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June 20, 1961
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Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ors: 61-x.,493 fii \. ~? , v JPRS: 951 20 June 1961 SOVIET RESEARCH ON ESP AND THOUGHT TRAN3EISSION Distributed by OFFICE OF TECFINICAL SERVICES U. S. DEPARTriENT OF CON1vifERCE WASHINGTON ~5~ D. C. (Price; $1.OOj U. $. JOINT PL~LICATION3 RESEARCH SERVICE 1636 CONNECTICUT AVE., rr. W. WASHINGTON 25, D. C. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 FOREWORD Thin publication w~aai prepared under contract by the UN1TEp STATF~ J~O~1T F~"it LIC~'~.'IOtdS RE- SEAROH SII~VICE, a federal government organi- sation eptab].i.ahed to service the trelialation end?reaearch aeeda o~ the ?rarioua goverr~nt departmeata. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 " ? ?- JPRS: 9511 CSO: 6077-N/2 SOVIET I3ESE4HCH ? OId ESP AND THOUGHT TR.AI~TSNiISSTON L Following is a translation of selected articles from a symposium entitled ?? "Peredacha mysli -- vozmoahna li ona?" (Thought Transmission -- Is It Possible?) in Znanive-ails (Knowledge -Power) No 12, Moscow, 1960, pp 18-23.~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 'SHAT SOVIET SCIENTISTS THINt~ A$OUT THIS THOUGHT TRAPrS:~:IS3iON -- IS IT POSSIBLE? This year we have started a new section in our magazine. k'e have told about the research of scientists abroad in the field of biometerology and have publisY~ed the comments of our scientists. "V~~i:~.t Soviet Scientists Thine About This" -- so have we entitt^d the new section. And immediately readers' letters ti,,r~,an to pour in, letters s,rith questions, sugges- tions t~~ co=_~~ent on other writings in the foreign press. This ie ~,r'~~:t 'tae Head Scientist of the Institute of Power Enginebrirg a.~_d Automaticm of the :'academy of Sciences, UsSStt V. i. Us writes to us. "Thy Frer_cr~ mr:gaaine 'Science et vie,' in a 1950 edi- tion, p~:p'l~ahed an article on ehp?riments on thought trans- mission i::~;~ ou;;h space conducted by 1'-mericans aboard the sub- marixia ':~~~~ati?.v.s.' Should these reports be considered of sciox~tlx:.c significance, and if so, what research do we porfoxm in this field? It seems to me that these questions may be of interest to a wide group of readers, and wa therefore consider it worth while to publish 4nsVrers to them in your new section "itha.t Soviet Scientists Think About This." We hp,ve approached E. A. Asrat fan, lLSSOCiate Member of the Acc.demy of Sciences, USSR; D. A. Biryukov, and L. L. Ve,sil'yev, Associe,te Members of the Academy of Medical Sciences, USSR; P. I. Gulyayev, Doctor of Biological Scien- ces; Professor M. N. Livanov; and other Soviet scientists. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 pur correspondent has visited Leningrad where a group of our scientists is studying this problem. We are pub- lishing below an abbreviated translation of reports in the Freneh press, G. Anfilov's correspondence from Leningrad, and the comments of Soviet scientists. L Translator's note: the translation from the French magazine is omitted in this English version_?% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 MEETIN"rS TrlITH THE UNKNO ~~IN by Glen Anfilov First Meeting This meeting was held in Leningrad this year in June, in one of the Physiology Chair offices at Leningrad Univ- ersity. Physiologists and Biophysicists got together on one of their regular seminars, an ordinary one, in no way unusual. A few guests were present. The head of the Chair, Professor Leonid Leonidovich Vasiltyev, Associate Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences, gave the floor to the first speaker, one of the coworkers a~ the labo- ratory. Her unusual account to which in my opinion the audience reacted rather casually with routine businesslike atten- tion, is briefly retold below. In 1930, Upton Sinclair, an American writor, pub- lished a book entitled Mental Radio in which he spoke of experiments in thought transmission through space which were conducted with the assistance of the writers wife Mary Sinclair. Later, the facts described in the book caught the attention of a psychologist by the name of Prince, who as he says, checked upon the authenticity of Sin~lair~s writings through documents, reports of witnesses, and participants; and then discussed the results of his investigations in a paper, which now was scientific in char- aeter (at least in its external form), entitled "Upton Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Sinclair's Experiments on Telepathy." If we are to believe Prince, we find the following sequence of events. Soon after. her ?~redding, on an automobile ride, Mary "sensed" the:presence in her home of a certain E. who lived far away, had never t*isited her before, and was actually found there at that time. In 1916, Mary was suddenly alarmed about Jack London (who eras her husband's fr~.cnd) . Precisely at this time, Jack committed suicide. .And now the third case. One evening Upton and Mary were sitting in their living room. Upton was reading, Mary w?s daydreaming and scribbling on a piece of paper. Z~hen she looked down, she saw that subconsciously she had drawn some kind of flowers. "What are you reading about?" Mery asked her husband, who answered: "About flowers." . Aftar these events tree couple decided to set up exper- iments on the mental suggestion of drawin;s. Mary and her husband conducted the first series of experiments with her sister's husband, Robert Irwin. Mary was in her room, Irwin in his home thirty miles away. At a given preset time, Irwin would make a simple, completely arbitrary drawing, think about it and 1-Zary would try to catch his order, and reconstitute what ht~d been drawn. In a number of cases "mental transmission" was rather successful. Here are some examples of successful tests. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 +`~ ~ :1"a e:~i? ~ ~' Ids '~ fi~c3u.. n.tiTo ~ii~ 1-~ ~ ~ n:.s=7i .f~. O x 1i ~'r'fstC~, i? ~.L J ~ y~ ~~ ~17s~ i~.: ~. &~.~ ~.z3;3 S .. i~+,:rv .~inc;laS.r a~.`d +:abs: t ~rwir Y:s?uta ~. retort oa their. ::~~~~~~'f.~E:nts, a~3 their ei~nra~~~.+res on tha{s do.:o~a~t wt;rc~ rh tar i~Ad . .. mGe~ ii~a~;ran Sir~c:4~.ij~ ;; ~:.~Z~d t1t~ a :pc.ri~e~'t+s. .~-No-? Trte Gimme '1:~8 nen-~~?. tra..L;2Y`~i.S37.Ci1 c~ drawi~~n wao corr~ucted v;~.t:~~ir. th3 :ruse -- ~rc~n ar.~ .roan ~o ax~o~hc~r. uut cf a~ve ~t~aete, twee tuned out n:uz?e or lase sticceo? :~:ar~r ~ir~yi~irt a _..._.D'rs3 ~; ~.Yi~~."~ ~_ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ? D'ptcn Sinol.air? ~_:~~'--"'...'`''~_ ? - ..13~a+.~. , :.,.. ~.:,:~'~' Sir~alaix~ a :~; ' , ..~ ~e,r...~n.n~... t.....,.r.S3 ~ +~la.+: ~.t: ~~~a.64~ .a~1r ~~- ~ ~Y e "'i ~~ 6 ?~,, ~ ~ ~ne~~~ov~a~s; . ~ ~r i+rww'wsrlar s.nawwr.....~.era~..~..rr~' . ?~ary 9VY?j. t ~~ ~y "P.rofilQ" ~Phe ne-t series of experirue.its arts perfoi~e3 by Sinclair~s seeratary~ the one after b;~ the writer himself asap:::, acid tYie next by a Prof~;seor '~lilliam McDouggal. There kere fe:?:er and fewer successful tests. Gradually Diary's abilities subsided and finally ais- appeared altogether. Pr3.nce tried to repent Sinclair's axperir~ents witi~ ten wor~gn picked at random. He had no success. How did Mary behav? while receiving silent sugges- tions? In the bock, tiers tells about this. Before the seances she underwent special training, learning to bring herself into a state of, as tie doctors call selft;ypr_osis. Aecordin{~ to her, recFption is particu- larly successful "ors. the verge of sleep" and is ex- pressed in visual images arising ir. tr~e coneoiousness while falling asleep. . ...End of report. As is custo?nary in soientifia seminars, the audience ask questions, ~rhereupon Pro- fessor Vasil'ev thanks the speaker and offers Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 additional comments on what was said. ? It turns out that not a few stuch "parapsychological" investigations have been carried out. There is nothing .new in the "mental Radio" of the Sinclairs. Xlso typical are both the experime2ital set up, and the percentage of correct guesses. Professor Vassil'yev notas the importance of a rigid control of the relia'oility of such experiments, and of their mathematical treatment. It is precisely to. this that is devoted the second report by Professor Pavel viktorovich Trant'yev, an enthusiast of the application of precise aciEnce methods to biology. It is hardly worth while to dwell on the dQtails of his rather complex raport. The blaexboard becomes covered with a pattern of mathematical symbols. He deals with the laws of the theory of probability, the taking into account of chance coincidences. in remote mental suggestion, with the detection of unscrupulousness and collusion among the par- ticipants in an.expcriment, with arguments on this sub~eet... The discussion is very serous, profound,. truly sci- entific. .Meanwhile I am liatoning in~disbeli~:f. I cannot believe! This is too improbable.' ~~ Indeed, the very word."telepathy" hFS long ago~beeome synonimous with ch.~~rlatanism and blacit magic. How can a now term, "po.rapeychology," rascue it!? The piling up of chance coincidences, hallucin~:tory delirium here are apparently the true sources of this "science." I~do not conceal my doubts, and express thcm~to Professor Vasil'yev ' after th? seminar. The Professor smiles. "There was a time when hypraoisis was considered impos- aitile and contrary to nature. Now hypnosis ie used as a treatment. ~ ~~ This is not yet en ~:nswer. As if few phenomena had been Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ? proven in debates! Hypnoss has beef explained, understood, while parapsyc~iology... ~ ? '!Yes, agrees Vasil'yev,.parapsychological phenomena have not yet been explained. But does it follow from here that they are unexglainable? Trey must be deciphered, that's all. Some time i,n past, sight. was a mystery, later it was explained. In my neaory, some not unintelligent people "did not believe" in radio... The brain's activity is material processes. And there is nothing supernatural in the fact that these?process~s may be accompanied by some material rRdiations, let them be weak, usually im- percentible, but under certain conditions capable of affecting another brain. !That is impossible in this? A strict materialistic, truly scientific approach ?+,rill here also solve the mystery underlying these processes... ?To be sure, this work is not cas3*, adds Vasil'yev. E3rerything that is associated with this problem hFS been overgrown with the dense bristle of idealism and m~vsticism. .Hore dwelled and still dwell a greet meny outright crooks and falsifiers who chatter about "the incomprehensible soul" and other nonsense. In addition to premedit::ted fact-fudging, th::re occurs ~ unconscious deceit s,nd self- deceit. I perfectly understand the position of serious scientists who come out against spiritism, a pseudosci- entific swindle. And it is logical that parapsychology has difficult access to the great, "official" scienc?. However, an experiment is en experiment. Biological remote communication yields to experimental det~ct~on. Th~.most convincing experiments of this type have probably been performed in our country in the period from 1932 to 193?. In order to gat acquainted with these investigations, Leonid Leonidovich invites me to his lecture at the Leningrad House of Scientists. I follow his advice, and ...receive still another portion of the surprising. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Second Meeting June 15, 1960. The auditorium of the Leningrad House of Scientists is full. Biologists, physicians, physioiste, radio engineers, and +spe:ialists in the field of automa-. tion, cybernetics, and communication are attending a leo- ture with the appealing theme "Concerning the Problem of Cere ~ The lecturer begins by mentioning the sensational~~ American attem t of telepathic communication with a s~ Even if the art c es concarne~:~-wi~~ hie-are ~ nothing ~but imagination, in his opinion the facts des- cribed are in no contradiction with previous experiments. In particular, mental transmission through a water layer and the metallic walls of a submarine is in excellent accord with experiments conducted by Soviet scientists in the past. "As a very young man, sP.ys "Vasil'yev, I came to the laboratory of Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev, and met Academician Petr Petrovich I,PZar~v. They were both very much interested in experiments in the field of mental suggestion and had communicated this passion to their " students. Teen in the early thirties, after Bekhterev's death, I had recruited a staff of coworkers with whom I began an extensive series of experiments on remote mental suggestion at the Bekhterev Institute of the Brain. . Vasil'yev mentions the names of participants in this rese~+rch, axtd speaks of the purpose and program of the investigations . ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ '~ First of all, different modes of mental suggestion were verified. One of the women tested, dust as Mary Sinclair, reproduced "suggested" drawings. For example, ?she~perceived the symbol " ~ "drawn by Vo.sil'yev as " ~ "; " ~ " as " ~~ ", which are very much alike . In other experiments, the sub~ects~reproduced gestures which Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 wore suggested ~o them without words r_or gestures. The .:post interesting and vs,lu~:ble experimentsYhowever, turned out to be experiments in the mental putting to sleep and w~ kening of ?the subjects. In 1932, women extremely sensitive to suggestion ware found, two of them mentally ill, and ~, third one healthy. 'Jary rc;adily they could be put into ordinary hypnotic sleep. It wzs decided to verify whether hypnotic sleep could be induced remotely, without the Media of hearing and sight. The exparim~:nts began. The subject arms placed in a room speeia.lly provided for hzr, somc:ta_:nc:s together with the observer who entertained h.:r with eonverse,tion. In the neighboring isolated room sat the racordsr watching over the instruments, and in the following rocm (behind two more w:~lls) sat the hypnolagist.. The observer did not know the prograi~u:~ing of t:~e experiments. Only the hypnologist knew it, but even he did not follow a procleterminsd plan, but rather one which w^s being inproviso3 or selected at random (by. mc~ ns of a roulette) on the spot. At some r~orant the hypnolegist would attempt mental sleep induction. The subject would fall asleep. Not seeing or hearing the hypnologist she would obey his silent order sent through thrc:3 wo.lls r' The fact of sleep induction w~^s r~:cordecl by instruments, iron changes in electrical potential between the upper and the lower aids of the~ho.nd (this quantity is different when a person is awake and asleep). A simpler method wc!s also used; the subject would continuously squeeze and un- squeeze a rubber bulb connected to a pneumatic autoLt~:tic recorder which was charging a seesaw line on a paper roll. As soon Qs the women fell asleep, her hend stopped,ceasing to press the bulb, and the seesaw ling beea~ne straight. Sometimes the subject would "resist" a perceived suggestion, fighting sleep. But this would inLiedic.tely ^ffcet the ch~rlcter of the graph. 10 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Now the subject is F.sleep. I,et so,:.+e timo interval elapse, and the hypnologist attempts nental'~wakening. The subject wakes up, or at .least "tries" to; wake axis This is charted on the automatic racorder roll.~~ Even if tho first awakening attempt fails., a few seosaws ^ppear on the roll. Hence, even in this case? the hypnolagist's sugges-~ tion is perceived! .. ~ ~ ~? The pattern of mental "remote" suggestion was most vividly apparent in the first experiments when the sub- ? jects did not yet know whot was going on. After a few series of experiments, the phenomenon cf selfhypr_osis went into effect; the subjects dev~:lopEd a conditioned reflex, ~,nd they fell into hypnotic sleep without suggestion unc'?.or the sole influ~:nce of the "soporofic" atmosphere: But here also the experimentors found a way of verifying the phenom- enon open to question; by means of remote suggestion sleep induction under selfhypnosis could be speeded up two- or even three-fold. ~ ~ ~~ v Here is another curious fact. When the subjects became acquainted more closely with the hypnologists, and vice versa, an amazing propensity for seleetiv~ remote sugges- tion became evident. Of the three subjects being together, a given hypnologist would be capable of putting to sleep . some particular one. Say subject F. would be put?into hypnotic sleep while subjects Z. and S. would remain awake. Moreover, the subject which had been in a state of hypnotio. sleep knew precisely which of the three hypnologists partic- ipating in the experiments had put her asleep.; she would always answer the observer's inquiry praoisely~right by naming the hypnologist. ~ ~. ? '? Professor Vasil'yev describes the sequence of the experiments, demonstrates the laboratory plan, tables of rosults~ and the results of the mathematical treatment. Finally, he begins his account of the most exciting period of exparimcnts~ namely of th~ attempt to determine the physical nature of the mysterious "something" which is transmitted from tho hypnologist to the subject through 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 stone wallsi What is the nature of t~1is something. 'All we tho~fght of was radio waves, says Vasil'yev. We could not conceive of anything bait radio waves. This hypothesis appeared to be the only plausible one. Electric currents pulsate in the brain, and any alternating current generates an electromagnetic field, i.e., radio waves. Well then, it is very simple to baricade oneself against radio waves by placing' a metallic envelope - a screen - between the hypnolagist and the subject. Radio waves would not pass through metal, and mental suggestion would cease. . A screen was built. First from tin foil, then a more massive one from thick lead plates. It was a cabin into which the hypnologist was to shut himself. The lid of the cabin was so cor+structed that it was to be lo~rered upon a mercury-filled groove. No radio emission could pass through this structure; t~.e physicists participating in the experiments had carefully checked the reliability of the scrasning. A spacious metallic.chamber was?set up for the subjects as well. The screens are ready. The experiments are resumed. Trlhat effect has the screen? None! It is as if there were no screen! All is as r/ before, Just as before, the subjects fall asleep, selfhypnosis is speeded up, and elective sleep induotion takes place.. This means that no radio waves go from the hypnologist to the ~ subject? 1rTha.t then? "We were astonished, says Vasil'yev. We ourselyea were hypnotized by the unexpected result. The results of the investigation appeared so~strange 12 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 that the authors refrained from their publication. Only now, almost a quarter of a century later, eras it decided to divulge them and present them to science's judgment. And at ~Che same time, to start a series of experiments on a new,more modern basis... ~ .. The audience reacted to Yasil'yev's lecture in differ- ent ways. Some were astonisheds some delighted, and some surprised. There were also sceptics. .After the lecture the hall and lobby were buzzing like a beehive.. I eaw~no indifferent ones... 13 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 THE SEARCH FOR CEREBRAL RADIO In~Leningrad a book by F. I. Gulyayev, Doctor of Biological Sciences, "Electrical Processes in the Human Cerebral Meninges" was published~recentiy. In this book there is a chapter entitled "Cerebra_l Flectromagnetic Radiation" which describes how invastigatior_s were conducted of the remote transmission of mental suggestions. Here are' several curious facts vrhich are given in this chapter. The problem of the electram?,.gnetic field of the brain is frequently associated with the problem of the transmis- sion of mental suggestion and of the effect of one brain upon another independently of the sc:~lse organs. This con- nection is thrust upon ud by the habit of thinking with the use of known~te~chnical models. In technology, the electromagnetic field is widely used in information transfer. If such a field exists in the brain, then naturally there arises the concept that it is precisely 4i~e electromagnetic field that transmits mental suggestion. In 1922, Academician P. P. T,azarev suggested the existence of a cerebral electromagnetic field with a wave- length of the order of 30 thousertd kilometers, and he associated this field with the transference of mental sug- gestion. From 1925 to 1941, the Italian neurologist Caccamalli, in cooperation with physicists of the N&arconi laboratory, Conducted ~.Yt experimental investigation tai prove the existence of a cerebral electromagnetic field. Caccamalli concluded that the brain emits wc.velength~s.meter, decimeter, and centimeter ranges. In the some years, Zauerbuoh and ScT~uman L spelling not 14 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 verified. Trs,ns. note, reported that they hwd discovered en electromagnetic field in the vicinity of contracting human and animal muscles. The field was deteoted by means of a metallio disc connected by way of a three-tube amplif- ier with a string galvanometer. The frequency of the recorded rhythms was of the order of 50 hertz, that is to eay was equal to the frequency of the muscle currents. Subsequently, neither the experiments of Zauerbuch and Schuman, nor Cacc~.malli's experirents were confirmed. B. B. Kazhinskiy (1922) thcught that mental suggestion is carried out by the electromagnetic field of the hwuen brain. S. Ya. Turlygin (1942) after exparirrenting with the mental suggestion of sleep arrived at the conclusion that the brain sets up millimeter w~velength~s which are precisely those that carry ment~i suggestion. ~In 1948, B. Y. Krayukhin raised the question of tY~e possibility of elec- trical induction in the tissues of a live organise. On the basis of his experiments ha successfully solved this problem. But the experiments of Turlygin and gazhinskiy are not convincinb and were experimentally disproved. First of all, the physicist Y. Arkad~yev showed mather~~!tically in 19~t?2 that the intensity of the magnetic field of a brain is too small to be able to remotely excite anath~:r bruin. It is well-known that in the self-excitation of a brain by its own currents, which is observed in epilep- tic attacks, for instance, the voltage of these exciting currents is about 1 volt. On the other hand, th~Ofiold intensity of the eni?sion is of the order of 10 volt according to Arkad'yev's calculations. accordingly, this intensity is so low that there can not possibly be arty remote excitation of another brain. Thus, Arkad'yev's ealcul~:tion indicates that a cerebral electromagnetic field exists but that ite intensity is so small as to be insuf- ficient to affect another brain. 15 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 f - Seoond of ally L, L,,Yasil~yev~s experiments conduc- e tad as early as 1932, while they confirm the f'e,et of . ~ mental suggestion, disprove the electro~aagnetic fields participation in the carrying of this. Eug~estion. ~: 16 electrical Prooes s e s in the kur~a.n Cortex Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 NETrt EXPERIMENTS ARE NECESSARY By E: A. Astratyan, Associate Member of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. The problem of thought transmission through apace has lately been attracting more and mire notice not only from numerous soientists abroad but from our Soviet scientists as well. .. In itself, the problem of thought transmission through space is very complicated and full of contradictions. The scientists working on the solution of this problem are not yet in a position to present to science such facts as would unequivoos,lly confirm the existence of this phenomenon. Among the few exceptions to this belongs the caso of the ubmarine "Nautilus" described in the foreign literature, which was retold above. By th` way, the possibility is not excluded that not all that was raported about this fact is indoed true. In order to be fully certain about the reality of this phenomenon, many more experiments and theoretical proofs will be required. On tho~other hand, certain data are known which prevent us from categorically denying the existence 'of the very problem and of the necessity of its further study. 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 . ,._:___ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 THOUGHT TBA,NSMISSION I3 IMPOSSIBLE by D. A. Biryukov, Associate Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences We are witnessing how telepathy (i.e. the belief in .the possibility of thought transmission through space) which had baen banished from scientific consideration as early as the last century is again acquiring advocates now under a new name -- parapsychology or bioelectronics. Attempts ~"to prove" .the r~:ality of "telepathic commu- nication" are often based on the rhythmic oscillations of ~carebral biocurronts. It is precisely in these currents that a number of advocates of parapsychology see the pos- sibility of a cerebral, mental radiation, and hence of thought transmission. But if this is true, if thought transmission exists, then our thinking should be first of all reflected in bio- currents set up in the brain. Thera are no scientific data favoring this hypothesis. First of all, we should remind the reader that bio- currcnts are not tho epocific product of cor?bral activity exclusively. Biocurrents are set up evorywhero where there is vital activity, in muscles, glands, even in green leaves. In additioa, bioeurrcnte do not differ in prin- ciple from thermal oscillations, from the numerous biochem- ical changes which accompany any vital activity, including cerebral activity. This is precisely why variations in cerebral potentials never caws. Even whon a person slasps, at which time, ae is known, conscious activity dwindles to nothing, biocurrents change in form only. 18 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 '1~ there is no wordless_t_hinking. On the other hand the speech o people of different nationalities is completely different. However, we know of no "national" symptoms, in the cerebral biocurrent pattern, and there can be none. Hence, neither is this approach to the determine.tion of how thought is expressed in cerebral biocurrents scientific. At present, physiologists cannot yet determine without error from a curve of cerebral biocurrents, which of these biocurrents correspond to excitation, and which to inhibi- tion. If such is the state of affairs for elementary pro-- 033ses of the cerebral activity, how can we seriously expect biocurrents to express thought? It is not by chance, evidently, that most thought transmission "experiments" are not basad on .the actual suggestion of thoughts, but on the suggestion of graphic images. This is what Karl Bruk Spelling not verified. Trans- latorb note) was doing in 1925 when he forced a psrson very far from him to reproduce s?~aded drawings. This also applies to the experiments conducted aboard an American sub- marine which hcve rECently stirred up so much censation. In~these experiments images of so-called Zener ~ Spelling not verified. Translator's note cards were transmitted (circles, crosses, rocte.ngles, etc). ~ " The perception of such images by man, or by the higher animals is not different in principle. The higher forms of thinking are accessible only to ms.n who possesses~lc.nguage. Therefore, experiments with the guessing of Zener cards cannot~be accQpted as a proof of thought transmission over space, either. As far a.s the old observe.tions of V. M. Bekhterev and A. L. Durov of "mentc.l" suggestions to animals are concerned, they are not scientifically reliable. It is no wonder that the advocates of the experiments aboard the submarine stress th? necessity of a number of conditions that are absolutely necessary for the realization of thought transmission. Among such conditions belongs, for 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ~.~ exaople, the specific selection of a couple of participants in the experiment. The experiment will be successful in one direction only, the switching of positions by the par- ticipants of the experiment precludes the possibility of ?~ "transmission." I do not have the opportunity to prove the nonscientific nature of these conditions and I am mentioning them merely as an example of the fact that we are dealing here more with chance, coincidence, than with an actual phenomenon. All such and similar "experimental" conditions are necessary to explain failures. I have far from considered fully the objections to parapsychology. The physical side of the problem gives rise to just as mar~v questions. Do cerebral biocurrents, say, possess sufficient strength to be a source of influence of ono brain upon another? Calculations show tY+~''t the electromagnetic waves which are produced by cerebral biocurr~nts in essence and oharac- ter, for all practical purposes, do not emit beyond the skull. Their emission would require that a transmitting antenna several tens of thousands kilometers long be inside the skull. It is in this sense, by the way, that the founder of cibernetics, N. Viper Spelling not verified. Transla- tor's note_f answered a qu3stion on telepathy at a lecturo which he was giving during his stay in our country. Thus, we conclude on the one hand that biocurrante in no way express the mEanir_g of mental activity; and on the other hand that in magnitude and character biocurronte are incapable of remote effect. The tendency to "substantiate" telepathy without referenca to cerebral biocurr~nts is likewise dovoid of scientific foundation. Advocates of parapsychology are forced to resort to the aid of some unknown modus of oommu- nication, to invent what has never and nowhere been found. We have dwelled upon c~rtein factual data, in tho main 20 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 beoauee the remarks that heve recently eppeared in the French popular prase on the remote suggestion of the above- mentioned images of Zener oarde were very favorable reoeived by very many a reader. At the same time; I am deeply. convinced that the prob- . lem of parapsychology has no riEht to a eoientifio formula- tion if this problem i? evaluated in the plane of methodo- logy. I shall allow myself to mention but and basio?prin- ciple of the Marxist-Leninist philosophy on the unity and ,continuity of the psychic and the FhysiQlogical. Thought is of the brain matter and is inseparable from ? it.' From this point of view t:~e formuletion of the problem of the separability of?thought from the?brain, and thought transmission are oliminated. To contradict this would mean to return to the positions of the vulgar materialists of the last century who .'thought that, similarly to .the s~ore- ~~tion of bile~by the liver, thought is seoreted'by?the brain: . . ?~ As may be seen from?this very short account,. parapey- ohology is devoid of scientific foundations. There remains oaly faith in it. 21 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 1 ? ~ THE "PSI Pi~NOr~NON" IS A REALITY by P. I. Gulyayev, Doctor of Biological~Sciences Nonsensical are the assertions that we find in the foreign press concerning the fact that the American inve~- tigators "started from $ero." Individual cases of direct thought transmission from one person to another heve already I been known for thousands of years. But it ie"only very recently that on succeeded in proving this fact with sci- entific reliability and conclusiveness, after having elim- inetod from among the exporimsntal conditions arty possibility of error, of oonscious or subconscious deceit ox' selfdooeit. This funotion of the brain was given the eonventior~l dasig- nation of the "psi phenomenon." Lot us immediately make the reservation that the "mind reading"which is sometimes demonstrated on stage has no relationship to this phenomenon. These experiments are based on ideomotor wets by virtue of which a deaf-and-blind, for example, may determine a person's state of mind -- alarm, worry, or depression -- frog his or her hand. Characteristic of the new phenomenon is exceptional weakn?es, near olusiv?ness. Her?, so far, physical instru- ments have not baen applicable, and the only indicator of the existence of this phenomenon has been man's brain. This "instrument," however, ie capricious and not entirely reliable. There is nothing astonishing in the fact itself that the "psi phenomenon" is relatively rarely observed. Every- one knows that there exists a pressure of light. But try to prove this oxpcrimantally under laboratory conditions. You will see that such an experiment requires great skill. 22 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Despite the faot that light preeeure~+eally exists, almost never taken into account in env physical experiments on the usual scale. Only on the oosmio soals where there arise conditions for its manifestation, does light pressure oreate the magnificent sp~etacle of "shooting stars" or oomete. If there wire no connection between the "transmitter" and the "receiver," then in telepathy, oarde would be matched by chancy only. The mean number of such chanoe / matches may be calculated from the theory of probability. V For five cards selected at random, the mean number of coin- cidences ie 20 percent of the number of experiments. The chance matching of 70 pQrcezt of the choices for five oarde ie~ aoeording to the theory of probability, for all prac- tical purposes, an impossibility; the chance occurence of such a phonomenon is possible only once in a billion or more experiments. ' ' In the exne~.m~~.~~pcribad, _hoarover, 70 cards out of s hundred are successfully. guossed. Heave, it msy bo aori- . 4r ?7~ eluded t~iat between tho transmitter and thQ receiver there is in fact established some form of commtmicgtion. The remaining possibility is that the theory of probability itself, from the formulas of which the number of chance coincidence is calculated, ie incorrect. Inasmuch as there is no reason to doubt the latter theory w+e must admit that the first hypothesis ie valid. How is thought transmission realieod? I shall stress that when the expression "thought transmission" is used we do not mean that thought is trans- mitted dirootly from ono brain to enother~ We have in mind the transmission of certain information an tho thought, sot of the thought itself. Indeed, when we converse we also transmit information about our thought to one another. In this case a apeoifio air vibration serves as the thought oarrior. 23 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ' So far we do not~know~what is the .carrier of thought . information when thought is transmitted through space. At any rate it appears to me that it is all necessary to bring in the electromagnetic the cause. Indeed, we far from tziow all the properties of brain neurons. Just as the atom is inexhaustible, so ie the neuron inex- haustible in its properties. possibly, there exists some physical field, new to science,that is related to neuron activity.' This new, perfectly'valid, and of course mate- rialistic viewpoint may help us in the future to explain the phenoaenon of thought transmission. 24 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 AN OPEN QUESTION by M. N. Zivanov, rrofessor. The possibility of the remote transmission of certain states from one person to another still remains an open .question at present. Despite individual reports favoring such a possibility, science is not yet in possession of sufficiently reliable facts -- regularly reproducible facts that would give a scientific basis to this problem. The only point of agreement of the majority of the scien- tists is apparently that one should not regard the possi- bility of transmission as being below one's dignity, but should gather and scientifically work up all related facts. Most frequently, oases are offered as proof. of the existence of "thought transmission" through space, in whioh some person felt something at the same time as an event affecting that person in faot took place. S~Te shall not doubt the existence of such coincidences. However, it should be taken into account that similar sensations might have been folt by the person in question marry times without ooinciding with real events. In these cases, these senea- tione were forgotten, but should there have occurrod but one such coincidence, it was remembered for life to be retold to tho surrounding people. Phenomena thus become selected in a one-aided manner, and such a selection may easily load to the wrong conclusions. This is why a strictly scientific approach is necessary for the evaluation of such facts. Even the simplest sensation is based on a aoet oomplex mosaic of excited and inhibited nerve. cells located in various rogions of the brain, and first of all in the 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 oorebral meninges. In or4ar that the .brain of a socora,d person receive at least somawhat similar sensations, it ie necessary that all this trombndoualy complex mosaic of states be transmitted to a great numbor of corresponding brain cells in a second person. Such a selective trr~ne- miesion is very slightly probable. Conditions have arisen tinder which not only we no scientific approach to the analysis of "transmission" mechanisms, but so far do not even ]atcw of at~y mrterial phenomena which could be applied to the explar~ti4n of this phenomenon in 'the future . ~ . 26 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ? BIOELECTRONICS DOES 1~OT EXIST by L, P..Krayzmer, Candidate of Technical Soiencea.? The basic and indisputable principle of the material- istio philosophy is the fact that?~thinkir~g, consciousness, sensations, emotions, and other phenomena of the human psyohism are the highest product of matter organised in a particular way. The whole psychic activity is the result of cerebral physiological activity that is accompanied by various physical and chemical prooeaees. These processes are very complicated and their fundamentals are still far from clear to imrestigators. ? ? However, the impetuous development of science in general; and, in particular, the application of accurate and precise experimental methods of physiological inve~tiga- tions, and of tho_ rough mathematical treatment to experimental results, give reaaon~ hope-th8t"iri~the?future we shall know exactly precisely what phyeico-chemical changes under- lie cerebral psychic activity; we shall then learn to reoog- nise the codes in which are ciphered ideas, concepts, images, in short all the information processed by the brain. To argue the contrary would moan to defend the view- point of the incomprehensibility of the physiological foundations of the higher nervous activity; this is ob- ' viou~ly contrary?to~the spirit of Marxist-Leninist phil-- ' osophy. Hence, with time, there will arise the possibility by means of special inetrumonts to "retrieve information" a? it is processed in the brain. However, the practical realisation of such investiga- tions sad of instrumental mind reading is associated with 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 such difficulties as will not bo overcome not only in the next decades, but within the bounds of the forseeable future development of science. The analysis of encephalograms, of thermal, eleotromagnetio, or any other external radiations of the brain can only give an ides of the activity of the entire mass or coneidercble sections of the brain; such an analysis does not make it possible to detCrnine what is going on in eMch of the 10 to 15 billion of individual nerve cells. The introduction of eny kind of electrodes into these billions of neurone without upsatting t?~eir normal activity appcers phantastie to say thc~ ].east, from the tech- nicsl standpoint. Therefore even the use of the most eocurate instruments for mind reading by direct contact with a person is not likely to be possibla even i.n the future. It is all the . more difficult to assume the possibility of the realization of thought or sensation t=a.nsmissiar. from one person to ' another across considerable distances, although in grin- oiple this is not contrary to the doctrine of the material basis of psychic phenomena. However, we da not knoti~ such material information carri~:rs (fields, waves, particles, etc.) which would make it possible for persons to act di- rectly the role of "transmitter" and "receiver" at f;he terminals of some sort of "parapsychic comraunica~tion ohr~nnel. ? ~ ~ - ~ . The advocates of the idea, of the possibility of such .communication consider to be inconsistent th? arguments concerning the absence of the proper information carriers. They call for research in new typos of fields of radiation and for work toward the development of~a theory which would explain the pr~ra~psychio transmission phenomena th~it are sporadically described in the literature. To be euze, the purpose of science ~.e the search for an explanation for ? every observation, phenomenon, or experiment. However, yell reports concerning obeorvatione in this domain are so con- tradietory, eub~ective, and'nonreproducible.that, first of all, there arises valid dcu~'Gt-on tha existence of the phen- omena thomeolvoe.? Indeed, the reliability of arty obeorvatiori 28 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 may only be confirmed by t:ze,f~ct that by reproducing the original conditions we repeatedly observe the same phen- omenon. In the present case, no such reliability criterion ie found. It is known that often an impure," "incorrect" e~cper- ' 'imental set up is biology or physics lead to half-baked and invalid conclusions. Therefore, 8s long as the reli- ability of the phenomenon itself is not proven (and with a rigid and objective approach, the existence of thought transmission is not likely to be proven) there ie no sense in spending the time and energy of scientists in a search of'physioal explanations for this phenomenon. One is tempted to say to the parapsychologists, "Prove, first of all, that the phenomenon that you doeoribe does take place, and then only start looking for its explanation. Meanwhile, your speculations and theorise are difficult to differentiate from idealistic mysticism." 29 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 BIOIAGICAL RADIO IS AN ECHO FROM ~ PAST by' L. I,. Vasil' yev~ . Associate Member of the Acaden~v of rledioal Sciences The finding Qf a factual basis for the reality of mentel (silent) suggestion, and especially tYie determination of the psychological, physiological, and physical nature of this relatively rarely encountered phenomenon are among the most complex and methodically difficult problems of psychoneurology. Attempts scientifically to establish this phenomenon, and as much as possible experimentally to master it were begun as early as the .eighteen eighties by the most eminent scientist s of those times. Subseq~.~ently, tho number of articles in print devoted to that probl?m was growing abroad year after year, and at p~sent has reached several thousand articles. This does not mean, however, that mortal suggestion has gained general acceptance among scientists. Not at all. Arguments for .and against continue today. We shall try and approach this problem from a differ- ent standpoint. Tvolution has provided animals 8_nd man with throe remote (capable of perceiving through space) sense organs. We communicate through spee? by means of eight and hearing, and animele by moans of smell as well. What could telepathic communication add to this if it existed? What biological significance ca~ld it havoY What biological significance could it ha~~o? For animals telepathy would heve about the same signi~ioanoe as radio has for modern man, which far extolls the nat~aral means. of communication by way of remote sense orga~ne sad verbel speech. Biologically this would be fully. justified. 30 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ? There are in fact sig:~e that certain animals possess natural "biological radio." One oxamplc~ of such radio communication may be, for example, the following mysterious phenomenon. The Soviet entomologist I. A. Fabri studied this phenomenon for six years in one ~peoios of night . butterflies. With the coming of summer evenings, an urfer- tilized female was placed into a wire cagQ on the baloot~y ? ~~ of a country house in the woods located within five kilom- eters of two big villages. Thirty minutes had not elapsed as melee began to fly to her. In thre3 evenings, 64 males of this butterfly species, which is rare in our country, had been naught. $ome of these males were labeled with paint, carried 6 to 8 kilo~reters array from the house, and ? frond there. The males were coming back. Given the relates ivoly slow hovering flight peculiar to these butterflies, the insects covered this distance in 40 to 4S fninutes. For them to do so, they had to select the shortest straight path toward the female, and to work their muscles strenu- ously. It follows that the female can call the male in some unknown way. The males felt the appeal in the forest area traversed, in ooapletely calm weather, and even with a slight Breese headwind to the scent given off by the femal?. It turned out that the organs which perceive the "call agent" in the male were the antennas. Males whose antennas had been out would sot perceive the female's call and fly to her. What is this "call agent"4 Of the two possibilities, scent or elsotronagnetio signals, preference should be given to the one which ie capable of acting against head- wind, i.e., to eleotramagnetio waves. However, a number of ~ experiaents forces one to doubt oven the latter ]hypothesis. This problem has not been solved so far and will require ? special investigations. Other examples of "biological eommunioation" in the aniaal kingdoa na~y be given, which are hardly ttributable to the effect of remote sense organs. 31 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 \. 'H ~ ? ~ 7 ~ is ..~~, ? 4 ti.. ~ , ~r . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 If such phenomena in animals are in fact a type of primitive radio, we mall have to admit that certain insects are endowed with this ability more than human beings are. In the butterfly, the call of~the male by the female ie an . important vital act which contributes toward the preserve- . ~ tion of the species. In humane, spontaneous "biological radio communication" has sometimes the character of an . appeal for help, but most often that of infoim,ation concern- ing the important experiences of a close relative, or friend. This, too, may have a certain vital significance, although for modern humans such communication p18ys no biological role. Such is the regular evolution process. The impression is formed that the parapeyehic "talent" ?is not a progressing phenomenon in the evolution process, but rather a rudimentary capacity which has survived in man from his soolcigical ancestors and which is reactivated in certain persons with nervous or psychic deficiencies as a peculiar form of atavism. 'fie find our beet eub~ects for experiments in mental suggestion among psychoneurotios. This is well known. One of tho Fronch magasines published an article that confirms what was dust said. The author of the article describes in dotail dieglays of such su~~eptibility in hie ~~ mentally deficient brother. ~t the age of 47, he has the mental development of an 18-month child, is not capable of coherent speech, and will sluggishly pronounce separate words only. This does not provent him from being suecep- tiblo to complex mental suggestions. The article gives 24 examples of cases when, with surprising ep~cd and aocu- ' racy (with no distorsions whetsoever)~ ho pronounced words and scientific terms unknown to him at the very moment . whop they were conceived in the mind of the persons present. The absonco in this case of the distorsione that are usually so frequent, is explained by the ~:uthor of the article by tho fact that the slightly developed intellect was not ~~ capablo to control and ohe,rge the perceptions received. This sounds like the truth. 32 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 ? The study of the biologio8l role and nature of para- psyohio phenomena must beoome afull-fledged branch of eoieaoe. With this purpose in mind, we shall multiply ? experiments with the profound oonviotion that thousand?, tens off` thousands of experiments worked up by mathematioal ? methods will sooner or later prone to one and all the reality of mental suggestion, or will re~,ite it dust as ? ? indubitably. ~ ' ,. At air rate, the study of this interesting phenomenon widens our oonoeption of living nature, sad this alone makes it indispensable. _ ? 33 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 EXPE.RIMEI~'TS MUST BE ACCURATE by I. Klyatekin, Doctor of Technical Sciences. l~iany successful thought transmission experiments may be explained by conditioned reflexes. For example, two people who have long lived together often gu~es one another~s thoughts from a hardly rloticeable~ehange in facial expres- sion or gesture and cannot even e: plain how this happens. In addition we have no objective indicators for the recording of that form of matter motion which could be the basisc of telepathy, People p1P~y the part of tranemittars and roceiver;s. Private relationships between them their striving for tho ~euceeas of the experiment often lead to sub~octive errors even if these peoplo are quite conscien- tious. It ie indeed so easy to take on?~s vrlshee for granted! It is no wonder that oxperimental resalts are often mutually contradicto~cy. Some peoplo, for instanee, main- tain that telepathy is possible only within the limits of the visibl?, other consider that space is no limiting fac- tor. Somo peoplo maintain that a metallic screen fully excludes the possibility of mental oommunioation, others arguo that screening plays no port. In ordor to solve the problea of whether or not the thought trensmisBion phenomenon exists, raid on what pbys- iccl phenomenon it ie based strictly scientifio experim- ental sotup is necessary with the partioipation of eoien- tiste of various epecialtias, and fastidious criticism of of the results obtained is required. Any do-it-yourself efforts will result only in confusion, and w~.ll not solve this interesting problem. 34 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 FROM THE Fl~ITOR As you have seen, scientists are still arguing not only about the nature of this interesting, in many reepeote pus- sling phenomenon, but about whether it exists at all. To be sure, there hardly is evidence for the complete denial of this phenomenon. Possibly, the amasing phenomenon exists, but if eo it was not discovered recently, not in the exper- iments aboard the "Nautilus." The American investigators have not at all "started from $ero," as the Western press reported. Individual caeca o~ transmission by means of "biological radio" have lord; been described. We have had the opportunity of aoquanting ourselves with these descrip- tions. The sensation abroad about this "extraordinary die- . oovery" which has such an equally "extraordinary potential . is not ~ustifiad. All our scientists agree that the gift of "thought transmission" is extremely rarely found, if at all, and that it is found mostly in people with a disturbed nervous system, sometimes, in people that are simply siok. In this sense, the suggestion of Professor Z. L. Yasil~yev is of much interest. Ho thinks that the eo rarely observed capacity of the brain to peroeive information from another brain through apace is not progressing, but rather is degenerating; this he regards ae being fully ~us- tifiod from the standpoint of biology. The qu?stion may arise: is it indeed worth while to oarry on investigations, to argue, to disprove old explana- tions, and to search for new ones? Yes, it ie! But this should definitely be done on a strictly ecientifio basis, starting from materialistic positions, and sweeping aside 35 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8 s j~ f . 1 x:11 that ie false and sensational. By-deciphering still not rnderatood physiological. and psychic phenomena that occur .~ ~ in our organism, we derive a more profound knowledge of the . ~; living nature, and of its greatest and most complex creation LDTD 1431 36 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/12/01 :NSA-RDP96X00790R000100020026-8