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Croatia

Vukovar, on the confluence of the Vuka and Danube Rivers, is Croatia’s largest river port. The city was almost completely destroyed during an 87-day siege by Yugoslav forces and Serbian militias from August to November 1991 after Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia. The city has been largely rebuilt but certain buildings remain unrepaired as reminders of the fighting that resulted in 2,000 defenders killed, several hundred soldiers and civilians massacred after the city fell, and at least 20,000 inhabitants expelled. The fighting for Vukovar has been described as the worst in Europe since World War II; the city’s population today is only about 60% of its pre-war total.