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Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Corgress~onai Research Service =fir= The Library of Congress is .?,~r;_Str.r: wash toe: DC P.ES=ARCei INTO 'PSI- FF:E1'OZ E' A: CURRENT STATCS AND TRENDS OF CONGRESSIONAL CONCERN Christ3pher H. Dodge Specialist in Life Sciences Science Policy Research Division June 2, 19x3 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 -tn ~r~f 1. '.?? f AS The status of past and present research into psi phenomena, including extrasensory perception (ESP) and psychokinesis (PE), is reviewed and summarised. It is concluded that at present, the psi research community is minimally funded, diffuse in nature, largely unstructured, and somewhat hesitant with regard to research methodologies. Nonetheless, progress is being made slowly to better understand the nature and potential of psi phenomena. Effective realization of the potentials or pitfalls of psi will require an open, humanistic perspective as well as the rigor and scientific discipline provided by conventional research Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 aarf~1... ? . leccive loaning Special , i11iam The author is indebted to many individuals who kindly donated their ccl- knowledge on present trends in the field of psi researct?as well as materials from their own collections of literature on the subject. Gough, ~.r Christopher Bird, Brenda Dunne, Edward Kelly, Morton Leeds, Jack McAllister, ;s~3 ;?.: r Harold Puthoff, Theodore Rockwell, Gertrude Schneidier, Ian Stevenson,' Russell Targ, Larissa Vilenskaya, Rhea White, and Howard Zimmerman. The author is particularly indebted to Dr. Robert Jahn, Dean of the School of : Engineering/ Applied S.ience, !ri::s?e:on University. The report which follows is essentially a ssa=ary of Dr. Jahn's recent comprehensive review of psi research with 1/ Jahn, Rcberr. The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena: An Era,Rireering Perspective. Proceedings of the IEEE, v. 70, no. 2, 1982. p. 136-170., ?r, Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 +e. SYS ;~ y...: CP5-iii +'+ ' ? '~" ' '` :. 'Ci::~? 1 CONTENTS ABSTRACT......?........... ? ............................ ........ INTRODUCTION ..............................................?....?.?......... 1 Purpose............. ......................................?........... 1 Congressional Concerns .......................?............ an .......... 1 Nomenclature and Definitions ........................................ .. History ..........................................................??... 6 PRESENT STATUS OF PS. RESEARCH..... ...........................?....?...... 9 Research Patterns is the United States........ ? ...................'.... 9}?'r ,~~*;~; ?a~ Funding for Psi Research ....................................??..^?...5 1:..? ~'? Psi Research : Foreign Countries ..................................... =~+ nip. THEORY ............................................... 14.~r., ..... ........ ....... I We`~ PUBLIC AND SC:ENTIF.C PERCEPTIONS 0? PSI RESEARCH........ ? ................. 19 Criticism of Psi Research ..........................?........?.....?... 19 .:? '" ' The Positive fide................................... ... ....... 21 '' . POSSI:LE IMPLICAT.O`S FCR GOVERK'E XT AND SOCI':Y........................... 23 ;.? . C:.CSING REMARKS ............................................................ 28 A??ENDIX A. A grief List of Recocrierde,; Readi::rs in Parapsycho1o?,,........ 29 APPENDIX B. FLr;-er References or Psi Jahn ........................... 31 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 f ~ ??'~+' ? ?? . ~ ter' ?~+? ? ~ i f The world of psychic phenomena might be likened to a vast, fort-shrouded' swamp, wherein are reported to dwell a bewildering array of bizarre phenomenological creatures, all foreign to our normal perceptual and analytical catalogs. Robert Jahn, '.1982 It is the pur ose of this suuI arv report to review the status of research into the broad field of psi phenomena (see definitions below). Current national and international trends in research will be su?:,iarized and the future implica- tions of such research will be speculated upon. CO`:GRESS ? CNAL CCNC=' :S In December, !979, the Congressional Char irchouse on the Future, with the assistance of the Congressional Research Service, sponsored a series of Y? Chautauquas for the Congress dealing with a variety of esoteric subjects, in- cluding alternative approaches to medicine (acupuncture, faith healin;, etc.) and research into psi phenomena. The last of these Chautauquas was entitled, "Mind Research and the Human Potential," and featured the following presen:a- ticns by experts in :lie field: 6. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 ,? =? .ter: s ea ii:,aad the Muman Potential (Jean Houston); ?r'Z) .Pgy C.DLacoiiexiis Behind the Iron Curtain (Lynn Schroder and +,'Slti~1aY0strandar); 3)? Remote Viewing (Harold Puthoff); 4) Implications of :find Research (Edgar Mitchell). During 1982, congressional requests were received by the Congressional ':r= Research Service to conduct a review of the status of research into osi pheno- mena. As a part of the CRS response, this review focuses on the followine general topics: 1) nomenclature and definitions; 2) history; These well-attended presentations elicited considerable interest on the part of certain members, their staff, and the staffs of certain House and Senate committees. Over the past three years congressional interest in the subject has remaired as the subject has received increasing attention by the news media. 3) status of current research in the Cni:ed States and abroad; 4) theory; 5) public and scientific perceptions: positive and negative; 6) possible implications for gove:nMent and society. NOMENCLATURE':AND DEFINITIONS by far, the most co+ionly encountered term in the study of extended sensory awareness or psi research is "parapsych:13:y." This term originated from a cadre of scholars with professional. backgrounds in classical psychology. This group Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 k -'U ~ w .~? ti 7f a: o..interpret,results in the context traditions. '=~ classical psychological Recently, certain individuals in the field with backgrounds in scientific disciplines other than psychology have versial, more universal term. For the expressed the need for a less contro- purpose of this reoort the tern, "psi" is used to encompass research into mind-mind and mind-matter interrelationships of an unexplained or currently unexplainable nature. It is expedient to group categories of the more widely investigated psi phenomena according to the general classification of Jahn in his recent review article on psi research. 2/ TASLZ i. Maior Categories of Psi Research 1. Extrasersorv Percept:cn (ESP) - psi gam-an A. .eleoa:hv 3. C. D. C:airvoyance P cc?nitioni?etrccounition Anical ESP II. PPs-+c:^?ckiresis (PK) = psi kapsa -Wi 10'. 'tab t 7r'....ti; protocols and A. 3. C. ?}.?:s:cal systems B'_olo2ical systems Psychic healing :II. Survival After Death A. Reincarnation B. Apparitions (ghost phenomena) C. Mediumship (co..-.unzcation with the departed) D. Out-of-Body Experiences (OBE) Jahn, Robert, op. cit. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Animal ESP Apparition - Exhibition of psychic capabilities by animals that are sometimes Similar to human manifestations. Also includes such phenomena as homing and swarming. Abnormal appearance cr Perception that cannot be re- ferred to any natural objective cause but is distin- guished from hallucination. Clairvoyance - The ability to perceive objects or events beyond the known capabilities of conventional or perceptual faculties. Conscious - :'ha zone or sector of oerscnality that is aware of ??; its functioning self. .?;' , .} Dowsing - The clairvoyant (or physical) ability to perceive vater, .~.~''' ~':~~=_~? ~~. s? mir.era:s, or other natural elements below around beyond 'they known capabilities of normal sensory or Perceptual faculties. `s'`.~? Miv or may not the use of a wand, Tod, forked stick, ?ti?~ or other i-strurment held in the hands that points downward when the dowser is over the target being sought. Synonymous with "divi!ins." Relarea techniques permit acquisitio-inq other types of information. Ex:;asenscry Perception (ES:) - A zereral term used to describe the perceptual aspect of psi processes (see "psi"). Ganc:eld scree- - A family of procedures designed to produce mild, psi conclusive alterations in consciousness via uniform vis::a! c: auditor: stit:uli. Chest - is:::spry perception of a past event or person by another person. al:ucina:ion - A sensory illusion that a7pears cc exteriorize an internal creation or experience. A brief definition of some of the more commonly encountered terminology in the broad field of psi is provided below: 3/ 4/ 5/ 3/ Leeds. M. and G. Xurphy. The Patsnormal and the tiormst: A His- torical, Philosophical, and :?heoretic3l Perspective. Metuchen, N.J., The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1950. 239 P. 4/ Shepard, L. A., ed. Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, vols. 1-2. Now Y:rk, Avon Publishers, 19x`0. 1084 p. 5/ woman, P. J., ed. Handbook of Parapsychology. New York, Van Nostrannd, 1977. 5(0 p. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Rirlian,photogrsph~: - A photographic technique for converting the non-electrical properties of an object into electrical properties that can be recorded on photographic film (syn. eleccro;hotography). Various Kiriian photography devices are mar- keted in the U.S. and Europe to record biological fields around humans, animals, and plants. The significance of ths.phenamenon remains to be determined. Medium - A person who is able to dissociate easily, and by a number of expressive means (voice or writing) can allegedly "com- municate" with other personalities in other planes of' existence. Out-of-3ody Experience (03E) - A sensation of being conscious and of possessing an alternate, separate, and:' less dense body that is able to move `': '? ' about with relative freedom. An experience, either spontaneous or induced in's center of consciousness seems to be in a spatial location separate from that's physical body. Paranormal - Sensory phenomena or physical events or explainable by present concepts of causality or physical laws. Parapsychology - The scientific study of psi or physical phenomena by persons Primarily ::aincd in the psychological sciences (i.e. psi). Poltergeist - M3croscooi: ?K usaafly in the presence of a young person who is able to move physical objects by unknown forces or means. Precognition - The sensation. of becoming aware of an event bef=-e it occurs. Psi - The abbreviation for all osychical or paranormal phenomena (i.e. extended sensory awareness). Psychokinesis (PK) - The movement or influence of matter or living systems by psi means or mechanisms. Reincarnation. - The concept that the human personality consists of of physical body and a mind, spirit, or some non- physical entity that survives death of the physical body. Later, it ~eccmes associated with a new physical body develovira a new personality that is, to a certain extent, continuous with the first one. . ; } ' `'r Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 getrotogition - The perception of past events in the present by psi ? ~' ?r processes. Telepatbv - The passage or sharing of information between two per- sona7lities by extrasensory processes. Trance - A mental state in which the actor or self is partly or wholly submerged and unconscious (i.e.. dissociation). Unconscious - The aspect of personality below its conscious and precncscfous levels. The study of paranormal behavior and osi rhenomena is one of the oldest - ind has ponde ed . -.._ sure. ~' 4'':' r natural in one far.. or another. Cave drawings believed :a be made as %ar1v r as 20,000 BC reflect such a preozcupa:ion. The religious rites of early .'?;".. societies, both East and :test, were !?ea?.ilp inf:uenccd by psi fornai:sms. The ear:y civil:vatic s of i:yp:. Greei e, and Ro=e dealt extensively in psi phenomena. Vir:ual:y ev??rv farm of orgar?:ed reiizion has been thoroughly permeated with various form of psvehic insiz:t. In ::es:ern civilization, the 3ible is an extensive catai:?g of psi phenomena. The first r..a:or, recorded scientific inquiry into psi phenomena occurred rear the turn of the 1;ch century :y Si: :antis 3acen. generally regarded as the originator of the scientific ao::oath t, research. He suggested that "superstitions and the like" should not be ex:lujed fran serious study and proposed deliberate investigations into :e:epa:'iic dreams, psychic healing, and she f:jen:e if i;azination on the cas:inz of dice. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Despite the u:illenia-of hurtan concern with psi phenomena, orderly and well-or anize3..'e. 'forts' to verify and understand CRS -7 such phenomena began only a century ago with the establishment in London of the Society for Psychical Research (SP?). Three years later, the counterpart organization in the United States, the A eric3n Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) was founded in Boston. At the bezin^irg of the 20th century, new perspectives or. psi phenomena were provided emergence of psycholozy and psychoanalysis as scholarly .. , disciplines. . ,c rat. iarchs of this new scientific discipline are recogniz as Wilhelm Wu dt and Si7mund Freud, :he ratter of whom was also a S?R. was asst early in the cen:ur?? that the first orzanized academic studies. ? i j\ cf ''psi phen^mer-; began to be con^'ucted on a sporadic basis at institutions The first ionecring under:akirr of research into phenomena in acade- mic ir,stituticr rose. pla:e .-.e !are 1923s a: Duke University. At that time, -h. -'-.e a^?' _..__sa R-i-le _re h: n am McDougal 1. to stud.' the cla ns to sclent:fic value cf :1e field {nc'.:n as "psychical research." In the .;Tine's lc}'Jrn:~ , :'a:': C_ tht :aslc and ;.,,CO:pis of nodern e . eri- r:enta1 psi re!-e.3rc. were formulated, and large a'C;;r.:s of research data were s:?stena:.c_lly ce..ected over a er. _ decades. In 1937, the Rhines initia:ed :^e ~ot.rnal of Paraos . T^:^ v'Tic`. remains a leading journal in the fie1d today. The ?aratsvch:,1czic.31 an Internationa. Prc- fessional Society was formed in 1957, and. in '_i09, it was accepted as an af- filiate of the Ar_erican Associa:ien for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS). Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 is _ CRS-8 At prealnt-,.tlier ar! eight major Enelish language publications directly addressing 'pa#:;teseercli. 'These are conolemented by numerous foreign and less formal magazines .and hundreds of monographs of varying quality and relevance. Research is taking place in some 20 L.S. universities and colleges and in at least as many institutions in Western Europe and Great Britain. Research in other foreign countries will be reviewed subsequently. 6/ 7/ r 6/ Jahn, Robert, op. cit. 71 Princeton. University. Prir.:e::n Ensineerine Anomalities Research Progras s:a:enert, 1931. 5a p. F L r Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 ' ~??. .' ~.~` - _ -.L?,,,. ?4?L:J Leif i? R_S#ARCA PAT !RNS IN ':liE UNITED STATES Contemporary research into psi research can be categorizedtaccord ing :o table 1 in :no =ntroduc:ion. In the United States the reseirch~?is characterized ?: :?`~y` as being so-aemmac diffuse and loosely structured, encompassing.-in theypain, ? a variety of specific problems in ESP and PK. 8/ The most sustained attention to the field over time has been accorded by professis::als :n csych logy. This group of scholars has tended to approach the field with traditional psychological pratocols and vocabulary. Similarly, ,he results of tx;ari?:.e nta:ion are interpreted in the context of clinical, cognitive psychclocy, and/or psychop-iysiolory. The most extensive class of current psi research has attempted to corre- late psi perffor cn:e with personality variables. Such variables ag'ige,'sex, creativity, openers, anxiety, extraversion, nauroticism; r-b 0hiion,.Imood factors, a::itvdes, and intelligence have been exam.ned_at?1en th?as?indices of the ability'tc. perfors:E58 tasks. Some consistent, but weak, prodee:ive relationshivs have been established. 4::per studies have searched for carnec- tiors between psi performance and coRni:ive factors such as imagery p-ocesses, 'ream reca'-1, hearing and response strategies, short-term memory, and biofeed- tack. More active approaches to current research depart from the assumption that the usual awake/aware state is not amenable to the occurence of psi because of 8/ Jahn, Robert, op. cit. w? r. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 +-^e... codpetiti=n ti+uh-sonsory and motor processes. Thus, a variety of altered states.of egi#seiousness are being explored to new research.str4cegies seem to minimize enhance psi performance. These sensorimotor interference via approaches such as sleep. medication, and progressive relaxation. More mechanical sensory inhibition strategies have been employed such as hypnosis, sensory isolation, and the use of the Garzfeld techniques (see definitions in the Intrcdiction). ?: he tools availa:le for the conduct of contemporary psi research are zany stantly being ref.ned and improved upon. ..'The sterlstfesL' toesg4'igti:es? of psi . .. -, . ... . .rw y ? research are highl;? dcveioped. To the extent permitted by pers3ster.t starcitg of funding. psi re.earchers have ra7id1 incorporated the latest tecbrirlog}es.?i . f into their invest:potions, :ncluiin; laboratory minicard micro-computers and x?w'; :s.;' 1 'A various classes of so:=isticated Tabora:orv instruments. Currently, new efforti'~;.:?.: are uniervag to ider.:ify physioln?ical correlates of psychic. states. Such instruments as he conventional electr:encephalosraoh (EEG), electrocardiograph CEKG), calvar.:c s: :n r=sporse (C!;'. and oleth?rsmc+sraphic instrument! are used to monitor reurclszical, CarjL.`.v&*zu!.i-. and neuromuscular correlates of psi cor.di::c::s Kirlian phot3era;. ?: has been emo:owed in studies cf ?Y fsi t cra L a ?.orors d'.s~ c^.a-ce e. fiac has :::.c. .. s met tu be satisfactorily. explai^ed in te:-: of ;si 2hencr!1a. fully consis:en: :eDlications in every n::?-:c: :c stL.dy positive rer'_':ts has led to studies of the influence of the ea,etime:.tor as a possible irhibitcry influence an, subjects under investigation. Until intent:y, the involvement of physicists in psi research has be?:n less extensive, al:heu;h no less intensive and controversial. In tl?e past !re 'ersisr':nt difficulty of cbtair.. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 z2 A, ? . ? .~. a t??~-+1 ?.. .rati yeari,' part?of'tbe physics co=unity has five: r ficatian ands eo relation of very ? f r focused on PR research; identi- low-level physical effects; and the applica- cion of theoretical physics to modeling psi phenomena. Specific contributions of physics to psi research include the development and application of a variety of electronic random event generators designed to identify and cor- relate PK abilities in human subjects. Magnetometers, torsion pendula, lasers, irterfer"eters, and piezoelectric strain Ruages have found similar applications. On a more theoretical level, quantum'nechanics, statistical ti thermodynamics. electromairetic theory. and other formalisms have been"'. applied toward a better understanding of the existence and nature of psi phenomena. The involver.-an: cf engineers in nsi research is a relatively recent event. Only a few en;ineerinp laboratories address the field in a subs:on- tie! and delibera:e r:a::ner. although the future will likely bring greater involvement by t. a entin eeri:-z coaa.r?ity. Thus far, :hat involvement has ;ri-.aril taken :6e f:.- 'f applied physics and inf Nation precess:nz rather than :he mere tecIr::olugi:al applications. - :a:is:icians and logicians have als ;:aced a role in psi research. :heir :main concern has been the proper evaluation and interpretation of re- Nearch data. In the limited experiments disIDlavi'g cuanti:ative repl:cab:lity of macroscopic effects, inferences and hypctheses about psi phenomena have been based on.s:atistical evidence and on field observations of varying quality. Anecdotal evidence remains vulnerable to alternative interpretation, i~:less?onis:ic bias, and argument, oarticularly in the face of entreiched s.ep:icism of :&-ch of the scientific establishment. It should also be reccg- nized that, in general, statistical evidence, oy its nature, is inconsistent. L? Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 . ti 'hP t~. -.?r' , CRS-12 tbS*-.jise?plines have played roles in the evolution of in- A.nuytbt VWA LL ?J?~.~T4 ? $ ?'. vest igation??Dto psi.pbeoomena and continue to con:ribu:e to the field. The intersection of psi with anthropology, theology, and history encompasses many perspectives ranging from aesthetic to analytical and from dogmatic to scholarly. The relevance of osi phenoaena to the study of medicine continues to be a matter of intense debate relative to holistic health strategies and psychic or faith healing. Practical application of psi is occasi2rally sought by biclogists, chemists, geologists, and archeologists. The applica:ion of psi to, y and law enforcement is less rigorous than acader..ic under:akinas, but nonetheless ..: . SY. ??a: contributes anecdo:al evidence to the :veralll psi data base. Finally, rye general topic of asi continues to stimt.late the ar:s and humanities. Taus far, reseirch into psi phenomena has yie:ded a highly varied asrort- - mert of observations that appear t: be cuesticnab:e in terns of the a:ienr':s, at their present :eve: :f deve:o"ser.t snd e?:ol.:icn. These observatiDns cis.iar cer:sin phenomeno:ox-ca1 and psyche:agics: feate:res that hold !crt!. ?rc'7i8! s:r potential and sub::andial aopii:s:icns. Cs.rer: :, ex=erimental studies ?K and :!P are recri:?inc primary at:en:icn in the psi co.:.,uni:y because of t`.e relatively cc .eister:t informal replica:t!n c-' the 7henonena, though replicability ssso:iaced with c=ncerporary research desiins in these areas retains pr2bleratic. recently, this trend appears to be true -f psychcki:neti: meral berdir. (PO!) under relatively informal conditions frets:-bendinz oarcies). Efforts 1i:1 be under way in 1983 in various parts of the United Stytes to approach ?R in a more disciplined and scientific manner. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 =?t??_ ~.i:*,~:..:;~:~' . ' . CRS-13 FU1~DIl+'Lr, Fe $ , I 4is rL {y}+s; ,: . 3ecause of aetliodglopical, public image and other difficulties inherent in psi research, the field continues to receive little support from the Federal sector. Total `ending for psi research in the United States probably does not greatly exceed S5CO,000 per annum, and most funding originates from private sources and foundations. During the period 1973-1978, the most recent years for which reliable data are available, the 13 leading centers for psi research United States spent an aggregatt total of 555 ,000 per annum with a median amount per center of 517,000. In 1979, the McDonnell Foundation, by the lace James S. McDonnell, chgir:an of the McDonnell Douglas Foundation, donated S500,00 :o :.ashington C:ti-.rrsi:y in St. Louts to set up a psychic research laboratory. It is the largest amount of money ever contribute! tc a psi research prucrar,. A survey of ::i prsaosa:r f:: Fede:a! funding psi research between Jane 1971, and June 1974 revealed tha: only sn:r were apt,:oved. two were anprovrd :u: no: funded, and 14 were disa:-Drovea. T=ta! fend:n; far the approved :ro- :et:s amounted tz S11$,50Z over the seven year ,eriod. The total ;r:jtc:: nor appr.ved for fun--. :q :ep:esen:ed a da!:ar value of S:.3 million. The =c crity of disapp:cved prcpesals received l w merit rat:n;s or criticism of exp r nental design and methodology. 9/ PSI RESEARCH IN FOREIGN C0L'MTRIES The recently established Jairnal :f ?si Research. an East-West iau:na! dealing w?... ?h par=:s:?e:::1:' pfr:` and :Svc .v, ro.. ~ho.ioph}'its, 9/ Zi=erman. Hcward. Gardner Hurzhy Research Institute. PErcor..r: ccrMunication. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 ? . y. Yl! . ; ?' _ - 5.;;~:,,;: riR" ~. ?.:i ate! psgvideu:, ' 'saspIS of'. the international character of phenomena. ~ ed~tortal board of that Australia, Brssi~, Canada, Britain, Holland, Israel, Italy, Norway, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Psi research is also actively practiced in the countries of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, India, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Peoples Republic of China. 10/ 11/ 12/ 111 Puthoff, H. E. Investigations Into "Extraordinary Ruman?Eodv Func- tion"-in China. Psi Research, v. 1, no. S, 1982. P. 4-8. 12/ Rvzl, M. New Advances in East Europe:i Parapsychology. Psi Re- search, v. 1, no. 1, 1982. p. 5-13. - It 13! Vilenskaya. L., op. cit. The categorical emphasis on psi research varies example, it is widely speculated that the Soviet practical applications of psi phenomena journal from country to actively pursuing fcr economic, military, purposes. There is considerable Soviet intwrest in remote hypnotic heaith r0 rai~ipala ~1'?; 04. :ion, dowsing for water. oil, and other minerals (re`erred to in the Soviet 10/ Vilenskcya, L. Psi in the US -51: Applied Asnects. Applied ?si newslrtcer, v. 1, no. 1, 1982. P. =-5. literature as the "biophysical or b:olacational effect"), PK, and psychic healing. The Soviets claim that scientific studies of dowsing have yielded significant results. Accordingly, dowsin; is taught to professional mineralo- gists a:id geologists at Tomsk Polytechnical Institute. It is also speculated that the Sovier ;:verrr:en: is fi:-oly :r.:- sited :a the funding of osi research and ths: r.:ucn of this funding, variously specula:ed to amount to tens of ni:::ons of jollars, is directed toward nilita:v research, al:lough there is n3 fir :on!ir a:ion of this speculation. 13/ Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 and Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 In the People '4 :1ejublic of China, psi research is officially described as "exceptionathucia?jfunctioning" and research focuses on the fclloving subjects: 1. A system of deep breathing exercises to promote psi conditions (known as "quigong"). 2. The perception of. images without the benefit of vision (eyeless sight). The Chinese ef:urt appears to be a relatively recent plenomena. 14/ of nreviicsly unknown people. 5. Remote perception of thoushts in other people. 6. Healing by ears of laying on of hands (psychic healing). 7. Purpcse`_ul mental- influence on other people. 8. Tclep rta:ian. 3. The re:ote sensing of pain in other people. 4. Remote sensing directed toward identifying the characteristics The focus of interest in psi research :r. Canada, Great Britain, France, and Wes: Eurc=ean ctun:ties is gerera::v oriented toward mind-mind Dr mind-matter inter 3c: iz: s as in tie Lr.i: cd 3:a:es. Tie Journal of Psi Research as provided an e:::e'.lent insight is:o in:erna:ianal psi research. 14/ Put4`. f!, H. E., op. cit. ''. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 sch o arv aloaues and a ates %ontrue. ..ext to t.e a oremention ~ d s This sum"ary :ep.:rt will not attempt to discuss in any detail the various theories of mechanisms of psi phenomena. It is sufficient to state at this time that there exists no conclusive physical theory of psi, although extensive db !S/ ' f fl d? :"?!. one frustration in the fleid is he absence of theoretics) models with which F to bridge the rap !e:freen theory, experiment, and :ractice, the fundamental cornerstone of all scientific progress. Quantum mechanics and Bell's thecrem seem to offer prcri.e at present. Present nnysi:a: theories cf psi phenc-ena .:re clustered in six broad groups that wi:! be brie::v reviews belra. The firs: serious models dealt with elr:trema;n=_:i: fieids .:suai:v in :he extrerely low frequency range 4 , %i.e., =LF H: or :twee'. This assumes that the .rcpagation of e'.ectro- agnetic fields of Pxtrene:y low fr egLenc;. to cr fra. :h'r brain can act to carry at leas: soya psi effects. Existing experimental resins pertinent to this hypothesis render the E:.F mode: ;;n;ro-misint. although it is not totally rejected. Other types of geophysical waves have been considered in the context of psi phenomena, su:h as geoseismic waves, infrasonic laves, and barometric fluc- tlatlons. All of :.rese seem to be ina=ec.aate to deal witn certain '::asses of psi phenomena, parti:ularly remote vie.rins and ;.:ec.:;ni:ion. . 15/ .iahn, Robert, op. cit. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 evasiveness of rep::ca:.e effects under controlled experimental settln;s, Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 CRS-17 That these known physical factors in the environment cannot be affec- Lively appliid0ta psi theory does not prove that they do not interact in a more direct manner with the human and animal organism via certain components of the central nervous system. For example, a number of experiments are underway to deter tine if certain humans and animals can premonitor seismic and volcanic activity. it is hypothesized that this uniquely sensitive group may be able co cosple conventional auditory or vestibular function with small fluctuations in electromagnetic fields, gravity fields, acoustic (infra- sound or ultrasound) fields, or barametric pressure days or even weeks bb!ii. major cetaclv&r.:c events. Such a direct coupling effect may or may rot bays.'-`' a bearing on the ?si phenomena discussed thus far. More re:ent .effor:s to develop a workable theo:y for psi involved variaus categories of physical theory such as: ~?~?Js: phenomena have :.i- x ; tn.. stztisttcal mechanics ani statistics! thermodvrhtics: the subtle inter;:av of :ne :r^termoovna:l: concept of en:roov with information theory as applied to a broader implication in Norms of the :.:le of human o:.:.c:ous'ess in order it r:nc i processes; hvr !rsoace :!:tortes: the basi: laws of physics are recast in more than four caor:in=tes of rarmal human exve: ierce and the ccrsequent new ter=m are a:tiied to the representation of psi phenomena; nu ntur.. mec-a-ics: an inherently probab!ist.: approach that lends 3:salt to re:recantation of p::a:.a^ena that depart significantly from stri:t:v deterministic see-testes ;:f cause and effect. :his is now accented .n scientific theory. Of sicnificar.:e in quantum .:.e~hanics is the effect of :rte obserre- :rn the exoerinent; 3e11's theory': emphasizes that "no theory of reality compatible with quantLm t::eory can reeairc sce:ialiv separated events to be independert." Ratter, it must oer it phvsicaliy separated events to interact with each other in a manner that is contrary to ordinary experience; :^si:rra:hi: trar.s`crmati:ns: all reality is retarded as deployed in an in: intte f i of s id aao: it:de 'fr eouencv infarmat ion. The brain is i:ypsc;.esiled :c, :::nc:icn as a =untie; transfcrt*. cevice to provide the fa-iliac space time locaiic'i .noaerv; Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 ? MIP =.t,;:.: :. CRS-18 ? ? #? a?.' . ._. ?_ ? '? } ?? a '~ it ?? ,. -'. . .. ? ?.??. r+~} - helist?i_c:?:oo~'iLti:::.more extreme in conceptual difficulty; chess contend that'psi?:PBocessss are inseparably holistic and that no modelrro,ted tn?'Sny domain of established science can adequately represent msaifescations that cut across the established sciences and the?creative;?aesthetic world without somehow combining the philosophical perspectives and techniques of both domains. 16/ 17/ These theories suggest that the following general ftypothesis may become subject to more detailed examination: 1. Psi phenomena may be most fruitfully approached at this paint on a statistical basis rather than directly causal. They may represent marginal changes from normal behavior on a large scale and with fluctuation times that tax human observational capability. Lt may be necessary to consider more complex statistical mechanics to represent the most drastic effects; 2. just as Luman consciousness is able to extract information from an ex:e:ral system by observing it, that consciousness may also have the aai:ity to project information into an external systems by orderint rarjom processes; Q?:ar?: ur.. -ecunits may be more than a system of ph;'sical mechanics. it na be a more fundamen:al rinresentation of human consciousness and perceecion processes. The e?aairica: bases of this formalism mi-: Le as much laws of consciousness as laws of physics; Psi enderstandir.! na% be inherz ::1v holistic. therefore, the model may need to "'e?3 be:h scientific and aesthetic cone:: in otder to identi-;: .he sources of psi phenomena. :?z Ps. __.?_.. sac -av be a fest at ior? of the irtersec: ion of :he ana:ti:ical, scientifi: or:d i:h the creative, aesthetic world. so ::a: .: may be necessary to irtegrat a bath ters;ecti:'es withcj: ssc:ifi:irg the integ i:?+ :f e:the:. 181 16/ Jahn, Robert, op. cit. 1?/ Princeton University, ap. ci:? 18/ :ahn. Bober:, op. ci:. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 ? / ~. Yi PUBLIC AND SCIENTIFIC PERCEPTIONS OF PSI RESEARCH CRITICISM OF PSI RESEARCH Criticism of psi research is videseread and often unjustified because of the traditionally anecdotal and phenomenological nature of the field and ? ?5 because it is difficult to obtain statistically reliable, replicabie Ted suits under many conditions, including the most rigidly-designed and con- trolled settings. Ca=only cited cri:icismb that are applicable to all of the sciences inc:::dA the follovina: 15/ 1. 3em:r.stra-:e fraud, which has occurred in several cases recently. 2. Fourly cc:i:ei:ed methods, including inadeclate controls, faulty equipmer.:, sArsurv cuet=g of participants, exaerimen:al bias. selective :reatmenr of .!ata, improper statistical processing, and genera' expo:: i :e ntal aca ther?retiea: incompetence. 3. Sup;rassiar. :f ne;ati a resal:s. The retaining c:i:i:isns app:v to pti researcn soec:fica11v: 1. Absence =f adequate theoretical models and little ir..prove- cen: in t. t :oa-rehensicn of si pherome.ia over many years cf study. Poor experimental replicability and elusiveness of effects under :rose scrutiny. 3. Sensitivity of results to part::iFarts, attitudes and labora- tory setting. A. Tendency for results to be only rareinally significant can- pared to chance expectation. 5. Ccntradic:ory nature of much psi chenonena with personal ;svcnciog:?, philosophy, tnevlogy, , or "common sense." .91 Jann, Robert. op. ci c. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 -r W CRS-20 It, w'u' also be note that the a'iali:y of criticism of psi is often pop=:;'TsW. eUisIveneaa?of?'psi phenomena under carefully controlled and observed coaditionseema,presently to be the most compelling criticism of the field in general. At the same time, this observation may also land urgency to { further investigation into psi phenomena. Many other scientific endeavors in early stages of investigation have proven to be frustrating to the inves- tigator because of a lack of understanding of the phenomenon under scrutiny. Radiation biology is an example of such a dilemma. In the very?early stages of research into :he interactions of ionizing radiations with biologics) systei%a.,Jf;.!?~?= doses of radiacic , particularly x-rays, despite the fact that the physics of producing the Tad.ation was well understood. This lack of understanding led to severe radiation injury of mzr.v prominent, early researchers :n the field su:h as '!=e. Julio: Curie. Alth-ien the acute effects :f ion:-zing radia- tions are well-un.erstaod today, :hzi. ..:shacu:e or 1iw-'level efffe:cs rema:n the subje:: of czr.siderab:e contTov_rs4. By defini:i:n, contemporary scene does not permit a-definitive explana- tion of the nature ar..; mechanisms of ps: phenomena. That these factors remain unexplained does t.;;: necessarily =earl that they are unexplainable. The under- scanning of psi phenomena may be hanoered by the ore-:en: llevel of development of the sciences. Traditional acien:Lfic mechzdologies may need to be broadened. To the. credit of the psi research _j_-+uni:y, it has encouraged thorough and objective scrutiny of negative data it journals regularly publishing on Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 X'! CRS-21 ?{~?~..""i* i ram-t the sub ects;{`:' benefits accrue froi such a policy. First, nega- rive data sea.?crvcial~y?important to any scientific exploration. Second, a quantitative?index?is'provided of the ratio of positive co-negative outcomes in a given class of psi experiment, thereby providing a broader'view of the overall statistical nature of the phenomenon. Third, documentation of specific conditions preva:ling in unsuccessful experiments may contribute toward exc'.sdina irrelevant factors from further consideration and identifying and reducing counterproductive influences. Finally, negative data'se':ve to demon- strafe that psi pneornena, if real, are hithly irregular and intangible developnent. beyond the control of science at its present level of ? } It would be misleading to leave the reader with the imoressior. that isi phenomena, as they are presently urlers:o,)d, are generally rejected by the public and by s=:ences. Indeed, quite the opposite would seem to be true. n:1 polls of bz:` a=e public ant the scientific ca-unity in recent .ears have yielded evicrrce of a generall.: positive attitude toward the existence and relevance of psi phenomena as a class and research into the=. T',e gen- eral public accepts the concept of psi, often based on personal experience. In addition, a nu_ber of recent experiments have yielded more or less con- sistent. positive results under rigorous conditions of investigation, even though the mecianisms of these functions remain unexplained. It is also worthy to note chic historically, psi oheno:nena have been reported with . 201 Jahn, Robert, op. cit. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 .,?5- ? ~ii_ -'rte `r}i.?.~wi~._ . ?. i ~+?r RM, strikia rC u r?~r;''aeross a whole spectrum of human conditions, both natural Q' X3100- . and .S:parimsso#1:;;: ; . It ii-accepted by the scientific psi research community that the role of the critic, particularly in this controversial field, is quite essentiai. When the criticism is objective and fair, it can promote discipline in research and ensure that the f--ndamentals of sound scientific methodology prevail. Here, as elsewhere, if criticism violates these same rules and if it lasses into categorical rejection, sloppy logic, or emotional and negative prejudice, then it assumes as suspi:iaus a character as the ob;ective of its criticism. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 CRS-23 POSSIRLE IMPLICATIONS FOR GOVERINME T AND SOCIETY Given the present, uncertain status of psi research, it is premature to attempt any kind of definitive evaluation of its potential impact on govern- rent ~r society. If replicable psi phenomena prove in the future to be elusive, %and and mind with matter. It is also inferred frcc some preliminary positive results that information might be accessed over time and space. If these suspicions are subsecuentlti confirmed, then the ability of humankind to con- :rcl these phenomena functionally and repeatab:v becomes a realistic goal of psi research. 21/ The implications of such a develop.ent for society and government are, simply stated, vast in three fundamental categories: 1. acquisition of knowledge; 2. practical application of psi functions; and 3. depending upon such applications, the pcssibili:y of general enhancement of the human cunlition. then it is reasonable to expect the field to slowly die out as a scientific discipline. If, or. the other hand, certain psi phenomena and functions. prove to be &=enable to scienrific replication, prediction and control, then quite another prospect comes into play. Results of recent psi research suggest that some psi phenomena can be acquired and repea:ei fairly reliably, if less than ideally, under well designed and controlled conditions. This suggests to some critical obsr:vers that there may be an interc:nnectiveness of mind with 21/ Cough, W. C., E. Rauscher, Houck, and V. .:ruve. The Status cf Research on the Physics of Consciousness: Working Models and Experiments. Los Altos, California, Foundation for Mind-Being Research. Sept. 15, 1980. 44 p Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96X00790R000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 with rtj:k3- 0-4, category, basic knowled:e might be $a .ned in :va ways: chi-acquisition of new scientific information and the improved application of scientific methodology to deal more effectively with irregular phenomena such as ESP, PK, and other psi phenomena. For example, is the area of education, the ability of the human mind co obtain information purpose- fully in a heretofore "intuitive" (i.e. "gut-feeling") manner could have a significant impac: or. decisionmaking theory and practice and an traditional approaches tz tra the human mind in educational and vocational settings. ?-~- With regard :o :::e second cate,org, Potential applications of psf'ea only be speculated an conservatively, riven the uncertain and relatively ?,,_ . ?:''.t I' f li bl i i f i ca e status o rrep ps _ unct ons thus far subjected to systematic ecru- tiny. I: seems like:y to expect that such functions as remote perception, precognition, arts :etrocogr.itian are of potential interest to :nteliigence agencies, law enf:?r:e-eat units, a-id activities inv:lvin2 surveillance. For example, "e.^..o: :ntr ints" have a:readv been tsed to trace past events in arche^::r?:a: ani police nves:i2a:ions. Dzwsing _r d? for water, oil, and other -inerais?is an established rrac:ice this ca:.n:rv and abroad, ;articular'v in the Soviet Union. Ac- cord.^gly, curt-e: ivestitation into the nature and ca:sible aech . anisss cf this phenomenon, +.hich appears to incorporate ti:th natural and paranorr_al aspects, would seem to be warranted. In the area of health, the coupling of traditional medicine with mind- initiated haaling is being investigated and could be advanced. Recent work 22/ Jahn, Robert. op. cit. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 ? "? '~r??. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 ' . CIS-25 in this .Area 'W"itb--canfr, patients usint mental images and other facets of holistic medicine teem to indicate a potential fo- more widespread applica- t ion. It is possible to imagine a wide variety of applications of psi in such areas as: animal training and interspeciea communication; creativity, educa- Lion, and training; entertainment; decisionmai:ing; locating lost objects and discovery, and numerous others, includinz crime, persuasion. mischief; i'14?* .3 persons; fut.res forecasting; geolo;ical and archeological exploration; his- torical investigations; medicine and dentistry; military intelligence and pcli:e work; management; psychotherapy ? and counseling; scieUttfi :, ?.,:t`1=r~r, :. ~- r lr??. s r; ir~iPi t~e'~? I:. the area a! nigh technology, Ic:r-level cr micro-PX effects rave been '~-r' 3. observed in experi-en:s with random-even:-genera:ors MEG) in which iC is speculated chi: certain malfunctions may have been :educed by human subjects. :r.ese _findings, valid, r..av have implications in he developing ttcrroing!es involving sic::?:i'~:T:r.:::: :f basic fu-c:ions of -icroelectronsc elements cculd b2 even c:i?r.t::? disturbed by intentional or unintentional human inter- .d :r ocean: t* otta:n stn e _: von ..p a assessment of teas pate-:ia1 agcit::-we of su:h effects s::d fa=tats ` or inhibiting such effects. u:.dersta ding :h:$ phenor non wo?4l3 be .=nor:ant be!vr3 cna a elab::rat: inte- grated circuit arrays. grachic display systems, and other sensitive, tan! machine incsrfsces are committed to even more co:np:ica:ed and csi:ical opera- tions. For example, PK e:tperimencs are underway to examine the possible discurba:.ce of :he rtetrory functions of single nicroelector.ic chips. :he th:rc anc firal ca:e4or;: of the inplicati.;ns of psi, the genere! erha-kcemert of the he-an cordition, is the,most i-:por:ant and far-reaching Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 '1 CRS-26 ,1?a~ ones and.,yeti-tbe'sost .difficult one to speculate on at this time. There has been' mucbsdiscussior about this implication that usually arrives at the same general question: Would convincing demonstration of the ability of hu- man consciousness to influence its real world to a significant degree result in alterin; individual and collective perceptions of the human condition, its value systems, and ultimately, its social an! behavior patterns, thereby facil.itating evo1Ltion to a "higher form" of human existence than prevails today? Frcm tae foregoing discussion, it is obviously premature to attestpt i ti7: ti~? an answer to this lo_f:v cues:ion. Perhaps it is sufficient to specul ate" this tilde that a general recognition of the degree of intercornectivensss?:' ? ~':~4 of minds, or of winds with matter, could have far-reaching social and poll- ' `'? ~= ' tical implica:ions for this natit and the world. '="'i~? In arse: to better understand psi phenomena and possible functions, and ul:imd:e:ti, to gain a tie:ter unders:sndinz of t'iair Face in tomorrow's scci- e:y, it is genera::v .::cur;;: that it ::i:: -~e necessary to accent the :rans- dij_iplinary nature cf :si. It is yid::v ccnsi ?erei the psi co:-isnity and society at large tnz: research into psi ;,l-enomena in any categorical setter should become more conr_unicative and interactive across traditional scholarly b., 'aries. 'thus. cross-fertilization, of ideas end knowledge cannot be limited to yields _raditio:ally related closely to one wat er, such as physics and engineering, oiolczy, physiology ind menitine, 3:1d i9?:enolo y and sociology. 7ni: line of thought contends that the insights of the theologian, phi.losooher, statistician, technologist, scien:ist, and holistic tnin;cer may all be necessary is psi phencner?a are to be rendered into :o=preher?s:b'e and ap,licab'e en:::ies? i Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 CAS-27 converselyfiw 's.sus acted that insular approaches to psi research will not likely yield.results. Proponents argue that to exploit the potential benefits of psi, it will be necessary to fund research at a much higher level than at present. Whether or not psi is a real or usable phenomenon, the recognition that psi may be able to enhance the human condition could have far-reaching implications for science and the society it serves. The present state of psi research is diffuse, largely unstructured, and hesitant, with many internal cross-currents and divergencies of emphasis, and method. Along with the promise of significant ntw possibilities, resem lL?- realization of :he considerable potentials of psi, or its debunking;-+ Effective will require the breae:h of vision provided by an open, humanistic perspective as well as the rigor and scier.t:f:: discipline provided by conventional re- . search tradition. _1 23; Jahn, Raber:, op. cit. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 f ?. ~~ Frl '.x??.?14? *Ji ~? ..~,~ , P7 AV CU-28 ;..Y t r Fir. ? 4? 4 This su=arv report is largely based on the recent review article prepared by Dr. Robert Jahn, Dean of the School of Engineering/ Aaplied science, Princeton Universi:v that appeared in the February issue of the IICEW Proceedings, AdditionaL,~, mik . , further backarourd and are listed below (appendix A and B). 'rh ?Conglessional?. Research Service possesses a large collection of additional bibliographic, journal;::=.-i,,.;- and monographic 3a:erial on various aspects of psi research which can be rade ??'.~'?' available upon Te uest. ?t. Approved For Release 2008/04/01 : NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 's ::s? y~~ ;?y~-F":'.f.;:;*_ ~: ? :.. Jlppaadix A. ?~ ;~ ,i . G .~RIrRPHY RESEARCH 1 +STIT[.'TE ` 'f Tom: ? r??w .. ~ : ? ~ . OFFICE BOX 9313 ? DUKE STATIOX },*? 's: DCRHA.MM. NORTH CAROLNA :-706 A Brief List of Recomended Readings in Parapsychology Scarecrow Press, 1975. 2. Broad, C.D: Lectures in P:vchical Research. New York: ;:.Humanities - A Ma Press, 1962. r t, yr ti:: Kri ner ) Ad 5 (Ed P s i e rr , . . vance n a*aosvch01o0ical Research: A Bi nnial dj' Review. New Ycrk: Plenum, '1clume 1, 1977. -?'? 4. Murphy, G. , and Dale, L.A. Challence of Psychical Research: A P` ? %~ of Part :s.c~olocv. New York: Harper & Row, 1961. 6 5. Rhine, J.B. and c:"ers. - Extra-Se^scrv Perceoticn After Sixty Years. Ecst:n, Erarc:^ Press, 196-5 (=irs. published in 1940). 6. Schmidler, G.R. (Ed.) Extrasensory Per:action. New York: Athertcn, 1969. 7 w Schreldler, G.P. Ed.) Para:svvhclccv: Its ?elation to Physics. EiJ1Cav , Psv:- iccv and Psvcniatr?r. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976. a. Thouless, R.H. From Anecdote to Exoe-iren: in Psychical Research London ?? A. iecnni cal Books e. 1. -Beloff, J. (Ed.) New Directions in Paraosvchcloov. Metuchen, N.J.: and Boston: Routledse & KeSan Paul. 1972. 9. Tyrrell, G.N.M. Science and Psychical Phenomena. New York: Arno ??ess, 1975 (Firs published in 1933:. .c . a . e? , , and Eft e, ("Ed s.) r a: w e. H.L. ("Eds.) Phil - .cal Dime.s Wh i s e Fara:s ciclo:v. Springfield, Ill.; Thomas, 1976. R White. R.A. Surveys in Parapsychology: Reviews of the Literature..rith Uocated b1lc:ra:hies. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 ? l~r L???i~}ite,;, 4' Meta ;:K- dl Dales L.A. rw- s emi, K .: c, Scarecrc~~r CRS-30 P3repsycholoov: Sources Press, 1973. 13. ' W61man:'$ f.4- (Ed.) Handbc ok of Paraosychol oov. New York: Van Nos :rand, 1977::. . B. Popular and Historical Books 1. Gault, A. The Founders of Psychical Research. New York: Schocken, 1962. 2. Heywood, R. Eey:nd the Reach of Sense. New York: Dutton, 1961. 3. Hintze, N.A.} and Pratt, J.G. The Psychic Realm: What Can You Believe? New York: Random House, 1975. 4. Murphy, G., and 5allou, R. (Eds.) William James on Psychical Research.-:' Clifton, N.J.: Kelley, 1950. 5. Pratt, J.G. ~a ESP Research Today: A Study of "eve loonents in ParaosvcholQa since 196). Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1973. Rhine, L.E. Psi: What Ts :`? The Stcrv of ES? and PK. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. 7. Roll, W.G. The -'_l?erceist. Near YcrK: New r:nerican Library, 1972. 8. Ullman, M., Kr;rpner, S., a %,'. Vaughan, A. Dreary, Teleoathv. New York: MacMillan, 1972. Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 Approved For Release 2008/04/01: NSA-RDP96XO079OR000100040024-8 1,75. (O1t1;)eaiTy pa.Miahsd is 1930.) (::5 I "m: M. Goldn.y aid S. G. Sad. "Raven an a sines or experiments with Mrs. taws. Gaarett" Protz Sal. PgrenicaS R ercercn, 44. PP. 63%47.1931. ' - - 1-m l J. below. "rho Weashaaats. experivupt." A Sac. 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