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Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 JPRS: 19,1p0 OTS: 63.21782 7 May 193 C~o~~. y~-~~e.. ,U. ~. D~I-i!'TJNlNT ~~ CO~MMdtCE E~FICE 0!~ TECHNICAL SERVICES JOINT ~LICI-TICNS RESEARCH SERVICE euirdi~ T-~D Obie Drive end Irtditpendrnoe J.-vsnu~; S.W: Mde~hi~plee~ ZS, D. C. prices $.SO Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 This publication was prepartd under contract for the Joint Publications Research Service as a translation or foreign language research service to the various federal govertmtient departments. The contents of this material in no way represent the policies, views or attitudes of the U. S. Government Qr of the parties ~o any distribution arrangement, PROCUREMErTT OF JPRS REPORTS All JPRS reports may be ordered from the Office of Technical Services. Reports published prior to 1 February 1963 can be provided for the most part, only in photocopy (xerox). Those published after 1 February 1963 will be provided in printed form. _ Details on spec#al subscription arrangements for JPRS social science reports will be provided upon request. No cumulative subject index or catalog of all JPRS reports has been compiled. All JPRS reports are li eted in the: Monthly Catalog of U. S. Government Publications, available on subscription at $4.50 per year ($6.00 foreign), including an annual index, from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. All JPRS scientific and technical reports are cataloged and subject-indexed in Technical Translations, published semimonthly by the Office of Technical Services, and also available on sub~Cription ($12.00 per year domestic, $16.00 foreign) from the Superintendent of Documents. Semiannual inde.~ces to Technical Translations are available at additional cost. Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PSYCHIC CONTROL AND REGULATION IN AUTOMATA ? USSR - 19,100 ~F'.ollowing is the translation of as article by L. M. Bakker in the Russian-language publication VOpr06Y filosofif(Problems of Philosophy), No 2, 1963, pages 70-81, The idea of the uniqueness of the pgrchic is one of the gaoseological fouaclations of idealism. For the noncomparability of a phenomenon with any other reality leads to the idea of its substantiality. The proposition of the substantiality of the psychic is inevitably related also with the recognition of intro- spection as the only method of psycholcgical investigation. Covert forms of these tendencies even now are still persisting in the materialistic science on the psyche. The approach realized through modern cybernetics to the nature of reflection by its very nature precludes the idea of the noncomparability of the psychic and leads to a conclusive surmounting of the traditional errors impeding sci- entific progress. The cybernetic approach to the problem of reflec- tion unfolds new constructive means for its examination mainly by way of the following two interrelated aspects. I. The general-cybernetic teaching on the production, trans- mission, storage, anc~ utilization of information, revealing the quantitative s-a~d qualitative, the structural characteristics as informational ~rrocesses~in their various forma and levels, yields a system of concepts which can be used in analyzing psychic pro- cesses (in their informational aspects) as a special form of informational phenomena. In so doing we in fact eliminate the dualistic position of the absolute uniqueness of the psychic, uncover a constructive scientific approach for its examination, revealing the specific character of the particular through the general, and giving concrete expression to the most important position of V. I. Lenin on reflection as a general property of matter, is relation to;which psychic reflection is its higher, though particular form. II. The general principles of the functioning of control systems revealed by cybernetics form the basis for a compar ati~e analysis of the ret~ulatinR function of signals cf information at Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 various levels. In its turn, analysis of how reflection "works" and what~~are the differences in its working function at its various levels affords a fruitful investigation of methods of organizing reflection processes. This approach is essentially important for still another reason, that it equips investigation with the strictly objective, and in addition with a wholly adequate ~abthod of study- in~; psychic reflection. This leads''to' the ac.tifal ?eliminat.an of the remnants of~the?iatrospectionist approach toward methods of inves- tigating the psychic. The reflex theory of the ~isychic developed by I. M. Sechenev represented the higher level of voluntary regulation of action as a special case of psychic regulation, and psychic regulation of action itself -- as a special manifestation of ,the geaer~l~~reflex principle of performance ?of? the ?nerve~s system.. The general ~~eory of control created by:,cyberne'tics;~: realizing the next stage.' of a?;cientific gec.- eralization was synthesis, represented this reflex: regulation of function as a special case of general principle of performance of control system, is which information circulates along a closed circuit. The scheme of the reflex circuit lying at the?base of the. mechanism of. behavior regulation is .one of the_?cases of~ h~ control circuit working on the principle of feedback: ~~ discovering a commonness between the structural system and the functional principle of information circulating ~in an ~~abjecti- val adaptive or transforming (by labor) effort of man~also ~in operations?of automatio?systems reveals the real possibility of making a-concrete comparative analysis of these systems. The goal of such an analysis is to establish the specific character of the programming and regulatiag~function of psychic processes as infor- mation signals in comparison with the regulating function bf infor- mation signals controlling the dynamics of working operations .:~ automatic systems. The task of revealing this specific character of psychic regulations of r.?bjectival work actions within the limits?of as elementary sens~-r~ level of regulating systea.s (sensations, per- ceptions, and c~~ncepts} is the subject of the presen~ article. But it is relo:ant to this starting level ,to deal here.only with that a.~ea of i.ho questions, which is related to the quai.itative, structural features of sensory signals and to, tha role: of these features in the control process. ... ~ ' .The principle of programming and the method of reg~~latria:~ realized in objectival work ?actione of man finds .its ultimate expression in the? dynamics of the ~eRecuti~re :orge.o-:acting an. tho ' object being transformed. ~ The organization ?of the. ~unot~.cns. of the working organs that carry out the program of action RexYvs as the most adequate objective indicator of the psychi~.proccs~es~.. programming and regulating the aetion. Therefore.,~the characteristic Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 of control principles over the objectival action is associated with the specific function of the executive organs of man, chiefly the human hand as an organ of work. The main feature of the human hand as an executive organ compared to the executive organs of any auto- matic device (including also a mechaai~al hand) consists in its high functional versatility (related to the number of degrees of freedom), which enables practically an unlimited class of motor tasks to be solved with the same morphologically unaltered structure. The most fanciful special depiction of a motion adequately reproducing the structure of the object being acted upon can be realized by the working points of the hand as an executive organ. The versatility and variability is kinematically limited here only by limits of reach (extent of the motor field), and dynamically -- by the "resis- tance of materials". Providing the freedom of accomplishing an unlimited diversity of motor solutions, the very design of the hand is not restricted to a.ny?specific objectival program of movements. The structure of the hand has neither a program nor individual executive operations built in, still less any algorithmic sequence of such operations. Serving as functions of reflex effects carrying out action are efferent nerve codes of command information, activating the executive organ and controlling its performance. However, as has been shown by studies of the structure of movements (N. A. Bern- shteyn), effector codes cannot serve as the original program car- riers for the action realized by the working organs. This propo- sition is vividly substantiated by the factual material of studies of motor habits, indicating that the development of habits does not occur through formation of a fixed sequence of movements, as it needs must occur if the program carrier of the stctioas waR the effector command information. We must, therefore, conclude that the programming of objec- tival work actic:is of man and the specific character of their reg- ulation must be ;;ought for is the structure of the guiding Losvedom- itel'nay~ inf~~=mction inherent in the original regulating function. The ob~:-tival structure of the executive acts of man derived from the objec~:~.val structure of the psychic processes, which are the sngnals of the guiding information regulating the action. It is precisely this functioh of sensory imaging that I. M. Sechenov pointed to when he wrote that "sensation is everywhere a regulator of motion." The process of technical progress and mechanization of labor has interrupted the reflex circuit of elementary objectival action and has interposed between the executive organs of man and the final object of labor activity an, ever-increasi:zg intermediate links. Technological, power, and transport functions of human activity have been wholly converted to machine links of the control circuit. Left for the actions of man's working organs is the function o~ control. Maa has become the controlling link of the system. Controlling action is increasingly being reduced, -3- Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 and in relation to the ultimate object of working activity, is increasingly losing its developed objectival strudture, being turned into a signal-code of command information (motor reactions of the operator at control panels). With the transition from direct? control by machines to remote control, the objectival character of this control and the guiding information is being displaced and lost, the guiding inforination?~.beirg received by the operator in coded form as various kinds of??indication~ (ins~ru- ment dials, sign indications, diagrams on charts). ?However, losing its directly objectival character in relation to the ultim~ite object of labor, man's perception and action wholly retain its objectival structure in relation to their direct objects --'the indicating equipment and the control organ. This objectivalness of the structure of perception and action in relation to their direct objects lies at the basis of the versatility, generali~a- bility, and relative universality of the controlling operations of man, which are a particular case of the general variability and universality of human objectival action. Thus a contradiction has arisen between the code character of guiding and command information i.n relation to the ultimate object of action and the objectival structure of perception and action in relation to their direct objets. This contradiction lies at the basis~of two opposing trer_a3 in the development?of modern systems of remote control over aroductior. processes. The first trend consists in the guiding information in control systems becoming similar to the directly objectival forms (three-dimensional diagrams, tele- and radio-locating representations, etc.) and the imparting of the highest pcssible structural commonness of'the sen- sory and motor components of action. This trend of making the controlling operation similar to the functional scheme of objec- tival action aerives from man's requirements as a link in the ? control system and is related to the need for preserving these functions for ri:~. The second trend is the development of remote control systems is manifest in the effort to replace the struc~ure. of guiding and 4ommand information and operation by signals of coded inform~at:~~n based on specific algorithms. Carrying out this trend will lean to?the automation of man's controlling operations, that is, to the development of systems of automatic control. This line of development aimed at displacing the guiding and command information find its high point in the principles of automatic system functioning. From this point of view it is not a chance matter that in technical systems information transmitted in tre form of codes is decoded only in those communication chan- nels at the exit of which the information is recsvssi at a sensory access point of man (televisor, a radio-locater). At the exit of such channels the coded information, being decoded, is converted into a,n image. In systems of automatic control, however, guiding information undergoes only recoding and is nowhere converted into images. This is the essential feature of such systems. Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Another fundamentally important characteristic of control principles in automatic systems is that, in spite of the tendency to be free from the fixed character of the program in the design and to thus make for the ixniversality of the system, the program of system performance still remains as it were partially fixed in the design. In particular this refers to the program of elemen- tary operations built into the design of the system's working organs. In various control systems there is a different distribution of pro- gram com~~onents between the system design and the information enter- ing the system. But even in those program parts, which are given by information, tae elemental relationship of each value of the guiding information signal with the states of the controlling executive organ corresponding to it is determined by the design. (for example, in automatic control systems by the flash of zenith artillery). ~ ~ . From this point of view it is very indicative that the. use of universal computers as components of automatic control systems is complicated by the fact that they require appropriate equipment for intake and outflow of information, but the desip~n of the latter depends essentially on the specific character of the automatic system. It is also important in this regard to note that is the single type of automatic systems with unfixed design (which thus does not feature a set program), in tiie so-called indeterminate self-organizing systems, the control process is accomplished oa the basis of random search or on a "trial and error" method. The total absence of a fixed specific program in the design thus con- demns the system to the wad of blind search (finding ways of optimizating, which is presently the object of numerous inves- tigations). The indicated features of principles of control realized in automatic systems on reasonable grounds considerably restrict the versatility, the interference-proof character, and the reli- ability of functioning of theses systems. . The goal of a comparative investigation of the main charac- teristics of the sensory regulation of human actions and of a study of control methods in automatic systems consists in discover- ing the differences between these two categories on the basis of those general principles of control, whose specific particular manifestation constitutes both kinds of control under comparison. Analysis allows us to discover an essential difference is the interrelationship of information and design in the process of carrying out a program of operations by man and by an automatic system. As was indicated, in its very design the automatic sys- tem has partially built in the program for carrying out its operations. Ia the first place, this refers to the System inherent in the working organs, the very structure of which is built into -5- Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 the program of the corresponding executive operations. The design entails in itself fixation and other program components in various automatic systems, as occurs for example is systems using analogue computers, whose design?entails ia~its.program the transformation of information incoming to the system. ~~ .. . In man the design of his workirig~??orghas and all the other links of the reflex mechanism of objectival action does not intro- duce any individual specific program. The role of design consists here in that it sets up the morphological foundation for possibil- ities of carrying out any obj"~ctival kinematic structure of action. A program of actions gr.operaticns ultimately is determined only by two factors -- the design of the system or the character- istics of the information circulating through its circuit. Ther~- fore, the differing roles of design in programming operations in both systems can be related only to the different characteristics of information in these systems. Quantitative characteristics of informational processes occurring in both systems in'themselves cannot serve as the basis for the differences in the role that design plays which are of interest to us. In regard to the passing capacity and rate of operation performance the advantages are clearly held by automatic machines. More improved controlling functions of informational processes not requiring that programming be based on system design would scarcely derive ?f ram a restricted passing capac- ity and speed of operation that man displays compared to the auto- matic machine. Based on this, the. existence of the fundamental differences referred to between the systems under comparison is distributing the program between information and design inevit- ably leads to the conclusion that the differences in the role that design plays in realizing the program can be found only in the substantial difference is qualitative structural character- istics of the information aianals circulating in the system and inherent in the specific program itself. Analysis of the funs+.ioning of all the main kinds of con- trol systems supports the conclusion that in systems of rigid control and in regulating systems, as also true in self-adjusting _ automatic systems, the information signals inherent to given pro- gram components exist in~the form of continuous or discrete codes. This conclusion derives directly from the characteristic of those transformations of_information which occur is sensory cell- pickups Lelemeat-datchilt/, in central amplifying converter links of the regulator, and in executive equipment. From the very essence of the physical characteristics of these processes we find that coding of the incoming information occurs here into the alphabet of the communication channel, which is a member of the control circuit. Circulating along the circuit, the infor- mation undergoes several recodings, leaving it, however, in a coded form. In the objectival actions of man the ultimate stage of the conversion of command information is represented by the -6- Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 systems of movements carried out by the "working point" of the execu- tive organs which draws near the object and acts on it. From their very nature these motor structures are similar to the object and to the ultimate product of action,:aad in this sense they are not a code but a motor reproduction of the?object's structure. Such an objectival character of the motor structures of human action ean- not be determined, as has been mentioned, either by the design of the executive organ, for they have no concrete program inherent to them, or by the codes of the executive effector information, for these codes are not fixed in the establishment of habits with action. The source of this objectival:character of the motor structure here can only be the guiding information. In order that signals of the lat- ter can give and adequately receive objectival programs of action, the signals themselves must inevitably be the representation of objects of these actions as?~th~ey occur and in the final state. No other source and carrier of the objectival program of action, nor its adequacy to the object has analysis here been able to discover. The presence of the necessary conjunction of the code form of information with the partial fixation of the program in the system designed, and in particular in the structure of its working organs, indicates that is and of itself information circulating in the form of codes cannot wholly supply the geometrically objectival, and kinematic characteristics of the working operations. Therefore the part of the program which cannot be determined by information must be fixed by the design. In distinction to this information signals having the form of objectival images program and regulate the entire structural kinematic characteristics of human action without the support of a program built into the design. The design foundation here consists in revealing the biomechanical and psyco- physiological possibilities for realizing any program of objectival working and controlling operations. 6uch essential differences in the regular def~.~nctions of these two forms of signals are obviously related to the {?.:ndamental differences between representation and code in the ve*?; form of their organization. Every ~:.;~nal of information is a set?of states or elements, ordered appror~riately to the set of elements of the information source. It is precisely this preservation of the corresponding orderedness of its states that makes the signal the carrier of information of its source. Hut the distorting effect of any noise or interference consists precisely in disarranging the corresponding orderedness of the signal elements. Based on the nature of the information signals as a defi- nitely ordered set of elements, there is reason to believe that the differences between code and representation as forms of infor- mation signals must lie along the line of the properties of the original elements and the character of how these elements were ordered in tk~e set. From this point of view the essence of the code form of information signals is clear enough. Here the only requirement for the set of signal states is an isomorphic -7- Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 correspondence to the set of source elements. The essence of iso- morphism consists, as is known, in the pairwise single-valued correspondence of the elements of~ dri~~ .set to the elements o~f another set and the pa3rwise single-v~l.ued correspondence of the transformation operations determining the conversion from one ele- ment to another in both sets. As to the physical properties and spatio-temporal characteristics of the elements~o~ both'sets iso- morphism in general is indifferent. But as to the method under which 'the elements of both sets are ordered isomorphism presents no other requirements besides that of the Tingle-valuerd corre- spondence referred to. IInder the conditions that this correspond- ence is preserved the internal structure of the set, the spatio- temporal organization of its elements, can be arbitrary ? since its changes do not affect the essence of the isomorphic relationships. Since it is specifically this single-valued correspondence ~of the elements of two sets and their transformations that make the set of elements of the information signal a code of its source, the con- dition of isomorphism is a necessary and sufficient deteraninant of the code nature of the information signals. In regard to the information signals organized in the form of images, the situation is substantially otherwise. The isomor- phism requirement is unconditionally necessary also in relation to the image, for it is general for any kir+d of information signal. ?aithot+.t the isomorphic relationship of the sets there is ao infor- mation signal. But, though necessary, this condition is not here sufficient. In order that the information signal be not only a code, but also as image, its characteristics must include additional requirements. Analysis sho?~a (cf L. M. Vekker and B. F. Lomov, "The Sensory Image as Representation," VoprosV filosofii, No 4, 1961) that such additional requirements also affecting the properties~of the elements of the set constituting the signal, and methods of ordering these elements reduce to the following. In order that the information signal be not only a~code of its source, but an image of any of its properties, it is first of all necessary that ?the properties ~?f the elements of the set forming tie signal be reproduced by she corresponding physical characteristics of the ? elements of the set comprising the source, and in the second place, that the Bpatlo-temporal orderedness of the elements of the set forming the signal not. only isomorphously correspond to the order- edness of the set of elements constituting the source but also adequately structurally reproduce. this orderedaess, as occurs, for. example,~in photograph=c or television images. Observance of both these additional requirements also makes the information signal a reureseatatioa of the object. Since the representation satisfies the conditions of iso- morphism, it still remains a code, but here the commonness shared by the requirements additionally stipulated for the signal which is a representation gives rise to substantial differences between the representation and the code. Thus, isomorphism, a necessary -8- Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 command information determine the ~lcment-by-element, pairwise cor- respondence of the values of both signals.? But they?neither set nor determine the principles of interaai orderedness of elements iii the sets forming the signals of guiding and command information. Therefore, the. principle of the orderedness of the signal elements, which signal..~would determine the objectival structure of the execu- tive reactions;?the adequate object of action, cannot be set by the code form. of the signal. This stems from the very nature of the code form of?.information, which is indifferent to the internal orderedness of the.elements of.the correlated sets and requires ' only their single-valued correspondence. Since the code form of information signal does not consist in the integrally objectival, structural characteristics of the information source, being at the same time.the object of action, it yields no sort of spatio-geomet- ric. and spatio-dynamic foundations for programing routes of .motion of..the working organs. Not containing a single-valued ? spatio-geometric structure, the code cannot~of?itself provide the kinematics of motion of the executive organs. It is precisely because of this that the realization of the program of operations in automatic systems, since they operate with the code form of information signals, must be based on geometrical characteristics of the program being built into the dec~~n of the system. In this way the program components are set in :.::e design of the executive, woriting organs of the system and in accardance with the design of the executive elements of the automatic regulators. As to the regulating function of the image-signals the situation turns out substantially different. ~. The nature of the relationship between command information and guiding derives from the relationship of guiding information to its source. Just as for the case of the relationships of im~- signals to the information source, for the relationships of command ~*1' of'"'rm'atior. to .gaining information existing in the form of: yes the condition of isomorphism of the sets of elements is a necessary, but an insufficient determinant of the mutual relationships. As was shown, for the '_.^.tage in comparison to the code there is not only a pairwise corre:::;oadence between the elements of the signal and those of.the source, but also a commonness of the principle?of their spatio- te:~poral orderedness. Corres~~ondingly, in distinction to.the code- signals betvreen command and guiding information we require. here not simply an element-by-elemeat~correspondence, indifferent to the orderedness of the elements within each of the sets, but a com- monness of the principles of their orderedness. Deserving the properties..of the elements and the adequate source of information, their order.~dness, the image reproduces the physical and the spatial structure .of the objects. And exhibiting the dynamic; and geometric objectival characteristics, the image can set the spatial character- istics of the routes of motion realizing the operation with this object. The objectival-structural iiynsmic and geometric charac- teristics of the image determine its kinematics of operations Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 directed toward the object. Herz, the geometry of how the object is represented against the background of a specific spatial situation ~' and the kinematics of how the object is dealt with are correlated not only element-by-element, but also structurally. In carrying out the regulating function through code signals of information, the command and the guiding information are corre- lated to each other as two sets, being codes of the information source -- the object of action. Under an optimal realization of the regulating function of the image-signals, the guiding information and the ultimate form of the transformations of the command information -- the system of movements -- are correlated to each other as two sets, whose order- edness reproduces the structure of the object of action. And this means that not only each element of the projectory of movement can be single-valuedly compared with the corresponding element of the image, but also that the motor structure as a whole reproduces the orderedaess of the image elements, and through the agency of the latter, the structure of the object of action as well. The Reometry and topology of the image of the object and the conditions of action contain potentially the routes of the possible movements realizing the operation on the given object. Thus, for example, a psychic image of a perceived or represented object contains is itself the routes of movements for reproducing this object (in a drawing, in marble, etc.). 1n more complex instances and in the general case the kinematics of movement derive not only from the geometric or topological, but also from the power components of the image. Hut the power components of the image, even trough they do not coincide with the elementary geometrical logic of t:~e object (they "do not lead there", from the expression of N. A. Bernshteyn), are organized in spatio-objectival structures determining the kinematics of the corresponding motor operations. This is ~:Ypressly why, in distinction to code-signals that information-sib;:_als organized is the form of images cnn program and regalate the motor functions of the executive organs without depending on s_:?:cifically geometric components of the program being built into the design of the system. From this derives the principle of the correlation of infor- mation with the design of the system, the principle consisting in the fact that the design of the controlling system of psychic reg- ulation, not being fixed by any definite program of specifically executive or controlling operation, unfolds within definite limits optimal possibilities for realizing any objectival program of trans- port, technological, or controlling operations. This is also related to the absence of any transcription of a program of exec- utive and controlling operations is the design of the executive organs of man, as well as being related to the universality of his executive and controlling functions. The problem consists in how, from the above characterized principle of programing and regulating of actions by image-signal s, Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 to derive the main specific features of psychic control in comparison to regulation of operations in automatic systems. ' ~ The present analysis makes such a step possible only in a moat general form, applicable to several of only the most essential stages. ~. 1. The absence of any fixed character of the program of action in the:'executive organs and the fact that this program is derived from the guiding information organized in the form of images is expressed in two interrelated points: a) the same exec- utive organ of man "(for example, the main executive organ -- the hand) can realize~an unlimited diversity of objectival-motor pro- grams, b) the same program, yielding the structure of the image- signals directly forming in the process of perception or being the product of its intellectual treatment can be realized by various executive organs (cf N.'A.~Bernshteyri, 0 ostro enii dvizheni .. ~On the Structure of Motion, Moscow, 1 7, page 91 Both the universality. of the motor programs realized by the same organ, and the indicated broad replaceability of the executive organs carrying out the same program derive clearly from the absence of any fixed character of the program in the design of the organ and from the method of obtaining the program, under which it is wholly drawn from the objectival' structure of the image-signal. Exhibit- ing, in distinction to the code-signal. an orderedness of its elements adequately reproducing the structure of the object of action, and containing in itself the routes of movements carry- ing out the corresponding operations, the image-signal forms ' the kinematic of functioning of not just one, but within the limits of any executive organ (to the extent that a sufficient number of degrees of freedom exists). 2. The image of the object and the conditior_s'of action reproduce the geometry of three-dimensional space or two-dimen- sional surface. The route of movement realizing the attainment of this object is always a line, forming. in some way,'in the structure of the given region of space or the given surface. But the structure of the Given region of space or surface includes not a single t::,-;jectory of possible movement, but an entire family or unlimited set of lines lying on the given surface. Even in the case i,n which the image of the object is a line, for example, the line of a contour, this single line of the contour con~aias in itself a set of various trajectories lying on it, reproducing the~same total contour. Thus, the geometry of the image of the object and conditions of action, including also energetic, force comronents, potentially determine the kinematics of an entire family .of routes of movements realizing the attainment of the given object. From this correlation between the geometry and ~~. the topology of the image of the object and (the conditions) of~ action, on the one hand, and the kinematics of the corresponding trajectories of movement, on the other, derives such an essential characteristic of psychic control, its .variability. Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 3. From this same general principle derives another main feature of psychic control, also iatimataely related to variability, its generality. There are two main formh of the generality of motor behavior: a) the generality of motor x'esponses?~under an unaltered gen- eral situation of action (the response of generalization), b) the generality of actions in.a transition from one situ- ation to another (the stimulus of generalization). The first form of generality,~that is, the generality of motor responses, consists in that the same motor task?uader an unchanged general. structure of the objectival situation aan be accomplished by various approaches, using various routes of move- ment and procedures of action. The spatio-temporal structure of the objectival image of the situation of action includes, as was indicated, an entire famil4 of routes of movements, contained in the general geometrical- dynamie structure of the image. In each individual case of reali- zation of the motor solution, a selection is made of one of the routes and corresponding procedures contained is this image struc- ture. Since with as unchanged situation of action the regulating image remains the same, correspondingly the total structure of the signal of guiding information from whic:~ the selection of. a given variant is made is likewise preserved. Thus, the generality of reactions here is tae constancy of the image of the objectival situation with variation of the kine- matic characteristics of individual motor solutions potentially contained in the image structure. The second form of generality of psychically controlled motor behavior -- the generalization for stimuli -- is expressed in the transfer of motor habits from a situation to a situation where their objectival structure shares a commonness, that is, here a singling out of common components of the image occurs. Both of ::r.e examined forms of generality of psychic control characterize the process of building motor effects (specifically excutive or con~'srolling) not as a selection and treatment of a fixed order of motor acts, but as the formation of a senso-motor structure, i.n which the sensory image-signal builds its motor components. 4. From the characterized features of psychic control 3tem6 another of its main characteristics, redundancy. The :ssence of the latter consists in that the regulating image- ~ignal determines the possibility of accomplishing not only that -ariaat of movement which .has actually been selected, but the ntire family of these variants, whose kinemat3.c characteristic orresponds to the geometry and topology of the objectival image. :~ regard to the actually realized solution, the potential pos- ibility of all its other variants deriving from the general :ructure of the image-signal is red uadant.~ -13- Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 If the realization of the selected variant from some external or internal cause cannot be achieved, then the existence of methods of solution redundant in relation to the given variant provides for the possibility of its replacement. Here, such a replacement can easily be achieved (under the regulating action of the general struc- ture of the image) both befo~r'g~the~select~.d gariant.of motion begins to be realized, as well as':in the ~~midst aif its accomplishment. 5. All these redundant possibilities of replacement and change-over also determines such essential features of psychic con- trol, as its interference-resistance and reliability. Interferance- resistance derives from the integrity of the image, ahd the relia- bility of realization of a certain operation under changing condi- tions (not allowable with systems operating from a code form of information signals) here stems directly from the diversity of the variants of motor solutions, determining the general objectival structure of the image. All the enumerated features of psychic.control find their ultimate and general expression is such basic characteristics as relative universality and versatility, manifested to the same extent both in specifically executive and controlling operations. The analysis presented shows that all ,phenomenalogically known characteristics of psychic contr~?;., in distinction to the characteristics of regulation in automatic systems, actually stem from differences is the methods under which those signals of infor- mation which carry out the process of control are organized. The method of ordering the image-signal elements is distinc- ? tion to those of the code-s:.gnal, reproducing the objectival struc- ture of the information scurce -- the object of action, determines those features of interrelationship of guiding information with command which elements are expressed in the above-listed basic forms of psychic control. The orb;*r~.izedness of elements of sensory signals in the form of ob~ecz.ival images (in distinction to code-signals) revealed by analysis of the regulating functions of various levels of sig- nals confronts science with the task of further studying the ' mechanism of reflexive dynamics of analyzers, realizing the forrsa- tioa of the sensory image as as image-signal. Modern knowledp;e of the analyzer as a feedback system and ' our understanding of the sensory image as the effect of reflexive acts of this system enables us to examine the structure o~ the image-si~;nsl as a process of the synthesis and ordering of the set of elements forming the signal into an adequate source of information of integral structure. Particularly urgent problems in this investigation relate to that link of the analyzer mechanism which provides for the transition from a frequency-impulse nerve code to an image-signal,? - 14 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0 that ie, which accomplishes the operation of decoding. Discovery of these mechanisms will eaable us to advance to the seat stage of analysis -- discovery of the mechanisms by which guiding infor- matioa is transformed into command informatioa, these mechanisms lying at the basis of the concrete~realizatioa of the working frac- tion of a sensory image. Thus, analysis of the real living function of the process of reflection will lead to siagling out its specific structure, and discovery of the latter will again permit, although on a more pro- found basis, investigation of the mechanisms of its working, con- trolling functions. Here, the practical action of man at the gives phase of aaalysis emerges as the objective criterion and the source for. comprehending the very process of perception as a process of reflection or representation in the proper and pre- cise sense of this term. 10,123 CSO: 182-5 - HAiD - - 15 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020024-0