Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
June 19, 2017
Document Release Date: 
June 19, 2017
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
November 10, 1972
PDF icon DOC_0006086938.pdf1.43 MB
Joint Publications Research Service Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) Reports Home > Search > Results TRANSLATIONS ON USSR MILITARY AFFAIRS. No. 861 November 10, 1972 Download Report Page 1 of 1 > Result 6 of 47 aj Previous Next E View Mv Collection I View My Searches I Halo I Feedbacic OTRANSLATIONS ON USSR MILITARY AFFAIRS. No. 861 NOTE EIJPRS CONTENTS jj Page toc a Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Li Page 4 Page 5 Page El, Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 ID Page 11 ?Page 12 D Page 13 ID Page 14 0 Page 15 Page 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE CIA HISTORICAL RELEASE PROGRAM JUNE 2017 Moscow, My s Atomnykh -01 January 1972 NEW BOOK ON NUCLEAR SUBMARINES Article Type: Excerpts Original Language: Russian Author(s): Vice Adm Anatoliy lvanovich Sorokin As published in: Translations on USSR Military Affairs, No. 861, JPRS-57477, Y3.J66:13:57477 on 10 November 1972. [Page 30] Compilation Copyright 2011 NewsBank, inc. All Rights Reserved. A [Article Piece 1 of 22] LE View Report Citation Add to My Collection n Article Bookmark Export Article Citation Email NEW BOOK ON NUCLEAR SUBMARINES c). [Excerpts from book by Vice Adm Anatoliy Ivanovich Sorokin; Mos Atomnykh4 Russian, 1972, DOSAAF Publishing House, 254 pages] Title Page Vice Adm A. I. Sorokin WE ARE FROM THE NUCLEAR SUBMARINES (My s Atomnykh) DOSAAF Publishing House Moscow-1972 Publication Data Signed to press: 3 February 1972 Edition of 100,000 copies TABLE OF CONTENTS 6/17/2013 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 NEW BOOK ON NUCLEAR SUBMARINES [Excerpts from book by Vice Adm Anatoliy Ivanovich Sorokin; Moscow, MLA Atomnykh, Russian, 1972, DOSAAF Publishing House, 254 pages] Title Page Vice Adm A. I. Sorokin WE ARE FROM THE NUCLEAR SUBMARINES. (4y s Atomnykh) DOSAAF Publishing House Moscow-1972 Publication Data Signed to press: 3 February 1972 Edition of 100,000 copies About the Book and Its Author TABLE OF CONTENTS OCEAN LEGACY Page 5 We Are Submariners 9 Fathers and Sons 17 From "Potayennoye Sudno" [Hidden Vessel] to Missile-Armed Nuclear Submarine 27 Threat from the Deep 54 Lessons of the Thredher 60 First Journeys to the White Silence', 63 Flag on the Pole 68 Exchange Between Two Generations 74 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont d) Page NOW IT CAN BE TOLD Transoceanic Orbit 89 The Nautilus Returns a Century Later 96 Watches, Watches, Watches 102 Legend or Fact? 108 Neptune Visits Us 121 Four Hundred Lost Islands 128 Shades of Drake Passage 141 Following the Mirnyy and Vostok 147 The Archduke Philip, Submarine Sirens, and Work 151 "How Is Your Radiation?" 156 Comrades in Arms 161 GUARDING SILENCE Remember the War! 173 Code "Sever" (North] 184 The "Westerners" Shall'not Pass 192 Volodya Kamyshin, Signalman from the Red Banner 197 "I Entrust My Son to You!.." 201 Days and Nights of the Astronauts of the Deep .. 205 Finding Oneself 211 Navy Routine 226 A Five-Ocean Navy 243 About the Book and Its Author The first edition of the book We Are from the Nuclear Submarines, by Hero of the Soviet Union Vice Adm I. Sorokin, came out 3 years ago. It was so warmly received by its readers -- young sailors and all other naval personnel -- that it is simply unobtainable today.. For this reason the book is being published in a second, enlarged and revised edition. Kt will be of equal interest to young boys dreaming of a life at sea and those who are already quite at home on the sea. This book deals with today's heroic life of men who man the instruments and machinery of today's ominous undersea vessels -- missile and torpedo- armed nuclear submarines. Hero of the Soviet Union Vice Adm Anatoliy Ivano- vich Sorokin tells his story vividly, with ability and enthusiasm. These men deserve to be 'publicized, men who, have reached the North Pole under water, who have girdled the planet submerged, who have conquered the Arctic and Antarctic. . Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 . The valor and gallantry of today'. navy is inseparable from that of the Great Patriotic War. Soviet fighting men of different generations have com- mon traditions and common paths. Bold aesaults by Kolyshkin, Shchedrin, Gad- zhiyev, Fisanovich, Alekseyev, Shabalin -- many, many navy men who have written golden pages in the history of the Russian Fleet -- these traditions are being continued and built upon by the new generation of seamen. "Life always has room for deeds!" This idea, based on a thorough study of combat experience and navy service, runs through Sorokin's entire story. Is it not so? Who does not know the names of our, famed submariners? The entire world is familiar with the nuclear submarine Leninskiy Komsomol. A new generation of Soviet Seamen holds.high.the sacred banner of our navy's fighting tradition. The world thrilled at history's first world-girdling voyage by a group of nuclear submarines, directed by the author of this book.. In recent years more than 1500sailors, petty officers, officers, admirals and generals have been decorated for successful performance in com- bat training. Many have been named Hero. .:of the Soviet Union: V. A. Kasato- nov, A. I. Sorokin, A. P. Mikhaylovskiy,-V.'. T. Vinogradov, N. I. Usenko, and others. A. I. Sorokin is an experienced submariner. Re has dedicated more than a quarter of a century to the submarine service. He has an intimate knowledge both of the history and capabilities of the ships he has com- manded. For this reason there is great weight and meaning to his words directed to the lovers of military adventures: "We have never attacked first... But if we are'attacked -- our response will be devastating..." ? The Communist Party and Soviet ;government, consistently pursuing a peaceful Leninist foreign policy, at 1 time are aware of the military danger caused by the aggressiveness of the imperialist powers, and the United States in particular. ? The 24th CPSU Congress emphasized that: the.Soviet Union will con- tinue waging a resolute struggle against imperialism, will offer firm resistance to aggressor intrigues and :acts' ofsabotage. The party will continue enhancing the vigilance of the Soviet people, strengthening our homeland's defensive might. Missile-carrying nuclear submarines of course constitute the principal naval striking force in a modern war. Soviet submariners are ever on,guardl, Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 This book tells of the difficult deeds and today's heroism of navy life, the stern romance of the naval profession. Excerpt from Chapter Submarine development pro c e ed e d principally in the direction of improving seaworthiness and handling, increasing surfaced cruising speed, range, maximum depth of dive, beefing up ,torpedo and artillery armament, improving radio communications and sonar equipment.- Speed and range sub- merged improved little, as it was assumect-that passage to combat operations areas and approach to engagement would be Affected principally with the submarine surfaced. ? Large submarinea were highly seaworthy, and had a surfaced range of 12,000-20,000 nauticalmiles. They were capable .of remaining at sea 45 to 50 days without refueling or reprovisioning. In order to reduce time required to reach combat operations areas:, to be able rapidly to patrol large areas of ocean and to move in fast for. engagement withthe enemy, these submarines had a rather high surface, cruiiing speed -- 17-22 knots, while their cruising speed submerged was only 814 knats. Maximum depth of dive was 100-120 meters. Their.. main weapon was the .torpedo; a submarine could carry from 25 to 30 torpedoes.- All submarines carried one or two 100-150 mm guns, plus one. or two small-caliber guns or machineguns.- ? Submarines began to be equippeCwithhydroaCoustic surveillance instruments hydrophones, while later,*Iring_the.war, submarines were equipped with sonar gear and special- underwater acoustic communications equipment. Beginning in 1942, initially on German and later on those of other nations, submarines were equipped --fttraCking",-- radar receivers, for prompt detection of enemy surface ehips and aircraft conduct- ing radar submarine search operations.- These receivers were able to deter- mine when radar was in operation and the bearing to it. This equipment was further improved during and after the tiar:e It usually takes years to grasp the .full eignificance of major scientific and engineering breakthroughs.: For this reason we did not realize that we were entering a new age of4nava1 performance, an age of un- precedented speeds and power. Scientific and engineering the beginning of the fifties made it possible to power submarines with propulsion plants which transform them from vessels which periodically submerged for limited periods of time to genuine submarines capable of remaining under water indefinitely, and with a high submerged cruising speed. This.Occurred as a consequence of rapid advances in nuclear physics.. Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Soviet theoretical and experimental research on start-up, operation and monitoring of atomic reactors was conducted by a team of physicists and engineers under the direction of Academician I. V. Kurchatov. This research made it possible to proceed to the design of more Sophisticated reactors. Stationary power plants were first designed, followed by mobile propulsion units-- for submarines and the icebreaker Lenin. The process of building a new fleet ?was not a simple one. Future historians will say: "The most efficient solutions were not found immediate- ly on the difficult road toward building a qualitatively new navy"... Experience had demonstrated, however, thatthe missions of a modern- day navy can be handled most effectively by submarines, aircraft and surface ships armed with missiles and long-rangeltoming torpedoes, with extensive utilization of all other naval arms. At the Same time experience had shown that there are areas of naval combat oPeratiOns where nuclear-powered sub- marines and missiles cannot fully reOladesurfaciships and aircraft carry- ing conventional weapons. "It was necessary essentially'totOipletely'rebuild the'navy," wrote Flt Adm N. D. Sergeyev, Navy Chief of Staff. ,"One could not expect success- ful results from thie building program if'the:Soviet Union did not possess a highly developed shipbuilding industry, engineering industry, metallurgical industry, chemical industry, electrodicsf:and automatic control -technology, if we did not produce highly-qualified.kientists, designers, engineers, . ? technicians, and workers. ' In the mid-fifties the Central-COmMittee:CPSU carefully examined the probleate of naval development.' At thistite Soviet industry began building nuclear submarines. Our fleets began receivingships and planes armed with nuclear-tipped missiles, and equipped with electronic communications and target search gear. A new stage begin in develOpment: Of the navy and its operations art. The enormous destructive power of nuclear weapons and the great range of the rockets carrying these weapons defined .the nature of modern ocean opera- tions, where submarines and navalaviationiteive become the Main naval arms, and nuclear weapons the princiPal.:Meansa'achieving the objectives of an operation."* New equipment and technology required new skills Everybody went back to school,. from captain tO ordinary cluded. We all studied the basis of thenewtechnOlogy engineering and its naval aPpliCations. - and knowledge. seaman, myself in- - nuclear power Now 'a brief description of the "heart' of the atomic submarine.... * In the collected volume Korabli-aeroi:(Hero Ships), DOSAAF Publishing House, 1970, pp 210-24. Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 A nuclear reactor -- the basis of any nuclear propulsion plant -- makes it possible to utilize the thermal energy of reaction from the fission of uranium nuclei, for conversion into mechanical and 'electrical energy. The nuclear propulsion plant on a.modern submarine is a complex consisting of a reactor and its assOciated'Units, pipe systems and instru- men..a. The system also includes equipment-forsupplying'the submarine with fresh and distilled water, electric power, heat and breathing air. A submarine nuclear propulsion plant, regardless of its design features, consists of two parts: reactor, and propulsion machinery. In addition every submarine carries auxiliary (reserve) powerplants: relatively low-power diesel generators, storage batteries, and electric propulsion motors. Bat- tery charging can In done with the:diesel:generators or propulsion turbines operating with reactor on. The auxiliary, propulsion plant provides reactor startup from a cold state. , An auxiliary propulsion plant may also be needed, in the opinion of American designers, in case of a reactor malfunction. The reactor part of the propuiaion system consists of the reactor proper, a source of thermal energy,:reactorcontrol'syatem, heat exchangers, circulating pumps, auxiliary first limp equip- ment, biological shielding, and a'reaitoe:codipartMent radiation monitoring system The machinery section consists Of _Conventional steam,tuibines, which. convert energy to mechanical work, tutbogeneritora, main and auxiliary condensers, oil, condensate and feed-water pumps, second (working) loop equipment, propeller shift lines'etc.. The ability td approach an enemy unnoticed and to launch a sudden at- tack is the most important feature of the submarine. For this reason sub- marine designers have always concentrated their efforts on periecting this feature. A nuclear propulsion plant, in:addition'to Speed, provides 'a submarine with excellent concealment, CS it'does:Sdt,need to surface to recharge batteries. Usually battery charging tOr.a_4iesel-powered,eubmarine requires 5 to 6 hours, while recharging time extends to 8-10 hours and more if the batteries are Completely down. Nuclear, submarine cruising at shallow depths, where it can use its extensible antennait0. commUnicate with command center, its periscopes,' celestial navigation equipment or radar gear is reduced to a minimum. - A modern submarine produces almost 100 times the power output of a prewar model; maximum depth of dive has increased more than fivefold, and submerged cruising speed has increased 3-4-fold. Missile-armed submarines are capable of destroying surface ships at a. range of hundreds of kilometers, Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 ? Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 and they can fire ballistic missiles from a-submerged position at strategic targets from a distance of thousands' of kilometers. Today's submarines differ dramatically from those ofearlier years! Diesels and electric motors have been replaced by a powerful nuclear propulsion plant. This enables a modern submarine to travel as fast under water as on the surface -- at express-train speed. Possessing such a power- ful heart, submarines when necessary can girdle the globe submerged, without coming up even to fuel. The external appearance of aUbmarinee, has also changed. The greatest influence on, submarine architecture has been exerted by nuclear propulsion plants, speed,' Maneuverability, and ballistic missiles. The shape "seen" by designeminnature: in whales and dolphins -- was the most advantageous. A_ dolphin,' for can move at speeds up to 55 kmh. Could this capability not be exploited? ? Experiments conducted by the designers of nuclear submarines were in some ways,similar to testing by aircraft;40eigners.: An enormous increase in prop4sion4lant-output and speed required a more sephisticated Owe. Nuclear submarines increasingly,approaclied the perfect "aerodynamic" shape -- the teardrop. Scientists were well acquainted:with the shape which produced minimum resistance when moving through a homogeneous liquid or gas. In par- ticular, such shapes were extensively employed and are employed in airship design. At the dawn of submarine engineering -- at the end of;the last century -7 submarines as a rule had a cigar-shaped hull with a low length to width ratio. These were "pure" submarines: with an electric motor, torpedoes and a very short range..!. At the beginning of the 20th Century they were superseded by so-called "diving" submarines. They had along rangesurfaced.positiQn and sub- merged only briefly for an undetected approach. to target and attack. Im- provement in "diving" submarine hull design continued in this direction up to the middle of World War II,, when therapiVaeVelopment,of radar surveillance equipment. and ASW compelleci technicians" And coneequently submarine designers equipped with the latest scientifie? revise the matter of selec- tion of principal cruise,configurationin:fevOr.oficruise submerged, provid- ing submarines with good concealment and .reduced vulnerability. ? The development of nuclear ,propulsion plants and missiles which could be fired while submerged accelerated the,pEocess of evolution of a new-type submarine hull and produced somewhat of &return to earlier shapes, but at a higher level of development .o naval architecture., Approved for Release: 201/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Nuclear propulsion plants do not require atmospheric oxygen to operate. The use of atomic energy successfully solved the problem of a "single engine" for submarines. Nuclear propulsion plants to increase substantially a submarine's propulsive power andaslaHresult.substantially to improve a submarine's operational qualities.. This has resulted not only in an in- creased maximum speed submerged but also average overall speed at sea, since the fuel supply is practically unlimited: - The use of nuclear propulsion pleats increases a submarine's range and its autonomy of operation. The duration of continuous operation of a nuclear submarine submerged is determined primarily by the physical stamina of the crew. Since the end of World 'War II the principles of naval organization. and, views on navy combat utilization haVe:thanged.radically. Ballistic mitisilas have become the ;principal weapon of the warships of the missile-nuclear ageijn the Unanimout.opinion of military experts. Experts' claim that it is missilee-whichprovide naviei with the Capability ,? ? ?, ? of launching strategic strikes. ' ? ., ? v. ? ? Nuclear submarines carry nuclear withead missiles:, and All 'old con- cepts Of "sea power" have' become 'relative. The figures cited by experts are rather eloquent. Naval Weaponry has made a leap from TNT to atomic and hydrogen bombs. 'An atOlitexplosion is equivalent tothe explosion of'conventionAl boMbe'With:a chatgeMaasured.not in tons or even in thousands of tong, bUt-rather4a millions of tons of.explosIVa.. One is incapable of conceiving of such mignitudisAmegaton is the weight of all explosives used against Germany'inthejOrm:of bombs and shells during the 4 years of the war, multiplied 10 times: A single megaton bomb is equivalent to 50 atomic bombs'enidcarthaOne dropped' on Hiroshima. The nuclear propulsion plantandilUtleatweapons together have in- creased striking power 4-miliionfOld. 4..-largaunit [soyedinealye] of nuclear submarines armed With guided missiles can at great,speed'and with- out stopping cross' seal ind'Oceans washing' an entire continent... The Americans maintain giant nuclear submarines in the ocean depths, armed with nuclear-warhead Missiled. These missiles can be launched under water, which complicates searchrand attack by ASW forces. -These missiles have a range of several thousand kilometers. In view of the fact that more than half the earth's population lives-ao-further than 100 kilometers from the shores of the oceans' and 'seas; one can imagine the collosii power in the hands of modern submarines.: This mak-as them the backbone of the navy, the basis of its inexhaustible combat potential. Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 ? Torpedoes with nuclear warheadS have increased the submarine's combat capabilities. In the Past it has required five to 10 torpedo hits to destroy a battleship, aircraft carrier, or even cruiser, while with a modern torpedo carrying a nuclear warhead", not even a direct hit is required. If a torpedo detonates within the "critical radius," computed in kilometers, depending on warhead size, no armor or'structural protection will be able to keep a ship from going down. According to the foreign preps, present-shipboard strategic weapons complexes in the U.S: and' British navies:constitute the Polaris system. A few years ago this system was widely prodliimed by the bourgeois press to be a weapon which will not become 'Obsolete even- in the seventies. But in view of rapid development of antimissile 'defense systems, Polaris has indeed become obsolete. It is about to be supplanted by the Poseidon missile. With practically the same effective range wthe,Polaris A-3 (4600 kilometers), the new-missile carriesa "cassette" warhead which contains aa.many as 10 separate warheads in place of. one $00.-kilOton, warhead.. Each of these is con- siderably smaller than the-overall force_pf,the Polaris warhead,,but has a better capability of penetrating an antimiagile defense system. In addition, the new missile can hit up toA.O.diffeirent targets. ? - w. ? , ? - ? By initiating,development.of th0308e1don and planning to stop produc- tion on the Polaris, the 'Americana haVe"let:down" their British allies, whose submarine constructionwprogrard is,.based.On-the:Polaris A:.3. This faced the lords of the Admiralty with a dilemMO7 either invest huge sums in the production Of the Polaris missiles., they1..need,.:Or:spend even more on adapting their submarines for the Poseidon..... According to the foreign press, -,1b-hieUnited States has begun studying the possibility of, arminunew?tyPes,of nuclear. submarines with ICBMs with a range,of10:thousand kilometers. Scientists Scientists and.engineers Nere,for-Ced-tO.sAve a great;many technical problems in designing missile-carrying nuclear submarines.: missile weight, size, fuel, launching and guidancee-systems4 extremely complex missile- associated equipment, location ofmissile:lire?control instruments, etc. A mere listing of this problems: cover-several pages.. A submarine, which is sumerged,,,reeeives.a missile launch signal. Automatic preparation of,all.systims?for,launch is initiated, during the process of which pressure bathe launcha,and missile is equalized with pressure ,outside the submarines the missile .hatches open, and the control system firing circuits are readied. Electronic computers compute the necessary firing data: On command missiles are fired from the submarine at specified inter- vals; the missiles rise to the surfacoNath the initial imparted velocity and then continue through the.airytoward.the target on a programmed flight trajectory. ??, . . Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 A ballistic missile is firellrots A:launching tube, one of many carried by a missile nuclear submarine.. :In the lower part of the launching tube, on the first American nuclear submarines, for exsmale, comrressed-air reservoirs were provided for firing:out .the mist:ilea-. Subsequently these cylinders were replaced by steam-and-gai4repsure generators. , . The missile rises to the surface and.emerges in a ,vcrtical path, after which instruments guide it to the:target,'-which may be thousands of kilometers distant. "Will the nuclear submarine become'the primary naval vessel?" leading Western naval experts ask, And they answer: "The nuclear submarine has a number of advantages over the large aircraft carrier, but it also .has some disadvantages. "Let us begin with the carrier. The advantage of the aircraft carrier lies in the fact that it Possesses the capability of establishing air superiority at the desired time ia'a specified area of combat Operations. After enemy alr poifer'hii:been neutralized, Carrier-based aircraft can deliver a bomt or missile strike-die0'inside 'enemy territory. Utilizing its powerful radio equipment, an aircraft carrier is capable of maintaining reliable communications', gaining local "air superiority" and jamming enemy transmitisions: The aircraft carrier's lergi Carrying capacity means that both conventional and nuclear weapons CAMI be carried on board; a carrier can therefore, be utilized in limited conflicts in many parts of the world, which is extremely important during 'initial .periode td-political crises. Techno- logical idvancee now make it possible to build VTOL aircraft; the aircraft cariar of the future will be smaller in size and will be less expensive to build and operate. "Drawbacks of theairtraft,:carrierJnclude: large. size, consequently possibility of detection ai:a.COfiiideraliler_distence; vulnerability to air and submarine attack,.tO a 001eat'blitit:wisitand to:cheolical.attack; an air- craftcerrier'mUit.:be accompanied by a.:large-aulber Of escort Vessels, which could be utilized tO:aidleT'otheiliiissiOne.;iti Particular Protection of lines of communication. , ' "1k large missile-carrying nuclear 40Marine f.iat the following advaniages: it is difficult to detect and4eitroy,at:g"great depth; it cannot be detected by radar; ' its crew is not vulnerableto chemical attack; the total.destruc- tive force of its 16 miesilee'ltrequiVelent to .that of thiordAanoe carried by all aircraft based On a:large aircraft carrier.. - "A missile-carrying-nuclear eubmarinellas the following disadvantages: it cannot be utilized in war;-it-can be destroyed by a small ASW vessel; it is costly to build. view of the abOve, aseett'thart large missile-carrying nuclear 'submarine le-ca0Able:of-Performingthe missions of a strategic bomber Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: .2017/06/14 C06086938 - force. The ballistic missiles carried by nuclear submarines offer advantages which fully justify the cost of building, maintaining and operating these craft. For this reason nuclear, submarines- at the present time supplement but in the future will supplant large aircraft carriers and will occupy the status of principal naval vessel. "Countries whose navies contain both nuclear powered and conventional submarines will always* have the capability of selecting optiial strategy, depending on the nature of any future 'military conflict." The above statement is from an official NATO naval journal. The Soviet Union cannot remain indifferent to the war preparations of the imperialists. Under these Conditions i'oe believe that our principal mission is to increase with unabating persistence the combat might of our army and navy, as well as their preparedness to defeat any aggressor if war it imposed on us. -.111.e arsenal of' oia"modern'Aried'FOrCes'hras'become enormously mbre powerful. The Strategic MI:one-Troops-otter a solid shield Of defense of our nation's peaceful labors; missile-carrying supersonic aircraft fill our 'skies; the craws of Soviet nuclear aubmatineii missile cruisers and destroyers are improving their combat.readiness-in the world's oceans and seas. Our arsenal ranges from missileo.Werhead'atiategic:miasiles-to the most sophisti- cated'infantry weapons. -No aggressiot iiCapable'of standing against the Misfit OUthese'weapani;WhicifouenatiOnhatientrUilted to the heirs of the fthting traditions of our war heroes... Today the Soviet Navy is armed with nuclear ammunition and missiles. A combination of the variOda-kinds:Of.ne4:ara7traditiontlweapona and the diversified carriersof theie'Veapeona hii.tranigormed the modern navy into the moatuniversal armed forces branch anaensures-their successful per- formance not only of.theiliVY's traditional missions -- destruction of enemy naval forCei4-disrUptiom_of enemy lineS of.-communication, protection of friendly lines of commtinicatien?aseistineeto'ground forces in coastal areas -- but Also totally new strategic missions, such as destruction of enemy military installatiOni,'MahOOWer 0.WOffen8iVe nuclear misaileS'and bases. Until recently 'Surface ahiOs And'Aiegtelpowered submarines cod- stituted-Our Navy'4'maittatiiki4'powerNOw the tole Of main striking force, capable of operating.both.agaiOstaea'and shore targets, has shifted to nuclear lubmarines and-haVal-'aViationoirMed'Oith powerful. nuclear-tipped Missile weapons "The basis' of Our' naval' poWer,'"Jtates:Flt'Adm.SU S.G. Gorshkov, "issthe'most sophisticated; modernwarshipauclearsubmarines.. bine ImMense?firepower, mobility,'ConetilMentand'the capability of remain- ing at seafor'an'unlidited time, attacking the enemy from a position sub- merged-and at" great dietattes.:Long cruises: by Soviet ships persuasively Approved for Release: 2017%06/14 C06086938 , Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 confirm the reliability of ,Soviet equipment and weapons, the excellent com- bat, physical and morale-TsyChological training of our crews."* American experience iwoperating-nuclear submarines has shown that nuclear submarines spend up to 80 percent of their time at sea under water, and as much as 98 percent on some long pitroli. One must remember that during World War I submarines Were submerged only 5 percent of .the their total time at sea, with the remaining 95 percent spent on the surface. In World War II total time submerged did increase somewhat, but nevertheless did not exceed 30-35 percent. Thanks to atomic energy and excellent electronic equipment, our nuclear submarines are capable of reaching any point in the world ocean and accurately hitting'both land and sea targets. Atomic submarines have become the most modern warships. The following capabilities make nuclear submarines an ominous weapon: capability of remaining submerged practically indeftnitelys the capability of running missions of any distance or extent, unprecedented firepower, great speed,'and-thecapability of hitting targets thousands of kilometers distant. ? Few people, know what the control center on a nuclear submarine looks like. . Once: the. commander of. the. nuclear submarine Leninskiy Komsomol, Anatoliy Yakovlevich Zhukov, and a newspaperman had a very interesting con- versation in my presence. I should like topresent that conversation, for it will enable the reader to gain a clearer picture of the equipment and layout of a nuclear submarine. . Yakovlevidvbegant "ThereAs-coniiderably'more instruments- tionA.n a nuclear submarines control center-thanqm board any Aircraft. It contains everything necessary tooperatiithe'Submarineandits weapons." ,"As a submariner, what type:of,eurficeehip do you cohsider to be yourLmost important 'assistant'?" "ASWrcraftand,naval-aviation." "And your most,dangeroui'enemy?":: ? "AN submarines." "Why?" , ? "Under. water you hear the enemyationer,_and this prepare sooner for the attack.'_Herein.lies'an important advantage 'of. submarines over the most sophisticated.,, surface warships,.?: . ? * Pravda 28 July 1968. ' Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 ? Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 "Does this meanthat ASW technical problems?" . ? . one of-the most important military . . "Definitely. Seawater is essentially impermeable to the electro- magnetic waves used by all modern radar detection systems. Seawater also almost totally absorbs all other types of radiation. Sophisticated sonar gear is needed in order to find a submarine. But the velocity of sound propagation in water depends on the state of the medium: density of the sea- water, its salt content and temperature. For example, sound waves, just as light waves, refract when they pass through layers of differing density. This forms so-called 'shadow zones,' where sound waves for all practical pur- poses do not propagate. Consequently, in order to locate a submarine the crew of a surface vessel must know where and at what depth such a reflective layer has formed. ASW ships are greatly hindered by "temperature jump layers" -- a phenomenon in the ocean depths where water layers which are in- homogeneous in temperature reflect sound waves. It would seem to be a simple problem: measure water temperature, density, salinity,, quickly (today's war- ships contain plenty of computers!) compute where and at what depth one might encounter reflecting layers -- and you've got your submarine! It is much more .difficult than this,:lowever. 'One can_measure water. salinity, temperature, and density quickly and accurately.- But very soon all these values change appreciably; this means that the-place, depth and dimensions of reflecting layers change. In addition, sonar operators are frequently hindered by schools of fish, groups of whales, dolphins and other marine animals. The ocean produces a great many different sounds, which at times are confusing. Sometimes this cacophony misleads even experienced operators... These are merely a few of,the, difficulties encountered in ASW. But sub- mariners enjoy considerable advantages over the crews of surface ships. As I have stated, it is easier for us to hear.a surface ship, to determine on the basis of the noise it produces its class, speed, and course. On a sub- marine we have literally everything: automatic recording of water temperature, salinity, density. We can determine the dimensions of a protective layer much faster than can a surface ship; we can slide under it and take an ad- vantageous- attack ?position-.- "AnatolivTakovlevich, can?a,submarine-heara.surface Ship without any, special. . 7 ? ",Sometimes, particularly whena surface ship is searching for us. The ship's sonar aends out.sound,,Puipes:pf.:sUfficient.forcethat it frequent- ly sounds likesowtwne Ispounding::on the submarine huliwith.a light hammer.? ."What other eAternal?sounde,Can:SUbMariners.hear?" "Oncej heard the sound: ofywater4o0ring over thellull'- you know, like alurgling sound. .Probably,at that:moment the sub was cutting through some kind of mysterious?current.",g, !!Do frequently fish, and if so what is thtlyrepult?",::: ? Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 - ?Sometimes But there is' no,dahger." "What if you encounter 4 whaler' "Are you kidding? A whale will hear us a mile off,'and we can pick him up even further --:there is plenty of time to avoid encounter." "What dangers lie in wait for the submariner?" "A depth greater than'theaubmarine isAesigned to withstand. In such a case the submarine's strong hull is unable to withstand the enormous pres- sure. An example of this is the lops of:the:American nuclear submarines Thresher and Scorpion. Icebergs are also dangerous, particularly the sub- merged portion which, as is well-known,:44 considerably larger than what can be seen above the surface." "What sort of emergency and escape geardo submariners have?" "Special gear and suits enabling them to rise to the surface from great depths. In addition there ,is various communications equipment. With this equipment pubmariners Can quickly radio ,their coordinates and the cause of the emergency -- in short everything necessary to repair or raise a submarine. We also have special rescue ships which are constantly ready to come to our aid..." 4 ' Zhukov was then asked .a more muhdine queition: 'Where does all the garbage go?" "The, submarine Containgla special device for ejecting all garbage and traskRverboard. It is necessary make sure that empty cans are pierced full of holes." 'Why?" To keep them_from,floating-tothe,,surface. Cans can tell a.lot, but most importantly we would reVealOurposition, yioleting.tprinciple of , subearine,activity.77 cOhcealment.1,TSiewould'eignify mission failure... - ? . But, we were not.,the,gneVM40 ihyented.Cen.ainking.. World War I.taught ?., . submariners to pay'attehtion'tO.sUch "Anatoliy YakoyleviCh, in,additia?6missiles, we know ;hat nuclear submarines carry long-range homing torpedoes. 'What is the principle behind homing?" "Such a torpedo ciintaiha:daiiices.*hiCh are capable of searching for , 41, ? ? and tracking,itarget. - This is 'Why a modern submarine Can fire torpedoes from practically any position." ? - "'We know that a speed of 15 to 30 knots is' considered maximum for conventional propulsion plaate.Are there any,kadicall new, ideas capable - - ? , Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 of surmounting this barrier? DO you not agree that: it is this limit which is holding back man's conquest of the world ocean?" . "To the extent that submariners must master the world ocean, one must consider problems of submarine design. ,What are these problems? First of all there is depth, and then there is submerged speed. Engineers have already achieved certain results. For example American experimental submarines dive to 600 meters and can travel under water at speeds in ex- cess of 70 kmh. Such speed is a good attribute for combat. Depth is more important for peaceful purposes. Famed marine explorers Jacques Picard and Don Walsh, in the bathyscaphe Trieste (remnants of the American nuclear sub- marine Thresher were retrieved with the'; aid of this device), reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the world's deepest, reaching a depth of 35,800 feet! The Triesteboa stsasuperstrong hull, is completely equipped for submarine exploration and hasasimple, 'roil-speed motor. Explorers of the ocean depths do .not need 'cosmic' speed. Surface ships are another matter altogether. }Jere it is ,indeed important,to_Move as rapidly as possible. The conventional screw, OT more precisely the engines which turn it, are already-obsolescent. What could:replace .them? Water-jet propulsion, hydrofoils, air cushion vehicle, jet propulsion... As far as I know, this is the extent of ideas'at,present..," , ' Let us continue our ,",tour" of theHnsidlear powered ballistic missile submarine.. ? .. , The forward compartier.o!Itains,the.torpedO4Aunching ecolipment and ? ..., ,? -. ., -.. torpedoes, Aft of this,atithe_.torpedoMin'a.APArters. The second compartment clit4 upper deck.contains-theOffideraquarters and wardroom,. galley, petty officers' and ? enlisted men'S'_meSsWhicfscan-he quickly converted for showing movies.. Forward of the reacior.roomeheart of he shin the . . . propulsion plant main control panel,:-...__ , . . .. . The ship's control center is the,SiibMarine s brain, The Submarine . , and. its . weapons are .controlled f rOm::,!lefe., , It ..contains a periscope station and torpedo fire, control,, control statiii#S,. jOi: rudder And hydroplanes, movement: and systems.. Aft - , - .0f: the reaCior.:roati':is the engine room-. -..,-. .., . . A:suhmarine s physidal layout maidiffer from one type to another. Crew quarters may be located in the "after aomPartment, while o nuclear. powered guided missile submarines the launching tubes may, he located im- mediately aft of the control :center. 'Equipment location configurations may differ, depending on the submarinek. design. - ? . ? ? ? '?-?? ? ? " ? ? ' ' ". The. development ?nuclear powered submai-tnes constituted a revolu- ., - - tion,in undersea navigation. Soviet scientists and seamen have made it serve peaeeful.Purpos*, The whole World' with and has thrilled to the exploits' of the'nucidareuhmarine-Limin. It is well suited for operating in the Arctic: a:strong-hu14.appwerfpl propulsion plant; it can cruise for an per wittiout'refueling. Experience in operating. . . ? Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 , this:submArine,hes provided scientists with much valuable .information, which ,will'Makci'WpOtsib/etoibuild improved nuclear submarines in the future. In theliAtire:nuclear-fueled:ships.Will: 'probably be able to operate. year-round At least..ip ths_yestern and eastern parts of..the . . 'theAreatjaniiiw4riter 4u1e4HVerne'made many prophetic predictions; ':::in somethings he watt:Vrongi-bUtfor the mOst part-he:havbean right: the . . , _ , :might of.lian*noWs no:00ounds. -h 0 Who knows What ships .will,,.be:'Cruising the acean-dePths-20 to 50 years hence.. Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 A' FIVE-OCEAN NAVY In the mid-fifties a new destroyer slid down the ways at an American shipyard; it had been the John. Paul Jones after a pirate credited with founding the U.S. Navy. There is nothing surprising in this. Famous American scholar Charles Lee Lewis'notes that "the U.S. Navy placed slave ships under its protection, under the slogan of struggle for 'seamen's rights'... Frequently slavers hoisted the U.S. naval flag; thus the 'Stara and Stripes' became a symbol of the slave trade." . The idea of hegemony over the seas and oceans is no recent American notion. Today they prefer either to ignore slogans borne on the banners flown during the War ofIndependence, when the American Navy actually was born, or to interpret thee in the manner of theologians, arguing that the atomic mushroom cloud over defenseless 'Hiroshima was evidence of evangelical meekness. ' At the beginning of this century ,Theedore Roosevelt, who built. up the American Navy to's thirdrmocit,powerful, affectionately dubbed it a ftsticie! with which to smash the skulls of dissenters. This "stick" ? had- much_work to 40.-411-;those who for- one!reason or another were not filled with.ardent love for:the American trusts and mon0P0149 fell into the. category "diiienter." The historyofthe American. Navy was, truly "glorious." This was demonstrated:time and again bylthel4S.,..Nsvy-particularly:during the suppressiewof-thelossr Rsbellionlm:Chintw":..Neither,the Rua, nor the Vandals,' nor ,,Genghis Khan, nor Tamerlane lierpetrated-'such.acts,of,cruelty," wrote A. Babel', "as were verpetrated-WthWwar . Then caMe the turn' of Cuba.and HAiti."The. United States left behind -thousands of.widowq,andtorphansvenimosityihatred,. and deepair."" This was written,by,an.4mericanw*,c9neipoyary ta,Ahaaa,2:eyanta... 18 it surprising that.-evea:?today.,Asneran,:yarshipa:,ate:.greatedloy.Corses in Latin America? _ _ _ . - ? ? . Approved for Release: 201 /06/14"C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 'It is not only two navies which face each other on the seas and oceans -- it is two ideologies,..twophilosophiel.... ? The Soviet naval maneuvers code-named Ocean, held in April-May 1970, thrilled foreign observers. ? For the first time in our nation's history the Red-Banner Arctic Fleet, the Pacific Fleet,.the,Black Sea Fleet, and the Twice Red-Banner Baltic Fleet carried out extended, coordinated exercises-over an enormous area, covering the Atlantic, Pacific and adjoining seas.. . . _ Problems were elaborated at these exercises which are of great im- portance for further improving the 'combat readiness Of Soviet.naval personnel; at the same time the maneuvms constituted a severe test of military proficiency. - This test was passed with,henor. . Foreign newspapers, the American New' YorkTimes. and British pally TeleArapkin particular, contairied:yerbosereports on,the,:"puzzling" move- ments of an armada.of Soviet naval ships in the North Atlantic. Correspondents questioned Flt.Adm_SU.A.-G. Gorshkov, Commander ]in Chief of the.Soviet_Navyt. , . . The Commander in Chief: cOmmened matter-of-factly on this event: "A group of Soviet naval ships is indeed presently located in Atlantic waters. How,many.shipa.aroinvolvetZ, Inloreign.prees.reporta, AS you have rightly commented,.it,is called, an armada. 'It all depends on one's point. of reference. If one considers the,,strengtk,pUthe Soviet Navy and, the total number of Soviet warships, I would net Call this. A particularly large group,' let alone an armada. Thu ie a normal large unit[soyedineniye] on a training cruise at eea..,,,N0X-48400re anything: puzzling in the fact that our warships are in that part of.the,ocein...:The Soviet Union is a maritime power which posseseeka modern navy...-. I04; eqUippekwith,newyarshims, girst7clees weapons, and our men,areexcellentreeamin For-this reaSon we are able-to run cruises on a regularbasio. tothose parta.of the world's oceans and seas where we deem it necessary... ?rI believe thai.the'surprisel indicated in the news releases Of foreign news agencies, in newspaper artieles-ind'editorials on the , appearance of Soviet War0410 in 011,NOrth;;AtlanticAttests tothefaCt that US. and tritish.pavall,leaders (apparently,the.tourgeois press refle4s theiropinion). have not yet ri4 thempelves,14 tradit4ona1 idees,of,undis- puted rule of the seamfbithe traditional igesterMs nal* powers,,' although these ideashave long sinte,beeM.pittolmotby,rialittes.. This. heightened intereei,in the cruiee beint.undertaken by .outaiitpetreflecti,the unjustified pretensions on the.partrof the Western POwets to,rule.thepesa as in the past. Please note that.when_a group of Western warships undertakes a'Ailli14,. bourgeotapbseryere do not raise *Aug and cry, while a normal traiqtpu cruise by Soviet warships disturbs their tranquility. They take to .their ." Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 typewriters and begin convUleively composing-urgent telegrams, news reports, Commentary, full of idle conjecture. .Hardly a praiseworthy activity. NATO naval leaderivapperently Are'still accept the loss of their past monopoly rule of the seas. 'Like it or not, howeveri they must come to grips with the real facts of the present balance of power on the seas..."* The Commander. in Chief has come tight to the point: our navy has in- deed changed and is constantly taking delivery on increasingly, sophisticated nuclear powered submarines and surface ships.. In recent years alone the propulsion plant output of Soviet submarines ,has 'grown severalf old. And this means that the navy's combat potential has greatly 'increased, along with greater cruising range and our ships' autonomy of operation; Today Soviet, warships cruise in all parte of the world-ocean,?under the Arctic ice cap and in tropical waters. Day by day our navy men are vigilantly serving in those ocean areas where required by the interests of the Soviet state. EverY"daY'radiOgrame coke-tO-the'homeland from dietanelatitudes. Here As. One Of them: "...The ships of our detachment are piercing a sudden blanket of fog with their 'bass foghorn notes. With the fog. came rain. ,We are extremely grateful, as we baVe;goile'20'days without rain. 4.ettong galejnithigh seas had'cOieed'thOlides'ind-decka With salt.'' eternal eneMilif all seafarers,' The ran is now Wasting the ship clean.- "The Aetichment, of'Wershilia'undet, thecOmMand.of Rear Mm S. lam is in . ? . its thirevioniti'ai. sealtehindfii0:*theviiiit paid by the guided missile cruisergrost:WiOhe island of Martinique, - an oveteeie'de5artment of FtinCe..:--The-islind.,auihOtitietinot'td ipetkofAtie residents of its principal' eity.and4Ort,:F6#4e-FranCe,litee-tedHthe Soviet seamen warmly and hospitablyf "Combat training resumed after Martinique. -Again our ..'companion' appeared on the horikoh the. American patrol vessel- Thomas Gary;. But several days disappeared,..:Aud.the following morning . Capt 2nd .Bank Nikolay Ivinovich iyabinskiyekeeUtive officer of the.grosnyys squinting slyly, itidillotiaywell'haire:Miesili'praCtiCe, 'The Americ4Mi had.been.,divOted by our submarines and their mother ship, the robot. The Grosnyy:fired Without any eavesdroppers. - , "First two targets the 'adze of a sea-going launch were lowered into the valet and anchored. 'They,Were'placed4 fair distance from one another: the'milsi/e-was to find its 'Own target.,./44hisize that although the exercise area was off-seip4aneeextia Measures were :taken-trilinsure safety of navigation; ' ' ' A * Inventive, 4 April '1969. ? Approved for Release: 2017/06/.14 C06086938. Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 "Finally the cruiser, proceedinivon attack Course,.reached the firing point. Antennas rotated on masts and bridges.. Soon the cruiser's commanding officer, Capt let RankAleksandr-Petrovith Ushakov, gave the order into the microphone: 'Firel'' "The missile rose from the:launCher with aA3hriek,_trailing a tongue of flame, blinding in spite of the?btig4:sunlight, and turned toward the target. ? "Within minutes the report came: Target destroyed.' "There is nothing to photograph, came a report from the Soobraaitel'- nyy, which was closer than any of the others to the target area and was the first to reach the target location after the missile had done its job. 'The target has sunk.' "There remains only one'fhini io-Say:,ihe'.*missife scored a direct hit. The crew of the Groanyy were deservedly ,proud ,of this performance, not only because of the direct hit (the Cruiser had never scored any other kind), but bec'ause' this Performance took place in unfamiliar waters, after many months at sea. "After the firing exercisee Groznyy, as well as'its companions, the Soobrazitelgnyy and the Bedovyy, rendezvoused with the ToboZ and our submarines. _ "The detached force set 'course for the coast of Attica." ? Dozens of such telegrams tifing :their way daily to the 'shores of our homeland. " While inspeciing.a ship-during.avisit to one Of-the fleets, the Commander in Chief of :the'SciViet-JiaVy..;:notiCeci;. .eItigant little !itch-doctor , mask hanging :from the?overhead.- _4 '"WhOse' "Mine, admiral sir." ?, Your name? "?ergey Bondarev." . - "Well Sergey. What countries have, you vial ted?" , ''Bondarev quickly listed abomt1.5 countries End continents. He then' ilia ed i- "I' May haVe'forgotten ., Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 "Been in the navy long?" the Commander in Chief queried. "This is my second year." The Commander :in Chief turned:to a-member of the Military Council, Chief of the Navy Political Administration, Adm V. M. Grishanov, who was listening to this conversation With: CUri9Sity.' "We write and talk about a new navy:- Here it is," the Commander in Chief nodded toward Sergey. "The'lad-has- only, been in fora year and a half and has already sten the .world...."' - Sergey BondareV is not cneofaluckyr:few. his mates have had.a similar experience.' Thousands and thousands of Our navy has truly become a five-ocean navy. Lovers of military adventures observe with terror the growth of Soviet naval power, and,:particularly our growing nuclear-submarine fleet. TimeMaga#0,A#1.144shed,hy:AoClcefeller:tenter,WNOWJork-4110 printed in4misterdam.,recentiy,carried a major article cm the Soviet Navy. Quoting ,Si_G?Gorshkoles.,statement,that "..,?the flag of the Soviet Navy to- day wavei proudly over the world'S'oceanS; sooner or later theUnited States must nO2:10ngerrules the seas4" Time.statea with some bitternesp.that."to the extreme regret of the Pentagon, every word is true,!! . : That, is ajather ploquent.adMisspn! And toLthelsorrowof the American and. Nag admirals, it,1.?,44-.,90Jective atatementt the Soviet Navy today constitutes a truly formidable force. It cannot be ignored. "But to.theSoviet Union intentionswhich it does P not have,,",?statea,th?entral CoMMittee,report.Lta the 24thCPSU Congress, nOt,deceive .thePeoples .ofthe,worid_,We_dp-soiemnly-declare that we have nO territorial claims on anybody;-we threaten nobody and are not planning,to;attackanyodyi,westand for; the.-ft.and independent develop- ment of all, peoples. But"4et,no.nition:apekto?speak to.ue_in-the;Ianguage of ultimatums and force. "We have everything 1.1,need policy of peace, military apc1,1,0,14aritYHA toensure,the_inViolability of our borders against any and'ail-enCioichMents and to defend the con- quests of soCialisM.- TheSovit people are-respelydetermined to give all their strength and energy to the.caUpe'of.thejurther Prosperity of our great homeland. They will continue tosmanifestunabiting concern for strengthen- ing the defeneiv*,aapOility.p't our nation-a0;our. Armed Forces. Military till4W4lone,:d.eyAlppecttoihehil0e0.t,4egreis capable , ? Approved for 'Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938 fighting ardor of aggressors .and securing out country against potential threats. The Aimed Forces of the Soviet, Union have always been a loyal ,guardian .of -the conquests of the October Revolution. Today army and navy . personnel are perfecting their combat skill* in day-by-day difficult, tary labor, in, order - to be: prepared .at all times to carry out the homeland's command' With honor. ? ? :should like to say thefollOviing,to those who plan on -joining us., who Are conditioilingt,heirehsrScief and will for navy service: "Love of the sea i`.'E,1:0 lifelong affair'. He who has given his heart to the sea becomes foreveri-SubjeCt of His MaSeaty'the Ocean.' And this is a fine thing!" 3024 CSO: 1801-W Approved for Release: 2017/06/14 C06086938