance away from a person who was attempting paranormal processes of an energetic type. Frequency variations were in the 3-6 Hz region, consistent with the electrical activity of the experimental person's brain. However, paranormal processes of an informational type appear to i general!}? correlate to the 7-18 Hz region. Individual neuronal activity also occurs in the 100-1,000 Hz region; however, these are very weak signals and are difficult to detect. (U) Other investigations into electromagnetic radiation effects may also contribute to the theoretical understanding of the psychic processes, particularly if electromagnetics is found to be the main transmission mode. The work of a Moscow physicist, A. S. Presman, for example, encompasses a wide variety of electromagnetic field effects on living organisms. Yu. A. Khotodov, a Moscow physiologist, has also performed extensive research on reactions of biological systems (including nervous system) to a wide range of electromagnetic and magnetic fields. Other researchers have alvo noted specific human sensitivities to very weak magnetic fields and magnetic field variations of extra low frequencies. Some of these observations include psychological as well as ph}?siological effects.* f U) Although such research suffers from lack of repeatability, enough consistent reports appear worldwide to suggest that living organisms, including the human central nervous system, dc~ have a far greater sensitivity to a wide range of electromagnetic influences than has been commonly assumed. (U) Other research has been reported that investigates effects of emitted radiation from cellular di~zsion processes (mitogenic radiation). Some researchers note this radiation (usually in the UV band) has acommunication-like influence on adjoining cellular samples. (U) Such research may not only contribute to understanding of paranormal processes but may also clarify limits to normal subliminal or subsensory modes. A considerable overlap may exist. particularly if psychic functioning is eventually proven to be electromagnetic in nature. However, electromagnetic theory may not be the only model for psychic functioning. I. M. kogan, the leading L'SSR advocate nn electromagnetic basis for paranormal phenomena, also recognizes that ether physical phenomena or fields of a different nature may be the main mechanism. 2. Quantum Physics (L') (L') There are several concepts in quantum physics that can, at least ir. theon?, permit processes such as paranormal perception. This arises from the wave or probability function description . of reality, and the interconnection of observation or measurement with quantum level processes. This interconnection can in principle be extended to include consciousness, since the end result of an observation has an interpretation (and therefore an interaction) in conscious or subconscious mental . processes. (L-) One aspect of this can be expressed by the Einstein-Podeski-Rosen (EPR) paradox which basically states that elementary particles with the same quantum characteristics are bound together; a change in one causes a similar simultaneous change in the other regardless of distance between them. This concept of quantum level correlation, or coupling, can lead to several interpretations and models ? that could be consistent with psychic processes. (U) One difficulty with these concepts is that they do not add any insight on the nature of the i propagation mechanism. Some theories have been advanced, but they involve fundamental concepts of space-time and are very abstract. (U) A Soviet researcher, V. Pushkin, has advanced views which are combinations of quantum physics and electromagnetics. In his view, a coherent type of radiation between properly coupled cells could also contain types of information. In a large molecular aggregate, such as a liquid crystal, a wide range of coupling possibilities could exist, particularly if various sub-domains of the structure have different quantum characteristics. 30 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST-1810S-202-?8 30 March 19 i 8 (U) Since immense quantities of neutrinos and antineutrinos are continually present, some theorists have considered this flux as having a role in paranormal processes. Neutrinos have only quantum characteristics of "spin" (no charge or mass), and their probability of directly affecting people is extremely low. However, it is possible that neutrinos in certain energy levels could cause a stimulated emission type interaction with molecules. A wide range of discharge frequencies would be possible, including VLF and ELF frequencies. These frequencies could then provide a basic interaction mechanism. (U) Another possibility is that neutrinos generated from maser-like stimulated discharges of molecules in the brain might create resonant modes in similar molecules or molecular sets in the brain of a remote person. Such interactions could have sufficient modulation (perhaps induced by mental activity) for practical information transfer. A major difficulty would be in required energy levels, unless such hypothetical neutrino fluxes were highly coherent and somehow oriented in the proper direction. Perhaps aquantum-type coupling could maintain the necessary orientation (assuming an initial alignment occurred), much like a gyro maintains an orientation to a fixed reference. Such coupling has already been theorized (Einstein-Podolski-Rosen paradox) and would appear to be central to virtually any model involving paranormal processes. (U) Quantum physics concepts have also been postulated to account for certain energetic processes, such as psychokinesis. In this case, a quantum coupling effect between mental processes and a material specimen could have an organizing influence on random thermal energy or other noise already present. This redistribution of available energy could lead to material distortions or other effects, depending on degree of coupling and qusi~tiry of energy present. (U) It is difficult to form final judgements regarding the various quantum models that could relate to paranormal processes. However, researchers note that the history of physics has been full of surprises and suggest quantum level explanations should at least be considered along with all the other possibilities. 3. Gravitation (U) (U) A. Dubrov, a Moscow? physicist, has proposed a model for paranormal perception based on a gravity-type interaction. In this concept, he considers it theoretically possible for aggregates of biological molecules that are in a loosely bound state (liquid crystal type) to create very weak quasi- gra~itational field effects. This would result, in his view, from variations in gravitational attraction forces arising from changes in relative molecular spacing. The net effect would be a ven? small gravitational-type perturbation. This would be in addition to normal gravitational attraction and gravitational perturbations which are theoretically possible from thermal oscillations. (U) Dubrov suspects that high strain conditions, such as muscular contraction, cell division, or neuron activity in the brain, could create such quasi-gravitational waves of sufficient strength for distant interaction. G. A. Sergeyev has expressed similar views and has adopted Dubrov's concepts into his own theoretical work. Sergeyev considers the brain to be of a "paracrystal" nature which can emit f and absorb) a wide variety of electromagnetic radiation, including gravitational effects. Vasil'yev had also considered gravitational type interaction with the brain as a possibilin? for telepathic phenomena. His view is based on a gravitational modulation effect that the brain could somehow create, and not on generating new gravitational waves. (U) It is not clear how gravitational models would permit useful information transfer, unless proper alignment (from quantum physics coupling concepts) and a type of selective gravitational resonance or modulation with appropriate distant molecular structures would also occur. This problem has also been considered by Dubrov from the view point of alterations in the properties of time that result from gravitational changes. Such alterations could have an information transfer characteristic. This approach is highly speculative and could lead to several theoretical objections; however, it cannot be absolutely eliminated as a possibility. 31 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 UNCLASSIFIED 4. Holography (U) (U) A model for brain functioning has recently been proposed that could also add insight into paranormal processes. This model considers the brain to have characteristics like a hologram, similar to oanventional ideas of holography in laser physics. This hologram-like attribute is compatible with observed data on how memory appears to be distributed throughout the brain, and on observed data involving learning and learning disorders, imagination, perception, altered states of consciousness, and other aspects of brain functioning. A key to this model is the observation that large brain molecules (neuropeptides) appear to have a significant role in brain regulation. In addition to regulating neural activity, these large molecules may also influence frequency and phase relationships between different regions of the brain, which is another similarity to a holographic process. (U) Central to this theory is the recognition that coherent frequencies would be required. Although his theory does not clarify what these frequencies are or their source, it may be they are generated by quantum events within the brain, or that proper frequencies from outside sources are imrolved, or both. Some candidates for naturally ot:curring frequencies would be as discussed earlier (e.g., ELF, VLF, neutrino fluz, gravitational waves) or other types not yet considered. (U) This holographic model is easily adaptable to psychic processes, since this concept considers a basic hologram to potentially ezist throughout the universe. This would be similar to the idea of a gravitational field extending to infinity. In any hologram, a small portion can reproduce data similar to the original, although not as accurately. In this sense, specific remote information ezists throughout such a hologram and can somehow be accessed try appropriate ?"paranormal" processes in the twain. This model in essence views the brain as a hologram, interpreting a holographic universe. (U) Researchers have also noted the brain appears to generally have two basic functional localizations. In right handed people, the left hemisphere functions in a logical, linear, analytical mode; the right hemisphere functions in an intuitive, artistic, holistic (pattern making) mode. Psychic procease~s appear to be of an intuitive, artistic nature and are very likely associated with right hemisphere brain functioning. This po8aible association is strengthened by noting that responses of people with brain damage to the dominant left hemisphere* are similar to responses from people performing certain psychic tasks. Specifically, there are similarities in how drawings are made and interpreted. Similar distortions occur, and inability to verbalize or analytically identify results is similar. This also suggests that a holographic process is ultimately involved in psychic functioning. (U) It appears that research into basic brain functioning and perceptional aspects could lead to additional insight into psychic processes. It is known that A. Luriya,** the leading USSR aeurophysiologist, is actively researching brain functioning and has already shown high interest in psychic phenomena in the 1973 publication of "Parapsychology: Fiction or Reality?" Another author of this paper, V. Zinchenko, is also known to pursue research into visual perception and visual imagery. This research includes a variety of brain processes involving imagery and memory. The nature of mental imagery appears to be of a holographic character and would be a natural common point for a variety of related research. This type of research could add additional insight into holographic-type models of brain functioning, or lead to new and more complete models. This research may also contribute to the understanding of psychic phenomena, perhaps in combination with other ezisting theorise. 6. Otter (iJ) (U) There are several other concepts advanced to a:plain paranormal processes. Some of these are rather abstract and may not be theoretically proper. They are difficult to interpret in terms of physical reality and would not necessarily contribute to ezperimental imrestigations. Others appear "(U) e.&. optic agnosia. "'(U) A. L~aiya died on 14 August 1977 at the age of T6. 32 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1918 to inrnrrectly use terminology from known physical concepts. An example would be Sergeyev's concept of a "bioplasma." His intent is to call attention to the electromagnetic nature of living organisms (which is not disputed), but he uses out-of-context analogies from plasma physics. Other theories exist which draw heavily on physical concepts that are themselves in question. Some theories (and terms used) appear to be designed to skirt ideological issues and are not based on a well thought-out or theoretically proper argument, One such theory is that of a Czech researcher (Kahuda) that appears to involve misinterpretations of fundamental physics. (U) Confusing terminnl~gy is also common in this research. Some unusual terms are developed as an honest attempt to bridge gaps in understanding, some are due to ideologically acceptable considerations, and some are due to the desire for individual recognition. Creating new names sometimes invokes an air of authority that is not warranted; Warsaw Pact researchers are as prone to this tendency as researchers elsewhere. (U) However, it does appear that the various concepts may at least serve as a bridge toward opening a meaningful dialogue in a variety of research areas. A multidisciplinary research approach that eventually may clarify key theoretical issues appears to be emerging in the USSR and on a worldwide basis. It is certainly recognized that paranormal processes are not openly accepted in many areas. As is true for any emerging area of study, initial difficulties are great, language and terminology barriers exist, and resistance in established areas of research is high. In an area as complicated as paraphvsics (especially psychic functioning), such difficulties can be expected. Yet these difficuities may not necessarily impact nn eventual applications. 4n application emphasis is apparent in the work of many Warsaw Pact researchers and should pose a greater concern than their ability (or inability) to formulate appropriate theoretical models. It may well be that pursuit of application modes may be required before the most appropriate theoretical models are developed. Insight gained from possible application achievements may also clarify theoretical directions. 33 UNCLASSIFIED (Reverse Blank) - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED SECTION VI DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 PARAPHYSICS RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT (U) 1.. Belief Structures (U) e. Marzist-Leninist Ideology (U) (U) For nearly half a century, the natural sciences in the Soviet Union have been under the control of the Communist Party. Between 1929 and 1932 the Soviet Academy of Sciences was largely purged of its pre-revolutionary leadership, and party members were installed in key administrative positions. Initially, there was no attempt to attach ideological significance to the works of natural scientists, but the bureaucratic structure over the scientific community was tightened and brought under the party's control. By the end of the 1930's, "Appointment of officials influential in science and education-ministers of education and agriculture, presidents of the All-Union Academy of Sciences and of other specialized academies, rectors of the universities, editorial boards of journals-all were under the control of the Party organs. Approval of science textbooks for use in the school system and even the awarding of scientific degrees to individual scholars were also under close political supervision."~ (Ul From the end of the Second World War until his death, Stalin attempted to brine the substantive findings of science under political control. The most obvious and flagrant example was in the field of genetics, where Lysenko and his concept of biology were enshrined as the official Soviet view in 1948. But similar battles were waged in the Soviet scientific communit,? about relativity, quantum mechanics, cybernetics, and other fields. In each of these, scientific progress was delayed until the issues were resolved, which sometimes took several years f or, in the case of genetics, decades.I (Ul As a result of this pressure from Marxist ideology, each science in the Soviet Union has had to develop a rationale to meet the challenge of the ideologues. The first task of any discipline has been to justify its existence within the Marxist s~?stem. By and large, each scientific discipline has met this challenge, and in the post-Stalinist period there has been a relative return to normalcy in the intellectual life of the So~zet scientific community. However, relative freedom from persecution has been bought at some cost in terms of the areas which were available to open research, and of the paradigms that could be used to explain observed phenomena. 1 U) The battleground through which most of this controversy w?as waged, of course, was the Marxist doctrine of dialectical materialism. Both psychology and paraphvsics were compelled to deal with the problem of consciousness and the material nature of thought. As a result, psychology found itself confined to the narrow Pavlo~~an conditioned t?esponse paradigm, while paraphvsics was defined out of existence a priori. "The arguments about the possibility of direct transmission of thought at a distance not only have a bearing on the sphere of physiology, but are also bound up with a fundamental philosophical problem, namely, the nature of consciousness and its relation to matter... . "Those who consider that the transmission of thought at a distance is possible are deeply mistaken."= 35 UNCLASSIFIED - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 s Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-~s UNCLASSIFIED 30 March 1978 (U) A crucial tenet of Marxist philosophy is the notion that the course of history is determined by material reality, and that all events are explainable on the basis of known or knowable physical laws. The idea that a nonmaterial entity could affect the course of events strikes at the heart of that doctrine and is therefore antithetical to Marxist ideology. (U) The dispute was particularly acute, of course, because the Communist claim to a scientific understanding of history is based upon the materialist doctrine. Should that fail, or be shown to have major exception, then the foundations of Communist Party rule and one-party government would be open to serious challenge. The point was not missed by party ideologues. By at least one line of reasoning, the phenomena which compose paraphysics can be understood to imply the existence of nonmaterial causality; it is but a short step to the anathema: the supernatural. (U) In Marxist thought, the key is the nature of consciousness. Consciousness is defined as the reflection of the material world, and therefore is acted upon by material reality, rather than itself being a causal agent. "Consciousness is nothing other than the most perfect reflection of the material world. From this it follows that matter is primary and consciousness secondary. This is to be understood not only in the sense that consciousness is a product of matter, but also that the content of consciousness is defined by the material reality which it reflects. "Some materialists have declared that consciousness is a special variant of matter, allegedly manufactured by the brain, rather as the liver produces bile, for example. These are vulgar materialists.... Thought can neither be seen in a modern microscope nor can it be weighed or measured by a slide- rule. Consciousness does not possess physical properties."1 (U) During the late Stalinist period, the attack on paraphysics from official sources was virulent. The party-approved encyclopedia, for instance, was unequivocal in its denunciation ~f telepath}?, which it defined as, "the antiscientific, idealistic fiction about supernatural abilities of man ro perceive phenomena which by location and time are inaccessible to perception...."4 (U) Needless to say, from the late 1930's until after the end of the Stalinist period, virtually no paraphysics research was conducted in the Soviet Union; certainly none was reported. The sole exception to this was in dowsing, which was allowed to continue throughout the entire Stalinist regime. The researchers assisted by defining their field in materialist terms. The "biophysical effect" certainly sounds more respectable and less threatening to a party functionary than does "water witching." (The invention of the term was like a scientific breakthrough.) Even more important, b~? demonstrating their ability to locate water and other needed natural resources during the period of forced collectivization and industrialization, the dowsers were able to meet the most severe test of ideological legitimacy of the time: utility. For its part, therefore, the regime allowed dowsing activities to exist, if not exactly to flourish. (U) Like other sciences, paraphysicists have had to spend considerable effort in justifying their field on ideological grounds. The first attempt seems to have been to assert that the phenomena were mediated through known, if not exactly demonstrable, material mechanisms. Electromagnetic waves became a favorite explanation for telepathy, despite the argument that electromagnetic effects caused by physiological processes were much too diffuse and weak to cause the noted phenomena. The other major attempt has been to acknowledge that the information or energy transfer mechanisms are not known, but to assert that this simply reflects the imperfect state of contemporary scientific knowledge. Lengthy sections devoted to ideology and quotations from Lenin are frequently found in the works of paraphysicists, particularly in the early and mid-1960's. 36 UNCLASSIFIED - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST-1810S-202-?8 30 March 1978 (U) It appears that the attempt at ideological justification has been largely successful. The current edition of the Large Soviet Encyclopedia treats "parapsychology" (which is used in much the same way as "paraphysics" is used here) in a radically different manner than telepathy had been treated two decades previously: "Essentially the basis for unifying all these domains under the term parapsychology is the secrecy and the mysteriousness of the phenomena under investigation. It is not appropriate to regard such a basis as sufficient for the distinction of this singular domain of scientific research.. . "The problem is that the concept of parapsychology must be divided into two categories, imagery or imagination as claimed by mystics and charlatans, and on the other hand, phenomena that actually exist but are not yet scientifically clarified by scientific psychology and physics. The former require exposure and demystification. Researches on the latter should be conducted in scientific institutes for psychology, physiology, biophysics, etc."5 (U) However, paraphvsics, like the other sciences, has bought success in justifying its existence only by paving a price in terms of restricted acceptible paradigms and prohibitions against some forms of research. To some degree, this may even be an advantage. Given some of the claims made by some Western "occult scientists" and the extreme lack of probability that their claims will prove to be sicentifically productive, it may be beneficial for the L'SSR not to pursue such investigations. Nonetheless, certain other areas which may have great scientific importance are similarly restricted in the Soviet Union. at least in part, on ideological grounds. IU) Clairvoyance is an example. Unlike telepathy, there is no obvious "sender" ~f information, which makes rationalization of the phenomena on the basis of known physical principles rather difficult. Precognition, which appears to violate the familiar laws of causality and unidirectional flow of time, causes similar difficulties. Needless to say, relatively little reserach in these fields is known to be done in the Warsaw Pact. Furthermore, it is a commonplace occurrence for paraphvsics research results to be interpreted by some observers as supporting various "supernatural" paradigms which, of course, are anathema to Marxist ideologti. For this reason, most of the more serious paraphysics researchers are careful to include limited statements about the probable import of their results in terms of physical mechanisms in all their reports. There is a related conscious, though not entirely successful, effort by such researchers to avoid sensational press coverage of their activities. (U) Other reports have rightly noted the strong tendency of Soviet and East European researchers to emphasize the physical explanation of the phenomena they are dealing with, rather than to simply report 'on those phenomena. The normal course of science is to change explanatory models only when a large body of evidence has accumulated which clearly indicates that the current models cannot explain the observations. In the Soviet Union, such ambiguity cannot be tolerated in paraphysics research, and there is a strong need on the part of all paraphysics researchers to assert a presumed physical basis for their observations which does not violate known physical laws. This has had the tendency to force the acceptance of explanatory models in the Soviet Union well in advance of adequate experimental data to confirm the model chosen. The effect of this may be a premature closure of options that may encourage empirical research to take unproductive lines in order to remain ideologically acceptable, while concurrently discouraging research which would contribute to testing of alternative models. b. Scientific Paradigms (U) (U) The attack of the party upon the sciences, and specifically papaphvsics, has had a considerable effect. However, it remained essentially an attack from without, which could be resisted 37 UNCLASSIFIED _ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202- ~ 8 30 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED en bloc by the scientific community. Those scientists who joined in the attack on science on ideological grounds were invariably fourth-rate scholars who did not command the respect of their peers. (U) The challenge from within has been. more difficult to deal with. As noted earlier, paraphysics deals with phenomena which seem in some cases to violate known physical laws. In addition, some phenomena imply physiological sensitivities and psychological activities which violate contemporary concepts. Furthermore, the field has had such extensive experience with fakes and charlatans claiming scientific discoveries that science as a whole has been felt discredited by association. For a number of reasons, then, paraphysics has been a bitter pill for established science to swallow. (U) There is nothing new, of course, in the scientific establishment resisting recognition of discoveries or theories which upset the prevailing paradigms. Even Albert Einstein, for instance, resisted quantum mechanics. A scholar who has invested his life in the development of a particular line of thought needs an exceptional agility of mind to welcome a discovery which challenges that model. Many eminent scientists throughout history have been unequal to the challenge of new developments. (U) Paraphvsics, of course, with its provocative implications, has generally met with considerable resistance in the USSR. And here the opposition has been more difficult to overcome in the scientific community. There are a number of highly respected scholars who have deep reservations about paraphvsics and who have felt the need to challenge claimed experimental results which ~lolate their concepts. The fact of their scientific reputation and the mental skills which earned them that reputation make their challenge difficult to dismiss lightly. (U) The conflict of competing ideas, of course, can be a highly creative process, and there is no doubt that the attempt of the paraphvsicists to meet the sceptics on their own ground has yielded some highly useful results. The debate has spawned improved experiments, sharpened explanatory models, and improved the understanding of both sides of the issue. In some cases it appears that the doubts of the skeptics were well advised, and paraphysics has benefited from that discovery. (U) Unfortunately, the battle is not fought purely in the realm of ideas. In the modern world, scientific progress is closely tied to resources, and competition can be fierce. Since those resources are largely controlled by the scientific and political establishment, opposition from respected members of that establishment can have serious effect. Consequently, with both money and established reputations at stake, paraphysics appears to have had considerable difficulty establishing a position within the scientific community in the USSR. G Religious Considerations (U) (U) By some interpretations, the domain of paraphysics intersects in large measure with that of religion. On one hand, the appearance of a "supernatural" quality to some of the claimed phenomena has led some critics to conclude that belief in paranormal phenomena necessarily lead to acceptance of such religious concepts as a "soul" or of extra-physical entities such as spirits. For the officially atheist political and scientific community of the Soviet Union, that perception mandates opposition to paraphysics. On the other hand, religious believers have also sometimes had difficulty accepting the legitimacy of paraphvsics, since many of the phenomena subtended by paraphvsics have historically been linked to the forces of evil, or the devil. Thus, for both believer and nonbeliever alike, paraphvsics has raised philosophical questions which have stood in the way of its acceptance. (U) Although paraphysics phenomena are amenable to explanation by models with religious content, they by no means necessarily must be explained on that basis. There is a recurrent tendency in the Soviet Union and elsewhere for the results of paraphvsics research to be vested with religious or mystical significance, or explained in terms which relate to religious or mystical concepts.. 38 UNCLASSIFIED - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 19"r 8 To the degree that this is true, support for paraphysics in the scientific and political systems is undermined. Because of this fact and the problems of ideology mentioned earlier, paraphysics researchers have found it necessary to spend inordinate effort explaining their studies in terms of philosophically neutral concepts. d. Popular Preconceptions (U) (U) The Russian people have an ancient and deep preoccupation with mysticism and the occult which persists to the present day. Despite the conscious attempt of the regime to debunk such things, there are still frequent articles in the popular press which indicate that there is a healthy interest in the occult, especially in the rural areas. (U) Even the more pragmatic Germans are subject to the same interests. An East German medical doctor indicated that in his country, "the current cultural level appears to be a fine layer, under which mysterious sciences and magic of past centuries and thousands of years are awaiting the occasion to break through this layer, in order to come to the surface. We have here not only sorcerers; we also have astrologists, magicians, spirits, religious fanatics, amateur homeopaths, clairvoyants and chiromancers."g All of these exist alongside the official atheist, materialist philosophy, and have their effect upon the popular mind. (U) The ancient traditions and belief in the occult are passed down by word of mouth from generation to generation, outside the formal communications channels controlled by the government. Apparently, one of the factors contributing to the publication of data on paraphysics in official Soviet journals is an attempt by the government to gain some measure of control over the situation. By channelling potentially dangerous, idealistic and spiritual popular beliefs into officially sanctioned channels, the government can in some measure defuse those beliefs. By presenting paraphysics research in scientific and philosophically neutral terms, the mysticism which supports belief in the occult can to some degree be undermined. The government, therefore, has an interest in publicizing paraphysics research, if it is properly presented. (U) Proper presentation, however, is by no means assured. Writers in the Soviet popular press often have a tendency to draw unwarranted implications from scientific data and to sensationalize the findings and research of paraphysicists in ways that lead to popular misconceptions about the scope and import of paraphysics research. The situation is sometimes aggravated by members of the paraphysics community, who are on occasion less than modest in their claims. (U) Some of the more responsible members of the Soviet press recognize the problem, and there have been attempts to restrain those guilty of improper popularization and unwarranted association of scientific results with idealistic concepts. For example. in an article in the semiprofessional magazine Zhurnalist, one member of the fraternity first defends some of the scientific findings of paraphysics, and then rebukes his fellows for their treatment of them in the popular media: "New facts and "phenomena, however unexpected and strange they may be, are not hostile to materialism; rather the idealistic speculation in them, and the idealistic treatment of them are."~ (U) There have been a number of cases in the Soviet Union where scientific research, as reported in the popular press, has been presented in a highly sensational manner. A number of serious researchers have suffered as a result and have since learned to be highly circumspect in their open reports of their efforts. In order to avoid unwelcome publicity associating their efforts with potentially dangerous concept, many researchers have opted for an extremely low public profile. An excellent example would seem to be I. M. Kogan, whose Bioinformation Section of the Popov Society has openly been doing research into telepathy for over a decade, and yet has not published any research results since 19 i 0. 39 (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-20?-78 30 March 1978 (U) To some degree, paraphysics research and certain applications are subject to the influence of nationalism. The most obvious example is Kirlian photography, which was "invented" in 1939 by Semen and Valentina Kirlian in Krasnodar. The process is directly derivative of a static discharge photographic technique that had been used in the West since before the turn of the century. However, when the Kirlians adapted the process to use ahigh-frequency field, it was unquestionably a large qualitative advance, and the Kirlians have since achieved considerable prestige in the Soviet Union. Despite the recent finding by a team of US researchers that Kirlian photography is entirely explainable on the basis of corona discharge, and varies with moisture content of the subject, the Soviet Union has continued to make extravagant claims for the process. (U) An even better example of the demands of nationalism is acupuncture. Ihrring the late 1950's and early 19fi0's, Soviet physicians who had studied in China returned with knowledge of acupuncture techniques and spread their knowledge throughout the Soviet Union. During thls period, acupuncture came into widespread use in medical clinics in the Soviet Union, even reaching the status of a medical fad. (U1 With the rupture in political relations between the Soviet Union and China, however, all that changed. Acupuncture was a Chinese invention; and as political relatic,rls with Chiria deteriorated, use of acupuncture declined precipitously. By the mid-19fi0's, there were no formal training programs in acupuncture in the Soviet Union, and its use in clinics was very limited: (L') The situation reversed itself once again only a few years later. In the late 19fi0's, a research team at Kazakh State University in Alma-Ate discovered that acupuncture points could he stimulated by laser light, with effects apparently even more beneficial than from the traditional stimulation with needles. Almost concurrently, a Moscow physicist invented an electronic device to measure skin resistance and discovered that there was a very high correlation between acupuncture points and areas of anomalous skin resistance. Using the device (the tobiscopel, the number of acupuncture points was found to be considerably greater than that traditionally used by the Chinese. lL'1 The political point was even more important than the scientific? one. [icing an advance in technology, the Soviet Union had in only a few years added gt?eatl}? (by their own assessment) to the knowledge of acupuncture points and therapy. Far from beitlg a political embarrassment, acupuncture now has the status of a home-grown invention in the Sc,viet union, at least when used with laser stimulation, and its uses and official support for research are growing rapidlr? there. 2. Perceived Threat from the West (U) (U) Like other areas of applied technology which may have military application, Soviet perceptions of Western research and development status have considerable impact on the level of official support given to ~paraphysics research. The original impetus for the Soviet government to establish Vasil'yev's laboratory at Leningrad State University seems to have been the common belief that the US Navy had conducted successful experiments in telepathy with a submerged submarine (the Nautilus experiments). Certainly Vasil'yev himself made several pointed references to that supposed test in his works, even though it has been claimed that he later recognized them as a hoax.* (C) There has been considerable Soviet interest in the telepathy experiments conducted by US astronaut Edgar Mitchell. In addition, Soviet cosmonauts have reported experiencing paranormal phenomena during space flight and apparently have been used by the Soviet government to seek 'IU) It should be painted out that some members of the paraphysics community and perhaps some government officials still seem to accept the Nautilus experiments as fact. In 1972, for instance, a Romanian scientist writing in a semiprofessional scientific journal referred to the experiments as factual " 40 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 - Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 19 ~ 8 contact with US researchers. In 1916, for instance, a cosmonaut and a Soviet scientist accompanying him on a tour of the US made a point of requesting a meeting with a prominent paraphysics researcher. In the course of the meeting, it became obvious that the cosmonaut (who insisted his interest was unofficial) was well briefed on very recent events in the field. In addition, he seemed to have official support for an exchange of information. (C) It is not unreasonable to conclude that at least some of the Soviet government's motivation for allowing Western paraphysics researchers access to the Soviet Union has been the intent of learning Western research techniques and apparent successes. Certainly it is clear that Soviet researchers are aware of Western research in the field. The continued low-level involvement of Soviet and East European scientists in such international bodies as the International Association for Psychotronic Research undoubtedly includes collection of intelligence on Western paraphysics research among its goals. It seems that in several ways the government has accepted a certain amount of risk in order to increase its access to Western developments in the field. (U) It should also be noted that the Soviet government's official 'interest in paraphysics carries certain other risks in the international arena. The Chinese have used paraphysics research in a virulent propaganda attack against the Soviet Union, claiming that government interest was a reflection of the need of the revisionist regime for internal supports and an indicator of the departure of the Soviet regime from the paths of Leninist doctrine 4 While it is unclear that this avenue of attack has had any noticeable effect on international affairs, paraphysics now has been identified as a potential propaganda weapon. 3. Organizational Politics (U) (U) Paraphvsics, as has already been noted, has severe image problems. Aside from its controversial position within the scientific community, it is a subject with high emotional content and frequent. unfortunate association with charlatans and opportunists. Because of this, among its detractors (and those personal neutrals who wisl- to look good to its detractors) paraphysics research has been referred to by some critics in the US as a "high giggle factor." In the bureaucratic scientific structure cif the So~1et Union, this orientation causes a systemic negative bias toward paraphysics research which exceeds the actual personal convictions of the decision-makers themselves. Managers at lower and middle level periodically crack down on low-level or unofficial involvement in paraphysics research on their own initiative, in order to look good for the higher level bosses, often without any indication that such actions actually reflect the desires of the higher levels. The tendency toward timidity in the face of perceived risk is always safer and more likely in a bureaucratic organization, and this cannot but have an effect on paraphysics. (U) In the Warsaw Pact countries, paraphysics (and the other sciences) is under the control of the Communist Party, which supervises award of ali advanced degrees, appointments to administrative posts, distribution of material resources, and access to publication media. In addition to party control, paraphysics is heavily influenced by prevailing popular attitudes, and personal and organizational pressures within the scientific community which severely constrain its activities. (U) Such constraints are not absolute. The nature of paraphysics research is such that much personal research can take place without formal approval. From time to time, the perceptions of the decision-makers are relaxed to the point that support (or toleration) for paraphysics research and publication about such research increase. Indeed, there are valid reasons why the Soviet government should approve some measure of such research and publicity. However, such approval tends to be cyclical in nature. Publication of popular articles about paraphysics can lead to dangerous exaggerations by the press, and further exaggerations of the significance in the popular mind. Research discoveries, while scientifically significant and theoretically stimulating, can be less reliable than Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202 i 8 (' '30 March 1918 hoped for by the pragmatic bureaucrat, who is more interested in the solution of practical problems than in the demonstration of theoretically significant results. There is a strong demand for paraphysics, like the other sciences, to demonstrate practical utility despite its status as a newly emerging and immature scientific discipline. (U) When the premature hopes of the bureaucrats are unrewarded and the excesses of the press lead to undesirable public reaction, there is a tendency for official support to strongly diminish. Such periods can be of varying length. The entire mid- to late-Stalinist period was one such time of official discouragement of paraphysics; another occurred in the mid- ~to late-1960's. (U) It appears that paraphysics is again achieving something of a renaissance in the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Pact countries. Since the beginning of this decade, official support for and interest in paraphysics research appear to have steadily increased. The cyclic nature of such support probably will continue: it is highly likely that the more controversial paraphysics research areas in the Warsaw Pact countries will experience periods of rapid advance as well as some recession in terms of its official position over several-year intervals. However, with each such period of advance, the number of interested scientists grows larger, and the body of accumulated scientific data of paraphysics grows ever larger. 42 (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 C DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1978 SECTION VII LEVEL OF RESEARCH EFFORT-QUANTITATIVE MEASURES (U) 1. Barriers to Assessment (U) (U) In assessing an area of foreign scientific or R&D work, it is common to attempt to estimate any of several quantitative indicators. Such variables as budget, number or size of facilities, number of patents granted, number of technical publications in the field, number of personnel or professionals in the field, and number of students enrolled in educational programs relevant to the field are among the indicators customarily employed. Such indicators, properly used, can provide valuable insight into the relative priority enjoyed by the field, areas of probable strength and weakness, and eventually, changes in research priorities between competing areas of scientific endeavor. (U) There are many unique aspects of paraphysics research which make such quantitative measures singularly uninformative. In most areas of paraphysics, there are no established, universally accepted, scientific paradigms. The very nature of the subject makes many of the standard procedures of scientific inquiry inappropriate and, at the same time, legitimately encourages approaches not normally countenanced by the scientific community. As a result, there are no established educational paths to paraphvsics research.* Scientists from virtually all fields and, indeed, some persons with little scientific training, can achieve recognition in paraphysics. Although the most advanced laboratory test equipment has been used, from time to time, in paraphysics experiments, tens of thousands of experiments have been carried out worldwide with little or no equipment of any kind. Unlike most other areas of science, it cannot be safely assumed that a prominent researcher in paraphysics necessarily has invested a large amount of time or resources in research. For many, probably most, persons involved in paraphysics, it is only vocation or hobby. (Cl As a result, it is extremely difficult to assign meaningful indicators to the level of research effort of Warsaw Pact paraphysics. Since researchers can enter the field from any academic specialn? (Table I), there are no clues in the patterns of educational enrollment. Because paraphysics research is a part-time or off-duty pursuit for most researchers, their number, if accepted at face value, would give a misleadingly high estimate of the importance of the work being done. Since most paraphysics phenomena are accomplished without the use of equipment, the number of patents granted in the field is not meaningful. No useful budget for manpower can be derived, because of the extremely fluid nature of the time allotted to paraphysics research by each person: Estimates of material resources used are even less helpful. Despite persistent reports of high-level government funding in some closed institutes, it seems doubtful that much money is spent anywhere in the Warsaw Pact countries for equipment dedicated solely to research in paraphysics. On the other hand, it is probable that a very great deal of advanced laboratory equipment is available to researchers on an occasional basis, by virtue of their institutional affiliation.** -rt i It should be noted that at least one Polish student a?as apparently granted a Doctor's degree in physics with a study of the physical prnblem~ of telepathy in 1959. "ii: ~ Researchers in paraph}?sics have access to the material because of a wide ~?ar~en? of rapes of scientific facilities. See Tabie II. 43 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 _ 1 ~~; _y ~ Z - o ~x '- ~ N a =z 8? ~ a~ .. m~ ~~ bNhb C9 .+N .+ ~ m ~r ~~ a~ ^b.rN '+~ NN ~ "~ 0 ~ ~i r m ~ b .~ N ..n ! .r wn ~U .. ~~ ~~ V ~ ~~~ ? ~ g $ ~~ ~~~~r g $. ~~~ ~ .a~~ $~ $ a as ~~ ~~ttgg ~~~~c~~mi3~~~add~.aa~t~~ 44 ('This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 e r ~ .~ ~. \Z . .. . , ?Z V ~ ~ N i- ~ .iii r ? ~ N N -r ..a .- ' ' ~ ~O ! t9 N ~+ ~ ~ !7 ~O N .~ .a m ; ~~ l7 ~ -- ~ ~ s. m m a~ '< F y ~ o ~ ee ao - - .. .- .. ~?x V , ~ e .` m ~ 0 2 ~ 2 S ~ C~7 O e?i' ~ ~~" ~ 45 (This page is Unclassified) DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February- 1980 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 (C) Paraphysics is an area of extremely high interest to the general public, in both the East and the West. As a result, there have been a large number of articles on the subject in the popular press in the Warsaw Pact countries, despite the official uneasiness about the subject. Such articles, while extremely valuable as sources of information on researchers, facilities, and programs, are often of very little value in assessing quantitative factors about the work reported. Thus, in many cases, it is known that research has been conducted, and by whom and where, but it is difficult to assign a quantitative measure to such an effort. There are similar problems, for similar reasons, with much of the classified data base.* (U) Since quantitative measures of personnel, facilities, and budget are frequently reported both in the popular press and in the intelligence community, and it appears that many of these reports are misleading or inaccurate, this study will address these issues briefly. However, because of the above considerations, extreme caution must be exercised in this or other studies of Warsaw Pact paraphysics. The total research effort is probably much greater than that indicated by the official expenditures for personnel and equipment and much less than would seem apparent from the number of researchers and facilities reported. 2. Number of Paraphysics Researchers (U) { U) As indicated above, there are serious problems in interpreting any single number cited for paraphysics researchers in the Warsaw Pact countries. After eliminating journalists, critics, stage performers and rural occultists, more than 657 persons have been identified as involved with paraphvsics research in the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries. As outlined in the notes to Table III, a number of qualifications must be applied to the meaning of the numbers shown. In addition, it should also be noted that, in all probability, the numbers are still quite conservative. (U) For instance, the two most prominent Soviet researchers in biophysical effect claim that there are some 40 groups in that field in the Soviet Union; to date only 17~ have been identified. Bioph}^sical effect research seems less likely to be kept secret than some other forms of paraphysics work. Therefore, if the ratio is similar in the other areas, it is quite possible that the numbers of groups shown in Table I should be raised b~ approximately a factor of two. (L'1 If the numbers of groups are understated, it is even more likely that the number of persons in each group should be multiplied even more. For example, the Bioinformation Section of the All-Union Technical Society of Radio Technology and Communications imeni Popov (the Popov Society), which is primarily interested in telepathy and clairvoyance, is generally estimated to have some 300-500 members at am given time, and may have had thousands of persons attend meetings at one time or another. This study identifies only 17 persons as telepathy researchers associated with the Popov Society. The disparity between the two figures is not as great as it may seem, since most of the persons who attend meetings of the Popov Society are simply interested observers, who do little or no personal paraphvsics research. Nonetheless, the larger number indicates the magnitude of interest in the field, and the number of persons who have taken part in experiments under the auspices of the Popov Society is likely to be considerabler? greater than 17. Similarly, even though research may be reported under only a single name, it is very likely that many of the facilities for which only one person is known have had a number of interested participants in their experiments. It is reasonable to infer that further research will identify a considerable number of additional paraphvsics researchers in the Warsaw Pact countries. `it~l See the section nn Ideolog}' for a more compiete discussion of go~?ernmenta! attitude and press reportage of paraph~?sics research and phenomena. See Appendix III. ~'Iethodological Problems. for a more complete treatment of some of the pttfalls in analyzing reports nn paraph~?sics in the VFarsaw? Pact countries. 46 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1978 1. t Ul Because of the nature of paraphysics research in the Soviet Union and the available data about it, there are cei',.sin caveats that must be applied to the figure shown in Table I. First, the data include all persons knowr. to have been active in paraphysics research since the Communist revolution in the Soviet Union. Although the vast majority of these persons have been active in the modem period Ipost-1959), it was felt advisable to report the others as well. There is a very strong tendency in the Soviet Union for a research area, once begun. to continue at the same place for an extended period of time. Hence, even in the cases where a researcher is known to have died or retired, the data are reported nn the theory that others are carrying on the work in some form at the same facility.' 3. IL') Many researchers are active in more than one area of paraphysics research. The data presented by area make no attempt to avoid double-rnunting in this respect. As a result, the total shown is not the sum of the entr+es for each area, since the u,tal does eliminate double counting. 3. !U) There has been a conscious attempt to eliminate writers in the field of paraphysics who are not themselves serious researchers. Those who are known to be journalists, stage performers, ur common ),ractitir,oer~ tsuch as in psychic healing) are not reported, when they can be discerned as such. However, since much of the data comes from popular press articles, it is often difficult to determine the exact status of the author. Within this constraint, however, it is safe to consider the great majorin? of the persons represented in this table as having advanced degrees, and most of the remainder as being graduate students. The level of professional training represented by the persons referred to in Table I is therefore quite high. 4. (U) Although once his professional career has begun, it is unusual for a researcher to sever connections watt a research institute and start anew at another, it is not uncommon for a researcher to be active in more than one facility. In these instances, each facility is represented in the data, but the person is not counted *.wice. 5. fU) Much of the data is derived from popular press articles. which often do not name all researchers in a project nor disclose the total staff size. Typically, only the name of the team leader will be printed. Consequently, in many cases, the one name will represent a much larger team. A.+ a result, the uuniber ~,f liersons active m paraphysics research in each field must be considered a rnnservative estimate. 6. (U) There is no intent to imply that each of the persons represented in the data is involved in full-trine research to paraphysics. In fact, that is probably the case for only a relatively small minority of researchers. For most of the persons, especially in the prime areas, paraphysics is only a small, usually unofficial interest. (See the discussion in the text for an expansion of this point.) ^?iUl This theory is supported by the data. There are 13 researchers who were active in paraphysics research prior to 1959, whose institutional affiliation is known iaveraRe },ear r.f last known activih?:19391. In all 13 cases, it is known that at ]east rme ether worker was active in the same field in the n,r,derii Ipost?19391 period at that facility. Itt two of the cases, a researcher was active in a priman? and a sernndarv field; in both cases, work in the primary field was known to be rnntinuinq at that facilin?, while there was no direct evidence of a rnntinwng effort in the secondary field. 47 (This page is Unclassified) Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-18105-202-78 30 March 1978 3. Facilities Housing Paraphysics Research (U) (U) The entries in Table III indicate the number of facilities with which researchers in each of the various paraphysics fields are known to be associated. It should be noted that most of these facilities do not appear to have either a formal program of paraphysics research, or awell-organized empirical research group established on an informal basis. Table IV indicates those facilities in which it appears that a serious, organized, empirical research program has been undertaken in modern (post- 1959) times in the prime paraphysics areas. Clearly, they are a much smaller number. Even most of these probably do not reflect a formal, government-sponsored research program into the area. 4. Government Support for Paraphysics Research (U) (L') It is usual for Westerners who have visited Soviet paraphysics researchers to return with stories of official government support for such research. In fact, such support seems unquestioned by anyone: "The United States and the Soviet Union each have about six major centers for parapsychological research and about a dozen minor ones. All of the Soviet centers, of course, are government-funded." f 19? 1)' "Formal, officially subsidized research in the field has gone on for years, sometimes publicly vaunted and at other times denounced and even denied." (19 i ~ )= (C-WNINTEL) Such conclusions derive naturally enough from the common perception that everything in the Soviet Union necessarily reflects official government policy and support. Despite the occasional denials from official government sources, the conclusion seems obvious in the presence of a paraphysics researcher in a prestigious institution surrounded by expensive equipment. The impression is deliberately fostered by such persons as Eduard Naumov, who has been knowzr on occasion to imply government support to increase his own apparent importance.* (U) Neither are such reports in the popular press shy about assigning speciSc numbers to the level of government funding. In one form or another, the estimate of 12-20 million rubles (or dollars has survived for at least the last decade and recurs as a current estimate routinely, despite the fact that no one knows, or is saying, how it was originally derived? In its report on So~~et government funding for paraphysics research, the RAND Corporation found that available knowledge of the level of So~~et involvement in paraphysics proa?ides "prima facie evidence that the figure of 12 to 20 million rubles is, if anything, grossly inflated."' Although the present study identifies a considerably larger number of persons in the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries than were known to the RAND analysts, there is as yet nn reason to diaagree with their assessment. (C) Although the most common estimate of 12-20 million rubles (or dollars) seems much too high, this has not deterred others from making more extravagant claims. Dr, Lev Tumerman, an otherwise highly respected scientist who has emigrated to Israel, has at least twice told interviewers that he and two other scientists were offered the opportunity in 1959 to establish a research institute for the paranormal with a budget on the order of 10 million rubles for the first 3-4 months alone. In an even less restrained statement, Raphael Zidovetskiy, another emigre, claims, "The parapsychology institutes in the USSR are secret and this means that their primary purpose is military. They are given billions of rubles (equivalent of billions of dollars) for research."s (C) The most common assertion is that the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries rave established and funded secret facilities devoted to the study of paraphysics. Usually, it is ssumed that funding for these facilities comes from the military or, more commonly, the KGB. A Zore sophisticated version of this story also holds that all the paraphysics researchers allowed to oerate and publish openly are, in fact, KGB officers. There is so much ambiguity and contradiction in U~ It l+as be[?nme apparent that extren+e care +t+ust be exercised in evaluatittR a+nthing that is said by ~iaumna? and his coterie. ,IthnuRh Naumov has achieved a positron +~f high visibilin? h+r ltis diligent espousal of the cause of paraphysics, his technical -eden[ials and respect for strict truth and balance in his state+tte+tts remain extremely doubtful. 48 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 49 DST-18105-202-78-Chg 1 4 February 1980 Telepathy/Qairvoyance Instituu of Radioettgiaearing and Electronic Instituu of Problems of Information Transmiesioa AII-Union Tac#minl Society of Radio Technology Instituu of Paydtology, APS, RSFSR Iwningrad State University Brain Institute imeni Bekhterev Institute of Psychology Institute of 3uggestology Biophysical EffaWSubliminal Response VNII of Hydrology and Engineering Geology Interdepartmental Commission for BPE VNII of Prospecting Geophysic Scientific Production Asaocsation Center for Hygiene sad Public Health Labor Protection Center Dermal Ymion Institute of Problems of Information Transmission Enstituu of Normal and Pathological Psyhology VNII of Railroad Hygier~s iiveadlwait State Pedagogical Inatituu Kazakh Bute University iaceni Kuov Nczlmiy Tagil State Pedagogical Institute Bioetrergetios/Sioplasma Patric Lumumba University Isniagrad Stan University Kazkh State University imeni Kirov Institute of Clinical and Ezperimental Medicine Psychokinesis Institute of Radioengiaeering and Electronic (IRE) Institute for Biological Testing of Chemicals Ualnwwa Facility (new) Institute of Psychology. APS, RSFSR Leningrad 9uu Urriversiry Psychic Healing Ualmown Facility !c S7 Prscognitioa/ < rl'L'L' GE~VADIY ALEI;SAVDROVICH (DOCTOR PHYS/MATH) 19?% MILITARY-MEDICAL ACADEMY Ih1E\'I I:IROV I\DE1'(~IV 1'E ` 1971 =Ei01:li0V 1' P 19%1 IUST OF ~tEDIC:IL-BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS I~aRa=H:11'LVA S a (ASTROVOAlY') 19-5 RaSHi:OVICH L L 19(i~l RYV[~IXA F Z 1965 RYVl;I`: B ~ 19i5 1`ITELS L A (ASTRONOMY) 1975 .ARCTIC aVD ACTARCTIC VII OL' a I 1971 95 UNCLASSIFIED Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED INST OF CLIitiICAL PHYSIOLOGY PODSHIBYAKIN A K (DOCTOR PHYSIOLOGY) PODSHIPYAKINA L I SVERDLOVSK ? SVERDLOVSK h1EDICAL INST NOVIKOVA K F (ASTRONOMY) RYVKIN B A RYVKINA F Z TOKAREVA N V :VII OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL MEDICI\E LAUTSEVICHUS L Z YUS.~ENAYTYE YA P INST ~OF PHYSICS AND MATHEh1ATICS BLINSTRUBAS S I ~CHITA MEDICAL INST BORISGV V K KOZLOV V A KOKHANSKIY ~' V PRISTAY YA P BERING-GALAKTIONOVA I V (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 19,'5 ?UPRIYANOV $~ N (CANDIDATE i`IEDICINE) ~ 1975 URKh1EN htEDICAL INST FRING-GALAKTIONOVA I V (CANDIDATE MEDICINE} 1975 JPRIYANOV S N (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 1975 TOhlSK TOhiSK POLITECHXICAL INST OP~-LINSKAY,~ A N TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY +1AKSIhiOV A A (DOCTOR ZOOLOGY} LAVROVSKIY A ,~ (DOCTOR) TOhiSK MEDICAL INST DESYATOV V P (ASTRONOMY) ~AGORSKIY P M DST-18105-202-?8 30 March 1978 1975 1965 1971 1975 1965 1971 1971 1971 ? 1963 1953 1963 196 1971 1971 1971 1935 ASHKHA?BAD TURKhtEN REPUBLIC NI STATION FOR PLANT PROTECTION CHERNYSHEL' V B (CANDIDATE ENTOMOLOGY) 1974 ~SHKHABAD NII EPIDEMIOLOGY AND HYGIENE 96 UNCL"ASSIFIED Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED :~ ~~ DST-1810S-202-78 30 March 1979 TURK~iEN NII OF ROENTGENOLOGY, RADIOLOGY AND~ONCOLOGY GERI\G-GALAKTIONOVA I V (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 1975 KUPRIYANOV S N (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 1975 ALMA ATA FACILITY UNKNOWN DUBYaNSKIY M A ~ 1976 DUBYANSKAYA L D 1976 BOGATYREV S K 1976 TITOV L V - 1976 KISLOVODSK PUL'KOVO OBSERVATORY GNE~~YSHEV ~1 ti (CANDIDATE ASTRONOMY} VOVOSI BI RS}: 1971 BIOLOGICAL I~ST !~IAKSIAIOV A A (DOCTOR 200LOGY) SIBERIAN ENERGETICS INST ALEKSA~DROV YU 1,' DRU~HINI~ I P KONO~'aLE~KO ~ P YAGODI\SKIY VIKTOR N IV'ST OF BIOPHYSICS OSIPOV A I STAVROPOL' STAVROPOL'STATE MEDICAL INST ALABOVSKIY YU I BABE\'KO A v FACILITY UNKNOWX b1ALIKOV B ~H KALININGRaD FACILITY UNKNOWN KHODORKOVSKIY V A GLEY~ER S I (CANDIDATE) 97 UNCLASSIFIED 196% 1966 1966 1969 1971 19;1 1971 1972 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 DST-1814S-202- i 8 34 March 1978 UNCLASSIFIED IRKUTSK INST OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, IONOSPHERE, AND RADIO LUAVE PROPAGATION BEN'KOVA N P (CANDIDATE PROFESSOR) FACILITY UNKNOWN 1973 PLATONOVA A I (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) KALININ 1971 KALININ MEDICAL INST PAZYUK V A UNKNOWN LOCATION, USSR 1971 INST FOR PROGRESS OF MEDICAL SCIENCE SAL'NIKOV S N (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 1965 CRIMEAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY VLADIMIRSKIY B M 1971 CRIMEAN MEDICA[. INST ACHKASOVA YU N 1971 CHELKOVA Z 1971 BRODOVSKAYA 1971 VOLYNSKIY A hi 1973 TEAtUR' YANTS V A 1971 VINOGRADOV S A 1971 ROZENBERG V D 1971 FACILITY UNKNOWN ISHAKOV V P 1972 DRAGAN YA P 1974 GOLOVANOV L V 1976 SOSUNOV A V 1966 SHCHERBINOVSKIY V S 1964 KUKSENKO V I 1974 TSI~:AKHOVICH V P 1967 SHL'SHAKOV A P 1966 PANOV T I 1966 SHUL'TS N A (CANDIDATE) 1964 PARKULAB L V (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 1970 VOYCHI~SHIN K S ~ 1974 ROZHDESTVENSKAYA YE B (CANDIDATE MEDICINE) 1971 NEYMAN B A 1969 PRAGUE FACILITY UNKNOWN PATROVSKY VENCESLAV (CANDIDATE ENGINEERING) 1977 98 ~~wn~ ~~e~eien Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020010-5 UNCLASSIFIED DST-181OS-202-~ R 30 March 197F~ BUDAPEST FACILITY UNKNOWN BALOUGH BARNA (CANDIDATE) 1976 AUTOGENIC TRAINING/BIOFEEDBACK AfOSCO1V INST OF PROBLEMS OF INFORMATION TRANSMISSION BONGaRD l~1 !( (CANDIDATE PHYS/D1ATH) 1971 INST OF NEUROLOGY ROCH`:OV 4'LADI~IIR YEVGEN'YEVICH (PSYCH/PEDAGOGY) 1974 SLUTSKIY A S 1974 INST OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE DOBR04'ICH A B (CANDIDATE hEDICINE) 1970 INST OF PH~'SICAL CULTURE DASHI;E4~ I CH 0 V 1968 CHERNIKOVA 0 A 1971 INST OF HIGHER NERVOUS ACTIVITY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY SI~f0:~U4' PANEL 4'ASIL-'YEVISH (DOCTOR MEDICINE) 19?S YERSH04' P ~l 1964 4'ALUYEti'A At N 1968 ALL-UNION TECHNICAL SOCIETY OF RADIO TECHNOLOGY AND COb1MUNICATIO`S R,~Yf:04` ~'LADI~tIR A (CANDIDATE PSYCH/PEDAGOGY) 1971 INST OF :~:OR~1AL AND PATHOLOGICAL PHYSIOLOGY I;OSi?fOLI:?:SI;IY F P 19'? TISHCHE~KO Pt I (DOCTOR !tEDICINE) 1967 ;dOSCO