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April 18, 2008
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November 26, 1993
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 (b) (1) (b) (3) =3 or M M; e~P=;Vjew AQJ: &Y= i I Directorate of Intelligence Science and Weapons Review Friday 26 November 1993 APPROVED  FOR RELEASE DATE:  FEB 2008 SW SWR 93-057 26 November 1993 cony 12 8 Science and Weapons Review A Publication of the Office of Scientific & Weapons Research Friday, 26 November 1993 FRANCE: Proposal for Dual-Use Laser Facility 5            France plans to construct a 1-megajoule neodymium glass laser facility, which will include two target chambers-one for classified indirect drive target experiments and one for direct drive target experiments. Civilian control over the facility must be guaranteed before European organiza- (precis continued on next page) 26 November 1993 SW SWR 93-057 FRANCE Proposal for Dual-Use Laser Facility plans for the construction of a 1-megajoule (MJ) neodymium glass laser facility. France plans to include two target chambers in the facility-one for classified indirect drive target (see inset) experiments and one for direct drive target experiments. The former would be used for                          and other research; the latter would be available to researchers from the European Community (EC) for fusion energy research. The French hoped to begin construction in 1997, but this start date depends on the successful completion of a two-year joint developmental program with the United States and sub  uent approval by multiple funding authorities. the estimated cost of the facility is $600 million.                primary motivation for including the target chamber for external use was to attract EC funding for the program. Ito avoid objections to the construction of a military-related project, the CEL-V and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) had agreed to promote the   ible future use of the facility for energy research Comment: The CNRS and the EC are highly unlikely to provide funding for construction of the French-proposed MJ laser facility unless the facility clearly is established to be a civilian research facility under the control of civilian authorities. Many European laser scientists Fusion and Electricity Magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confine- ment fusion (ICF) are two approaches to controlled nuclear fusion research. MCF uses magnets to contain the hot plasma in which fusion reactions occur; the tokamak is the best known and most advanced of the MCF research devices. In ICF research. energy from a driver (laser, light- ion accelerator, or heavy-ion accelerator) is used to implode (compress) small targets containing fusion fuel (deuterium and tritium). This implosion allows many fusion reactions to occur in a v   short time before the dense plasma disassembles. MCF research is devoted to developing a source of energy for the production of electricity; that is, to replacing the fossil fuel furnaces used in electrical power plants. ICF- laser fusion, in particular-research began in the nuclear weapons programs of the United States and the former Soviet Union. The large laser fusion facilities in France have been part of its nuclear weapons program. Nonethe- less, ICF also has nonmilitary applications. For example. in the 1970s the Japanese undertook a laser fusion program with the goal of producing electrical power. A civilian laser fusion effort also began in Europe in the 1970s, during the 1990s the emphasis of this effort moved to heavy-ion fusion Two types of ICF targets have been deveiop.d-direct drive and indirect drive. Direct drive targets we imploded directly by the energy from the driver. In indirect drive targets, the driver energy is converted into X-rays that are used to compress the target. Most information on research with direct drive targets is unclassified, but in the nuclear weapons states most-but not all-research on indirect drive targets is classified. The Japanese also have an exten- sive and advanced laser fusion research program using indirect drive targets.  In addition, European heavy-ion fusion researchers are cooperating with the Japanese on the development of indirect drive targets for energy research. would be reluctant to perform research at a military facility. In addition, civilian European inertial confine- ment fusion researchers strongly would object toying 26 Novssibar 1993 SW SWR 93-057