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Directional sign to many of the World War II Battle of Peleliu memorial sites. The battle was fought between the US and Japan from 15 September to 27 November 1944 on the Palauan island of Peleliu. US Marines of the 1st Marine Division, and later soldiers of the US Army’s 81st Infantry Division, fought to capture the airstrip on the small coral island. The casualty rate exceeded that of all other US amphibious operations during the Pacific War causing the fighting there to be described as, “the bitterest battle of the war for the Marines.”