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M1131APPROVED FORRELEASED DATE:04-Sep-2008The Directorate of Science and TechnologyHistorical SeriesThe Office of Scientific Intelligenc4 1949-686VOLUME Two ANNEXES IV, V, VI, AND VII---Top-Secret?tJ31-1.June 1972Copy No. 1 of 2 r?1- -1 TOP SECRETTHE DD/S&T HISTORICAL SERIESOSI -1THE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, 1949-68VOLUME TWO ANNEXES IV, V, VI, AND VIIbyKarl H. WeberJune 1972DirectorScience and TechnologyHISTORICAL STAFFCENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY TOP SECRETAnnex IVThe Scientific Intelligence CommitteeandThe Scientifid?Zgtimates CommitteeCONTENTSPageI. The First Scientific IntelligenceCommittee   18II. The Scientific Estimates CommitteeIII. The Second Scientific IntelligenceCommittee   14Appendix 1. Organization of the ScientificIntelligence Committee   19Appendix 2. Chairmen of the ScientificIntelligence Committee   23 I.TOP SECRETAnnex IVThe Scientific Intelligence CommitteeandThe Scientific Estimates CommitteeThe First Scientific Intelligence CommitteeNational Security Council Intelligence DirectiveNumber 3 (NSCID # 3) dated 13 January 1948, dealtwith the production of intelligence and the coordi-nation of intelligence production activities withinthe intelligence community. Scientific intelligencewas of course a part, and an increasingly importantpart, of this problem. To deal with the scientificintelligence field the Intelligence Advisory Committee(IAC) in October 1949 approved the issuance ofDirector of Central Intelligence Directive Number 3/31/(DCID 3/3).? This Directive, dated 28 October 1949,established the Scientific Intelligence Committee (SIC),a permanent interdepartmental body to "plan, supportand coordinate the production of scientific intelligenceas it affects the national security."DCID 3/3 provided that the chairman of the SICshould be a representative of CIA with members fromthe three military departments, the State Department,and the Atomic Energy Commission. The SIC was "to establish its own methods of procedure and meet onmatters pertaining to scientific intelligence" butthe determination of the scope of this field wasleft up to the SIC.DCID 3/3 was drafted in OSI during the summerof 1949 and, understandably enough, included many ofMachle's* concepts of proper roles for CIA and OSIin the national intelligence picture. It was a verysweeping document and put OSI at the hub of U.S.scientific intelligence activities in the broadestsense. Its coordination through ICAPS (InteragencyCoordinating and Planning Staff), the staff level of theIAC, was characterized by bitter debates on the intendedfunctions of CIA and OSI. The military representativeswere extremely apprehensive of CIA intentions in respectto military intelligence. (These apprehensions later ledto the establishment of the Becker Committee and theeventual drastic reduction in the scope of SIC functions.)The DCID authorized permanent and ad hoc working commit-tees in specific substantive fields, terms of referencefor which were to be established by the SIC. These working* Willard,Machle, the first AD/SI who led OSI fromJanuary 1949 to February 1950.-2- committees of the SIC were given considerable respon-sibility in formulating national requirements, pre-paring interdepartmental production plans, allocatingproduction assignments, and evaluating collection1/activities.In addition to its other responsibilities, theSIC was given the unique task of establishing liaisonwith the Research and Development Board (RDB) in orderto ascertain intelligence requirements of RDB so thatscientific intelligence could be used by the Board informulating its plans. This link between scientificintelligence and military research planning on anational scale did not hitherto exist. This assignmentto the SIC stemmed from the failure of the militaryintelligence agencies to meet RDB's needs for intelligencesupport. With all its organizational and growing pains,the SIC was unable to concern itself sufficiently withthis responsibility. Undoubtedly, however, the RDBsupport responsibility was one of the reasons why themilitary departments initially agreed to the estab-lishment of the SIC.Very early in its existence the SIC undertook todefine scientific intelligence, delineate areas ofparticular interest and establish committees to handle- 3 - "P7vr"2/these areas.? Priority was accorded to atomic energy,biological warfare, chemical warfare, electronics inwarfare, guided missiles, aircraft, undersea warfare,and medicine. Other areas of intelligence concernwere other new weapons, basic physical sciences, newequipment and material, geophysical sciences, navigation,and scientific resources. Having delineated the areasof interest, the SIC established joint committees tohandle certain fields. Thus, atomic energy was coveredby the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee orJAEIC, biological warfare by the JBWIC, chemical warfareby the JCWIC, electronics by the JEIC, guided missilesby the JGMIC and medicine by the JMSIC.The establishment of the committees and the delin-eation of areas of interest were all approved by theSIC in November 1949 soon after the SIC began to function.In June of 1950, the establishment of committees onaircraft (JACIC) and antiaircraft (JAAIC) was agreed.The fields of undersea warfare and ordnance were alsorecognized as important fields at that time but furtherinvestigation was felt to be necessary before the estab-lishment of committees in these fields. It is interest-ing to note here that these two fields were almostexclusively within the realm of responsibility of single- 4 -?,' ,departments; namely, Navy for undersea warfare andArmy for ordnance. The issue of the "intrusion"of other agencies, notably CIA, into what was con-sidered to be the unique concern of a single agencyor department later became one of the key pointsof controversy that tumbled the SIC.Of the various working committees, only thoseon atomic energy matters and medicine had StateDepartment and Atomic Energy representation. Themembers of the other working committees were solelyfrom CIA (OSI) and the three military departments.It was apparent that these working committees werehandling fields of interest that were for the mostpart military in nature.Trouble was not long in coming. The Army memberof the SIC in February 1951 questioned the activitiesof and justification for the working committees. Thefirst question he raised was whether the working com-mittees were aiding the military services in scientificintelligence, since the working committees were devot-ing their energies to the preparation of SIC studiesin fields of departmental concern and, with the exceptionof the NIS program, were not greatly involved in supportof the national estimate program.- 5 - The second question raised by the Army memberwas whether the SIC actually had authority to formworking committees which dealt with matters exclu-sively within the competence of the military agencies.Such a question, he maintained, could be resolvedonly by the IAC and not by the SIC.As a follow-up to these questions, the Armymember at the March 1951 meeting moved that five ofthe working committees be abolished. The Air Forcemember moved that the remaining committees be studiedto determine whether or not they also should be abol-ished. No action was taken at this meeting, but atthe April meeting a vote on the abolishment of thecommittees was taken. The three military members votedfor and the three other members opposed the motion.The Chairman then ruled that, because of the dividedvote, the matter would be referred to the DCI, pursuantto DCID 3/3.The subject of working committees came up next inJuly 1951. The SIC agreed to abolish the aircraft andthe antiaircraft committees following assurancesfrom the military services that these fields wouldreceive full coverage within the Department of Defense.-6-'- ? r-27;-? 7;7-,;. In August 1952 the subject of the abolishmentof the working committees was discussed in the IACand minutes of that meeting were presented to theSIC. It was the contention of the DCI, General Smith,that the SIC could not abolish working committees byits own action but could recommend such action to theLAC. By this time the position of the militaryservices was that the SIC was infringing upon areaswhich they felt belonged exclusively within theirpurview.In the January 1952 SIC meeting the Air Forcemember reported the formation within the JIC of aJoint Technical Intelligence Subcommittee (JTIS). Atthe next SIC meeting in February 1952 the Army memberannounced the formation of working groups within JTISin the fields of guided missiles, biological warfare,chemical warfare, and military electronics. He pre-sented a statement asserting that unnecessary dupli-cation existed between these working groups and the SICworking committees and moved that the SIC recommendto the IAC that its working committees in those fieldsbe abolished. There is no record on the action takenby the SIC on this move. It is apparent, however, thatthe Chairman of the SIC, Dr. Chadwell, brought thematter to the attention of the DCI because the latter- 7 --10P-SEGRET, referred the matter to an "Ad-Hoc Committee to SurveyExisting Arrangements Relating to the Production ofScientific and Technical Intelligence" headed byLoftus Becker, then DDI. The last meeting of the SICwas held in April 1952.The Becker Committee held a series of meetingsin the summer of 1952. Finally, at the 14 August 1952meeting of the IAC the recommendations of the Becker3/Committee were adopted in the form of DCID 3/4- ofthat date. The Scientific Estimates Committee (SEC)was established in place of the SIC which was abolished.The Scientific Estimates CommitteeDCID 3/4 sharply curtailed the functions ofthe SEC as compared with the SIC. Further, it attemptedto delineate the interests of the DOD and CIA in the3/scientific and technical fields.? In essence, the DODwas made responsible for intelligence on research anddevelopment in military material and equipment and CIAwas responsible for coverage of fundamental researchin basic sciences, scientific resources, and medicine.The SEC was designated as the coordinating mechanismto integrate the material but only when necessary fornational intelligence purposes. It was only inciden-tally to assist in the coordination of other production- 8 - and was directed to do so by stimulating and guidinginter-agency liaison and working-level conferences.DCID 3/4 removed atomic energy matters,which werepreviously included in the substantive area of theformer SIC, from the purview of the SEC and placed thenunder the newly created Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence3/CommitteeMembership on the SEC was the same as that of theformer SIC except for the addition of a JCS member.The Chairman, however, was to be elected by the mem-bers annually whereas under the SIC he was to be theCIA member and to be appointed by the DCI.The primary business of the first meeting of theSEC in September 1952 was to elect John B. Routhof CIA (OSI) as the Chairman. It was at the secondmeeting the following month that the fight betweenthe military and the civilian sectors of the SEC re-sumed. While it appeared that the military had wontheir point in restricting the production of scien-tific intelligence by the SEC, the Committee's respon-sibility in stimulating and guiding inter-agency liaisonwas subject to widely varying interpretations. More-over, DCID 3/4 left the SEC with considerable statureby reason of its responsibility for contributions fornational intelligence purposes. This provision thus- 9 --9f'49r-ro4;444__ embraced contributions to NIE's which were becomingincreasingly important as the final word on intel-ligence for the policy makers and planners.Questions soon arose because of the dual respon-sibilities and overlap of areas of interest in thefields of medicine which the SEC undertook to delineate.Solution of the problem was postponed by establishingan ad hoc medical conference to integrate the medicalintelligence contribution to N1E-65 "Soviet BlocCapabilities" which was then being prepared. Laterthat year another ad hoc conference was establishedto integrate a contribution to NIS-15 "Switzerland".From then on, the SEC established ad hoc committeesto prepare contributions to NIS's and NIE's when theneed arose. Thenceforth, the SEC's main activitywas almost entirely the production of contributionsto NIE's and NIS's. This pattern was different fromthat of the SIC which had devoted a considerable amountof time to the production of studies in selectedscientific fields.The SEC did, however, publish annually a catalogof studies which were planned and produced by themember agencies in the scientific and technical fields.In addition, it attempted to guide collection activitiesby publishing a list of S&T priority objectives based- 10 -^r9r7.-;   upon the national priorities list. By way of morespecific collection guidance, it undertook to supplyrequirementsSince the publication of studies or reportsby the SEC was barred by DCID 3/4, the Committeeresorted to another course of action; namely, tohave such studies become NIE's. The first attemptwas made in a biological warfare study. It was firstpublished as an SEC Estimate (SEC 2/54) with the hopethat it would then be used as the basis for an NIE.However, the IAC concluded that the SEC Estimatefulfilled any requirement for such a study and thata separate NIE was therefore not needed. In 1956 theSEC undertook a study on Soviet Science and Technology.This time the terms of reference were prepared inconjunction with ONE and no SEC Estimate was planned.The final result in which JAEIC and others sharedwas NIE 11-6-56, "Capabilities and Trends in SovietScience and Technology".The guided missile field became increasinglyimportant in terms of national security in the mid-50's. More and more Soviet successes in the fieldbecamer.evident.)r-.11Tti 6-'7:17T7-The SEC at first endeavored tohandle intelligence coordination in this fieldthrough an ad-hoc guided missile subcommittee. Thelimitations in intelligence production activitiesplaced upon the SEC by DCID 3/4, however, inhibitedeffective effort, however, and the desire in thecommunity to establish a separate USIB guided missilecommitteeestablishgrew.such ain June of 1955.A proposed DCID 3/6 that wouldcommittee was reviewed by the SECThe SEC concluded that it coulditself accomplish the objectives and perform thefunctions called for in the draft DCID 3/6. Becausethere was dissension within the Committee, however,recommendations were sent to the IAC. The dissidentsincluded OSI. The IAC established the Guided Missile3/Intelligence Committee (GMIC) on 31 January 1956.Of the three scientific committees of USIB(SEC, JAEIC, and GMIC), the SEC was unique in thatits charter prevented it from producing intelligencestudies. Notwithstanding the charter, the SEC inits fifth annual report to the IAC listed as anobjective of the coming year the proposed productionof detailed studies to provide papers in support ofnational intelligence responsibilities. While there- 12 -TOP SEMI were no objections to this proposal on the part ofthe IAC, the SEC members themselves were unable toreach any agreement on the means to produce suchstudies. This impasse and the lessening of frictionin the S&T intelligence community made it apparentthat a new DCID on scientific and technical intel-ligence was needed to give the SEC the freedom andlatitude enjoyed by JAEIC and GMIC.In June 1958 the Chairman submitted to theCommittee a draft DCID 3/2 covering the Productionof Scientific and Technical Intelligence. In Julythe draft was approved by the SEC and submitted tothe officials who were coordinating new drafts forall three S&T committees as part of a general over-haul of the IAC structure. In February 1959, DCID3/5 which established the Scientific IntelligenceCommittee (SIC) to coordinate scientific and tech-nical intelligence (except for atomic energy and4/guided missiles and astronautics) was approved.The new SIC was given a charter very similar to thatof the original SIC and the restrictions of DCID 3/4were lifted.- 13 - TOP SECRETIII. The Second SIC  The new, or second, SIC was the third inter-departmental committee in the field of scientificand technical intelligence. It had the same member-ship as the previous SEC, except for the additionof representatives from the Department of Defenseand the National Security Agency. The civilianmembership consisted of representatives from CIA,State and AEC; the military members were from DOD,JCS, Army, Navy, Air Force and NSA.Subsequent to the issuance of DCID 3/5 in Februaryof 1959 the same DCID was revised somewhat and re-7/issued in July 1963 and in April 1965.? Essentiallythe only change was the rewriting of the membershipsection to permit the military services to continueas members. This was necessary since DIA had becomethe sole military representative on USIB and hadDCID 3/5 remained unchanged in this respect the DIAwould have become the sole military representative onthe SIC. As it now stands each military service hasa member on the SIC, in addition to the DIA, givingthe SIC a greater range and variety of viewpoint on? military matters. How long this will continue remainsquestionable since it appears that eventually the DIA- 14 -TOP SECRET U"would prefer to be the sole military spokesman onthe SIC.At its first meeting in March of 1959 the SICconsidered draft terms of reference for Subcommitteesin Electronics, Biological and Chemical Warfare, andMedicine. Previously USIB, at its 24 February 1959meeting, had approved the establishment of these three5/subcommittees.? These terms were approved by the SIC6/in April l959.In addition to its contributions to the NIEprogram, a continuation of the main activity underthe SEC, the SIC initiated its own interdepartmentalstudies in the substantive fields of electronics,biological warfare and chemical warfare. It alsoinvestigated the feasibility of studying Sovietactivities in anti-submarine warfare and anti-missiles.In the latter field a joint SIC-GMAIC working groupwas established in October 1961 and later expandedto include representation from JAEIC. Its assignmentwas to provide an answer to a USIB request on the"Intelligence Aspects of the Soviet ABM Program."The joint SIC-GMAIC anti-missile working group wasnot successful, probably because of questions of over-lapping jurisdiction, and it was discontinued in thespring of 1962. (T,:iLNT  One of the goals for the SIC set by its Chairmanin the early 1960s was to do a better coordinationand planning job on the production of S&T intelligencein the community. The annual index put out by theSEC was dropped since it was simply a bibliography andreflected past action. At various times, such attemptshave been made to obtain concerted effort in futureproject planning but have met with little success,primarily because of the weakness of the "allocationby agreement" principle which has to govern such matters.Nevertheless, the concept of allocating production tasksamong the participating agencies so as to make greatestuse of available assets continued to remain an objectiveof the Chairman.In January 1963 the Chairman cited the need for areview of the SIC mission. While the members agreedthat there should be greater emphasis on new kinds ofweapons systems, there was less agreement that the SICshould set up working groups in such areas as --scientific resources, aircraft performance, ASW, basicsciences, research methods, ground weapons, industrialtechnology, and automation. Again, the objection citedwas the organizational problems in DOD, especially theorganizing of the S&T effort in DIA. It was agreedthat further consideration of this matter would bepostponed until DIA was fully established and operating.- 16 -TOP sa, _The subject of working groups came up from timeto time during 1963 to 1965. Some progress was madeon less outrightly military subjects such as scien-tific resources and molecular biology. In militarymatters, however, the DOD members showed their his-torical reluctance to admit civilian participation,even in the form of working groups. Finally, however,when the Board of National Estimates criticized theSIC for failure to coordinate the community estimatesof aircraft performance characteristics, the Air Forcemember reversed his previous stand and supportedcreation of an aircraft working group under the SIC.Thus, the Aircraft Working Group was established withan Air Force representative as its Chairman in 1966and shortly thereafter a Submarine Working Group, underNavy chairmanship, was formed.Thus, by early 1966 the working groups and sub-committees of the SIC as they now stand had beenchartered. During the 1966 and 1967 period the SICmet with the Chairman of each group to review itscharter and activities and to determine the suitabilityof its activity. Objections of the military members ofthe SIC have largely been overcome and all workinggroups are supported by all the member agencies.- 17 - The primary substantive effort of the SIC hasbeen devoted to the production of contributions tonational estimates and the production of two all-encompassing S&T studies on "Soviet Military Researchand Development" and "Communist Chinese Science andTechnology." Both of these studies have been usedas a basis for NIE contributions on the USSR andCommunist China. Contributions from JAEIC, GMAIC,and EIC, as well as the SIC sub-groups, were used incompiling the studies which have become standardreference works in their fields.- 18 - APPENDIX 1  SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEEOrganization as established by DCID 3/3 of October 1949:Chairman  Shall be a representative of CIAMembersStateArmyNavyAir ForceAtomic Energy CommissionJoint CommitteesJAEIC (AE)JBWIC (BW)JCWIC (CW)JEIC (Electronics)JGMIC (Missiles)JMSIC (Medicine)*JACIC (Aircraft)*JAAIC (Anti-aircraft)* Added in June 1950 and abolished in July 1951.- 19 -f.Th? SCIENTIFIC ESTIMATES COMMITTEEOrganization as established by DCID 3/4 of August 1952:ChairmanElected by members annuallyMembersCIAJoint StaffStateArmyNavyAir ForceAtomic Energy CommissionAd Hoc CommitteesFormed to prepare various contributions to NIE'sand NIS's- 20 -TOP S1171FT , j ? ',1":1'P4,  SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEEOrganization as established by DCID 3/5 of February 1959:Chairman  Designated by DCIMembers (representatives of USIB)CIAStateArmyNavyAir ForceAtomic Energy CommissionNational Security AgencyJoint StaffOffice of Secretary of DefenseSubcommitteesElectronicsBW/CWMedicine- 21 - ?  SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEEOrganization as of January 1968 (under DCID 3/5 of23 April 1965)Chairman  Designated by DCIMembersCIAStateDIAArmyNavyAir ForceAECNSASubcommitteesElectronicsBW/CWMedicineWorking GroupsAircraftSubmarineScientific ResourcesPriorities- 22 - D  APPENDIX 2Chairmen of the Scientific Intelligence CommitteeOCT 1949 -MAR 1950 -AUG 1952 -JUN 1954 -FEB 1959 -MAR 1950AUG 1952JUN 1954FEB 1959Present* SECDr. Willard Machle, CIA/OSIDr. H. Marshall Chadwell, CIA/OSIMr. John B. Routh, CIA/OSI*Dr. Karl H. Weber, CIA/OSI*Dr. Karl H. Weber, CIA/OSI- 23 -: ? 7- ,r.! r  6,1,2 k.1 EXEC. SECRETARY (CIA)   r ?,-6 - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - _, - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - TOP SECRET- 15 -TOP SECRET - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - ?? 19 ? - 20 - - 21 - - 22 - - 23 - - 24 - - 25 - - 26 - - 27 - - 28 - - 29 - - 30 - - 31 - 7,- 32 - - 33 - - 34 - - 35 -TOP SHRET TOP SECRET - 37 --MIL&EGRET- - 38 - - 39 - - 40 -, - 41 - - 42 - - 43 - '??- 44 -r.p - 45 - - 46 - - 47 - - 48 - 7- 49 - - 50 - - 51 - - 52 - ?v,- 53 - 4Annex VI  OSI's Role in Medical Intelligence  WNTMTSI. Early Development - The National PicturePagein 1948 0 0 0 OOOOOOOOOO 0 ????001II. Establishment of Medical Intelligence inOSI? . ? 0 0 ? 0 ? 0 0 ? ? ? ? 0 ??0?0?4III. Production of Intelligence in the LifeSciences 0 0 OOOOO 000??000???.19IV. The Medical Intelligence Subcommittee oftheScientific Intelligence Committee ?90??0042V. Medical IntelligenceOverseas ? ? ?0000?57Tab A. History of SI0 0 ? ? ? 0 0 ? 09??0063Tab B. Functions ofSI0 . . ? 0 ? 00?00a67Tab C. External ResearchProjects 0? ?0000?75References 000000 OOOOOOOOO 00000078Th?,rr-pnr   , "73ry4 .TtAnnex VI  OSI's Role in Medical Intelligence  Medical Intelligence is concerned with the effectof health conditions upon a nation's capability forinternational conflict. It includes in addition toconsideration of the character, incidence and distri-bution of diseases (and their effect on manpower, militaryoperations, and domestic economic capability), otheraspects of health and medicine as they have a bearingon the interrelationships of man and his environment.Specialized concerns of medical intelligence are relatedto scientific, technical and economic intelligence.Included therein is information on aeromedical, bio-astronautic, biomedical and environmental matters whichmay have a significant influence on foreign capability.I. Early Development - The National Picture in 1948  In 1948 the Armed Forces were sharply reminded ofan existing bleak picture in medical intelligence inthe US through a "Report of the Subcommittee on MedicalIntelligence of the Committee on Medical and HospitalServices of the Armed Forces". This report, famil-iarly termed the "Hawley Report", represented a responser on 2 June 1948 to the Committee's order for an inquiryinto the status of medical intelligence in the militaryservices. The report found that the Medical IntelligenceBranch, Office of the Surgeon General of the Army, wasthe only "going concern" in 1948 worthy of the title of"organization". This unit was short in personnel, spaceand facilities. Its activities and output thereforewere limited and "failed to meet acceptable requirementsby a great margin". Of three essential elements inmedical intelligence (epidemiological intelligence ona geographic basis, research and development intelligence,and field combat intelligence) this Branch was found tobe deficient in the latter two.The Report flatly insisted that medical intelligencewas essential to the nation, that it must be centralizedin one organization to serve all military departments,that it should be placed at a high echelon (preferablywithin the Office of the Secretary of Defense) andthat it should have close working relations with many1/agencies.At an interview in 1947, CIA representatives advisedthe Hawley Committee of the medical intelligence interestof the Office of Research and Estimates,Tn9kJJ2'77T CIA.Official uneasiness over intelligence shortcomingscontinued after publication of the Hawley Report.Another Committee, the Committee on the NationalSecurity Organization (known as the "Eberstadt Committee")was particularly concerned about the Nation's inade-quacies in the fields of scientific and medical intel-ligence. It asserted in November 1948 that medicalintelligence in the government was virtually non-existent.The Committee recommended that the Research andDevelopment Board and the Central Intelligence Agency,as a joint undertaking, establish immediately withinone or the other agency, an efficient and capable unitto collect, collate and evaluate scientific and medicalintelligence in order that existing glaring deficiencies2/in this field be promptly eliminated.-- 3 - TOP FECRETII. Establishment of Medical Intelligence in OSI  While awareness of the serious deficiency innational medical intelligence was clearly evidencedby the Hawley and Eberstadt reports, no definitivefederal action took place except in CIA. Dr. Willard Machle,who became the first Assistant Director of the Officeof Scientific Intelligence on 1 January 1949 played akey role in the establishment of an OSI Division forthe production of medical intelligence. In additionto his role as Director of CIA's scientific intelligenceprogram, Dr. Machle was a physician with a keen personalinterest in meeting the nation's intelligence require-ment in his professional field. He first establisheda position for a physician in the ofOSI. Thus, medical intelligence has been a part of theexplicit responsibility of the Office of ScientificIntelligence since its establishment.4 -TOP SECRET The Task of Coordination  In his response to Dr. Machle's request,Dr. identified the principal task in medicalintelligence to be the establishment of coordinationof medical intelligence activities of all the federalagencies concerned.Security Act of 1947sufficient authorityresponsibilities, Dr.Believing that the Nationalhad failed to give the DCIto execute his coordinationattempted by personaldiplomacy to fulfill CIA's role of coordination despitethe absence of any formal authority over other intel-ligence agencies. His early consultations withService representatives led to the assignment of asenior naval medical officer to the Office of NavalIntelligence. In 1949 he established a regular scheduleof visits by this officer to the forthe purpose of collaboration and coordination. In1949, an Air Force Medical Intelligence Officer, onduty in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, wasactually working at a desk in ther---kOSI during a4/major portion of his duty hours as a collaborator.In 1949, no Army medical officer was assignedto the Intelligence Division of the War Department.The Medical Intelligence unit of the Preventive Medicine5 TOP SECRETDivision, OSG of the Army was then engaged in thecompilation and production of epidemiological datawhich it published in technical bulletins. Asnoted above, the Hawley Report criticized the medicalintelligence value of this organization. Neverthe-less, since the unit represented Army medical intel-ligence, regular visits to CIA by its Chief werealso firmly established by themore, with the creation of the interdepartmentalJoint Medical Sciences Intelligence Committee (JMSIC),under the Scientific Intelligence Committee in 1949,a medical officer was assigned to G-2, Army, and thisSI. Further-officer became5/Army.the regularmemberof JMSIC for theThe medical intelligence officer of OSI alsoestablished liaison in 1949 with officers of Camp(Fort) Detrick to coordinate medical intelligenceinterests with the intent of fostering centralization4/of medical intelligence in CIA.Evolution of Organizational Structure of the Medical  Intelligence DivisionInitial Structure - On 1 January 1949, the Officeof Scientific Intelligence was established from elementsof the already-existing6TOP SECRETof the Office T3? SECRETof Reports and Estimates.Formal Branches - The areas of substantiveresponsibility of the OBI were setdown in October 1950 in a formal statement of theorganization and functions of the Office. This state-ment is a reflection of Dr. concepts at thattime as supported by Dr. Machle and his successor,7/ 8/Dr. Chadwell. For I the areas were: ?A. Medicine in its broad sense as it bearsupon attacks on the health and efficiency of man,including research and development in the fieldsof medical science, the distribution and characterof diseases as they may influence planned operation,domestic affairs; climatological, psychological andphysiological aspects as they bear upon the inter-relationships between man, his environment, equip-ment and tasks, and the medical aspects of atomic,biological and chemical warfare;- 7 - B. Manufacture, import and export ofpharmaceutical and biological products,medical equipment and supplies;C. Organizations, facilities, personneland other resources in these fields.At this time (1950) the separateof OSI emphasized developments in biology, with explicit7/reference to offensive biological warfare.In response to the gaps noted in the Hawley andEberhardt reports, medical field and combat intelligencewas an area of emphasis in the Division as were allaspects of medicine in relation to the armed forces.Stress was placed on epidemiological intelligence;i.e., the distribution and character of diseases ofman and animals as these may influence domestic affairs,- 8 - TOP SECRETplanned operations or national security. No changewas made in the area of interest of theOSI, except to re-emphasize that BW was ofspecial interest to it. Thestudyof R&D in pure and applied biology explicitly excludedhuman and veterinary medicine, which was regarded asthe province of the Medicine Division.Re-Assignment of Military Medicine  In 1951, the Medicine Division was reorganizedThe eradication of theBranch presaged the enactment of DCID 3/49/in 1952 which assigned military medicine to the Services.The exclusion of military medicine in Divisionactivities is directly attributable to DCID 3/4(14 Aug 52) "Production of Scientific and TechnicalIntelligence," which lists in Annex A the responsibilitiesof the departments of the Department of Defense inthe field of medicine intelligence, as follows:.k. Military medicine, including:(1) Medical aspects of civil defensein the USSR;(2) Medical vulnerabilities of menuand animals to BW agents, andcapabilities for medical defenseof man and animals against BWagents."- 9 - Because of excellent teamwork and cooperationwhich existed among members of the medical intelligencecommunity at the working level, the Division was ableto rely on the military for support in its areas.Coverage of aviation, field, shipboard and submarinemedicine was handled exclusively by the Army, Navy,and Air Force for NIS and other production. Responseston. requests for contributions of intelligencepertaining to military medicine were very satisfactoryandSI believed the afore-mentioned allocation ofproduction responsibility to be entirely suitable.The Division was relied upon within OSI to contributeestimates on k(1) and k(2) (see indented quotationabove), even though these were allocated to theDepartment of Defense, because the Division had the7/analytical competence to do so.Prior to DCID 3/4, work was also being done bythe in basic research on BW and CW.Further, the Division covered Soviet offensive anddefensive BW in veterinary medicine. With theenactment of DCID 3/4, primary responsibility forBW and CW intelligence was also assigned to the militaryServices.Ultimately (in 1955) the Army Chemical CorpEP,established the Chemical Corps Intelligence Agency- 10 - which then developed a staff of rather mediocre caliber10/to cover BW-CW intelligence.National Intelligence Surveys Role  The NIS has been described as a substantiallysuccessful area of Agency activity. This productionIs scheduled by the Office of Geographic and BasicIntelligence and also by the11/of OSI.TOP SECRET   The fundamental principle of the NIS program,as laid down in NSCID No. 3, is the allocation ofproduction and maintenance responsibilities to thoseagencies which are best qualified by reason of mission,production capability, and primary interest. Thehave made substantial contributions to the preparationof Sections 7, 17, 45 and 76 of the National IntelligenceSurveys. In 1967, medical intelligence officers werecontributing primarily to the preparation of Section 7of the NIS; Sections 17 and 76 were discontinued.Responsibility for the Section 45 of the NISrested originally with the Army and on 29 March 1948the Surgeon General of the Army was given the taskof its production. On 5 April 1954, the Army requestedthat the responsibility be reallocated, and it wasassigned to the- 12-TOP SECRET - 13 -40P-SEGRET- BW-CW De-EmphasizedThe production of intelligence on CW-BW was generallyconsidered to be the responsibility of the militarydepartments. For this reason, Agency responsibilitiesin these fields were primarily directed at the surveil-lance and coordination of intelligence rather than atresearch and production. The latter activities wereto be engaged in only at the request of the IACAgencies or to the extent necessary to fill clearlydefined gaps in coverage.- 14 -TOP SECRET- - 15 -TOP SECRET TV SECRET- 16 - ? - ?BioastronauticsBW-CW Responsibility AssumedThe primary objective of this reorganizationwas to reorient and focusinterests and coverageon those aspects of the life sciences which are ofstrategic intelligence significance. Also, by com-bining the BW and CW efforts, more efficient use ofmanpower and more effective support to the ScientificIntelligence Committee on BW/CW matters were expected.- 17 - TOP SECRET- 18 -TOP SECRET TOP SECRETIII. Production of Intelligence in the Life Sciences  A Massing and Analysis of Data  In 1949 in the absence of an acceptable medicalintelligence program outside OSI/CIA, theinitiated its program with a tremendouseffort to establish a data base.Documents availablefrom governmental and non-governmental sources whichcontained medical information on the USSR or inter-national health were perused and coded;brief-ings and debriefings were conducted, and files wereinaugurated on personnel, facilities and subjects ofpriority interest: additional reports were receivedin response to these activities.- 19 - - 20 -LOP SECRET TOP SECRETScanning of published reports or the periodof the 1950's demonstrates that the establishmentof the level of Soviet medical science was accomplished.Production reports emphasized coverage of substantiveareas, e.g., treatment of mass casualties, ionizingradiation, fermentation, microbiology, hematology,immunochemistry, immunology, basic aeromedical problems,toxicology, medical sciences in the various countriesof the Soviet Bloc. Research and development in medicineand allied sciences -- physiology, biochemistry, medicalmicrobiology and biophysics -- were carefully analyzedand reported. Medical intelligence officers fulfilledthe essential task of getting to know the USSR and- 21 -TOP SECRET reflecting this knowledge in published reports andoral briefings for policy makers, federal scientistsand law makers, and for the American scientificcommunity which required information about the USSR.- 22 - 1Synthesis  As noted above, medical intelligence productionhad recorded developments in information in twoareas in the 1950's: Soviet efforts in space medicineand in attempts to control human behavior. Whileanalysis of subject matter lost none of its essentialrole, it was now becoming possible to synthesize apicture of Soviet programs.  Cybernetics  Keypapers on Soviet cybernetics were alsocharacterized by the synthesis approach. In 1957- 23 -TOP SECRET was initiated to study research onhuman behavior in the USSR. This research identifiedthe first Soviet attempts at cybernetic conceptu-alization of mechanisms of behavior.- 24--TOME-C.Ra_ SiCRET- 25 -artfltelEf-- TOP SECRET- 26 -TOP SECRET :1TCP SECRETStrategic Intelligence Production  Production in the period from 1964 on reflectsthe qualifications ofmedical intelligenceofficers to participate in long-range, high-levelforeign policy intelligence. They had been ableto discern Soviet programs (e.g. the man in spaceprogram and the cybernetics program) even whilethose programs were in the process of forming inthe USSR. A major activity now was monitoring andreviewing the performance of the USSR and estimatingwhat it would do and when it would do it- 27- "PRETForeseeing the growing menace of Communist China,division officers are placing priority emphasis onmedical intelligence on China. Coverage of CommunistChina has included public health, medical practice,medical training, medical research, and militarymedicine as they pertain to China's political, economic,and military development. Production reportsindicate that the life sciences have continued toplay a major role(in China's development as the- 28 - :.1regime attempts to balance its political strategyof expanding world influence against its internalfight to survive infectious diseases and the con-sequences of its population explosion.- 29 - - 30 - ?..A t3- 31 - TOn  . E.  - 32 - d. Soviet Agricultural Sciences  research summaries(ii) cereal grainsto assist in the compilation ofin the USSR on (i) soil sciences,research and, (iii) new agricul-tural chemicals. His work (1958 to 1961) contributedto Division SIRs and a Monograph on Biology.e. Cybernetics  - 33 - TOP SET1ET- 34 - TOP SECRET- 35 - - 36 -TOP SECRET T)???:='-w-- 37 -TOP SECRET 't6P- 38 -6tA . ? .CiLu aL,? 39 ? TOP q.c-olniET- 40 -lop 31i?b - 41 -' :7 ' ..?.? IV. The Medical Intelligence Subcommittee of the  Scientific Intelligence Committee  Efforts of OSI, to establishinteragency coordination reached fruition withinthe Joint Medical Sciences Intelligence Committee,a subordinate unit of the Scientific IntelligenceCommittee (1949-1952).The progress of the Interdepartmental MedicalIntelligence Committee, currently (1968) termed theBiomedical Intelligence Subcommittee of the SIC, isdelineated below and in Figure 1. It must be pointedout that in the early years of the Joint MedicalSciences Intelligence Committee the absence of amajor program in medical intelligence in any of themajor member agencies other than CIA placed the burdenof a large part of the work of the Subcommittee uponCIA. The JMSIC Chairman and Secretary were furnishedby CIA and to the present day OSI furnishes theChairman and Secretariat of the Subcommittee. AScientific IntelligenceCommittee (SIC) meeting in- 42 - 1963 revealed the major contribution of OSI's medicalintelligence unit to the Subcommittee: in that year,fourteen years after the founding of JMSIC, itsChairman was again forced to point out to the Chairman,SIC that the Services Members of the SIC MedicalIntelligence Subcommittee did not have adequate resourcesavailable to them and therefore could not carry out theirmedical intelligence research responsibilities in theSubcommittee.  The burden of support continued to reston SI  The Scientific Intelligence Committee (SIC) wasestablished 28 October 1949 by DCID 3/3. The SIC inturn established six subcommittees one of which wasthe Joint Medical Sciences Intelligence Committee(JMSIC). The Chief SI was appointedChairman of JMSIC. The membership of JMSIC was madeup of representatives of Army, Navy, Air Force, StateDepartment, Atomic Energy Commission and CIA and ofany ad hoc members which JMSIC designated. On 14 August1952, DCID 3/4 abolished SIC and replaced it with theScientific Estimates Committee (SEC). Termination ofSIC automatically discontinued the existence of itssubcommittees, among which was JMSIC.At a special meeting on 1 October 1952, the newly-created SEC established a Medical Intelligence Working- 43 - Conference (MIWC) on an ad hoc basis for a periodof six months. The MIWC membership was the sameas that of the JMSIC. In addition, through thecoordination efforts of the Chief,OSI, meetings were attended now by representativesof the Office of the Assistant Secretxry of Defense(Health and Medical), the Federal Civil DefenseAdministration and the Public Health Service. Atthe end of the six month period, the MIWC automaticallyceased to exist but the personnel of the committeestill continued regular informal meetings untilDecember 1955. The Federal Civil Defense Administration'srepresentative ceased to attend these meetings when itsmedical section was moved to Battle Creek, Michigan.Need for the coordination activity of the Chief,OSI was emphasized by the Servicerepresentatives on the MIWC. The members of the infor-mal group constituting the former MIWC called to theattention of the SEC the fact that, although the grouphad no official status, it had continued to functioninformally to serve a demonstrated need of its memberagencies. These members expressed their strong con-viction of the value cd the professional intelligencecollaboration provided. On December 1955, the SECestablished the SEC Ad-Hoc Medical Intelligence Sub-- 44 - committee (MIS) for a six month period terminating29 June 1956. The departmental membership remainedthe same as that for the former JMSIC and MIWC plusthe addition of a representative of the JointIntelligence Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.The SEC Ad Hoc MIS was given the specific task ofpreparing a report on gaps in intelligence on theSino-Soviet Bloc. After this, the MIWC continuedto work as an informal group. On 17 October 1956,it was activated as the Ad Hoc SEC Medical IntelligenceWorking Group.DCID 3/4, dated 3 February 1959, establisheda Scientific Intelligence Committee (SIC) to coordi-nate scientific and technical intelligence activitiesof the government. On 2 April 1959 the SIC issued"Terms of Reference for the SIC Subcommittees inElectronics, Biological and Chemical Warfare, andMedicine". The Medical Intelligence Subcommittee(MIS) resumed official status with publication ofthese terms. Terms of Reference for the MIS set forthin 1959 by the SIC for the MIS contained these specificresponsibilities.1. provision of a forum of exchange of S&Tinformation for intelligence purposes relatedto the national-security;- 45 - 0i3  2. recommendation of S&T intelligenceobjectives within the overall national intel-ligence objectives and indication of theirrelative priorities;3. evaluation of the effectiveness ofcollection and production efforts toward meet-ing national scientific and technical intel-ligence objectives, identification of deficienciesand possible remedies for the SIC;4. participation in the preparation ofcontributions to national intelligence estimatesand interdepartmental intelligence reports asdirected by the SIC;5. direction of attention of the SIC tooutstanding foreign advances of concern to U.S.intelligence and the R&D community.Although a Subcommittee in Biological and ChemicalWarfare was also established by the SIC the MIS washistorically expected to maintain cognizance of themedical aspects of BW and CW -- and of AW throughits AEC Member -- (Note: at BMIS-23, SIC relievedBMIS of responsibility for defensive BW). Membershipof the MIS was the same as that of its precursors.The 1959 Terms of Reference for MIS have never been4A6 - r`.superseded and are in effect at present (1968). In1964 the MIS was re-titled the Biomedical IntelligenceSubcommittee (BMIS) to reflect more completely thecoverage by the Subcommittee of both the biologicalsciences and medical sciences, its surveillance ofR&D admlnces in these fields and world-wide epidemiologicaltrends. Further, to reflect advances in Soviet andworld cybernetics, a separate SIC Memorandum gaveresponsibility for Control Sciences, includingCybernetics, to the Medical Subcommittee. OSI'sis playing the major nationalintelligence and coordinating role in this area, ands furnishing the chairman of a bio-c berneticsworking group of the Subcommittee.Figure 1 outlines the development of the MedicalIntelligence Subcommittee from 1949 to 1968.2A1,,YearCommittee NameParent Committee1949-1952JMSIC (Joint Medical SciencesSIC (ScientificIntelligence Committee)IntelligenceCommittee)1952-1953MIWC (Medical IntelligenceSEC (ScientificWorking Conference)EstimatesCommittee)1953-1955Ad Hoc MIWCNone1955-1956Ad Hoc MIS (Medical Intel-SECligence Working Group)- 47-SLCRET 1956-1959Ad Hoc MIWG (Medical Intel-ligence Working Group)SEC1959-1964'MIS (Medical IntelligenceSIC (ScientificSubcommittee)IntelligenceCommittee)1964-1968BMIS (Biomedical Intel-SICligence Subcommittee)Figure 1. Development of Medical IntelligenceCommittees/SICWhile the 1959 Terms of Reference of the Sub-committee are still in effect, strengthening of theseTerms has been suggested by two Chairmen: (i) inJune 1963, Chairman, MIS, submitted a detailed draftof MIS responsibilities as recognized by the Chairmanof the MIS Task Force for Study of MIS responsibilities;(ii) in 1964, Chairman BMIS, submitted strengthenedTerms of Reference with a view to acquiring effectivemanpower for the agencies represented in the BMIS.The SIC indicated thatiit preferred to make no changesin the11959 Terms but re-affirmed its understandingthat the Subcommittee's established Mission andFunctions give it sufficient flexibility to fulfillits responsibilities.itshas occupied the central stage in the intelligencecommunity. TheThe medical intelligence work of OSI, throughhas been the only member of- 48 ACRETthe Subcommittee with a staff to accomplish the workof support to the Subcommittee. Selected examplesof the accomplishments of the Subcommittee indicatethatstaff work has achieved coordination oflife sciences intelligence and has been, in effect,the highest level producing entity dealing withmedical intelligence in the intelligence community.A.Preparation of Contributions to National Intelligence  Estimates1. This activity has been accomplished by pre-liminary preparation of draft estimates with- 'in thein OSIand subsequent coordination of the drafts withindividual Committee Members. The listestimates so coordinated is long: thisis described in Minutes of the Meetings.ofwork- 49 -7 '72.The BMIS through its Chairman (who is the ChiefOSI) has establishedpermanent Working Groups within the Subcommitteewith SIC approval to achieve coordination oflife sciences intelligence activities in thecommunity: The Chairman foresaw eventualpreparation of estimates assigned to the Sub-committee by these Groups. The Groups nowworking are:a. Environmental Sciences Working Group.(This Group, at first known as theBioastronautics Working Group, hasprepared a contribution to NIE 11-1-67which Was then coordinated in BMIS)b. Molecular Biology Working Group (ThisGroup has updated the Estimate of Scienceand Technology in Communist China (BMIS-35,36,37)c. Global Epidemiology Working Group (ThisGroup now publishes the Status Reporton the Incidence of Infectious Diseases)d. Bio-cybernetics-Behavioral Sciences Work-ing Group is being organized (1967)B. Exploitation of East-West Exchanges  1. Basic SupportCollection of life sciences intelligenceinformation has been fostered through Subcommittee- 50 - 1r171797Rd LhU?support of East-West Exchanges. This support hasincluded briefings and debriefings, preparation ofrequirements, suggestion of names of personnel toparticipate on Exchange Teams, identification ofinstallations and locations to be visited, identifi,cation of scientists visiting the US or foreignscientists worth visits in their homelands. TheSubcommittee has conducted a briefing on the ExchangeProgram (BMIS-5) for its own Members.Selectedexamples of Exchanges aided by the Subcommittee includethe following:U. S. Virology TeamRadiology ExchangePolio ExchangeWomen PhysiciansBiochemistryMental RetardationHospital SystemsPhysiological Developmentof the ChildHyperbaric SystemsOthers are described in Minutes( 9 Apr 56)(12 May 58)(12 May 58)(12 May 58)(22 Jun 59) (MIS-3)(30 Apr 62) (MIS-47)(BMIS-3,4)(BMIS-3,4)(BMIS-15,16)of MIS-70, 71,77, 78, 79, 80, and 81. Efforts have been initiated- 51 - (1967) to program a "Man-in-the-Sea" Exchange Teamfor the forthcoming Exchange Protocol.2. Current SupportA regular item on the Formal Agenda ofMIS Meetings in the East-West Exchange Program. TheSI Member of the Subcommittee prepares anddistributes to its members at each meeting a reportentitled "East-West Exchange Notes" (0U0). Thesenotes direct attention to current or projected Exchangevisits of Soviets to the US and American Scientists tothe USSR.C. Exchange of Information on the Incidence of InfectiousDiseases1. The Subcommittee has regularly published eachmonth a Status Report on the Incidence of Infectious  Diseases. This report has presented in graphic formnews of diseaseroutbreaks throughout the world reportedduring the time period since the last scheduled meetingof the BMIS. The Global Epidemiology Working Group ofthe BMIS assumed responsibility for its preparation in1966. Disease outbreaks which are reported throughchannels classified higher than OU0 are announced orallyat each Meeting and are recorded in BMIS minutes. The"Status Report" thus serves as a device to communicateto all Member Agencies, including HEW and NIH, currentinformation on diseases occurring throughout the world.- 52 --Top sEcrtET? -' 121'r5-046T?Members have paid tribute (MIS-73) to the amountand quality of information on epidemics made availablein the "Status Report." The value of the Committeemeeting as a central point for information on infectiousdiseases has been noted by the Members (MIS-71, 78,79).Individual MIS Members regularly supplement theformal Status Report with oral reports of informationreceived in their respective agencies. AnAanalysisof the El Tor cholera outbreak in the Far East waspresented at an MIS Meeting (MIS-80) by the HEWrepresentative.A portfolio of Global Epidemiology Maps hasbeen assembled for background source material supportin the preparation and utilization of the Status Reporton Infectious Diseases. The portfolios have beenprepared in looseleaf format so that additional mapscan be inserted as needed and maps exchanged asindicated (HMIS-11).- 53 - D. Exchange of Fundamental Science Information  1. Report on Subjects of Substantive MedicalIntelligence Interest.Coverage of fundamental science areas of intel-ligence concern has been effected within the Sub-committee by the use of formal and informal reportsand seminars to the Members. These reports emphasizepertinent substantive areas, intelligence collection,and coordination of activities.- 54-TOP SECRET '10 SLCRET2. Inauguration of Intelligence Orientation Seminars.The Chairman established a program of seminarson intelligence and intelligence-associated activitiesto be conducted within the Formal Agenda of the Meetings.- 55- E. Identification of Intelligence Objectives andPrioritiesAt its first meeting in April 1950, the JMSICundertook the coordination of general medical require-ments (JMSIC). In subsequent meetings it identifiedcountries of primary importance to medical intelligence(JMSIC-3, 6 July 50) and listed priorities in generalorder of importance (JMSIC-7, 1 Sep 50). F. Publications of BMIS  1. The BMIS has undertaken the publication ofreports under a BMIS cover sheet. These reportsare devoted to topics of interest to a broad circleof readers in addition to those in the intelligencecommunity.- 57 --HP-SECRET- 75r) spqn- 58 -1 Err RE -1 ".1..? ? ?? ? ??- (59 - 60 -TOP cr"'NET ? 61 ? . .? ? .4,TAB AHISTORY OF riSI31 Dec 1948 Establishment of OSI:The already existingof ORE was separated trom ORE. Itacquired Office status and was giventhe name Office of Scientific Intelligence(OSI).k;LA- 63 -e-? ?111RET- 64 - r',2 fri- 65 - Cka? 66 ?'ECRET TOP SECRETFUNCTIONS OF   /SI  The following functions of theTAB B  have existed, with some refinements sinceA. Research and Production  (1) Obtain datain relation to:(a) Foreign research, developmentand trends which specifically influencethe health and efficiency of man includ-ing space medicine; nuclear medicine;the understanding and control of humanbehavior; medical aspects of civil defense;biochemistry, pharmacology, radiobiology,microbiology, pathology, physiology, bio-physics, and clinical medicine.(b) International health problemsand practices including organization andadministration, personnel, facilities, training- 67 -11P-SEGRE4- incidence, prevention and treatment ofdiseases and technical aid, includingbilateral and multilateral activity inthe health field.(c) Foreign research, technologyand trends in biological sciences includ-ing molecular biology, microbiology,genetics, radiation biology, physical,chemical, and mathematical biology;marine biology, astrobiology and astrobotany;and agricultural sciences related to foodpotential (Veterinary medical sciencesare -- 1967 -- part of the responsibilityof LSD, while agriculture has been givena lower priority.)(d) Theoretical technical and appliedaspects of the control sciences in theSovBloc including:1) Scientific efforts to generatetheory concerning the regulatorymechanisms which control complex bio-logical , technical and/or socialsystems or organization, and involveproblem-solving, decision-making andother-aspects of information processingin natural processes.- 68 - 2) Technical and engineering effortsto model physically the systems generatedby the control theorists including self-optimizing behavior, mechanical trans-lation, information transference, proces-sing, retrieval and storage, and automatic-control.3) The application of controlconcepts, schemes and devices to theregulation of living organisms, tech-nical complexes and social processes.Applications may concern brain-program-ming in the New Soviet Man, the creationof a self-optimizing, automated, industrial-economic base and weapon-system control.(e) In addition, theprovides the chairmanship andsecretariat of the Biomedical IntelligenceSubcommittee of the Scientific IntelligenceCommittee and, since 1967, of the BW/CWSubcommittee.(2) In accordance with long-range and fiscalyear intelligence research and production programsand objectives, develop, schedule and conduct all-- 69 -u3:1NET F.nirLA: tsource research in the assigned sciencesand fields, and produce the followingtypes of intelligence for review by theIntelligence Board and approval by the AD/SIwhere required:(a) Contributions to NationalIntelligence Estimates and NationalIntelligence Surveys, and critiques ofcontributions by other agencies.(b) Scientific Intelligence Reports,Scientific Intelligence Memoranda, ScientificIntelligence Digest items and ScientificIntelligence Research Aids.(c) Special estimates, reports,briefings and debriefings for internalOSI use and in response to requests byother offices and agencies.(d) Current intelligence items forOSI publications and for support of the AD/SI.(3) Coordinate intelligence research andproduction with other OSI divisions, otherOffices, agencies and groups, including partic-ipation in working groups, such as the BiomedicalIntelligence Subcommittee and the BW/CW Sub-committee of the Scientific Intelligence Com-mittee , in order to delineate areas of- 70 -..414144:40,1111,44, J e, tidll ETresponsibility, to fill gaps in intelligenceresearch and production, to exchange infor-mation and to provide scientific and tech-nical intelligence support.(4) Advise and assist the Production Staffin developing OSI programs and objectives forintelligence research and production, andprograms for the coordination of scientificand technical intelligence research andproduction.(5) Assist the Staff in scheduling andallocation of intelligence research andproduction responsibilities and in the dis-semination of finished intelligence.(6) In collaboration with the Staff, adviseOCI in the development of intelligence indicatorsand in evaluating current intelligence.(7) Initiate external projects and proposalsfor the use of consultants in support of divisionactivities relating to intelligence researchand production for approval by AD/SI, assistthe Administration Branch in developing proposalsfor external projects and administer and superviseexecution of such approved external projects,preparing reports to the AD/SI as required.- 71 - (8) Compile information in assigned fieldson the scientific and technical intelligenceresearch and production activities of otheroffices and agencies and make recommendationsfor improvement as appropriate.B. Support of Collection:(1) Assist the Office in establishingcollection priorities and in development oflong-range and fiscal year programs for supportto collectors(2) Develop proposals relating to newand improved techniques and systems for col-lection and collation of scientific and tech-nical intelligence and information, coordinatingand collaborating with other divisions, Officesand agencies as required.(3) Collaborate in the preparation ofrecommendations regarding utilization of exist-ing sources of information(4) Initiate external projects and pro-posals for the use of consultants in supportof division activities relating to support of- 72 - collection for approval by the AD/SI, assistAdministration Branch in developing proposalsfor external projects and administer andsupervise execution of such approved externalprojects, preparing reports to the AD/SI asrequired.(5) Develop collection requirements,target briefs, priorities lists and readingguides, and conduct necessary liaison withcollectors to expedite fulfillment of require-ments.(6) Compile information in assigned fieldson the collection activities of other officesand agencies and make recommendations forimprovement as appropriate.- 73-6 tit";"' RETd ULU - 74 -71p %BRET 1r..7.), dTAB C? 75 ? SECRET- 76 -TOP SMET - 77 -TU MUT :4:15445.?- 78 - 17771,er,de,RET- 79 -';1'" lgINT [Th1TOP SECRET- 80 - 'TOP SECRETAnnex VII  CONTENTSPage   Annex V  OSI and ELINT  CONTENTSPage Annex VOSI and ELINT ? .2, :I c.:m- 2 -7.1,r1 ci7iprilET 3-TOP SECRET- ("?::,;.jiuvAk,1  4 .!.; ?.3 _- 4 -c)F1707:7A:: 5-T11t)LbiALL TOP SENTAnnex VII10E-SECREL__ -2YO SECRET IN !FRET3TOP SECRET 4 ETL  TOP SECRET -6?  T ? ? TOP SECRET 8101)1ECAT- (i?  9TEP SEL,,PRET ?k- (7), 71 In-___1o__ - PrrT0 ;0/3' a TOP SECRET- 12 -TOP SECRtT - 13 -TOP SECRET - 14 -? - 15 - - 16 -lOP - 17 -y? AI r) I', - 18 -TOP SITC[7FT - 19 -TOP SE3RU TOP SECRET- 20 --410-4ECRET- ?- 21 -Ii? - 22 -.) r2 .0.? - 23 - ..?p:7717- 24 - . . .:- 25 - - 26 - - 27 -111P-SEORg--- t- 28 - - 29 - 1- 30 - 1T-clro eponfri2 ud? 31 ? )- 32 -TOP SECRET IC9 QPREI- . ?1P SECRET r- 34 -. ?.... ? ? ? . TOP !MET- 36 - r)?Top ERET  - 37 ?- 38 -? ? -.mmmmiefilLmktdifIllo.T.mmmmm.r CREfl - 39 -? '' it ? ?? 2ECRET- 40 - TOP S ERE- 41 - (- 42 -..???-?.? TOP SI:litIET- 43 - - 44 -TOP SEMI ? )alaSLI,J.. ? . .. ? 1- 47 --f9P-SENET--... ; ? .rs, P{4,  jj? 48 ? e;a),vti)1 aft